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1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Abbe, Cleveland

ABBE, CLEVELAND (1838–1916), American meteorologist, was born in New York Dec. 3 1838. He studied astronomy under Brünnow and A. B. Gould, and spent a year at the Pulkovo Observatory, 1865-6, under Struve. He was assistant at the U.S. Naval Observatory, 1867–8, and Director of the Cincinnati Observatory, 1863–73. His success there in forecasting the weather from meteorological observations telegraphed from various points led to his being called to the U.S. Signal Service in 1871. Thereafter with Government aid he was enabled to extend the field of his forecasts and became the "Father of the Weather Bureau." The bureau was formally established in 1891 under the Department of Agriculture, and Abbe remained its head until his death Oct. 28 1916. To his initiative is largely due the introduction of the system of standardized time.