1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Cleveland
CLEVELAND (see 6.503), the largest city in Ohio and the fifth in the United States, had in 1920 a pop. of 796,841, a gain of 236,178 or 42.1% for the decade. The area in 1921 was 56.655 sq. m. as against 41 sq.m. in 1910. To the two viaducts across the valley of the Cuyahoga river were added three others, of which the most noteworthy is the High Level bridge, connecting Superior avenue on the east with Detroit avenue on the west. Its central span is 591 ft. long and 96 ft. above water, permitting the tallest masts of lake shipping to pass. The total length, with approaches, is 5,630 ft. and its cost was $5,407,000.
The centre of retail trade moved steadily eastward, crowding out the large houses with spacious grounds which had made Euclid avenue famous. New residential sections were developed, especially near Wade park and on the heights east of the city. Noteworthy additions were made to Cleveland architecture in the county court house and the city hall (of the uncompleted “Group” plan); in office buildings like the Engineers, the Illuminating, the Leader-News, and the Hanna buildings; in the “Plain Dealer” newspaper building; in the Cleveland Trust Co.'s bank building; in the Museum of Art; and in churches, the Church of the Covenant (Presbyterian), St. Agnes (Catholic), Euclid Avenue Temple (Jewish), and the Amasa Stone memorial chapel of Adelbert College.
The schools were reorganized in 1917 as a result of a “survey.” Significant features were the development of junior high schools, of which there were in 1921 sixteen, and the effective establishment of departmental supervision to coordinate, standardize, and improve the work in each study. The cost of instruction in 1919 was $4,383,924. The Normal school, now the Cleveland school of education, was affiliated with Western Reserve University. To the university were added schools of pharmacy and of applied social science, and a department of religious education. In 1920-1 the university had 243 instructors and 2,027 students. Of other institutions of higher education, Case school of applied science had 67 instructors and 690 students, St. Ignatius College 26 instructors and 560 students, the Cleveland school of art 17 instructors and 547 students. The most important addition to the educational and artistic life of the community was the Museum of Art, located in Wade park. The building, of beautiful classical design, and admirably adapted to its uses, was completed in 1916. By reason of collections already made and additional gifts, the museum at once took high rank. Its directors have sought through classes, lectures, and special exhibitions, to make it a power in popular education and to coördinate its work with that of the schools and colleges. The musical development of the city was stimulated by the creation of a symphony orchestra.
In its charities Cleveland has carried far the principle of coöperation, seeking to obviate through a welfare federation the waste in soliciting contributions. In 1919 and 1920 Community Chests were organized, and sums aggregating $4,000,000 and $4,500,000 were subscribed in “drives,” to meet the needs of all community activities, not only charities, but also Red Cross, Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A., Knights of Columbus, etc. The Cleveland Foundation was created in 1914, becoming the model for similar institutions in other cities. Its purpose was to enable a competent commission, renewable in part each year, to utilize a portion of funds entrusted to it in inquiries on the best methods of furthering the interests of the community, and, when the funds became large enough, to apply their income directly to schemes of betterment. Under its auspices were conducted in 1916 an educational survey at a cost of $50,000, a survey for a community recreation programme in 1920, and a survey of the administration of justice in 1921.
Cleveland is the seat of a federal reserve bank. Its two largest banks were in 1921 the Union Trust Co., formed that year by the consolidation of several older banks, and the Cleveland Trust Company. In the same year the city still retained its position as the greatest ore market in the world and also led in many steel products.
The increase in automobile production in the decade closing in 1914 was 486%. The total value of all products in 1914 was $352,531,000 compared with $172,115,101 in 1905. Harbour facilities were developed by the completion of the Government breakwater, 5¼ m. long. Passenger steamship service was transferred to a new 5 ac. pier on the lake front, built at a cost of $500,000.
In accordance with authority conferred by the home-rule amendment of the state constitution, a charter, submitted by a special commission, was accepted by the citizens on July 1 1913. Under its provisions the mayor and the 26 councilmen are the only elected officials. Nominated by petition, all candidates appear on tickets without party designation. Heads of departments and divisions are appointed by the mayor; all other officials are appointed according to the merit system.
The city added to its waterworks a filtration plant, with a total capacity of 150,000 gal. a day. Water is drawn through tunnels from a submerged crib about 5 m. from shore.
The total number of men supplied by Cleveland to the U.S. armies in the World War was 55,000; the total amount subscribed in the Liberty and Victory Loans $437,041,300.
(H. E. B.)