1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Haldimand, Sir Frederick

HALDIMAND, SIR FREDERICK (1718–1791), British general and administrator, was born at Yverdun, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on the 11th of August 1718, of Huguenot descent. After serving in the armies of Sardinia, Russia and Holland, he entered British service in 1754, and subsequently naturalized as an English citizen. During the Seven Years’ War he served in America, was wounded at Ticonderoga (1758) and was present at the taking of Montreal (1760). After filling with credit several administrative positions in Canada, Florida and New York, in 1778 he succeeded Sir Guy Carleton (afterwards Lord Dorchester) as governor-general of Canada. His measures against French sympathizers with the Americans have incurred extravagant strictures from French-Canadian historians, but he really showed moderation as well as energy. In 1785 he returned to London. He died at his birthplace on the 5th of June 1791.

His life has been well written by Jean McIlwraith in the “Makers of Canada” series (Toronto, 1904). His Correspondence and Diary fill 262 volumes in the Canadian Archives, and are catalogued in the Annual Reports (1884–1889).