1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 6/Table of contributors


A. Bo.* Auguste Boudinhon, D.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Canon Law in the Catholic University of Paris. Editor of the Canoniste contemporain. Author of Biens d’église et peines canoniques; &c.
A. B. G.* Alice B. Gomme.
Hon. Member of the Folk-lore Society. Author of Dictionary of Traditional Games of Great Britain and Ireland; Children’s Singing Games.
Children’s Games.
A. B. R. Alfred Barton Rendle, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S.
Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Classifi­cation of Flowering Plants; &c.
Cocoa: Botany;
: Botany.
A. C. Be. Arthur Christopher Benson, C.V.O., M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
See the biographical article: Benson, Edward White.
Church, Dean.
A. C. C. Albert Curtis Clark, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Queen’s College, Oxford, and University Reader in Latin. Editor of Cicero’s Speeches (Clarendon Press).
A. C. McG. Arthur Cushman McGiffert, D.D., Ph.D., M.A.
Professor of Church History in Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; &c.
Church History (in part).
A. C. S. Algernon Charles Swinburne.
See the biographical article: Swinburne, A. C.
Congreve, William.
A. D. Austin Dobson.
See the biographical article: Dobson, Henry Austin.
Chesterfield, 4th Earl of.
A. E. B. Rev. Andrew Ewbank Burn, M.A., D.D.
Vicar of Halifax and Prebendary of Lichfield. Author of An Introduction to the Creeds and the Te Deum; Niceta of Remesiana; &c.
A. F. L. Arthur Francis Leach, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Charity Commissioner for England and Wales. Formerly Assistant Secretary Of the Board of Education. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 1874–1881. Stanhope Prizeman, 1872.
A. G. Major Arthur George Frederick Griffiths (d. 1908).
H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878–1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate; Secrets of the Prison House; &c.
Children’s Courts.
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
A. H.* Albert Hauck, D.Th., Ph.D., D.Juris.
Professor of Church History in the University of Leipzig. Director of the Collection of Ecclesiastical Archaeology. Member of the Royal Saxon Society of Arts and Sciences. Formerly Professor in the University of Erlangen. Editor of the 3rd edition of Herzog-Hauck’s Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche. Author of Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands; Tertullians Leben und Schriften; &c.
Church History (in part).
A. He.* Augustine Henry, M.A., F.L.S.
Reader in Forestry, Cambridge University. Formerly Official in Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs. Explorer of the Flora of the interior of China, Formosa and Hainan.
China: Flora.
A. H. J. G. Abel Hendy Jones Greenidge, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon) (d. 1905).
Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Hertford College, Oxford, and of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Infamia in Roman Law; Handbook of Greek Constitutional History; Roman Public Life; History of Rome. Joint-author of Sources of Roman History, 133–70 B.C.
A. J. G. Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D. (Lond.).
Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of Mysore Educational Service.
Clement I. (in part).
A. J. L. Andrew Jackson Lamoureux.
Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News (Rio de Janeiro), 1879–1901.
Chile: Geography and Statistics; Colombia: Geography and Statistics.
A. Lo. Auguste Longnon.
Professor at the Collège de France. Director of the École des Hautes Études. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute. Author of Géographie de la Gaule au VIe siècle.
A. W. C. Arthur William Clayden, M.A.
Christ’s College, Cambridge. Principal of the Royal Albert Memorial College, Exeter. Author of Cloud Studies; The Clouds of Venus; &c.
A. W. Po. Alfred William Pollard, M.A.
Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King’s College, London. Hon. Secretary, Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of the Library. Chief Editor of the “Globe” Chaucer.
A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England.
C. Earl of Crewe.
see the biographical article: Crewe, Earl of.
C. A. MacM. Charles Alexander Macmunn, M.A., M.D., F.C.S.
Formerly Physician and Pathologist to Wolverhampton General Hospital. Author of Outlines of Clinical Chemistry; The Spectroscope in Medicine; &c.
Colours of Animals: Chemistry.
C. B.* Charles Bémont, D.Litt. (Oxon).
See the biographical article: Bémont, C.
C. Bi. Rev. Charles Bigg, M.A., D.D. (1840–1908).
Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Oxford, 1901–1908. Chaplain to Bishop of London. Author of Neoplatonism; The Christian Platonists of Alexandria; &c. Editor of St Augustine’s Confessions; De Imitatione; &c.
Clement of Alexandria (in part).
C. E.* Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.
Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.
 (in part).
C. E. A. C. E. Akers.
Formerly Times Correspondent in Buenos Aires. Author of A History of South America, 1854–1904.
Chile: History (in part).
C. H. Ha. Carlton Joseph Huntley Hayes, D.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member of the American Historical Association. Author of An Introduction to the sources relating to the Barbarian Invasions.
Clement VI.;
Clement VIII.
: antipope.
C. J. H. Charles John Holmes, M.A.
Director, Keeper and Secretary of the National Portrait Gallery. Slade Professor of Fine Art, Oxford, 1904–1910. Author of Constable; Constable and his Influence on Landscape Painting; Notes on the Science of Picture Making; &c.
China: Chinese Art (Sculpture); Constable, John.
C. M. K. Sir Charles Malcolm Kennedy, K.C.M.G., C.B. (1831–1908).
Head of Commercial Department, Foreign Office, 1872–1893. Lecturer on International Law, University College, Bristol. Commissioner in the Levant, 1870–1871; at Paris, 1872–1886. Plenipotentiary, Treaty of the Hague, 1882. Author of Diplomacy and International Law.
Commercial Treaties.
C. Pf. Christian Pfister, D. ès L.
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Études sur le règne de Robert le Pieux; &c.
Childebert; Chilperic;
; Clotilda, Saint;
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
Columbus, Christopher.
C. S. Hon. Carl Schurz, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Schurz, Carl.
Clay, Henry.
C. W. R. C. Charles Wallwyn Radcliffe Cooke.
President, National Association of English Cider-makers. M.P. for Walworth, 1885–1892, and for Hereford, 1893–1900. Author of A Book about Cider and Perry.
C. W. W. Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836–1907).
Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary Commission, 1858–1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Commission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886–1894. Director-General of Military Education, 1895–1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of Lord Clive; &c.
Cilicia (in part).
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising the Classical Concerto; The Goldberg Variations; and analyses of many other classical works.
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904–1905; Assiut, 1906–1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897–1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Cilicia (in part);
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 1217–1688; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
Church, Sir Richard
Codrington, Sir Edward
D. Mn. Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A.
Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London Missionary Society. Author of Constructive Congregational Ideals.
E. B. P. Edward Bagnall Poulton, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.
Hope Professor of Zoology in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. Author of The Colours of Animals; Essays on Evolution; Darwin and the Original Species; &c.
Colours of Animals: Bionomics.
E. C. B. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., D.Litt. (Dublin).
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath.
Cistercians; Clara, Saint;
Clares, Poor
; Cluny.
E. C. Q. Edmund Crosby Quiggin, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Modern Languages and Monro Lecturer in Celtic, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
Columba, Saint.
E. E. H. Edward Everett Hale.
See the biographical article: Hale, E. E.
Clarke, James Freeman.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gosse, E.
Choriambic Verse; Clanvowe; Collins, William;
Conscience, Hendrik
; Constable, Henry.
E. G. J. M. E. G. J. Moyna, F.R.G.S.
New College, Oxford.
Chile: History (in part).
E. Gr. Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
Chios (in part);
; Clazomenae.
E. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
Lecturer in Palaeography in the University; of Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian, and formerly Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge.
E. K. C. Edmund Kerchever Chambers.
Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Sometime Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Chancellor’s English Essayist, 1891. Author of The Medieval Stage. Editor of the “Red Letter” Shakespeare; Donne’s Poems; Vaughan’s Poems; &c.
Clough, A. H.
E. Ma. Edward Manson.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Joint-editor of Journal of Comparative Legislation; Law of Trading Companies; Practical Guide to Company Law; &c.
Ed. M. Eduard Meyer, D.Litt. (Oxon), Ph.D., LL.D.
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Member of the Royal Prussian Academy. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Forsehungen zur alten Geschichte; &c.
E. O. Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Cleft Palate and Hare Lip.
E. V. Rev. Edmund Venables, M.A., D.D. (1819–1895).
Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England.
E. W. C. Ettrick William Creak, C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S.
Captain, R.N. Formerly Superintendent of Compasses, Hydrographic Department, Admiralty. Author of many papers on magnetic subjects.
Compass (in part).
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen).
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
F. E. W.-S. Francis Edward Wentworth-Sheilds, M.Inst.C.E.
Docks Engineer, London & South-Western Railway.
F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge.
F. G. P. Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst.
Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas’s Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Coelom and Serous Membranes.
F. H.* Frederick Hirth, Ph.D.
Professor of Chinese in Columbia University, New York. Author of China and the Roman Orient; The Ancient History of China to the End of the Ghōn Dynasty; &c.
China: History (in part).
F. H. B. Francis H. Butler, M.A.
Associate of the Royal School of Mines.
Compass (in part).
F. J. J.-S. Rev. Frederick John Jervis-Smith, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S.
Millard Lecturer in Experimental Mechanics and Engineering, Trinity College, Oxford. Formerly University Lecturer in Mechanics
F. K. Friedrich Wilhelm Eduard Keutgen, Ph.D.
Professor of History in the University of Hamburg. Formerly Professor of Medieval and Modern History in the University of Jena. Author of Die Hanse und England im 14. Jahrhundert; Untersuchungen über den Ursprung der deutschen Stadtverfassung; Urkunden zur städtischen Verfassungsgeschichte; Ämter und Zünfte; &c.
Commune: Medieval.
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D. (Leipzig), F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute.
F. N. M. Col. Frederic Natusch Maude, C.B.
Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War and the World’s Policy; The Leipzig Campaign; The Jena Campaign.
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
Congo Free State
 (in part).
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879–1902. President of the Geologists’ Association, 1887–1889.
Chrysoberyl; Chrysoprase; Cinnabar.
G. Lord Grimthorpe.
See the biographical article: Grimthorpe, 1st Baron.
Clock (in part).
G. A. B. George A. Boulenger, F.R.S.
In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.
G. C. W. George Charles Williamson, Litt.D.
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition of Bryan’s Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.
Clouet, François;
Clouet, Jean
G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1909. Employed by British Government in preparation of the British case in the British Guiana-Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian boundary arbitrations.
Chile: History (in part); Colombia: History.
G. Fa. G. Faur.
Conjuring (in part).
G. G. Co. George Gordon Coulton, M.A.
Birkbeck Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Medieval Studies; Chaucer and his England; &c.
G. H. C. George Herbert Carpenter, M.R.I.A.
Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: their Structure and Life.
G. H. Fo. George Herbert Fowler, Ph.D., F.Z.S., F.L.S.
Formerly Berkeley Fellow of Owens College, Manchester, and Assistant Professor of Zoology at University College, London. Member of Council of Linnean Society.
G. J. George Jamieson, C.M.G., M.A.
Formerly Consul-General at Shanghai, and Consul and Judge of the Supreme Court, Shanghai.
China (in part).
G. J. T. George James Turner.
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden Society; &c.
Clarendon, Constitutions of.
G. L. Georg Lunge, Ph.D., F.C.S.
See the biographical article: Lunge, Georg.
G. S. C. Sir George Sydenham Clarke, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., F.R.S.
Governor of Bombay. Author of Imperial Defence; Russia’s Great Sea Power; The Last Great Naval War; &c.
G. W. Kn. Rev. George William Knox, D.D., LL.D.
Professor of Philosophy and History of Religion, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of The Religion of Jesus; The Direct and Fundamental Proofs of the Christian Religion; &c.
H. A. Gi. Herbert Allen Giles, M.A., LL.D.
Professor of Chinese in the University of Cambridge. Member of the China Consular Service, 1867–1893. Author of a Chinese-English Dictionary; A Chinese Biographical Dictionary; History of Chinese Literature.
China: Language, Literature, Religion.
H. B. Hilary Bauermann, F.G.S. (d. 1909).
Formerly Lecturer on Metallurgy at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron.
Coal (in part);
H. C. H. Rev. Horace Carter Hovey, A.M., D.D.
Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Geological Society of America, National Geographic Society and Société de Spéléologie (France). Author of Celebrated American Caverns; Handbook of Mammoth Cave of Kentucky; &c.
Colossal Cavern.
H. E. W. Henry Edward Watts.
Editor of the Melbourne Argus. Author of Life of Cervantes. Translator of Don Quixote.
Cid, The.
H. H. C. Sir Henry Hardinge Cunynghame, K.C.B., M.A.
Assistant Under-Secretary, Home Office; Vice-President, Institute of Electrical Engineers. Author of various works on Enamelling, Electric Lighting, &c.
H. L. C. Hugh Longbourne Callendar, LL.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Formerly Professor of Physics in McGill College, Montreal, and in University College, London.
Conduction of Heat.
H. M. R. Hugh Munro Ross.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of “The Times” Engineering Supplement. Author of British Railways.
Coal (in part).
H. M. W. Harry Marshall Ward, F.R.S., D.Sc. (d. 1905).
Formerly Professor of Botany, Cambridge University. President of the British Mycological Society. Author of Timber and some of its Diseases; The Oak; Diseases in Plants; &c.
Cohn, Ferdinand Julius.
H. M. Wo. Harold Mellor Woodcock, D.Sc.
Assistant to the Professor of Proto-Zoology, London University. Fellow of University College, London. Author of “Haemoflagellates” in Professor Ray Lankester’s Treatise of Zoology, and of various scientific papers.
H. S. J. Henry Stuart Jones, M.A.
Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. Director of the British School at Rome, 1903–1905. Author of The Roman Empire; &c.
Constantine I.
H. St. Henry Sturt, M.A.
Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism; &c.
H. S. Wl. Henry Smith Williams, M.D., B.Sc.
Formerly Lecturer in the Hartford School of Sociology, U.S.A. Editor of The Historians’ History of the World. Author of The Story of Nineteenth Century Science; The History af the Art of Writing; The Lesson of Heredity; &c.
Chronology (in part); Civilization.
H. Wh. Horace White, LL.D.
Formerly Editor of the New York Evening Post. Sometime Editor of Chicago Tribune. Author of Money and Banking Illustrated by American History; The Tariff Question; The Gold Question; The Silver Question; &c.
Cleveland, Grover.
H. W. S. H. Wickham Steed.
Correspondent of The Times at Rome, 1897–1902, and at Vienna.
H. Y. Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I., C.B.
See the biographical article: Yule, Sir Henry.
China: History (in part).
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. Edited Jewish Quarterly Review, 1888–1908.
J. A. Cl. John Algernon Clarke.
Author of Fen Sketches; &c.
Conjuring (in part).
J. A. F. John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., M.I.E.E.
Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge, and Lecturer on Applied Mechanics in the University. Author of Magnets and Electric Currents.
Conduction, Electric.
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London.
J. A. R. Very Rev. Joseph Armitage Robinson, D.D.
Dean of Westminster. Fellow of the British Academy. Hon. Fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge, and Norrisian Professor of Divinity in the University. Author of Some Thoughts on the Incarnation; &c.
Clement I. (in part).
J. C. Sc. John Christopher Schwab, A.M., Ph.D.
Librarian, Yale University. Editor of Yale Review. Author of The Confederate States of America; History of New York Property Tax; &c.
Confederate States of America.
J. D. Sir James Donaldson.
See the biographical article: Donaldson, Sir J.
Clement of Alexandria (in part).
J. D. v. d. W. Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Ph.D.
Professor of Physics at the University of Amsterdam. Author of The Continuity of the Liquid and Gaseous States.
Condensation of Gases.
J. E. F. Rev. James Everett Frame, A.M. (Harvard).
Edward Robinson Professor of Biblical Theology in Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of Purpose of New Testament Theology.
Colossians, Epistle to the.
J. E. S.* John Edwin Sandys, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D.
Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classical Scholarship; &c.
J. H. R. John Horace Round, LL.D. (Edin.).
Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree; &c.
Clare: Family.
J. J. T. Sir Joseph John Thomson, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., LL.D., Ph.D.
Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics, Cambridge. Professor of Physics, Royal Institution, London. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. President of the British Association, 1909–1910. Awarded Nobel Prize for Physics, 1906. Author of Conduction of Electricity through Gases; Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism; Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry; &c.
Conduction, Electric: Through Gases.
J. Le. Rev. James Legge.
See the biographical article: Legge, James.
J. L. M. John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A.
Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of Liverpool. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford.
J. Mo. Viscount Morley Of Blackburn.
See the biographical article: Morley, Viscount.
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer on Classics at East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
J. M. Ro. John Mackinnon Robertson, M.P.
Author of Montaigne and Shakespeare; Modern Hurnanists; Buckle and his Critics; &c. M.P., Tyneside Division of Northumberland.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor.
J. N. M. John Nevil Maskelyne.
Author of Modern Spiritualism; Sharps and Flats; &c.
Conjuring (in part).
J. P.-B. James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst.
Editor of the Guardian, London.
Chippendale; Clock (in part).
J. P. E. Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhemar Esmein.
Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours élémentaire d’histoire du droit français; &c.
Code Napoléon
J. R. C. Joseph Rogerson Cotter, M.A.
Assistant to the Professor of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin. Editor of 2nd edition of Preston’s Theory of Heat.
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
J. S. K. John Scott Keltie, LL.D., F.S.S., F.S.A. (Scot).
Secretary, Royal Geographical Society. Knight of Swedish Order of North Star. Commander of the Norwegian Order of St Olaf. Hon. Member, Geographical Societies of Paris, Berlin, Rome, &c. Editor of Statesman’s Year Book. Editor of the Geographical Journal.
Congo Free State (in part).
J. T. C. Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S.
Lecturer on Zoology at South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford, and Assistant Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association.
Chiton; Cockle.
J. T. S.* James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D.
Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City.
Colbert, Jean Baptiste.
J. V. B. James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. (St Andrews).
irofesésor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic Age; &c.
Clementine Literature; Congregationalism.
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.
Chelys; Cheng; Chorus;
; Cittern; Clarina; Clarinet; Clavichord; Clavicytherium; Concertina.
L. B. Laurence Binyon.
See the biographical article: Binyon, L.
China: Chinese Art.
L. D.* Louis Duchesne.
See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O.
Clement II.
L. Gi. Lionel Giles, M.A.
Assistant, Oriental Department, British Museum. Author of Sun Tzu on the Art of War.
China: Language (in part).
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant, Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Childrenite; Chlorite;
; Chrysocolla;
; Cobaltite;
; Columbite.
L. V.* Luigi Villari.
Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Philadelphia, 1907; and Boston, U.S.A., 1907–1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c.
Cibrario; Colleoni;
; Colonna: Family; Colonna, Vittoria;
M. E. S. Michael Ernest Sadler, M.A., LL.D.
Professor of the History and Administration of Education in the University of Manchester. Formerly Director of Special Enquiries and Reports to the Board of Education. Student and Steward of Christ Church, Oxford. Editor of Continuation Schools in England and elsewhere; Moral Instruction and Training in Schools; &c.
M. G. D. Rt. Hon. Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant-Duff, G.C.S.I., F.R.S. (1829–1906).
M.P. for the Elgin Burghs. 1857–1881. Under-Secretary of State for India, 1868–1874. Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1880–1881. Governor of Madras, 1881–1886. President of the Royal Geographical Society, 1889–1893. President of the Royal Historical Society, 1892–1899. Author of Studies in European Politics; Notes from a Diary; &c.:
Coleridge, J. D. C., 1st Baron.
M. N. T. Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
M. O. B. C Max Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905–1908.
Chios (in part).
N. V. Joseph Marie Noel Valois.
Member of Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris. Honorary Archivist at the Archives Nationales. Formerly President of the Société de l’Histoire de France and the Société de l’École de Chartes. Author of La France et le grand schisme d’Occident; &c.
Clement VII.: antipope; Constance, Council of.
N. W. T. Northcote Whitbridge Thomas, M.A.
Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and Marriage in Australia; &c.
O. Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A.
Editor of the Ancestor, 1902–1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the Honourable Society of the Baronetage.
O. J. R. H. Osbert John Radcliffe Howarth, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. Assistant Secretary of the British Association.
Coal (in part).
O. M.* Octave Maus, LL.D. (Brussels).
Advocate of the Court of Appeal at Brussels. Director of L’Art Moderne and of La Libre Esthétique. President of the Association of Belgian writers. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Le Théâtre de Bayreuth; Aux Ambassadeurs; Malta, Constantinople et la Crimée; &c.
Clays, Paul Jean.
P. A. M. Percy Alexander Macmahon, D.Sc., F.R.S.
Late Major, R.A. Deputy Warden of the Standards, Board of Trade. Joint General Secretary of the British Association. Formerly Professor of Physics, Ordnance College. President of London Mathematical Society, 1894–1896.
Combinatorial Analysis.
P. C. Y. Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A.
Magdalen College, Oxford.
Clanricarde, 1st Earl of; Clanricarde, Marquess of; Clarendon, 1st Earl of;
Clifford of Chudleigh
P. La. Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S.
Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Kayser’s Comparative Geology.
China: Geology.
R. De C. W. Robert de Courcy Ward, A.M. (Harvard).
Assistant Professor of Climatology in the University of Harvard. Fellow of Royal Meteorological Society, London. Sometime Editor of American Meteorological Journal. Author of Climate considered especially in Relation to Man; &c.
Climate and Climatology.
R. H.* Sir Robert Hunter, C.B., M.A.
Solicitor to the Post Office. Author of The Preservation of Open Spaces and of Footpaths and other Rights of Way; &c.
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette, London.
Chichester of Belfast;
Clare, 1st Earl of
R. K. D. Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas.
Formerly Professor of Chinese, King’s College, London. Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at British Museum, 1892–1907. Member of the Chinese Consular Service, 1858–1865. Author of The Language and Literature of China; China; Europe and the Far East; &c.
China: History (in part).
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Member of the Staff Of the Geological Survey of India, 1874–1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; &c.
Chevrotain; Chimpanzee;
: Fauna;
; Chiru;
Clouded Leopard
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Formerly Assistant Librarian, British Museum. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513–1900; The First Romanovs, 1613 to 1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.
Christian II.
, III., IV.;
Christina of Sweden
R. P. S. R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Master of Architectural School and Surveyor, Royal Academy, London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King’s College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson’s History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.
Chimney (in part); Chimneypiece;
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904–1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
Chronicles, Books of (in part).
S. J. L. Sidney James Low, M.A.
Fellow of King’s College, London. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette. Joint-editor of the Dictionary of English History. Author of The Governance of England. Joint-author of vol. xii. of Longman’s Political History of England, 1837–1901.
Churchill, Lord Randolph.
S. N. Simon Newcomb, D.Sc., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon.
S. P. T. Silvanus Phillips Thompson, M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Principal and Professor of Physics in the City and Guilds Technical College, Finsbury. Formerly President of Physical Society, of Institution of Electrical Engineers, and of Röntgen Society. Author of Lectures on Light; Michael Faraday; &c.
Compass (in part).
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
Child, Sir Josiah; Children, Law Relating to (in part);
Chiltern Hundreds
; Clearing House; Confession: Law.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon), F.S.A.
Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1897.
Chioggia (in part);
Circeius Mons
; Clodia, Via; Clusium; Collatia; Como; Concordia.
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
T. F. C. Dr Theodore Frelinghuysen Collier, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A.
Clement VIII.-XIV.
T. G. Br. Thomas Gregor Brodie, M.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Physiology in the University of Toronto. Author of Essentials of Experimental Physiology.
Connective Tissues.
T. H. H.* Col. Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc.
Superintendent Frontier Surveys, India, 1892–1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King’s Award; India; Tibet; &c.
T. K. C. Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, D.D., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Cheyne, T. K.
T. Mu. Thomas Muir, C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S. (Edin).
Superintendent-General of Education in Cape Colony. Formerly Assistant Professor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow. Vice-Chancellor of the University of the Cape of Good Hope till 1901. Author of Theory of Determinants in the Historical Order of Development; History of Determinants; Text-Book of Determinants; &c.
Circle (in part).
T. Se. Thomas Seccombe, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. Assistant Editor, Dictionary of National Biography, 1891–1900. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c.
Chénier, André de.
V. C. Valentine Chirol.
Director of the Foreign Department of The Times. Author of The Middle Eastern Question; The Far Eastern Question; &c.
China: History (in part).
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., D.Ph. (Bern).
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880–1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880–1889, &c.
Chaux de Fonds, La;
; Como, Lake of;
Constance, Lake of
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; The War of Greek Independence; &c.
Chimere; Choir;
Church History
 (in part);
Clement VII.
; Congress; Constable.
W. B. B. W. Baker Brown.
Lieut.-Col., Commanding Royal Engineers at Malta.
Coast Defence.
W. C. D. W. William Cecil Dampier Whetham, M.A., F.R.S.
Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Theory of Solution; Recent Development of Physical Science; &c.
Conduction, Electric: in Liquids.
W. F. C. William Feilden Craies, M.A.
New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King’s College, London. Author of Craies on Statute Law. Editor of Archbold’s Criminal Pleading (23rd edition).
Children, Law relating to (in part).
W. G. F. William George Freeman, B.Sc. (London), A.R.C.S.
Joint-author of Nature Teaching; The World’s Commercial Products. Joint-editor of Science Progress in the Twentieth Century.
W. K. S. William Kirby Sullivan, Ph.D., D.Sc.
President of Queen's College, Cork, 1873–1890. Author of Celtic Studies; &c.
W. L. R. C. William Liest Readwin Cates, (1821–1895).
Editor of Dictionary of General Biography. Author of A History of England from the Death of Edward the Confessor to the Death of King John; &c. Part author of Encyclopaedia of Chronology.
Chronology (in part).
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, D. G.
Claude of Lorraine
W. N. Walter Nernst, Ph.D.
Professor of Physical Chemistry in the University of Berlin. Director of the Physico-Chemical Institute in the University. Member of the Royal Prussian Academy of Science. Author of Theoretische Chemie; &c.
Chemical Action.
W. O. B. Ven. Winfrid Oldfield Burrows, M.A.
Archdeacon of Birmingham. Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford, 1884–1891, and Principal of Leeds Clergy School, 1891–1900.
Confession: Religion; Confirmation.
W. R. S.* William Roy Smith, M.A., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of History, Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania. Author of Sectionalism in Pennsylvania during the Revolution; &c.
Compromise Measures of 1850.
W. R. S. William Robertson Smith, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Smith, W. R.
Chronicles, Books of (in part).
W. W. F.* William Warde Fowler, M.A.
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881–1904. Gifford Lecturer, Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period; &c.
Club: Greek and Roman.
W. W. R.* William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of Die Doppelehe des Landgrafen Philipp von Hessen.
Clement III., IV., V.


Chatham, Earl of.
Chilean Civil War.
Chile-Peruvian War.
Chino-Japanese War.

Christian Science.
Churchill, Charles.
Cinque Ports.
Civil List.
Civil Service.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

Clive, Lord.
Coco-nut Palm.
Coke, Sir Edward.
Collier, Jeremy.

Colours, Military.
Common Order, Book of.
Confirmation of Bishops.
Congreve, Sir William.
Conic Section.
Conservative Party.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume