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IOWA (see 14.732).—The pop. of Iowa in 1920 was 2,404,021; in 1910, 2,224,771; an increase of 8.1%, as against a decrease of 0.3% in the preceding decade. In 1915 the native whites of native parentage numbered 1,422,464; those of foreign or mixed parentage 654,855, and the foreign-born whites 264,003. The negro pop. was 16,744. There were in 1920 43.2 inhabitants per sq. m. as against 40 in 1910. In 1920 the urban pop. was 36.4% of the whole.

There were seven cities having a pop. of over 25,000, as follows:

1920 1910  Increase 
per cent

 Des Moines  126,468   86,368  46.4 
 Sioux City 71,227  47,828  48.9 
 Davenport 56,727  43,028  31.8 
 Cedar Rapids 45,566  32,811  38.9 
 Dubuque 39,141  38,494  1.7 
 Waterloo 36,230  26,693  35.7 
 Council Bluffs 36,162  29,292  23.5 
Agriculture.—In 1909 Iowa led all states in crop acreage and was

second to Illinois in crop value. In 1919 the aggregate crop acreage in Iowa was 20,420,374, and the value of all crops $890,391,299; two states, Texas and Kansas, outranked Iowa in acreage, Texas alone in crop value. In 1919 Iowa was first among the states in the acreage, production and total value of both corn and oats, and was outranked only by New York in the production of hay. Iowa's corn crop in 1909 was 341,750,460 bus. valued at $167,622,834 from 9,229,378 ac.; in 1919 371,362,393 bus. valued at $501,339,232 from 9,006,733 acres. The oat crop in 1909, from 4,655,154 ac., was 128,198,055 bus. valued at $49,046,888; in 1919 the yield had increased to 187,045,705 bus. valued at $140,284,289 from 5,484,113 acres. In 1920 Iowa led in the value of domestic animals, was surpassed by Texas alone in the number of cattle on farms, and led in the number of horses and swine on farms. The value of domestic animals was $585,889,568 in 1920 as against $393,003,196 in 1910. The number of cattle on Iowa farms in 1920 was approximately 4,567,708 and of horses 1,386,522; while in the number of swine Iowa had increased from 7,545,853 in 1910 to 7,864,304 in 1920 (11% of the whole number for the United States). The number of fowls reported in 1920 was 28,352,515, valued at $27,779,633.

Manufactures, Mining and Transportation.—Meat-packing continued to lead manufacturing industries, the value of products of slaughtering and meat-packing having increased from $59,045,232 in 1909 (U.S. Census) to $221,692,868 in 1919 (Iowa statistics of Manufactures, for the year 1919). In 1909 and in 1914 Iowa ranked sixth among the states in the value of this product. The second industry in value in 1919 was that of food preparations, including the production of cereals and breakfast foods. The product in 1909 was valued at approximately $9,795,000, but by 1919 had increased to $80,583,382. The value of foundry and machine-shop products increased from about $14,064,000 in 1909 to $40,632,692 in 1919, and the value of butter, cheese, and condensed milk from approximately $25,850,000 in 1909 (when Iowa ranked third among the states) to $49,201,934 in 1919. The value of the production of buttons in 1909 was $4,000,000; $4,794,422 in 1919. The value of all manufactured products was $259,237,637 in 1909; $698,035,251 in 1919.

The most important mineral product in Iowa is bituminous coal; in 1910 the value was $12,682,106; in 1918 $24,703,237. The value of clay and clay products in 1918 was more than five million dollars. In 1919 cement was valued at $7,798,347, and gypsum products at $2,403,012. The mileage of steam roads was 9,781.65 m. in 1910, and on Dec. 31 1918, according to the 1919 report of the Railroad Commissioner, 9,841.17 miles. The mileage of interurban electric lines, however, had increased from 373.92 m. to 512.13, or about 37%.

Education.—The Federal census of 1910 credited Iowa with the smallest percentage of illiteracy of any state in the Union (1.7%). In 1920, Iowa still maintained her illiteracy had been reduced to 1.1%. State aid became an important factor in the development of public schools in the decade following 1910. Legislation granting such aid to large, centrally located, consolidated schools, replacing small scattered ones, fostered development and stimulated local endeavour. At the close of 1920 there were 430 consolidated districts, including about 25% of the area of the state and taking care of approximately 50,000 pupils. In 1911 state aid was granted by law to high schools organizing normal training courses for the training of rural teachers. In 1918 172 schools in the state were maintaining such courses. In 1917 a state board for vocational education was established to take advantage of the provisions of the Smith-Hughes Act of Congress, offering Federal aid for vocational education. A law, enacted in 1919, provided for part-time schools for the benefit of children between the ages of 14 and 16 working on employment certificates. The establishment of these schools was required where there were 15 eligible pupils in the district; at least eight hours of instruction per week, between the hours of 8 A.M. and 6 P.M., must be given; and the attendance became compulsory. The educational progress of the state is shown in the reports of Dr. Leonard P. Ayres upon surveys made for the Russell Sage Foundation. In 1910 a tabulation of the states on the basis of 10 educational items led to a final relative rating in which Iowa ranked

thirtieth. A similar rating in 1918 gave Iowa seventh place.
Legislation.—The only constitutional change made during the

decade 1910-20 was an amendment ratified by the people in 1916. It fixed the time of the general election for that year on the same day as the presidential election, the time of election thereafter to be determined by the General Assembly. In 1916 a constitutional amendment extending suffrage to women was submitted to the electors of the state but was defeated. The process of amendment was again under way when the Federal suffrage amendment was adopted in 1920. The vital portions of the “mulct tax” law of 1894 (see 14.734) were repealed by the General Assembly in 1915, thus restoring statutory prohibition in Iowa, but a prohibitory amendment to the state constitution was voted down by the electors in Oct. 1917. The constitution of 1857 provided that in 1870 and every ten years thereafter the question, “Shall there be a Convention to revise the Constitution, and amend the same,” should be submitted to a vote of the electors of the state, and in case of a favourable vote the General Assembly should provide by law for the election of delegates. In the election of 1920, for the first time, the vote showed a majority in

favour of a convention.
The General Assembly in 1913 passed an Employers' Liability and

Workmen's Compensation Act, to be administered by an industrial commissioner; and at the same session a Mothers' Pension Act was passed, providing for the granting to widowed and indigent mothers of sums not to exceed $2 per week for each child under 14 years of age. In 1915 the Perkins Law was passed providing that crippled children of poor parents might be sent to the hospital of the medical college of the state university for free treatment. In 1917 an appropriation was made by the General Assembly for the erection and equipment of a hospital at Iowa City for such children. Two years later the General Assembly provided that adults as well might be sent to Iowa City for free medical and surgical treatment. In 1917 the General Assembly established at Iowa City a child-welfare station for the consideration of conditions and measures.

An important development was the farm bureau movement. By 1917 organizations among farmers in the state were numerous, and in that year the General Assembly passed an Act providing that where a farm-improvement association in any county had among its members 200 farmers or farm owners and had raised $500 in annual subscriptions, the county board of supervisors was authorized to contribute $2,500 for the employment of a county agent. A law in 1919 modified the amount and terms of the payment by the county, and made the contribution mandatory. The movement gained rapid headway, county associations being established for the betterment of both social and economic conditions and the improvement of agricultural methods. In 1920 there was a farm bureau in each county and two in Pottawattamie county, 100 in all, with 100 county agents, and a membership of over 100,000. Iowa had become the leading state in the Union in the development of this movement. There was also a considerable growth within the state of a farmers' educational and coöperative union

which had over 20,000 members in 1920.

Government and Finances.—The commission plan of government, authorized in 1907 for cities of 25,000 or more inhabitants, was made applicable in 1911 to cities of 7,000 and in 1913 to cities of 2,000 or more inhabitants. By 1920 nine cities had organized under the commission plan: Burlington, Cedar Rapids, Des Moines, Fort Dodge, Keokuk, Marshalltown, Mason City, Ottumwa and Sioux City. In 1915 the General Assembly passed Acts allowing cities to organize their municipal government under either of two city-manager plans. One of these plans—which represents only a slight variation from the mayor-council type—had been adopted by 1920 in a number of the smaller communities. The other plan, patterned closely after that of Dayton, O., had in 1920 been adopted by only two Iowa cities—Dubuque and Webster City.

In 1913 the number of Supreme Court judges was increased from

six to seven; the number of district judges increased from 53 in 1910 to 64 in 1920. The General Assembly in 1913 provided that Supreme, District and Superior Court judges should be nominated and elected on a non-partizan ticket, but in 1919 the nomination and election of judges was restored to a party basis.

In the interests of a shorter ballot, in 1913 the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, the clerk of the Supreme Court and the Supreme Court reporter were made appointive officers. In 1917, however, the State Superintendent of Public Instruction was restored to the list of elective officers. In 1911 the office of commerce counsel was created, the incumbent to be appointed by the Board of Railway Commissioners and to serve as expert counsel for that Board. In 1913 the Department of Insurance was created, headed by a commissioner, and in 1917 a State Banking Department was organized and the office of Superintendent of Banking created. In 1915 a State Board of Audit and a State Board of Accountancy were created, and the office of Document Editor was established to relieve the Secretary of State. The road administration was reorganized, in 1913 when

the General Assembly established a highway commission consisting
of the dean of engineering of the State College of Agriculture and

Mechanic Arts and two appointive members. Highway legislation in 1919 divided the highways into primary and secondary systems, and arranged for the distribution of Federal and state aid funds for the hard surfacing of primary roads.

The state and local taxes together for the year 1910 amounted to $32,500,045; in 1919 they had increased to $80,495,235. The total income of the state alone from all sources for the year ending June

30 1910 was $4,337,528; for the year to June 30 1920, $20,225,742.

History.—The history of Iowa in the decade 1910-20 was marked by no economic or political changes of great importance. The state remained predominantly agricultural. Although its manufactures increased in importance, it was little disturbed by industrial controversies. The supremacy of the Republican party in politics was not seriously questioned. Owing to a split in the Republican party in 1912, the Democratic candidate for president received the electoral vote of Iowa, but the state returned to the Republican ranks in 1916, and in 1920 cast an overwhelming vote for Harding for president and for Nathan E. Kendall for governor. Throughout the decade U.S. Senator Albert B. Cummins continued to represent the state. The death of Senator Jonathan P. Dolliver in 1910 caused a vacancy which was filled temporarily by the appointment of Lafayette Young. In 1911 William S. Kenyon was chosen to fill the position and was reëlected in 1913 and 1918.

The adjutant-general of the state estimated in 1919 from official sources that nearly 110,000 men from Iowa served in the army, navy and marine corps in the World War. The total amount raised in Liberty and Victory loans in Iowa was $508,935,000. In the Third and Fourth Liberty loan campaigns Iowa was the first state in the Union to exceed its quota. Republican governors were elected or reflected every two years, incumbents being: Beryl F. Carroll, 1909-13; George W. Clarke, 1913-7; William L. Harding, 1917-21; Nathan E. Kendall, 1921-.

Bibliography.—The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, vols.

ix.-xviii.; Cole, History of the People of Iowa; Shambaugh, Iowa Applied History Series, vols. i.-iii.; Briggs, Social Legislation in Iowa; Pollock, Economic Legislation in Iowa; Gallaher, Legal and Political

Status of Women in Iowa; Hansen, Welfare Campaigns in Iowa.
(J. C. P.)