1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Indiana
INDIANA (see 14.421). The pop. in 1920 was 2,930,390, an increase of 229,314, or 8.5% over the 3,700,876 of 1910, as against an increase of 7.3% in the preceding decade. From ninth in rank among the states in 1910 Indiana fell to eleventh in 1920. Of the 92 counties in the state 28 show increases and 64 show decreases. The density in 1920 was 81.3 to the sq. m.; in 1910, 74.9. The urban pop. (in places of over 2,500) was 50.6% of the whole in 1920 as against 42.4% in 1910.
The ten cities of Indiana with a pop. of 30,000 or more were:—
|1920||1910|| Increase |
The cities making the largest percentage of gain were in the northern part of the state, especially those near Chicago, like Gary, East Chicago and South Bend.
Agriculture.—During the decade 1910-20 the number of farms decreased from 215,485 to 205,126, or 4.8%. During the same period the acreage per farm increased from 98.8 ac. to 102.7; the value per acre from $84.94 to $144.44. The value of all crops rose from $196,869,691 in 1909 to $497,229,719 in 1919. The Indian-corn crop in 1909 was 195,496,433 bus., valued at $98,437,988, from 4,901,054 ac.; in 1919, 158,603,938 bus., valued at $229,975,713, from 4,457,400 acres. The oat crop in 1909 from 1,667,818 ac. was 50,607,913 bus., valued at $18,928,706; in 1919, from 1,718,748 ac., 52,529,723 bus., valued at $42,023,780. The winter wheat crop in 1909 from 2,080,879 ac. was 33,901,949 bus., valued at $33,559,918; in 1919, from 2,759,757 ac., 44,796,296 bus., valued at $97,207,962. The total value of domestic animals in 1920 was $244,164,616. The number of cattle reported was 1,546,095, valued at $94,529,884; of horses 717,233, valued at $66,703,216; of sheep 643,889, valued at $7,628,968; and of swine 3,757,135, valued at $63,095,220.
Mineral Products.—Instead of ranking fifth among the states in natural gas and sixth in petroleum, as in 1906, Indiana was in 1921 thirteenth in natural gas and twelfth in petroleum. The state still ranked sixth in coal, with greatly increased yearly output, valued at $70,384,000, the coal being bituminous. Indiana in 1921 was producing 27,000,000 tons of coal annually, with an annual rate of increase of 500,000 tons.
The large stone quarries of Monroe and Lawrence counties produce 70% of the limestone used in the United States for building. Indiana is the first state in this product; fifth in value of all stone sold. Indiana oölitic limestone is used in nearly every state and in foreign countries. The value of the limestone quarried in 1916 was $4,657,000, as compared with $2,553,502 in 1902. Indiana has valuable clays, shales, and kaolin, and is sixth among the states in ceramic production. Drainage tiles, encaustic tiles, fire-proofing, terra-cotta, sewer pipe and stove linings are other important clay products. Pottery products include earthenware, stoneware, white granite, semi-porcelain, sanitary ware and porcelain electrical ware. In 1916 and 1918 Indiana was the second state in the production of Portland cement, valued in 1918 at $12,525,000 as against $1,347,000 in 1903.
Finance.—The total true value of taxable property in the state, according to the tax levy of 1919, was $5,749,258,800, an increase since 1907 of nearly $5,000,000,000. This increase came partly by growth in wealth but largely by increased rate of assessment. The total taxes in 1919 for state, township and municipal purposes amounted to a little over $75,615,000, of which $21,205,434 was for tuition and special school funds. The assessed valuation was chiefly on real estate and improvements ($3,727,112,673); steam and electric railways ($660,794,291); telegraphs and telephones ($45,229,449); and express companies ($3,207,473). The debt of the state was less than $1,000,000.
Education.—In 1920 Indiana ranked third among the states in percentage of school children in attendance, the rate of attendance, however, being only 73%. The average annual expenditure per child attending school in 1918 was $53, the state ranking 28th in this respect. The average annual expenditure per person of school age (6 to 21 years) was $39. The salaries for teachers materially increased in the three years 1918-21. In 1921 the state increased the tax levy for common-school support as well as for the support of the higher educational institutions, and provision for teachers' pensions was enacted. There was a tax levy of five cents on each $100 of taxable property for the support of the three higher educational institutions of the state, producing about $2,750,000, and a levy of a fraction of a cent for vocational education producing yearly about $115,000. Nearly $50,000,000 is spent annually in Indiana for purposes of education, from local and general levies, counting from the primary grades to the universities.
Constitution and Government.—During the decade 1910-20 there was much discussion over amending the constitution of the state, a difficult undertaking under the provisions of the constitution of 1851. In 1914 a conference was held at the state university to consider whether a constitutional convention should be called. Out of this conference grew an organization of voters, the Constitutional Convention League, whose purpose it was to bring about such a convention. Under the influence of this League, while the Legislature refused to call a constitutional convention, it agreed to submit to the voters by referendum in 1916 the question whether such a convention should be held. The proposal was voted down by a large majority, partly because of the expense involved, partly from fear of radical innovations. The vote for the convention was, however, so large that the Legislature decided to submit to the people for a vote in Sept. 1921 13 proposed amendments.
These amendments provided: (1) that the term of office or salary of any officer fixed by law shall not be increased during the term for which such officer is elected; (2) that all county officers shall be elected for a four-year term and that the surveyor be eliminated from the elective list; (3) that prosecuting attorneys shall be elected for four years; (4) that negroes may be admitted to the state militia; (5) that the General Assembly may have power to classify the several counties, townships, cities and towns of the state and to enact laws prescribing a uniform method of registration; (6) that the General Assembly may provide by law for the qualifications of persons admitted to the practice of law (this amendment, pending for nearly 40 years, would do away with the extraordinary provision in the constitution that “every person of good moral character, being a voter, shall be entitled to practise law . . . in all courts of justice”); (7) that the Legislature may levy an income tax, providing for reasonable exemptions; (8) that the governor may veto specific items in appropriation bills, and that any such bill or item may be passed over his veto under the rules affecting ordinary bills; (9) that the state superintendent of public instruction shall be appointive; (10) that all elective state officers created by the General Assembly shall hold their offices for only four years (except judges), none to be eligible for more than four years in any period of eight years; (ll) that the General Assembly shall provide by law for a system of taxation, the purpose being to give plenary taxing power to the Assembly, and to enable it to classify property for taxation, and to eliminate the requirement of a “uniform general property tax”; (12) that senators and representatives shall be apportioned every six years among the several counties according to the votes cast at the last preceding election; (13) that aliens shall be fully naturalized before voting (hitherto aliens could vote in Indiana after taking out their first papers, if they had been in Indiana six months and in the United States one year).
All the amendments were rejected, although the last-named received a majority of the votes cast.
Indiana furnished 121,000 men to the U.S. army during the World War and 5,516 men for the U.S. navy. In proportion to population, the state furnished more volunteers (25,148) than any other. The number that died was 3,354 men and 15 nurses. A “Gold Star” volume in commemoration of these men and women has been published by the state. A total of 317 men from Indiana received citations for extraordinary bravery performed while in line of duty. The people of the state bought a total of $451,000,000 worth of Government bonds in the five Liberty Loan drives in Indiana; the sale of war savings stamps and thrift stamps totalled $47,000,000, making a grand total of $498,000,000. This means that Indiana bought for every man, woman and child in the state an average of $166 worth of bonds; or for every family of five an average of $1,000 worth of bonds. Indiana was well organized for war. There was a state Council of Defence, and, in every county, a county Council of Defence. Food production was encouraged. Over 500,000 war gardens were planted. The corn acreage of the state was increased by 600,000 ac. over 1916, and 524,000 more acres of wheat were sown in 1917 than the year before. The production of hogs and of all food products was greatly increased, in coöperation with the U.S. Food Administration. The food production in Indiana increased by 25% during the war-time years 1917 and 1918.
Since 1909 the governors of the state have been as follows: Thomas R. Marshall (Dem.), 1909-13; Samuel Moffet Ralston (Dem.), 1913-7; James Putnam Goodrich (Rep.), 1917-21; Warren T. McCray (Rep.), 1921-
Bibliography.—Julia Henderson, Historic Indiana (1909); Maurice Thompson, Stories of Indiana; short school histories by J. P. Dunn, James A. Woodburn and T. F. Moran; Woodburn, Scotch-Irish Presbyterians in Monroe County (Indiana Historical Society's publications); Dr. Logan Esarey, Internal Improvements and Indiana State Banking; the files of the Indiana Magazine of History, and the publications of the Indiana Historical Commission, especially Constitution Making in Indiana, by Charles B. Kettleborough; and the collections of the Indiana Historical Survey of Indiana University. (J. A. W.)