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MASSACHUSETTS (see 17.850). — The pop. in 1920 was 3,852,356, an increase of 485,940 or 14.4% since 1910, as against 20% in the preceding decade. Nearly one-third of the state's inhabitants lived in metropolitan Boston. Less than 1.3% were negroes; 27.9% were foreign born, of whom 24.4% came from Canada. The average density of pop. was 479.2 per sq.m., as against 418.8 in 1910. The urban pop. (in 169 places of more than 2,500) was 94.8% of the whole as against 92.8% in 1910. The pop. of the 13 chief cities was: —

1920 1910  Increase 
per cent

 Boston  748,060   670,585  11.6 
 Worcester 179,754  145,986  23.1 
 Springfield 129,614  88,926  45.8 
 New Bedford  121,217  96,652   25.4 
 Fall River 120,485  119,295  1.0 
 Lowell 112,759  106,294  6.1 
 Cambridge 109,694  104,839  4.6 
 Lynn 99,148  89,336  11.0 
 Lawrence 94,270  85,892  9.8 
 Somerville 93,091  77,236  20.5 
 Brockton 66,254  56,878  16.5 
 Haverhill 53,884  44,115  22.1 
 Holyoke 60,203  57,730  4.3 
Agriculture. — Farm property in 1920 was valued at $300,471,743,

including live stock valued at $33,524,157. The total value of farm products in 1919 was $87,558,456 — crops representing 61.3% of this, and animal products 38.7 per cent. The leading crops and their percentages of the total crop value were: hay and forage 37.5%, vegetables 28.5% and fruits 18.2 per cent. The production of the

chief cereals was as follows, in bushels: —
1919 1909

 Maize  1,921,607   2,402,738 
 Oats 1,515,933  2,029,381 
 Buckwheat 23,238  32,926 
 Winter Wheat  21,337  1,710 
 Spring Wheat 11,916  694 
 Barley 11,832  9,021 
 Rye 46,261  59,183 
The yield of apples in 1909 was 2,550,259 bus.; in 1919, 3,187,210.

Two-thirds of the cranberry yield of the United States in 1920 was raised in the bogs along the S.E. coast of the state. Of the animal products 73% were of the dairy and 26% poultry and eggs.

Mineral Products. — During the decade there was a large increase in the production of building-stone, crushed rock for road and street making, and sand. In 1913 the value of the products of mines and quarries and their manufactured derivatives was $11,292,723. The production of monuments and tombstones was: 1909, $2,852,650; 1918, $2,571,750. The value of clay-products of the state decreased from $1,647,362 in 1908 to $1,451,715 in 1918, of which latter amount $1,230,711 was the value of common brick.

Manufactures. — Massachusetts, with a limited local market for its manufactured products, scanty resources in the form of raw materials, and a declining trans-Atlantic commerce, has added little to its railway and terminal facilities. Only four states are smaller in area; yet in 1918 only four states exceeded it in the value of its industrial output. Its advantage has lain in having a surplus of capital, in its unsurpassed supply of skilled labour and in the superior organization of its factories. In its earlier development it utilized its local water-power, of which it had a liberal supply. Then it became largely dependent on coal for fuel, imported at increasingly high cost. In 1910 the total value of manufactures was $1,490,527,386; in 1914, $1,641,373,047, and in 1918, $3,851,346,215, an increase over 1900 of 324 per cent. While the increase in value is largely to be accounted for by the increased prices, the state as a whole made commendable industrial progress. In textiles (cottons, worsteds and woollens), in boots and shoes, boot and shoe cut stock and findings, rubber footwear, and in fine writing-paper, Massachusetts in 1919 was the foremost state.

The following table deals with the manufacture of leather

and shoes, cut stock and findings:—

Boots and Shoes.

 Employees  Value of

 1909  469  47,710   $187,045,767 
 1914 464  76,944  200,529,858 
 1919 474  77,196  361,090,261 

Boot and Shoe Cut-Stock and Findings.

 Employees  Value of

 1909  391  8,353   $49,297,148 
 1914 420  8,170  54,658,155 
 1919 422  9,964  118,310,617 
The value of boots and shoes and cut stock in 1918 was 40% of the

country's output, New York ranking second with 13.4 per cent. In 1918 the textile industries employed 30% of the manufacturing wage-earners, the products being 30.9% of the total industrial output and being valued at $1,191,650,551. Nearly one-half of this was in cotton goods and formed 28.9% of the output of the whole country, N. Carolina, the next largest producer of cotton goods, turning out 13.4% of the whole. The output of woollen and worsted goods in 1918 was more than 30% of that of the whole country, Pennsylvania producing the next largest amount. The increase in value from 1900 to 1918 was 5.78% — showing a marked decrease in quantity when the difference in prices is considered. The increase in the value of boots and shoes and cut stock for the same period was 136% showing small increase in quantity. Boston and Worcester were the principal centres for foundry and machine-shop products, valued in 1918 at $341,751,367. Other industrial products, in order of importance, were: rubber goods, $120,757,575; tanned, curried and finished leather, $81,462,273, in the manufacture of which Massachusetts was second among the states; paper and wood pulp, $91,428,346; slaughtering and meat-packing, $117,730,023; printing and publishing, $73,267,130, of which $39,104,873 was the value of newspapers and periodicals; electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies, $83,742,359; cordage, twine and jute goods, $45,574,887, in which the state was second only to New York; furniture, $17,058,360; jewelry, $9,526,836, Massachusetts ranking second only to Rhode Island; and confectionery $40,869,064, in which Massachusetts was third among the states.

The state is also noted for its fishing industry, the fleets visiting the Newfoundland Banks being very important, with Gloucester and Boston as chief centres of the trade. The value of products in 1920 was $7,596,905. Cod were valued at $2,311,011; haddock, $2,655,303; mackerel, $748,682; and halibut, $518,598.

Education. — Several fundamental changes were made in the organization of the educational enterprises of the state in 1919. Among the most important were the consolidation into a new department of education of several related activities, the abolition of the Board of Education and the creation of the Advisory Board of Education, consisting of six members and the Commissioner of Education, who is ex-officio chairman. The passing of the Board of Education, established in 1837, marks the close of an important era in the development of a state policy of education. In vocational education rapid progress in the decade 1909-19 is shown by the

following statistics: —
1919 1909

 Schools in which vocations were taught 107 
 Occupations in which instruction was given  50 
 Enrolment in vocational classes 2,500  1,400 
 Cost of vocational training  $881,000   $5,000 
Another significant development was in university extension. The

department has carried on its work by correspondence instruction, class instruction, and Americanization classes. In the period Dec. 1 1919 to Nov. 20 1920 6,188 students were receiving instruction by correspondence, 15,520 were registered in adult immigrant classes and 23,720 in other extension classes. In 1911 the Teachers' Registration Bureau was established, a free agency which has proved very successful; three years later a retirement system was put into operation, with membership compulsory, and provision for retirement at 60 years of age under certain conditions or by compulsion at 70. In 1920 the salaries of superintendents in superintendency unions (two or more towns employing one superintendent) was fixed at a minimum of $2,250, with certain reimbursements by the state and allowances for travelling. The Legislature of 1921 made several notable changes, among which are the following: state aid to high schools in towns of less than 500 families was increased from $500 per school to $250 per teacher. Transportation is compulsory from towns where there is no high school, with provisions for state reimbursement.

The State Department may now grant the degree of Bachelor of Education to any person completing a four-year course in a state normal school — one school giving it in the commercial course only, one in household arts, one in art and two in regular courses. In 1920 over $1,000,000 was spent for normal schools and teachers' training. Pupils from 14 to 16 years of age must have completed the requirements of the sixth grade before being certified for employment. Public-school teachers and superintendents have the right to a hearing before the school committee, accompanied by a witness, before dismissal from service. Every town with a valuation of over $1,000,000 must employ a school nurse. Indoor and outdoor games and athletic exercises are aho required. Regular public-school teachers cannot be paid less than $750 a year. Reimbursements to small towns and cities are provided, with special arrangements for those of low valuation, enabling them to have good teachers.

Finance. — The receipts of the state in 1909 were approximately $14,700,000 and those in 1920 approximately $47,350,000, or more than three times as much. These figures represent receipts for revenue purposes only and do not include receipts from the issue of bonds or notes. The payments in 1909 were about $17,100,000 and in 1920 about $52,900,000. These represent governmental cost and include no payments of money borrowed. In 1919 the funded debt of the state was $126,555,662 and the total debt $129,404,091.

Road-building. — During 1920 nearly 122 m. of highway was constructed, as well as 22 m. commenced but not completed. Of this, 39 m. was gravel, 38 m. of bituminous macadam, 16 m. of cement concrete, 4 m. of sand and asphalt mixed, and 5 m. water-bound macadam with bituminous surface treatment. Of state highway 27 m. was. surfaced, 14 m. widened and resurfaced. Some roads were being constructed 20 ft. wide instead of 18 feet. Much was under construction in 1921 with $6,000,000 more to be spent. The total length of state highways at the end of 1919 was 1,311 m. and the amount spent on roads in that year was about $1,610,200.

Banking. — The resources in 1919 of the national banks within the state were $1,003,945,000. There were 634 banking institutions and agents under state law, with resources of $2,488,606,935, divided as follows: 196 savings banks, $1,215,244,815; 105 trust companies, $1,076,214,436; 190 coöperative banks, $154,879,638; three savings and loan associations, $2,399,791; Mass. Hospital Life Insurance Co., $30,918,328; one foreign banking corporation, $1,838,749; 60 credit unions, $2,791,165; 77 steamship agents receiving deposits of

$3,187,506; one state bank, $1,132,507.

History. — During the decade 1910-20 the most important laws enacted by the Legislature were the following: In 1912 a minimum-wage board was established with the right to determine wages of women and children. The inheritance law was amended so that only the real estate of a deceased non-resident is taxed, personal property taxes going to the state of residence. A 1913 law provided for the establishment and maintenance of continuation schools and instruction for working-children. A number of pure-food laws were enacted; also, a law providing for mothers' pensions. Laws relating to elections were so amended that on application signed by 1,200 voters in any senatorial district, or by 200 voters in any representative district, asking for the submission to the voters of any question of instruction to senators or representatives, the Secretary of the Commonwealth shall determine if such a question is one of public policy, and, if so determined, he shall place such question on the official ballot to be used at the next state election. Women voters were given the right of voting for candidates for school committees in 1881. In 1914 a measure was passed submitting to the people a constitutional amendment giving suffrage to women, suffrage being finally granted June 25 1919. In 1916 the civil and criminal jurisdiction of district or municipal courts was extended so that their process runs throughout the state and makes them courts of superior and general jurisdiction. An income tax was enacted. A new law to prevent misstatements in advertising went into effect May 25. An Act forbidding the sale of narcotic drugs, except by prescriptions carefully regulated, was passed in 1917. Massachusetts in 1918 ratified the Federal Prohibition amendment, being the 11th state to do this. That same year a budget system was adopted, also commissions were created to investigate the educational system of the state. The Legislature in 1919 made absentee-voting possible for those in military or naval service and others who make proper arrangements. It also passed a law making all Acts approved by the executive, unless subject to referendum, take effect 30 days after formal enactment. Emergency laws take effect upon passage. The maximum amount of deposit in savings banks was raised to $4,000. Manufacturing corporations can provide for representation of their employees upon the board of directors if more than half the employees so decide by secret ballot. Industrial accident compensation was increased. The income tax was revised. An Act reorganizing the executive and administrative functions of the state Government, approved July 23 1919, established many new departments, and a metropolitan district commission was authorized, with general supervision over the metropolitan area. The Legislature of 1920 passed a law providing for a state constabulary. Motion-pictures within the state were censored. Women were allowed to hold office. Suits were permitted by and against voluntary associations. Important “blue sky” legislation was enacted.

During the World War many emergency measures were passed by the Legislature. The subscriptions to the Liberty Loans were as follows: first, $177,236,400; second, $317,799,250; third, $228,329,750; fourth, $405,257,500; and to the Victory Loan, $252,767,450. Approximately 200,000 men were enlisted in the service of the Federal Government.

The governors for the decade were: Eugene M. Foss (Dem.), 1911-4; David I. Walsh (Dem.), 1914-6; Samuel W. McCall (Rep.), 1916-9; Calvin D.Coolidge (Rep.), 1910-20; and Channing H. Cox (Rep.), 1920- . The opening on July 29 1914 of a canal across Cape Cod shortened by 70 m. the distance by water from New York to Boston. (F. A. Cl.)