1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 1/Table of contributors


A. A. R.* Arthur Alcock Rambaut, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Radcliffe Observer, Oxford. Professor of Astronomy in the University of Dublin and Royal Astronomer of Ireland 1892–1897.
A. C. L. Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall, K.C.B.
See the biographical article: Lyall, Sir A. C.
Abdur Rahman;
: History.
A. D. Austin Dobson, LL.D
See the biographical article: Dobson, Henry Austin.
Addison (in part).
A. E. S. Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Fellow and Tutor of Christ’s College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology in Cambridge University. Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.
A. F. B. Aldred Farrer Barker, M.Sc.
Professor of Textile Industries at Bradford Technical College.
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A. F.R.Hist.Soc.
Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford; Professor of English History in the University of London. Assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893–1901.
A. Gir. Arthur Girault.
Professor of Political Economy at the University of Poitiers. Member of the International Colonial Institute. Author of Principes de colonisation (1907–1908).
Algeria: History.
A. G. H. Albert George Hadcock, (late R.A.)
Manager of the Gun Department, Elswick Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Ammunition (in part).
A. H. J. G. Abel Hendy Jones Greenidge, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.) (d. 1905).
Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Hertford College, Oxford, and of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Infamia in Roman Law; &c.
Agrarian Laws (in part).
A. J. B. Alfred Joshua Butler, M.A., D.Litt.
Fellow and Bursar of Brasenose College, Oxford. Fellow of Eton College.
Abyssinian Church.
A. J. G. Rev. Alexander J. Grieve, M.A., B.D.
Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent College, Bradford.
Adoptianism; Alford;
Alsop, V.
; Ambrose, St.
A. Mw. Allen Mawer, M.A.
Professor of English Language and Literature, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne; formerly Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
Æthelflaed; Æthelred I.; Æthelstan; Æthelweard.
A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke
See the biographical article: Clerke, Agnes Mary
A. M. Cl. Agnes Muriel Clay (Mrs Edward Wilde).
Late Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-editor of Sources of Roman History, 133–70 B.C.
Agrarian Laws (in part).
A. R. W. Alfred Russel Wallace, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Wallace, Alfred Russel
A. Si. Arthur Sidgwick, M.A. LL.D. (Glasgow).
Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford; formerly Reader in Greek, Oxford University.
A. W.* Arthur Willey, D.Sc., F.R.S.
Director of Colombo Museum, Ceylon.
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
Aberdeen, 4th Earl of.
B. M.* Budgett Meakin (d. 1906).
Author of The Moors ; The Land of the Moors ; The Moorish Empire; &c.
Almohades (in part); Almoravides (in part).
C. B.* Charles Bémont, D. ès L., Litt.D. (Oxon.).
See the biographical article: Bémont, C.
C. E.* Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.
Magdalen College, Oxford.
Algebra: History.
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
Alexandria: Battle;
American Civil War
; Ammunition (in part).
C. F. R. Charles F. Richardson, Ph.D.
Professor of English, Dartmouth College, U.S.A.
Alcott, A. B.;
Alcott, L. M
C. L. H. Caldwell Lipsett.
Formerly Editor of the Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, India.
Afridi; Agra.
C. Mi. Chedomille Mijatovich.
Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James’s, 1895–1900, and 1902–1903.
Alexander of Servia.
C. Pf. Christian Pfister, D. ès L.
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Études sur le règne de Robert le Pieux.
C. Pl. Rev. Charles Plummer, M.A.
Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Author of Life and Times of Alfred the Great; &c. Ford’s Lecturer, 1901.
Alfred the Great.
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford and University University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Author of Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c.
Andrew of Longjumeau.
C. S. P.* Rev. Charles Stanley Phillips.
King’s College, Cambridge. Gladstone Memorial Prize, 1904.
Æthelred II.
C. We. Cecil Weatherly.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law.
Advertisement (in part).
D. B. Ma. Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A.
Abu Hanifa; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904–1905; Assiut, 1906–1907; Director, British School at Athens, 1897–1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Adalia; Adana; Aegean
; Aintab; Aleppo; Alexandria; Alexandretta; Alexandria Troas; Amasia; Anazarbus.
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 1217–1688; Life of Emilio Castelar ; &c.
Abbadides; Abd-Ar-Rahman; Admiral; Agreda;
; Almohades; Almoravides; Alphonso; America: History;
American War of Inde-
: Naval Operations;
American War of 1812
D. M. Rev. D. Meiklejohn.
Adams, John Couch.
D. Mn. Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A.
Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate.
Alexander, W. L.; Allon, H.
D. M. W. Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O.
Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign Department of The Times, 1891–1899. Author of Russia.
Alexander II., of Russia; Alexander III., of Russia.
E. B.* Ernest C. F. Babelon.
Professor at the Collége de France. Keeper of the Dept. of Medals and Antiquities at the Bibliothèque Nationale. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour.
Africa, Roman.
E. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History, St John’s College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College.
E. Ch. Edward Channing, Ph.D.
Professor of History, Harvard University.
Adams, John;
Adams, John Quincy
Adams, Samuel
E. C. B. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B. D.Litt.
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund.
Aasen; Almqvist; Anacreontics;
Andersen, Hans Christian
E. Gr. Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
Abae; Acarnania;
E. He. Edward Heawood, M.A.
Librarian to Royal Geographical Society, London. Author of Geography of Africa; &c.
Africa: Geography, Economics,  Bibliography.
E. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
Lecturer and Assistant Librarian, and formerly Fellow, Pembroke College, Cambridge. University Lecturer in Paleography.
E. J. R. Emanuel Joseph Ristori, Ph.D. Assoc.M.Inst.C.E.
Member of Council, Institute of Metals.
E. M. W. Rev. Edward Mewburn Walker, M.A.
Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen’s College, Oxford.
Aegina: History.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
; Adenoids.
E. Pr. Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester; Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago.
E. R. B. Edwyn Robert Bevan, M.A.
New College, Oxford. Author of The House of Seleucus.
Alexander the Great.
E. Tn. Rev. Ethelred Leonard Taunton (d. 1907).
Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England.
Allen, William
E. V. Rev. Edmund Venables, M.A., D.D. (1819–1895).
Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England.
Abbey; Abbot.
E. W.* Edgar Whitaker (d. 1905).
Formerly Times correspondent at Constantinople.
Ahmed Vefik.
F. A. E. Fred. A. Eaton.
Secretary to the Royal Academy.
Academy, Royal.
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen).
Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
Ablution; Agapē;
F. Fn. Frank Finn, F.Z.S.
Late Assistant Director of the Indian Museum, Calcutta.
F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer of of Clare College, Cambridge.
Æthelbald; Æthelberht;
; Æthelred;
; Alamanni.
F. G. P. Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S, F.Z.S, F.R.Anthrop.Inst.
Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas’s Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Alimentary Canal;
F. H. Ne. Francis Henry Neville, M.A., F.R.S.
Fellow of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Lecturer on Physics and Chemistry.
Alloys (in part).
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewelyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund.
Abu Simbel;
; Amasis; Ammon.
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
Abyssinia: Geography;
: Geography, History (in part); Albert Edward Nyanza (in part); Albert Nyanza (in part); Alexandria (in part);
: Geography.
F. S. Francis Storr.
Editor of the Journal of Education (London). Officier d'Académie (Paris).
F. T. M. Sir Frank Thomas Marzials.
Accountant-General of the Army, 1898–1904. Editor of “Great Writers” Series.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879–1902. President of the Geologists’ Association, 1887–1889.
Agate; Alabaster;
; Amethyst.
G.* Count Albert Edward Wilfred Gleichen, K.C.V.O., C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O.,
A.D.M.O., War Office; Colonel, Grenadier Guards. Mission to Abyssinia, 1897.
Abyssinia: History.
G. A. B. George A. Boulenger, D.Sc., F.R.S.
In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.
G. A. Gr. George Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Litt.
Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873–1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898–1902. Gold Medallist, Asiatic Society, 1909.
G. Br. Rev. George Bryce, D.D., LL.D.
Head of Faculty of Science, and Lecturer in Biology and Geology in Manitoba University, 1891–1904. Vice-President of Royal Society, Canada, 1908.
G. B. M. George Ballard Mathews, M.A., F.R.S.
Formerly Professor of Mathematics, University College of N. Wales. Sometime Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
Algebra: Special.
G. C. R. George Croom Roberston.
See the biographical article: Robertson, G. C.
Abelard (in part).
G. E. C. Colonel George Earl Church.
See the biographical article: Church, G. E.
G. E. W. George Edward Woodberry, Litt.D., LL.D.
Professor of Comparative Literature at Columbia University, 1891–1904. Author of Edgar Allen Poe; Makers of Literature; America in Literature; &c.
American Literature.
G. F. B. G. F. Barwick.
Assistant-Keeper of Printed Books and Superintendent of Reading-room, British Museum.
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg; Alice, Grand-Duchess of Hesse.
G. L. Georg Lunge, Ph.D. (Breslau), Hon. Dr.Ing. (Karlsruhe).
See the biographical article: Lunge, G.
Alkali Manufacture.
G. P. M. George Percival Mudge, A.R.C.S., F.Z.S.
Lecturer on Biology, London Hospital Medical College, and London School of Medicine for Women.
G. W. B. George Willis Botsford, A.M., Ph.D.
Professor of History of Greece and Rome in Columbia University, New York. Author of The Roman Assemblies; &c.
G. W. T. Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
Abu-l-‛ala; Abu-l-‛Atahiya; Abulfaraj; Abulfeda;
; Abu Nuwas;
Abu Tammam
; Abu Ubaida; Akhtal; Alqama Ibn ‛Abada; Amru’-ul-Qais.
H. B. Wo. Horace Bolingbroke Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S.
Formerly Assistant Director of the Geological Survey of England and Wales. President Geologists’ Association, 1893–1894. Wollaston Medallist, 1908.
Agassiz, J. L. R.
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; co-editor of the 10th edition.
Acton, Lord; Agnosticism; Albert, Prince Consort.
H. C. C. Herbert Challice Crouch, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P.
Anaesthetist and Teacher of Anaesthetics at St Thomas’s, Samaritan and French Hospitals, London.
H. M. R. Hugh Munro Ross.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of the Times Engineering Supplement. Author of British Railways.
H. M. V. Herbert M. Vaughan, F.S.A.
Keble College, Oxford. Author of The Last of the Royal Stuarts; &c.
Albany, Countess of.
H. P. J.* Henry Phelps Johnston.
Author of Loyalist History of the Revolution; The Yorktown Campaign; &c.
American War of Independence: Land Operations.
H. R. H.* H. R. Haxton.
H. S.-K. Sir Henry Seton-Karr, C.M.G.
Member for St. Helen’s, 1885–1906. Author of The Call to Arms.
Ammunition: Small Arms.
H. S. J. Henry Stuart Jones, M.A.
Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. Director of the British School at Rome, 1903–1905. Author of The Roman Empire .
H. V. K. Captain Howard V. Knox, M.A.
Exeter College, Oxford.
Alps: Flora and Fauna.
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls’, Oxford, 1895–1902.
Ælred; Alredus; Ambrose.
H. W. H. Hope W. Hogg, M.A.
Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures in the University of Manchester.
H. W. S. H. Wickham Steed.
Correspondent of The Times at Rome (1897–1902) and Vienna.
Amedeo, Ferdinand, of Savoy.
H. Y. Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I.
See the biographical article: Yule, Sir H.
Afghanistan: History.
J. A. Ba. J. Arthur Barrett, LL.B.
New York Bar, 1880. U.S. Supreme Court Bar, 1901.
Admiralty Jurisdiction: United States.
J. A. E. James Alfred Ewing, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E.
Director of (British) Naval Education, 1903. Hon. Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Professor of Mechanism and Applied Mechanics in the University of Cambridge; 1890–1903.
J. A. F. John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge, and University Lecturer on Applied Mechanics. Author of Magnets and Electric Currents.
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian at the Museum of Practical Geology, London.
J. B. B. John Bagnell Bury, Litt.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Bury, J. B.
Alexius I. to III.
J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S.
Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.
Albania (Balkans);
Alexander of Bulgaria
J. D. Pr. John Dyneley Prince, Ph.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages at Columbia University, N.Y. Took part in the Expedition to Southern Babylonia, 1888–89.
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Fellow of the British Academy. Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature in the University of Liverpool. Norman MacColl Lecturer in the University of Cambridge. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature.
Acosta, J. de;
Alarcon, J. R. de
Alarcon, P. A. de
; Amadis de Gaula.
J. F. R. James Ford Rhodes, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Rhodes, J. Ford.
Adams, C. F.
J. G. C. A. John George Clark Anderson, M.A.
Student, Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1896. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford,
J. G. Gr. John G. Griffiths.
Fellow and late President, Institute of Chartered Accountants.
J. G. Sc. Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E.
Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma; &c.
J. H. P. John Henry Poynting, M.A., D.Sc.. F.R.S.
Mason Professor of Physics and Dean of the Faculty of Science, Birmingham University. Sometime fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A. LL.D. (Edin.).
Author of Feudal England; Peerage and Pedigree; &c.
Abeyance; Aids.
J. I. Jules Isaac.
Professor of History at the Lycée of Lyons, France.
Amboise, G. d’.
J. L.* Sir Joseph Larmor, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.A.S.
Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in Cambridge University. Secretary of the Royal Society. Author of Aether and Matter; &c.
J. L. M. John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S.
Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of Liverpool. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford.
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
Anaxagoras (in part).
J. P.-B. James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst.
Editor of the Guardian (London).
Adam, Robert.
J. P. Pe. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D.
Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in the University of Pennsylvania. In charge of the University Expedition to Babylonia, 1888–1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates.
J. R. C. Joseph Rogerson Cotter, M.A.
Assistant to the Professor of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin. Editor of 2nd edition of Preston’s Theory of Heat.
Absorption of Light.
J. R. D. Colonel John Richard Dodd, M.D., F.R.C.S.. R.A.M.C.
Administrative Medical Officer of Cork Military District.
J. S. James Sully, LL.D.,
See the biographical article: Sully, J.
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University.
; Andesite.
J. S. K. John Scott Keltie, LL.D., F.S.S., F.S.A. (Scot.).
Sec. Royal Geog. Soc. Hon. Memb. Geographical Societies of Paris, Berlin, Rome, &c. Editor of Statesman’s Year-book. Editor of the Geographical Journal.
Abbadie; Africa: History.
J. T. Be. John T. Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
J. T. C. Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S.
Lecturer on Zoology at South-Western Polytechnic, London. Former Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association.
J. T. S.* James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D.
Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City.
Abelard (in part).
J. V. B. J. Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D.
Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford.
Acts of the Apostles.
Jno. W. John Westlake, K.C., LL.D., D.C.L.
Professor of International Law; Cambridge, 1888–1908. One of the Members for United Kingdom of International Court of Arbitration under the Hague Convention, 1900–1906. Author of A Treatise on Private International Law, or the Conflict of laws; Chapters on the Principles of International Law, part i. “Peace,” part ii. “War.”
J. W. D. Captain J. Whitly Dixon, R.N.
Nautical Assessor to the Court of Appeal.
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra; &c.
Accordion; Aeolian Harp; Alpenhorn.
L. D.* Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne.
See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O.
Adrian I., II., III.;
Alexander I., II. (popes)
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer.
Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Albite; Alunite;
; Amphibole; Analcite; Anatase;
L. V.* Luigi Villari.
Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in east of Europe; Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906, Philadelphia, 1907, and Boston, U.S.A., 1907–1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c.
Alexander VI. (pope)
M. Br. Margaret Bryant.
Alexander the Great: Legends.
M. G. Moses Gaster, Ph.D. (Leipzig).
Chief Rabbi of the Sephardi communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folklore Society of England. Vice-President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature; The Hebrew Version of the Secretum Secretarum of Aristotle.
M. G. D. Rt. Hon. Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant-Duff, G.C.S.I., F.R.S. (1829 – 1906).
M.P. for the Elgin Burghs, 1857 – 1881. Under-Secretary of State for India, 1868 – 1874. Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1880 – 1881. Governor of Madras, 1881 – 1886. President of the Royal Geographical Society, 1889 – 1893. President of the Royal Historical Society, 1892 – 1899. Author of Studies in European Politics; Notes from a Diary; &c.
Ampthill, Baron.
M. Ha. Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.Sc. (Lond.), F.L.S.
Professor of Zoology in University College, Cork. Formerly Professor of Natural History in Queen's College, Cork, and Fellow of the Royal University of Ireland.
M. H. C. Montague Hughes Crackanthorpe, M.A., K.C., D.C.L.
President of the Eugenics Education Society. Formerly Member of the General Council of the Bar and Council of Legal Education. Late Chairman, Incorporated Council of Law Reporting. Chairman of Quarter Sessions, Westmorland. Honorary Fellow, St John's College, Oxford.
“Alabama” Arbitration.
M. Ja. Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Author of Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c.
M. M. Bh. Mancherjee Merwanjee Bhownaggree, K.C.I.E.
Fellow of Bombay University. M.P. (C.) Bethnal Green, North-East, 1895 – 1906. Author of Small History of the East India Company.
Aga Khan.
M. N. T. Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Greek Epigraphy. Corresponding Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
Agesilaus; Agis.
M. O. B. C Max Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905 – 1908.
Acarnania; Achaean League; Actium; Aetolia; Ambracia.
M. P.* Léon Jacques Maxime Prinet.
Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences).
Alençon, Counts of
N. V. Joseph Marie Noel Valois.
Member of Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres, Paris. Honorary Archivist at the Archives Nationales. Formerly President of the Société de'l'Histoire de France, and of the Société de l'Ecole de Chartes.
Ailly; Alexander V. (pope).
O. E. S. Otto Eppenstein, Ph.D.
Member of Scientific Staff at Zeiss's optical works, Jena. Editor of 2nd ed. of Grundzüge der Theorie der optischen Instrumente nach Abbe.
O. H.* Otto Hehner, Ph.D.
Formerly President of the Society of Analytical Chemists.
O. T. M. Otis Tufton Mason (d. 1908).
Curator, Department of Anthropology, National Museum, Washington, 1884 – 1908. Author of Woman's Share in Primitive Culture; Primitive Travel and Transportation; &c.
America: Ethnology and         Archaeology.
P. A. Paul Daniel Alphandéry.
Professor of the History of Dogma, École Pratique des Hautes Études, Sorbonne, Paris. Author of Les Idées morales chez les hétérodoxes latines au début du XIIIe siècle.
Alain de Lille; Albigenses.
P. A. A. Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., D.Juris.
New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law.
P. A. G. P. Anderson Graham.
Editor of Country Life. Author of The Rural Exodus: the Problem of the Village and town.
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, P. A.
Altai; Amur: District;
P. A. M. Percy Alexander Macmahon, D.Sc., F.R.S., late Major R.A.
Deputy Warden of the Standards, Board of Trade. Joint General Secretary, British Association. Formerly Professor of Physics, Ordnance College. President of London Mathematical Society, 1894 – 1896.
Algebraic Forms.
P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, F.R.S., D.Sc., LL.D.
Secretary to the Zoological Society of London from 1903. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888 – 1891. Lecturer on Biology at Charing Cross Hospital, 1892 – 1894; at London Hospital, 1894. Examiner in Biology to the Royal College of Physicians, 1892 – 1896, 1901 – 1903. Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903.
Abiogenesis; Actinozoa;
Alimentary Canal
 (in part).
P. C. Y. Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A.
Magdalen College, Oxford.
Aberdeen, 1st Earl of;
Allestree, R.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology.
A; Accent;
P. La. Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S.
Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian Trilobites. Translator and editor of Kayser’s Comparative Geology.
Alps: Geology.
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Acre; Ai; Altar.
R. K. D. Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas.
Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British Museum. Professor of Chinese, King’s College, London. Author of The Language and Literature of China; &c.
Alcock, Sir R.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S.
Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c.
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1900).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883–1909. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513–1900; The First Romanovs, 1613 to 1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796, &c.
Aagesen; Absalon;
Adolphus Frederick
Alexander Nevsky
Alexius Mikhailovich
Alexius Petrovich
; Andrassy, Count;
Andrew II. of Hungary
R. P. S. R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King’s College, London. Editor of Fergusson’s History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., Litt.D.
Professor of Latin, Victoria University of Manchester; formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff.
R. Tr. Roland Truslove, M.A.
Dean, Fellow and Lecturer, Worcester College, Oxford. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford.
Agriculture (in part).
R. V. H. Admiral Sir Richard Vesey Hamilton, G.C.B.
Senior Naval Lord of Admiralty, 1889–1891. President, Royal Naval College, Greenwich, 1891–1894.
Admiralty Administration (British).
R. W. P. Reginald W. Phillips, D.Sc., F.L.S.
Professor of Botany in the University College of North Wales. Author of Morphology of the Algae, &c.
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904–1908. Council of Royal Asiatic Societ, 1904–1905. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Author of Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
Aaron; Abimelech;
; Ahab;
S. E. B. Simeon Eben Baldwin, M.A., LL.D.
Professor of Constitutional and Private International Law in Yale University. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Errors, Connecticut. President of the International Law Association. President of the American Historical Association.
American Law.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon), F.S.A.
Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome.
Adria; Aemilia Via; Agrigentum; Alba Fucens;
Alba Longa
; Aletrium;
; Ancona.
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
T. A. J. T. Athol Joyce, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Ethnography, British Museum. Hon. Sec. Anthropological Society.
: Ethnology.
T. H. Thomas Hodgkin, LL.D., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Hodgkin, T.
T. H. H. Thomas Henry Huxley, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Huxley, Thomas H.
Amphibia (in part).
T. H. H.* Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., Hon. D.Sc.
Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892–1898. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King’s Award; India; Tibet; &c.
Afghanistan: Geography;
Afghan Turkestan
T. K. C. Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, D.Litt., D.D.
See the biographical article: Cheyne, T. K.
Adam; Amos.
T. W. R. D. T. W. Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Comparative Religion in Manchester University. President of the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal Asiatic Society, 1885–1902. Author of Buddhism; &c.
V. B. L. Vivian Byam Lewes, F.I.C., F.C.S.
Professor of Chemistry, Royal Naval College. Chief Superintendent Gas Examiner to the Corporation of the City of London.
W. Sir Joseph Walton (d. 1910).
Formerly Judge of the King’s Bench Div. Chairman of the General Council of the Bar, 1899.
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A, F.R.G.S., D.Ph. (Bern).
Fellow of Magdalen College; Oxford Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880–1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of the Tödi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880–1889, &c.
Aar; Aarau; Aargau; Adda;
; Albula Pass; Alp;
Alpes Maritimes
; Alps;
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe, &c.
Abbot; Aix-la-Chapelle:       Congresses;
Alexander I. of Russia
Ali, of Iannina
; Alliance;
W. Ba. William Bacher, Ph.D.
Professor at the Rabbinical Seminary, Buda-Pest.
W. C. R.-A. Sir William Chandler Roberts-Austen, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Roberts-Austen, Sir W. C.
Alloys (in part).
W. E. G. Sir William Edmund Garstin, G.C.M.G.
Governing Director, Suez Canal Co. Formerly Inspector-General of Irrigation Egypt. Under-Secretary of State for Public Works. Adviser to the Ministry of Public Works in Egypt, 1904–1908.
Albert Edward Nyanza;
Albert Nyanza
 (in part).
W. Fr. William Fream, LL.D., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.S.S. (d. 1907).
Author of Handbook of Agriculture.
Agriculture (in part).
W. F. Sh. William Fleetwood Sheppard, M.A.
Senior Examiner in the Board-of Education. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Senior Wrangler, 1884.
W. G.* Walcot Gibson, D.Sc., F.G.S.
H.M. Geological Survey. Author of The Gold-Bearing Rocks of the S. Transvaal; Mineral Wealth of Africa; The Geology of Coal and Coalmining; &c.
Africa: Geology;
: Geology.
W. G. F. P. Sir Walter George Frank Phillimore, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D.
Judge of the King’s Bench Div. President of International Law Association, 1905. Author of Book of Church Law. Edited 2nd ed. of Phillimore’s Ecclesiastical Law, ` and 3rd ed. of vol. iv. of Phillimore’s International Law.
Admiralty, High Court of;
Admiralty Jurisdiction
W. Hi. Walter Hibbert.
Lecturer on Physics and Electro-Technology, Polytechnic, Regent Street, London.
W. M. D. William Morris Davis, D.Sc., Ph.D.
Professor of Geology in Harvard University. Formerly Professor of Physical Geography. Author of Physical Geography; &c.
America: Physical Geography.
W. M. F. P. William M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L., Litt.D., LL.D., Ph.D.
See the biographical article: Petrie, W. M. F.
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel.
Andrea del Sarto.
W. O. B. Ven. Winfrid Oldfield Burrows, M.A.
Archdeacon of Birmingham. Formerly Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford, 1884–1891, and Principal of Leeds Clergy School, 1891–1900.
W. Ri. William Ridgeway, M.A., D.Sc., Litt.D.
Disney Professor of Archaeology, Cambridge University, and Brereton Reader in Classics. Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. President of Royal Anthropological Institute, 1908. Author of The Early Age of Greece, &c.
W. S. William Spalding.
See the biographical article: Spalding, W.
Addison (in part).
W. T. S. Rear-Admiral W. T. Sampson, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Sampson, W. T.
Admiralty Administration
(United States)
W. W. William Wallace.
See the biographical article: Wallace, William (1844–1897).
Anaxagoras (in part).
W. W. F.* William Warde Fowler, M.A.
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881–1904. Gifford Lecturer, Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans.
W. W. R.* William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.
Adrian IV., V., VI.;
Alexander III., IV., VII.
; VIII.;
Ancyra, Synod of


Addison’s Disease.


Alexandrian School. 


Andaman Islands.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.