1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/California

CALIFORNIA (see 5.7). In 1920 the pop. was 3,426,861, as against 2,377,549 in 1910, an increase of 1,049,3 12, or 44.1%, as compared with 60.1% for the preceding decade. During 1910-20 the Japanese increased from 41,356 to 71,952; the Chinese decreased from 36,248 to 28,812. The density of pop. in 1920 was 22 to the sq. m.; in 1910 15.3. The urban pop. (in places of 2,500 or more) increased from 61.8% of the whole in 1910 to 68% in 1920, the urban pop. in the latter year being 2,331,729. Of the 185 cities in the state, only three, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Oakland, had in 1920 more than 100,000 inhabitants. The table on the next page shows the growth during the decade 1910-20 of the 12 cities which in 1920 had a pop. of 25,000 or more.

1920 1910  Increase 

 Los Angeles 576,673  319,198  80.7 
 San Francisco   506,676   416,912  21.5 
 Oakland 216,261  150,174  44.0 
 San Diego 74,683  39,578  88.7 
 Sacramento 65,908  44,696  47.5 
 Berkeley 56,036  40,434  38.6 
 Long Beach 55,593  17,809  212.2 
 Pasadena 45,354  30,291  49.7 
 Fresno 45,086  24,892  81.1 
 Stockton 40,296  23,253  73.3 
 San Jose 39,642  28,946  37.0 
 Alameda 28,806  23,383  23.2 

Agriculture.—During the decade 1910-20 the number of farms increased from 88,197 to 117,670, or 33.4%; all land in farms increased from 27,931,444 ac. to 29,365,667 ac.; improved land increased from 11,389,894 ac. to 11,878,339 ac. The value of all farm property rose from $1,614,694,584 in 1910 to $3,431,021,861 in 1920. The average acreage per farm decreased from 316.7 ac. in 1910 to 249.6 ac. in 1920; the average value per acre increased from $47.16 to $94.77. In 1920 over 4,000,000 ac. were under irrigation. Of domestic animals on farms in 1920, there were 402,407 horses, valued at $35,416,507; 63,419 mules, valued at $7,221,930; 1,229,086 beef cattle, valued at $61,280,293; 778,951 dairy cattle, valued at $59,401,153; 2,400,151 sheep, valued at $25,906,445; 909,272 swine, valued at $13,850,907. Poultry was valued at $15,293,570, and hives of bees at $1,469,447. The total wool production for 1919 was 15,216,957 lb. valued at $6,695,461.

The following table shows comparative acreage, production and value of the chief crops for 1909 and 1919:—

Acreage Production Value

 Corn  1919  116,740  3,448,459 bus.  $   5,862,383 
    “ 1909 51,935  1,273,901 bus.  1,077,411 
 Oats 1919 146,889  2,966,776 bus.  2,966,776 
    “ 1909 192,158  4,143,688 bus.  2,637,047 
 Wheat 1919 1,086,428  16,866,882 bus.  36,938,477 
    “ 1909 478,217  6,203,206 bus.  6,323,983 
 Barley 1919 987,068  21,897,283 bus.  35,035,654 
    “ 1909 1,195,158   26,441,954 bus.  17,184,508 
 Beans 1919 471,674  6,552,951 bus.  30,798,869 
    “ 1909 157,987  3,328,218 bus.  6,295,457 
 Potatoes 1919 63,305  8,217,937 bus.  18,901,258 
    “ 1909 67,688  9,824,005 bus.  4,879,449 
 Hay and forage  1919  2,202,853  4,494,940 tons  96,121,846 
    “ 1909 2,534,235  4,331,885 tons  42,206,252 
 Hops 1919 8,118  12,610,055  lb.    6,557,229 
    “ 1909 8,391  11,994,953  lb.    1,731,110 
 Cotton 1919 87,308  46,418 bales 9,237,182 
    “ 1909 324  183 bales 11,744 

Cotton during the decade showed a remarkable increase in production and obtained the rank of a staple crop. The production of rice passed beyond the experimental stage and in 1919, from 130,367 ac. were produced 6,926,313 bus., valued at $20,432,627. The production of sugar beets, 843,269 tons, valued at $4,313,981 in 1909, fell to 666,866 tons in 1919, valued, however, at $8,669,258. In 1919 the total production of orchard fruits was 47,557,570 bus., valued at $91,687,814. The most important were peaches ($29,542,787), plums and prunes ($28,381,734), apples ($12,155,128) and apricots ($11,815,290). The production of oranges in 1919 was 21,628,444 boxes, valued at $67,048,178. Among the more recent commercial fruits are alligator pears (avocados), of which 7,919 crates were produced in 1919, valued at $63,352.

Minerals.—The total value of mineral products for 1910 was $86,688,347. California was the second state in gold production with 988,853 fine oz., valued at $20,441,400. Gold production for 1919 was 841,638 fine oz., valued at $17,398,200; silver 1,153,614 fine oz., valued at $1,293,051. Copper production fell to 22,299,656 lb., valued at $4,236,934, as compared with 47,674,660 lb. in 1918, valued at $11,775,641. Lead production fell in 1919 to 4,455,161 lb., valued at $253,944, as compared with 13,372,049 lb. in 1918, valued at $506,087; quicksilver to 14,941 flasks, as compared with 22,621 in 1918. The oil output for 1918 was 97,531,997 barrels.

Manufactures.—The following preliminary figures show the growth in manufactures between 1914 and 1919:—

1919 1914

 Establishments 11,943  10,057 
 Persons engaged 296,999  176,547 
 Proprietors and firm members  12,460  10,429 
 Wage-earners (average) 243,794  139,481 
 Capital  $1,333,382,000   $736,105,455 
 Wages 304,523,000  105,612,681 
 Cost of materials 1,218,890,000  447,474,531 
 Value of product 1,981,443,000  712,800,764 
 Value added by manufacture 762,553,000  265,326,233 

The principal industries in 1914 were canning and preserving, $61,162,849; petroleum refining, $55,527,651; lumber and timber products, $52,860,272; slaughtering and meat packing, $50,011,820; printing and publishing, $34,774,879; foundry and machine-shop products, $31,732,384; flour-mill and grist-mill products, $24,078,735; bread and other bakery products, $21,855,181; butter, cheese, and condensed milk, $20,466,428; cars and general shop construction, and repairs by steam-railway companies, $17,199,717; and beet sugar, $15,528,666. California ranked ninth state in the total value of manufactured products; first in the canning industry and in the production of crude petroleum; second in petroleum refining, exceeded only by New Jersey; and third in lumber and timber products.

Communications.—In June 1910 the total railway mileage was 7,545 m. of main track. The total mileage, Jan. 1 1919, was 8,268, or 5.31 m. per 100 sq. m. of territory. The chief railways were the Southern Pacific, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fé (both trans-continental lines), and the San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake. Since 1910 there has been rapid improvement of highways. In that year for the first time bonds, amounting to $18,000,000, were issued for developing an excellent system of roads. In 1916 a second issue of $15,000,000 was made, and in 1919 the voters adopted a constitutional amendment providing for the issue of $40,000,000 to complete the projected system. By the close of 1920 about $36,000,000 had been expended. From June 1916 to June 1920 the improved roads had been increased from about 1,127 m. to about 2,493 m., and about 3,067 m. of the project yet remained to be improved. The larger part of the system consisted of cement concrete base with thin bituminous top. Steamship communication increased rapidly during the period 1909-20. About $12,000,000 was expended on improving San Pedro Bay and the harbour of Los Angeles.

Banking and Finance.—On June 30 1920 of 723 banks reporting the capital stock paid in was $151,585,000, and aggregate resources $2,499,597,000. Between 1912 and 1920 the number of national banks in the state increased from 231 to 310, and their total resources from $561,214,000 to $1,092,956,000. During the same period the number of savings banks decreased from 132 to 106; depositors increased from 597,159 to 853,530, and deposits from $407,006,665 to $875,951,000. The average for each depositor increased from $681.16 in 1912 to $1,026.27 in 1920. The cash in the state treasury July 1 1910 was $7,201,220. The receipts for the fiscal year ending June 1911 were $18,843,854; expenditures $18,591,471. Total receipts for the fiscal year ending June 1919 were $50,132,900; expenditures $50,691,433. Cash on hand July 1 1919 was $14,140,661. On the same date the assessed valuation on taxable property was $4,023,000,588. The net bonded debt was $44,138,500.

Education.—From 1910 to 1917 the number of pupils enrolled in the public schools increased from 349,145 to 569,284, and teachers from 10,769 to 19,074. The value of school property in 1910 was $38,661,761; in 1917 it was $92,800,821. Expenditures for public schools in 1910 were $6,000,000; in 1917 $34,133,122. In 1917 the average salary in the elementary schools was $81.74 per month; in the high schools $1,473 per year.

History.—Many amendments to the constitution were ratified during the decade 1910-20. Among the more important were those for the initiative and referendum, the recall (including the recall of judges), woman suffrage, the granting of larger powers to the state railway commission, adoption of the short ballot, all these in 1911; in 1912 the provision of a uniform series of text-books for use in elementary schools together with their free distribution. In 1914 a proposed prohibition amendment to the constitution was defeated. In 1914 and again in 1920 the proposal of the Legislature that a convention be called to revise the constitution was overwhelmingly defeated. Important legislation included a workmen's compensation Act and the limiting of the hours of women's labour to 8 hours a day or 48 hours a week (1911); an Act providing for the confinement and care of drug addicts (1912); mothers' pensions; a blue sky law, designed to protect investors against unscrupulous promoters; and the sterilization of persons twice imprisoned for sexual crime (1913); provision for absent voting by those engaged in national service, for creating a state council of national defense to coöperate with the Federal Council of National Defense, and for the regulation of stages and automobiles, operating as common carriers over definite routes (1917); a compulsory part-time education law; vocational reëducation of workmen disabled in industry; raising of compulsory school age limit from 15 to 16; creation of a department of agriculture; provision of an industrial farm for the rehabilitation of fallen women; and ratification of Federal prohibition (1919).

In Nov. 1910 Hiram W. Johnson was elected governor. He had travelled through the state, attacking the “special interests,” particularly the Southern Pacific railway, which he accused of improper influence in state legislation. His remarkable success in carrying through a comprehensive programme of legislation is shown by the passage of the measures referred to. When, following the break in the Republican party in 1912, the National Progressive party was organized, Johnson was nominated for vice-president on the ticket with Theodore Roosevelt. In the succeeding election the results were extraordinarily close and long in doubt; Roosevelt secured a plurality of 174 over Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic candidate, the popular vote being 283,610 for Roosevelt and 283.4.36 for Wilson. In 1916 the popular presidential vote was almost equally close but reversed, 466,289 for Wilson and 462,516 for Hughes, the former receiving a plurality of 3,773. At this election women voted in the presidential campaign for the first time. In 1920 the popular vote for president was 624,992 for Harding and 229,191 for Cox. In 1916 Gov. Johnson was elected to the U.S. Senate, taking his seat on March 4 following. Beginning Oct. 9 1911 attention was centred in the trial in Los Angeles of John J. and James B. McNamara, accused of dynamiting the Los Angeles Times building (Oct. 9 1910), resulting in the death of 21 persons. The crime was one of a nation-wide series intended to prevent the use of non-union materials and non-union labour. The defendants were strongly supported by the American Federation of Labor. Later the accused pleaded guilty, and James B. McNamara was sentenced to life imprisonment and John J. McNamara to imprisonment for 15 years.

In 1913 the anti-Japanese feeling throughout the state culminated in the passage of the Webb Alien Land-Holding Act. In 1909 measures had been proposed in the Legislature aimed at preventing the ownership of land by Japanese, but at the request of President Roosevelt these were dropped. Similar measures were introduced in 1913, and on April 13 a measure to that effect passed the Assembly, containing language displeasing to the Japanese Government. President Wilson at once communicated with Gov. Johnson, urging delay, and with the approval of the Legislature and of the governor, Secretary of State Bryan went to California to counsel moderation or delay in action. But another bill drawn up by Attorney-General Webb for the same purpose passed both Houses of the Legislature on May 3 1913 and was signed by the governor May 19, to be effective Aug. 17. The first tvo sections of the Webb bill were as follows: (1) “All aliens eligible to citizenship under the laws of the United States may acquire, possess, enjoy, transfer, and inherit real property, or any interest therein, in this state in the same manner and to the same extent as citizens of the United States, except as otherwise provided by the laws of this state. (2) All aliens other than those mentioned in section 1 may acquire, possess, enjoy, and transfer real property, or any interest therein, in the manner and to the extent and for the purpose prescribed by any treaty now existing between the Government of the United States and the nation and country of which such alien is a citizen or subject, and not otherwise.” While this bill prevented the Japanese from acquiring land in the state, its supporters held that no treaty rights were infringed, and that Japan could not justly take offence at the language used.

For several years San Francisco had been trying to secure part of the Hetch-Hetchy valley as a reservoir for furnishing water to the city. In 1913 a bill passed Congress, granting this. The question evoked much public discussion on both sides. Gifford Pinchot, the well-known conservationist, supported the project, while the naturalist, John Muir, strongly opposed it. The Panama-Pacific International Exposition, celebrating the opening of the Panama Canal, was held Feb.-Dec. 1915, at San Francisco. At the same time an exposition was held in San Diego, devoted chiefly to the display of California products. The state supplied to the army during the World War 112,514 men (excluding officers). The subscriptions to the four Liberty Loans in order were $100,190,900, $159,362,100, $174,506,200, $291,126,700; to the Victory Loan, $186,702,950.

Recent governors were James N. Gillett (Rep.), 1907-11; Hiram W. Johnson (Progressive Rep.), 1911-7; William D. Stephens (Rep.), 1917-.