1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Drama/Bibliography

Bibliography.—The following works treat the general theory of the drama and the dramatic art, together with the principles of dramaturgy and of the art of acting. Works which have reference to the drama of a particular period or of a particular nation only are mentioned separately. Works which deal with special authors only have been intentionally omitted in this bibliography, as being mentioned in the articles in the several authors.

Aristotle’s Poetics (text and transl. by S. H. Butcher, London, 1895; transl. by T. Twining, London, 1812; see also Donaldson’s Theatre of the Greeks); H. Baumgart, Aristoteles, Lessing, u. Goethe. Über das ethische u. ästhetische Princip der Tragödie (Leipzig, 1877); H. A. Bulthaupt, Dramaturgie des Schauspiels (4 vols., Oldenburg u. Leipzig, 1893–1902); L. Campbell, Tragic Drama in Aeschylus, Sophocles and Shakespeare (London, 1904); P. Corneille, Discours du poëme dramatique—de la tragédie—des trois unités, Œuvres, vol. i. (Paris, 1862); W. L. Courtney, The Idea of Tragedy in Ancient and Modern Drama (Westminster, 1900); Diderot, De la poésie dramatique. Entretiens sur le Fils Naturel, Œuvres complètes, vii. (Paris, 1875); J. Dryden, Essay of Dramatic Poesy and other critical essays (Essays of J. Dryden, ed. W. P. Ker, 2 vols., Oxford, 1900); G. Freytag, Die Technik des Dramas (5th ed., Leipzig, 1886); G. W. F. Hegel, Vorlesungen über Ästhetik, ed. H. G. Hotho, bd. 3, chap. iii. c. Die dramatische Poesie (Werke, x. 3; Berlin, 1838); G. Larroumet, Études d’histoire et de critique dramatiques, 2 sér. (Paris, 1892–1899); G. E. Lessing, Hamburgische Dramaturgie. Erlautert von F. Schröter u. R. Thiele (Halle, 1877); Materialien zu Lessing’s Hamburgische Dramaturgie, von W. Cosack (Paderborn, 1876); G. H. Lewes, On Actors and the Art of Acting (London, 1875); Sir T. Martin, Essays on the Drama (London, 1874); K. Mantzius, History of Theatrical Art in Ancient and Modern Times, transl. by L. von Cossel (London, 1903, &c.); G. Meredith, Essay on Comedy (Westminster, 1897); R. Prolss, Katechismus der Dramaturgie (Leipzig, 1877); H. T. Rotscher, Die Kunst der dramatischen Darstellung (3 vols., Berlin, 1841–1846); Jahrbücher für dramatische Kunst u. Literatur (Berlin and Frankfort, 1848–1849); P. de Saint-Victor, Les Deux Masques, tragédie—comédie (3rd ed., 3 vols., Paris, 1881, &c.); Saint-Marc Girardin, Cours de littérature dramatique (7th ed., 5 vols., Paris, 1868); A. W. von Schlegel, Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature (Eng. transl., London, 1846); Sir W. Scott, Essays on Chivalry, Romance and the Drama (including his article “Drama” written for the Supplement to the 4th edition of the Ency. Brit., and reprinted in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th editions); F. T. Vischer, Ästhetik, vol. iv. (Stuttgart, 1857).

The fullest general history of the drama extant is J. L. Klein’s Geschichte des Dramas, 13 vols. and index (Leipzig, 1865–1886). See also, for encyclopaedic information, W. Davenport Adams, A Dictionary of the Drama, vol. i. (London, 1904); C. M. E. Béquet, Encyclopédie de l’art dramatique (Paris, 1886); A. Pougin, Dictionnaire historique et pittoresque du théâtre et des arts qui s’y rattachent (Paris, 1885).

The drama of the Eastern nations is generally treated in:—A. P. Brozzi, Teatri e spettacoli dei popoli orientali Ebrei, Arabi, Persani, Indiani, Cinesi, Giapponesi e Giavanesi (Milan, 1887); Comte J. A. de Gobineau, Les Religions et les philosophies dans l’Asie centrale (2nd ed., Paris, 1866).

The following works deal with the Indian drama:—M. Schuyler, Bibliography of the Sanskrit Drama (Columbia Univ., Indo-Iranian, ser. iii., New York, 1906); H. H. Wilson, Select Specimens of the Theatre of the Hindus, transl. from the original Sanskrit (with introduction on the dramatic system of the Hindus), 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London, 1871); S. Levi, Le Théâtre indien (supplements Wilson) (Paris, 1891).

For Chinese:—Tscheng-Ki-Tong, Le Théâtre des Chinois (Paris, 1886); see also H. A. Giles, History of Chinese Literature (London, 1901).

For Japanese:—C. Florenz, Gesch. d. japan. Litteratur, vol. i. 1 (Leipzig, 1905); see also F. Brinkley, Japan, its History, Arts and Literature, vol. iii. (Boston and Tokyo, 1901).

For Persian:—A. Chodzko, Théâtre persan. Choix de téaziés ou drames, traduits pour la première fois du persan par A. Chodzko (Paris, 1878); E. Montet, Le Théâtre en Perse (Geneva, 1888); Sir L. Pelly, The Miracle Play of Hasan and Husain, collected from oral tradition; revised with explanatory notes by A. N. Wollaston (2 vols., London, 1879).

Of works treating of the ancient Greek and Roman drama only a small selection can be given here. In the case of the Greek drama, the chief histories of literature—such as G. Bernhardy’s, K. O. Muller’s (Eng. tr. by Sir G. C. Lewis, with continuation by J. W. Donaldson) and G. Murray’s—and general histories—such as Grote’s, Thirlwall’s, Curtius’s, &c.—should also be consulted; and for the administration and finance of the Attic theatre, Boeckh’s Public Economy of Athens, Eng. tr. (London, 1842). Much useful information will be found in A Companion to Greek Studies, ed. by L. Whibley (Cambridge, 1905). The standard collective edition of the ancient Greek dramatic poets is the Poetae scenici Graeci, ed. C. W. Dindorf (5th ed., Leipzig, 1869), and that of the Comic poets A. Meineke’s Historia critica comicorum Graecorum. Cum fragmentis (5 vols., Berlin, 1839–1857). Aristotle’s Poetics, cited above, will of course be consulted for the theory of the Greek drama in particular; and much valuable critical matter will be found in passages of Bentley’s Phalaris (1699), which are reprinted in Donaldson’s Theatre of the Greeks. The following later works, some of which treat of the ancient classical drama in general, may be noted:—E. A. Chaignet, La Tragédie grecque (Paris, 1877); J. Denys, Histoire de la comédie grecque (2 vols., Paris, 1886); J. W. Donaldson, The Theatre of the Greeks (7th ed., London, 1860); Du Méril, Histoire de la comédie. Période primitive (Paris, 1864); Histoire de la comédie ancienne (Paris, 1869); A. E. Haigh, The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (Oxford, 1896); The Attic Theatre (Oxford, 1898); G. Korting, Gesch. des Theaters in seinen Beziehungen zur Kunstentwickelung der dramatischen Dichtkunst, Bd. i. Gesch. des griechischen u. romischen Theaters (Paderborn, 1897); R. G. Moulton, The Ancient Classical Drama (Oxford, 1898); M. Patin, Étude sur les tragiques grecs (3 vols., Paris, 1861); C. M. Rapp, Gesch. des griechischen Schauspiels vom Standpunkt der dramatischen Kunst (Tubingen, 1862); H. Weil, Études sur le drame antique (Paris, 1897); F. G. Welcker, “Die griechischen Tragodien, mit Rucksicht auf den epischen Cyklus” (Rhein. Mus. Suppl. ii.) 3 pts. (Bonn, 1839–1841).

In addition to the works of individual Roman dramatists, and critical writings concerning them, see Scaenicae Romanorum poesis fragmenta, 2 vols. (I. Tragic, II. Comic) ed. by O. Ribbeck (3rd ed. Leipzig, 1897–1898). W. S. Teuffel’s History of Roman Literature, Eng. tr. (2 vols., London, 1891–1892), and M. Schanz’ Gesch. der romischen Litteratur bis Justinian (2 vols., Munich, 1890–1892), may be consulted for a complete view of the course of the Roman drama. For its later developments consult Dean Merivale’s History of the Romans under the Empire, and S. Dill’s Roman Society in the Last Days of the Western Empire (London, 1898). See also L. Friedländer, Darstellungen aus der Sittengeschichte Roms, 6th ed., vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1889); M. Meyer, Étude sur le théâtre latin (Paris, 1847); O. Ribbeck, Die römische Tragödie im Zeitalter der Republik (Leipzig, 1875).

The following works treat of the medieval drama, religious or secular, of its origins and of usages connected with it:—H. Anz, Die lateinischen Magierspiele (Leipzig, 1905); E. K. Chambers, The Medieval Stage (2 vols., Oxford, 1903), with full bibliography; E. de Coussemaker, Drames liturgiques du moyen âge (Paris, 1861); du Méril, Theatri liturgici quae Latina supersunt monumenta (Caen and Paris, 1849); C. A. Hase, Miracle Plays and Sacred Dramas (Eng. tr.), (London, 1880); Hilarius, Versus et ludi, ed. Champollion-Figeac (Paris, 1838); R. Froning, Das Drama des Mittelalters (3 vols., Stuttgart, 1891, &c.); Edwin Norris, Ancient Cornish Drama (ed. and tr. 2 vols., 1859); W. Hone, Ancient Mysteries Described (London, 1823); A. von Keller, Fastnachtsspiele aus dem 15. Jahrhundert (Stuttgart, 1858); C. Magnin, Les Origines du théâtre moderne, vol. i. only (Paris, 1838); F. J. Mone, Schauspiele des Mittelalters (2 vols., Karlsruhe, 1846); A. Reiners, Die Tropen-, Prosen-, u. Präfations-Gesänge (Luxemburg, 1884); J. de Rothschild, Le Mistère du Viel Testament, ed. J. de Rothschild (6 vols., Paris, 1878–1891); M. Sepet, Le Drame chrétien au moyen âge (Paris, 1878); Origines catholiques du théâtre moderne. Les drames liturgiques (Paris, 1901); T. Wright, Early Mysteries and other Latin Poems of the 12th and 13th Centuries (London, 1838); C. A. G. von Zezschwitz, Das mittelalterliche Drama (Leipzig, 1881).

For French medieval drama in particular:—L. Clédat, Le Théâtre en France au moyen âge (Paris, 1896); E. Fournier, Le Théâtre français avant la Renaissance (Paris, 1872); Miracles de Notre Dame par personnages, ed. G. Paris and U. Robert (8 vols., Paris, 1876–1893); L. J. N. Monmerqué and F. Michel, Théâtre français au moyen âge (Paris, 1839); L. Petit de Julleville, Histoire du théâtre en France au moyen âge (5 vols., Paris, 1880–1886); E. L. N. Viollet-le-Duc, Ancien Théâtre français (10 vols., Paris, 1854–1857).

For the medieval Italian in particular:—A. d’Ancona, Sacre rappresentazioni dei secoli XIV., XV. e XVI. (Florence, 1872).

For medieval English in particular:—Ahn, English Mysteries and Miracle Plays (Trèves, 1867); S. W. Clarke, The Miracle Play in England (London, 1897); F. W. Fairholt, Lord Mayors’ Pageants, 2 vols. (Percy Soc.) (London, 1843–1844); A. W. Pollard, English Miracle Plays, Moralities and Interludes (3rd ed., Oxford 1898); Chester Plays ed. T. Wright, 2 vols. (Shakespeare Soc.) (London, 1843), re-ed. by H. Deimling (part only) (E.E.T.S.) (London, 1893); Coventry Plays, Ludus Coventriae, ed. J. O. Halliwell (-Phillipps) (Shakespeare Soc.) (London, 1841); Coventry Plays. Dissertation on the pageants or mysteries at Coventry, by T. Sharp (Coventry, 1825); Digby Plays, ed. F. J. Furnivall (E.E.T.S.) (London, 1896); Towneley Mysteries, ed. G. England and A. W. Pollard (E.E.T.S.) (London, 1897); York Plays, ed. L. T. Smith (Oxford, 1885).

For the German in particular:—F. J. Mone, Altteutsche Schauspiele (Quedlinburg, 1841); H. Reidt, Das geistliche Schauspiel des Mittelalters in Deutschland (Frankfort, 1868); E. Wilken, Gesch. der geistlichen Spiele in Deutschland (Göttingen, 1872).

The revival of the classical drama in the Renaissance age is treated in P. Bahlmann’s Die Erneuerer des antiken Dramas und ihre ersten dramatischen Versuche, 1314–1478 (Münster, 1896); A. Chassang’s Des essais dramatiques imités de l’antiquité au XIV e et XV e siècle (Paris, 1852); and in V. de Amitis’ L’Imitazione latina nella commedia del XVI. secolo (Pisa, 1871).

Both the medieval and portions of the later drama are treated in W. Cloetta, Beiträge zur Litteraturgeschichte des Mittelalters und der Renaissance (2 vols., Halle, 1890–1892); W. Creizenach, Geschichte des neueren Dramas, vols. i.-iii. (Halle, 1893–1903); R. Prölss, Geschichte des neueren Dramas (3 vols., Leipzig, 1881–1883). See also L.-V. Gofflot, Le Théâtre au collège, du moyen âge à nos jours, Préface par Jules Claretie (Paris, 1907).

The history of the modern Italian drama, in its various stages, is treated by A. d’Ancona, Origini del teatro italiano (2nd ed., 2 vols., Turin, 1891); J. Dornis, Le Théâtre italien contemporain (Paris, 1904); H. Lyonnet, Le Théâtre en Italie (Paris, 1900); L. Riccoboni, Histoire du théâtre italien (2 vols., Rome, 1728–1731); J. C. Walker, Historical Memoir on Italian Tragedy (London, 1799). See also A. Gaspary, History of Early Italian Literature, transl. by H. Oelsner (London, 1901).

Some information as to the modern Greek drama is given in R. Nicolai, Geschichte der neugriechischen Literatur (Leipzig, 1876).

Modern Spanish drama:—M. A. Fée, Études sur l’ancien théâtre espagnol (Paris 1873); A. Gassier, Le Théâtre espagnol (Paris, 1898); G. H. Lewes, The Spanish Drama (London, 1846); H. Lyonnet, Le Théâtre en Espagne (Paris, 1897); A. Schäffer, Gesch. des spanischen Nationaldramas (2 vols., Leipzig, 1890); L. de Viel-Castel, Essai sur le théâtre espagnol (2 vols., Paris, 1882). See also G. Ticknor, History of Spanish Literature (3 vols., London, 1863).

Modern Portuguese:—H. Lyonnet, Le Théâtre au Portugal (Paris, 1898); see also K. von Reinhardstoettner’s Portugiesische Literaturgeschichte (Sammlung Göschen) (Leipzig, 1904), which contains a useful bibliography.

Regular French drama (tragedy and comedy):—F. Brunetière, Les Epoques du théâtre français, 1636–1850 (Paris, 1892); E. Chasles, La Comédie en France au XVI e siècle (Paris, 1862); E. Faguet, La Tragédie française au XVI e siècle (Paris, 1883); A. Filon, The Modern French Drama (London, 1898); V. Fournel, Le Théâtre au XVII e siècle (Paris, 1892); E. Fournier, Le Théâtre français au XVI e et au XVII e siècle (2 vols., Paris, s.d.); F. Hawkins, Annals of the French Stage (London, 1884); H. Lucas, Hist. philosophique et littéraire du théâtre français depuis son origine (3 vols., Paris); Parfait, Hist. du théâtre français (15 vols., Paris, 1745–1749); L. Petit de Julleville, Le théâtre en France depuis ses origines jusqu’à nos jours (Paris, 1899); E. Rigal, Le théâtre français avant la période classique (Paris, 1901); E. Roy, Études sur le théâtre français du XV e et du XVI e siècle (Dijon, 1901).

The connexion between the Italian and French theatre in the 17th century is traced in L. Moland, Molière et la comédie italienne (2nd ed., Paris, 1867). See also J. C. Démogeot’s, H. von Laun’s and Saintsbury’s histories of French Literature.

Of the ample literature concerned with the modern English drama the following works may be specially mentioned, as dealing with the entire range of the English drama, or with more than one of its periods:—D. E. Baker, Biographia dramatica (continued to 1811 by J. Reed and S. Jones) (3 vols., London, 1812); J. P. Collier, History of English Dramatic Poetry, new ed. (3 vols., London, 1879); C. Dibdin, A complete History of the English Stage (5 vols., London, 1800); J. J. Jusserand, Le Théâtre en Angleterre (2nd ed., Paris, 1881); G. Langbaine, Lives and Characters of the English Dramatic Poets (London, 1699); The Poetical Register: or lives and characters of the English dramatick poets (London, 1719); C. M. Rapp, Studien über das englische Theater, 2 parts (Tübingen, 1862); “G. S. B.”, Study of the Prologue and Epilogue in English Literature (London, 1884); The Thespian Dictionary: or dramatic biography of the 18th century (London, 1802); A. W. Ward, History of English Dramatic Literature to the Death of Queen Anne (2nd ed., 3 vols., London, 1899); see also the histories of English Literature or Poetry, by Warton, Taine, ten Brinck, Courthope, Saintsbury, &c.

The following works contain the most complete lists of English plays:—W. W. Greg, A List of English Plays written before 1643 and published before 1700 (Bibliogr. Soc.) (London, 1900); J. O. Halliwell (-Phillipps), Dictionary of Old English Plays (London, 1860); W. C. Hazlitt, A Manual for the Collector and Amateur of Old English Plays (London, 1892); R. W. Lowe, Bibliographical Account of English Dramatic Literature (London, 1888) is a valuable handbook for the whole of English theatrical literature and matters connected with it. The unique work of Genest, Some Account of the English Stage from 1660–1830 (10 vols., Bath, 1832), includes, with a chronological series of plays acted on the English stage, notices of unacted plays, and critical remarks on plays and actors. “A Compleat List” of English dramatic poets and plays to 1747 was published with T. Whincop’s Scanderbeg in that year.

The following are the principal collections of English plays—Ancient British Drama, ed. Sir W. Scott (3 vols., London, 1810); Modern British Drama, ed. Sir W. Scott (5 vols., London, 1811); W. Bang, Materialien zur Kunde des älteren englischen Dramas (Louvain, 1902, &c.); A. H. Bullen, Collection of Old English Plays (4 vols., London, 1882); R. Dodsley, A Select Collection of Old Plays, 4th ed. by W. C. Hazlitt (15 vols., London, 1874–1876); Dramatists of the Restoration (14 vols., Edinburgh, 1872–1879); Early English Dramatists, ed. J. S. Farmer (London, 1905, &c.); C. M. Gayley, Representative English Comedies (vol. i., New York, 1903); T. Hawkins, Origin of the English Drama (3 vols., Oxford, 1773); Mrs Inchbald, British Theatre, new ed. (20 vols., London, 1824), Modern Theatre (10 vols., London, 1811), Collection of Farces and Afterpieces (7 vols., London, 1815); Malone Society publications (London, 1907, &c.); J. M. Manly, Specimens of the Pre-Shakespearean Drama (3 vols., London, 1897); Mermaid Series of Old Dramatists, ed. Havelock Ellis (London, 1887. &c.); Old English Drama (2 vols., London, 1825); Pearson’s Reprints of Elizabethan and Jacobean Plays (London, 1871, &c.).

The following deal with the Elizabethan and Jacobean drama in especial:—W. Creizenach, Die Schauspiele der englischen Komödianten (Berlin, 1895); J. W. Cunliffe, The Influence of Seneca on Elizabethan Tragedy (London, 1893); F. G. Fleay, A Chronicle History of the London Stage, 1559–1642 (London, 1890), A Biographical Chronicle of the English Drama, 1559–1642 (London, 1891); W. C. Hazlitt, The English Drama and Stage under the Tudor and Stuart Princes, 1543–1664 (London, 1869); W. Hazlitt, Dramatic Literature of the Age of Elizabeth (Works, ed. A. R. Waller, vol. v.) (London, 1902); A. F. von Schack, Die englischen Dramatiker vor, neben, und nach Shakespeare (Stuttgart, 1893); J. A. Symonds, Shakspere’s Predecessors in the English Drama (London, 1884).

As to the Latin academical drama of the Elizabethan age see G. B. Churchill and W. Keller, “Die latein. Universitäts-Dramen Englands in der Zeit d. Königin Elizabeth” in Jahrbuch der deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft. For a short bibliography of the Oxford academical drama, 1547–1663, see the introduction to Miss M. L. Lee’s edition of Narcissus (London, 1893). A list of Oxford plays will also be found in Notes and Queries, ser. vii., vol. ii. For a list of Cambridge plays from 1534 to 1671, the writer of this article is indebted to Prof. G. C. Moore-Smith of the university of Sheffield.

For an account of the Mask see R. Brotanek, Die englischen Maskenspiele (Vienna and Leipzig, 1902); H. A. Evans, English Masques (London, 1897); W. W. Greg, A List of Masques, Pageants, &c. (Bibliogr. Soc.) (London, 1902).

As to early London theatres see T. F. Ordish, Early London Theatres (London, 1894).

Some information as to puppet-plays, &c., will be found in Henry Morley’s Memoirs of Bartholomew Fair (London, 1859).

Among earlier critical essays on the Elizabethan and Stuart drama should be mentioned those of Sir Philip Sidney, G. Puttenham and W. Webbe, T. Rymer and Dryden. For recent essays and notes on the Elizabethan drama in general, see, besides the essays of Coleridge, Lamb (including the introductory remarks in the Specimens), Hazlitt, &c., and the remarkable series of articles in the Retrospective Review (1820–1828), the Publications and Transactions of the Old and New Shakespeare Societies (1841, &c.; 1874, &c.), which also contain reprints of early works of great importance for the history of the Elizabethan drama and stage, such as Henslowe’s Diary, &c., the Jahrbuch der deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft (1865, &c.), as well as the German journals Anglia, Englische Studien, &c., and the Modern Language Review (Cambridge).

The later English drama from the reopening of the theatres (1660) is treated in L. N. Chase, The English Heroic Play (New York, 1903); C. Cibber, Apology for the Life of C. Cibber, written by himself, new ed. by R. W. Lowe (2 vols., London, 1889), who has also edited Churchill’s Rosciad and Apology (London, 1891); J. Doran, Their Majesties’ Servants: annals of the English Stage (3 vols., London, 1888); A. Filon, Le Théâtre anglais: hier, aujourd’hui, demain (Paris, 1896); W. Hazlitt, A View of the English Stage (Works, ed. A. R. Waller, vol. viii.) (London, 1903); W. Nicholson, The Struggle for a Free Stage in London (Westminster, 1907).

The following treat of the modern German drama in particular periods:—R. Prölss, Gesch. der deutschen Schauspielkunst von den Anfangen bis 1850 (Leipzig, 1900); R. E. Prutz, Vorlesungen über die Geschichte des deutschen Theaters (Berlin, 1847); R. Froning, Das Drama der Reformationszeit (Stuttgart, 1900); C. Heine, Das Schauspiel der deutschen Wanderbuhne vor Gottsched (Halle, 1889); J. Minor, Die Schicksalstragodie in ihren Hauptvertretern (Frankfort, 1883); M. Martersteig, Das deutsche Theater im XIX ten Jahrh. (Leipzig, 1904). See also G. G. Gervinus, Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung (5th ed., 5 vols., Leipzig, 1871–1874); and the literary histories of K. Goedeke (Grundriss), A. Koberstein, &c. A special aspect of the drama in modern Germany is dealt with in P. Bahlmann, Die lateinischen Dramen von Wimpheling’s Stylpho bis zur Mitte des XVI ten Jahrhunderts, 1480–1550 (Münster, 1893), and the same author’s Jesuiten-Dramen der niederrheinischen Ordensprovinz (Leipzig, 1896).

The standard history of the modern German stage is Eduard Devrient, Gesch. der deutschen Schauspielkunst (2 vols., Leipzig, 1848–1861); see also R. Prölss, Gesch. der deutschen Schauspielkunst von den Anfangen bis 1850 (Leipzig, 1900); O. G. Flüggen, Biographisches Buhnen-Lexikon der deutschen Theater (Munich, 1892).

A good account of the history of the Dutch drama is F. von Hellwald’s Geschichte des hollandischen Theaters (Rotterdam, 1874). See also the authorities under J. van den Vondel.

Information concerning the Danish drama will be found in the autobiographies of Holberg, Öhlenschläger and Andersen; see also vol. i. of G. Brandes’s Main Currents in Nineteenth Century Literature (Eng. tr., London, 1901). As to the modern Norwegian drama see the same writer’s Ibsen-Bjornson Studies (Eng. tr., London, 1899); also E. Tissot, Le Drame norvégien (Paris, 1893).

The Russian drama is treated in P. O. Morozov’s Istoria Russkago Teatra (History of the Russian Theatre), vol. i. (St Petersburg, 1889); see also P. de Corvin, Le Théâtre en Russie (Paris, 1890). A. Brückner, Geschichte der russischen Literatur (Leipzig, 1905), may be consulted with advantage. Information as to the dramatic portions of other Slav literatures will be found in A. Pipin and V. Spasovich’s Istoria Slavianskikh Literatur (History of Slavonic Literatures), German translation by T. Pech (2 vols., Leipzig, 1880–1884).  (A. W. W.)