CARO, ELME MARIE (1826–1887), French philosopher, was born on the 4th of March 1826 at Poitiers. His father, a professor of philosophy, gave him an excellent education at the Stanislas College and the École Normale, where he graduated in 1848. After being professor of philosophy at several provincial universities, he received the degree of doctor, and came to Paris in 1858 as master of conferences at the École Normale. In 1861 he became inspector of the Academy of Paris, in 1864 professor of philosophy to the Faculty of Letters, and in 1874 a member of the French Academy. He married Pauline Cassin, the authoress of the Péché de Madeleine and other well-known novels. He died in Paris on the 13th of July 1887. In his philosophy he was mainly concerned to defend Christianity against modern Positivism. The philosophy of Cousin influenced him strongly, but his strength lay in exposition and criticism rather than in original thought. Besides important contributions to La France and the Revue des deux mondes, he wrote Le Mysticisme au XVIII e siècle (1852–1854), L’Idee de Dieu (1864), Le Matérialisme et la science (1868), Le Pessimisme au XIXe siècle (1878), Jours d’épreuves (1872), M. Littré et le positivisme (1883), George Sand (1887), Mélanges et portraits (1888), La Philosophie de Goethe (2nd ed., 1880).