Minerals and Mining.—The mineral production of the United Kingdom reached a total value in 1890 of £100,802,657 and in 1909 of £119,394,486, with a maximum during that period of £160,605,154 in 1900 and a minimum of £73,024,066 in 1893. These figures include pig-iron produced from foreign ores. About 73% represents the value of the coal output. The figures for the more important minerals are as follows:—

 Description of Minerals 1900. 1909.  Value, 1909
Tons. Tons. £
 Coal .   .   .   .   .   .  225,181,300 263,774,312 106,274,900
 Iron ore .   .   .   .   .  14,025,208 14,979,979 3,689,777
 Clay and shale   .   .  14,049,694 14,067,810 1,718,056
 Sandstone ore .   .   .   .   .  5,019,874 4,600,084 1,339,106
 Slate .   .   .   .   .   .  585,859 402,184 1,007,013
 Limestone (not chalk) .  11,905,477 11,811,122 1,226,967
 Igneous rocks  .   .   .   .  4,634,301 6,283,297 1,235,046
 Oil shale .   .   .   .   .  2,282,221 2,967,057 815,937
 Tin ore (dressed)   .   .  6,800 8,289 617,376
 Salt .   .   .   .   .   .  1,861,347 1,822,744 548,896

Gold ore, manganese ore and uranium ore are produced in small quantities, and the list of minerals worked in the United Kingdom also includes chalk, lead, alum, phosphate of lime, chert and flint, gravel and sand, zinc ore, gypsum, arsenic, copper, barytes, wolfram and strontium sulphate.

Metals were obtained from the ores as follows:—

Description of
Metal.
1900. 1909.
Quantity. Quantity.  Value (average 
market price).
      £
 Iron  .   .   .   .   4,666,942  tons  4,802,163  tons  15,559,253
 Tin  .   .   .   .  4,268 5,199 695,546
 Lead  .   .   .   .  24,364 22,463 298,945
 Zinc  .   .   .   .  9,066 3,818 87,146
 Copper   .   .   .  765 435 27,162
 Gold  .   .   .   .  14,004  oz.  1,210  oz.  4,400
 Silver   .   .   .  190,850 142,146 14,030

The total number of persons employed in and about all the mines of the United Kingdom in 1901 was 839,178, and in 1909 1,126,372.

The workers were thus distributed between the three kingdoms and the principality in 1905:—

   Coal Mines, &c.   Metalliferous 
Mines (a).
 Quarries (b). 
 England .   .  606,206 19,561 60,725
 Wales .   .  137,124 7,333 17,277
 Scotland    .  114,294 974 12,187
 Ireland .   .  749 733 4,464

The total figures given above include (a) 550 and (b) 166 workers in the Isle of Man; and the figures quoted for production include that of the isle.

The production of coal in Great Britain, though marked by fluctuation, has, on the whole, largely increased, and in 1901 the output was 42% greater than that of 1881. Coal.The maximum quantity extracted in any one year between 1890 and 1910 was 267,830,962 tons in 1907, and the minimum 164,325,795 in 1893. The maximum estimated value, however, was £121,652,596 for the 225,181,300 tons raised in 1900; the value in 1907 being £120,527,378.

  1900. 1909.
 England. Tons. Tons.
 Cumberland   .   .   .   .   .   .  2,022,327 2,309,370
 Derby  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  15,243,031 16,869,347
 Durham   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  34,800,719 41,240,612
 Gloucester .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  1,578,386 1,486,526
 Lancashire   .   .   .   .   .   .  24,842,208 23,705,387
 Leicester   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  2,106,343 2,661,606
 Monmouth   .   .   .   .   .   .  9,818,829 13,204,357
 Northumberland  .   .   .   .   .  11,514,521 14,013,135
 Nottingham   .   .   .   .   .   .  8,626,177 11,106,702
 Somerset   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  1,046,792 1,140,818
 Stafford   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  14,222,743 13,517,101
 Warwick   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  2,957,490 4,447,978
 York   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  28,247,249 35,896,623
 Wales.    
 Carmarthen   .   .   .   .   .   .  1,333,880 1,950,429
 Denbigh   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  2,447,092 2,556,612
 Glasmorgan   .   .   .   .   .   .  27,686,758 34,461,631


In the chief coal-producing counties of England and Wales the quantity raised in 1900 and in 1909 will be found in the table at the foot of preceding column. Thus it appears that of the coal raised in England the county of Durham contributes about 22%, Yorkshire 17%, Lancashire 16%, Stafford and Derbyshire each about 9%, and Northumberland 7%; while of the coal raised in Wales 85% is contributed by the county of Glamorgan; and that the coal production of England and Wales together constitutes, in quantity and value, 85% of the whole production of the United Kingdom.

The export of coal greatly increased on the whole during the period 18901909 The following table shows this; the figures for 1893 are given as the lowest during the period. The tonnage of coke and patent fuel is included in the totals:—

Year. Tons. Year. Tons.
1890 30,442,839 1900 46,098,228
1893 29,031,955 1905 49,359,272
1895 33,101,452 1909 65,694,267

The chief receiving countries are, in order, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Spain, Russian Empire, Denmark, Egypt, Holland, Argentina, Norway and Brazil.

The annual output of iron ore in the United Kingdom has on the whole decreased since 1882. Iron.In that year it reached a maximum of 18,031,957 tons; it then fell off to 13,098,341 tons in 1887, rose in the two years following to nearly 15,000,000, fell to little over 11,000,000 in 18921893, rose fairly steadily to 14,461,330 in 1899, stood in 1900 at 14,028,208 tons of a value of £4,224,400, and then showed a further fall and rise, until in 1905 the tonnage was 14,590,703, and the value £3,482,184.

The iron ore raised in the various countries, and in the most productive counties, is here shown:—

  1900. 1909.
  Tons. Tons.
 England   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  13,072,118 14,176,658
 Cumberland[1]   .   .   .   .   .  1,103,430 1,246,228
 Lancashire[1]   .   .   .   .   .   .  630,361 312,367
 Leicester   .   .   .   .   .   .  750,708 514,896
 Lincoln   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  1,924,898 2,037,363
 Northampton   .   .   .   .   .  1,622,539 2,875,659
 Stafford[2]   .   .   .   .   .   .  1,084,797 902,565
 York   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  5,550,677 6,234,589
 Wales .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  7,418 38,043
 Scotland[2]   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  849,031 697,276
 Ireland   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  99,641 68,002

The number of furnaces in blast (fractions showing the proportion of the year furnaces were in blast) was: in England 298⁶/₁₂, Wales 19⁴/₁₂; Scotland 85⁵/₁₂, total 403³/₁₂. The total number of existing furnaces in 1900 was: in England 456, Wales 42, Scotland 106; total 604; so that 33% of the number stood unused. In 1905 furnaces in blast numbered: England 244¹/₁₂, Wales 13⁸/₁₂, Scotland 87⁹/₁₂; total 345⁶/₁₂; and those existing: in England 412, Wales 31, Scotland 101; total 544; and the percentage unused was thus 36.

In 1888 the imports of iron ore amounted to 3,562,071 tons, in 1898 to 5,468,396 tons, in 1899 to 7,054,578 tons, in 1900 to 6,297,953 tons, in 1901 to 5,548,888 tons and in 1909 to 6,361,571 tons, of which the bulk was imported from Spain. The amount of pig-iron obtained found its minimum, during the period 18901910, of 6,976,990 tons in 1893, and its maximum of 10,183,860 in 1906, and in 1905 the quantity produced from foreign ores (4,847,899 tons) for the first time exceeded that produced from British ores (4,760,187).

The quantity of lead ore produced within the United Kingdom has decreased. It is now less than one-half of the output of about 1877, and the value has decreased more than proportionately. Lead.In the period 18901908 the maximum annual production of metallic lead from British ore was 33,590 tons in 1890, valued at £449,826; the production fluctuated somewhat, but generally fell, to the minimum of 17,704 tons in 1902 (value £198,875). The most productive counties are Flint, Durham and Derby; the ore obtained in the Isle of Man is increased in value by the silver it contains. The annual output of tin ore, which in 1878 amounted to 15,045 tons, valued at £530,737, fell to 12,898 tons in 1881, though the value in that year rose to £697,444. Tin.During the years 18821892 the average output was over 14,000 tons, and its average value about £770,000, but in 1893 a decline began in the output (not however accompanied closely by a decline in the value), slightly relieved about 1905.

Year. Tin Ore. Value.
  Tons. £
1893 13,689 637,053
1900 6,800 523,604
1905 7,201 574,183
1909 5,193 617,376

Tin ore is obtained almost exclusively in Cornwall.

Like others of the less important mining industries, copper mining in the United Kingdom has declined. In 1881 the output of ore amounted to 52,556 tons, in 1891 to 9158 tons, in 1893 to 5576 tons, Copper.in 1905 to 7153 tons, valued at £32,696 and yielding 716 tons of metal by smelting. The total tonnage of ore included 5757 tons from England (chiefly from Cornwall) and 1146 from Ireland (Wicklow, &c.). Copper precipitate is taken from water pumped up from old copper mines on Parys Mountain in Anglesey.

Zinc ore is obtained chiefly from mines in Cumberland, Wales and the Isle of Man. In 1881 the output reached 35,527 tons, valued at £110,043; Zinc.in 1891 the output was only 22,216 tons, but its value was £113,445. In 1897 the quantity was 19,278 tons, and the value £69,134; but in 1898 the price had risen so that the output of 23,552 tons was worth £117,784. In 1900 the output of 24,675 tons was worth £97,606; and in 1905 that of 23,909 tons was worth £139,806.

During the period 1890-1905 gold mines were worked continuously in Merionethshire. Notices of the discovery of gold elsewhere (as in the Forest of Dean, Argyllshire and Ireland) have appeared from time to time.

The principal fluctuations in production were as follows:—

Year. Ore. Gold. Value.
  Tons. Oz. £
1890 575 206 675
1891 14,117 4,008 13,700
1893 4,489 2,309 8,691
1895 13,266 6,600 18,520
1898 703 395 1,229
1900 20,802 14,004 52,147
1902 29,953 4,181 14,570
1904 23,203 19,655 73,925
1905 15,981 5,797 21,222
1908 915 3,311

It should be noted also that from imported cupreous iron pyrites, copper, gold and silver are extracted at some fifteen metal extraction works in Great Britain. From 386,858 tons of burnt ore in 1900 there were obtained 13,925 tons of copper, 1777 oz. of gold and 309,486 oz. of silver; and in 1905 the figures were: ore, 402,863 tons; copper, 14,502 tons; gold, 1850 oz.; silver, 322,291 oz.

Textile Industries.—The most important of the textile industries of Great Britain is cotton manufacture. Cotton.The quantities of raw cotton imported, exported and retained for consumption for various years during the period 1890-1910 were as follows:—

Year. Imported. Exported. Retained.
  lb lb lb
1890 1,793,495,200 214,641,840 1,578,853,360
1893 1,416,780,064 224,621,488 1,192,158,576
1895 1,757,042,672 203,284,592 1,553,758,080
1898 2,128,548,352 203,072,464 1,925,475,838
1900 1,760,206,672 215,747,168 1,544,459,504
1905 2,203,595,520 283,177,888 1,920,417,632
1907 2,386,901,104 330,352,064 2,056,549,040
1909 2,188,761,456 268,633,456 1,920,128,000


During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of raw cotton (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom from the principal countries whence it is exported was as follows: United States of America (1893), 1,055,855,360; (1898), 1,805,353,424; Egypt (1890), 181,266,176; (1907), 423,052,448; British possessions in the East Indies (1898), 27,349,728; (1890), 238,746,704; (1909), 75,621,168; Brazil (1899), 5,464,592; (1906), 54,362,000; Peru (1891), 6,175,344; (1909), 24,413,648. In 1905 there were imported 7,941,920 Ib from Chile (only 195,328 in 1909); 6,033,104 Ib from Canada (this also fluctuates greatly: 1,801,072 in 1909); 1,241,408 Ib from British West Africa (4,985,232 in 1909); 1,126,720 lb from the British West Indies and Guiana (3,022,208 in 1908).

According to the census returns of 1901 there were 546,065 persons employed in cotton factories, 199,920 male and 346,145 female. Of the total number of workpeople, 529,131 were employed in England and Wales, 14,805 in Scotland and 212 in Ireland. In 1907 the total had risen to 576,820 (217,742 males and 359,078 females).

The extent of the woollen and worsted manufactures of the United Kingdom is indicated by the following table showing the imports and exports of wool Wool.and the quantity wool retained for use in various years (1890 1905):—

Year. Imports. Exports of
imported Wool.
Retained.
  lb lb lb
1890 633,028,131 340,712,303 292,315,828
1895 775,379,063 404,935,226 370,443,337
1898 699,555,048 283,317,748 416,237,300
1900 558,950,528 196,207,261 362,743,267
1905 620,350,885 277,864,215 342,486,670
1907 764,236,625 313,519,232 450,767,343
1909 808,710,087 390,695,182 418,014,905

During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of wool (in Ib) imported into the United Kingdom was as follows: Australia (1904), 220,483,961; (1895), 417,163,078; New Zealand (1890), 95,632,598; (1909), 176,457,150; British possessions in South Africa (1900), 32,219,369; (1909), 115,896,598; South America (1890), 11,173,692; (1908), 78,938,15; British possessions in the East Indies (1901), 24,069,571; (1909), 56,238,63; France (1890), 10,873,788; (1902), 27,770,790; Turkish Empire (1908), 5,705,671; (1897), 25,727,462.

In the woollen and worsted industries 239,954 persons were employed according to the census of 1901, of whom 99,425 were males and 140,529 females. Of the total number 209,700 were employed in England and Wales, 24,906 in Scotland and 5348 in Ireland.

The numbers of persons employed in the other principal textile industries in 1901 was as follows:—

   England 
and
 Wales
 Scotland  Ireland  United Kingdom.   Total. 
 Males.   Females. 
 Flax   .   .  4,493 23,570 71,464 29,226 70,301 99,527
 Hemp, jute            
&c.   .   .  2,750 39,200 639 11,618 30,971 42,589
Silk   .   .  34,847 2,424 209 11,058 26,422 37,480
Hosiery   .  48,374 11,957 611 15,067 45,875 60,942



NotesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 These counties supply the richest ore in the United Kingdom.
  2. 2.0 2.1 In these cases the greater proportion of ore is from mines also producing coal.