CIUDAD REAL, the capital formerly of La Mancha, and since 1833 of the province described above; 107 m. S. of Madrid, on the Madrid-Badajoz-Lisbon and Ciudad Real-Manzanares railways. Pop. (1900) 15,255. Ciudad Real lies in the midst of a wide plain, watered on the north by the river Guadiana, and on the south by its tributary the Jabalon. Apart from the remnants of its 13th-century fortifications, and one Gothic church of immense size, built without aisles, the town contains little of interest; its public buildings—town-hall, barracks, churches, hospital and schools—being in no way distinguished above those of other provincial capitals. There are no important local manufactures, and the trade of the town consists chiefly in the weekly sales of agricultural produce and live-stock. Ciudad Real was founded by Alphonso X. of Castile (1252–1284), and fortified by him as a check upon the Moorish power. Its original name of Villarreal was changed to Ciudad Real by John VI. in 1420. During the Peninsular War a Spanish force was defeated here by the French, on the 27th of March 1809.