KALMAR (Calmar), a seaport of Sweden on the Baltic coast, chief town of the district (län) of Kalmar, 250 m. S.S.W. of Stockholm by rail. Pop. (1900), 12,715. It lies opposite the island of Öland, mainly on two small islands, but partly on the mainland, where there is a pleasant park. The streets are regular, and most of the houses are of wood. The principal public edifices, however, are constructed of limestone from Öland, including the cathedral, built by Nicodemus Tessin and his son Nicodemus in the second half of the 17th century. Kalmar, a town of great antiquity, was formerly strongly fortified, and there remains the island-fortress of Kalmarnahus, dating partly from the 12th century, but mainly from the 16th and 17th. It contains the beautiful chamber of King Eric XIV. (d. 1577), an historical museum, and in the courtyard a fine ornate well-cover. This stronghold stood several sieges in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, and the town gives name to the treaty (Kalmar Union) by which Sweden, Norway and Denmark were united into one kingdom in 1397. Kalmar has an artificial harbour admitting vessels drawing 19 ft. There are a school of navigation, and tobacco and match factories, the produce of which, together with timber and oats, is exported. Ship-building is carried on.