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MOROCCO (see 18.850).—The year 1911 was rendered memorable in Morocco by the Agadir crisis. Mulai Hafid had become unpopular through his dependence on the French and the exactions of his grand vizir, El Glawi. There was a general rising of the tribes round Fez in Oct. 1910. Meknes (Mequinez) was captured, and Fez itself besieged in March-1911. French troops were sent in April, and again in May, to occupy the city and pacify the district. El Glawi was dismissed. This French occupation of Fez, though the need for it had been duly notified to the Powers, was resented by Spain and Germany. The former countered it by the sudden occupation (June) of El Qasr and Laraish (El ‘Araish). The German Government on July 1 1911 announced to the French Minister for Foreign Affairs its decision to send a gunboat to Agadir, and dispatched the “Panther” forthwith. The alleged motive was to safeguard German subjects and property against disturbances in the Sus; the real one was to challenge the extension of French influence in Morocco as contrary to the Agreements of 1906 and 1909. The situation became extremely critical, and for a time it seemed as if war were inevitable. The protests of France were unavailing until Great Britain declared her intention of standing by the Entente, and her formal objection to Germany's obtaining territorial influence in Morocco. A series of diplomatic “conversations” resulted in the Franco-German Treaty of Nov. 4 1911, by which France was to cede some of her Congo territory to Germany in return for the recognition by the latter of her political protectorate over Morocco, economic equality being reaffirmed. (The word “protectorate” was not used in the actual treaty, but it was in the letters accompanying it.) Spain at first objected, but, through the intervention of Great Britain, a Franco-Spanish treaty was concluded on Nov. 27 1911. This arranged such debated points as customs, the management of the projected Tangier-Fez railway and the appointment of the Sultan's khalifa (deputy) at Tetuan. It slightly revised the Franco-Spanish boundaries determined by the Convention of Oct. 3 1904. The boundary of the northern Spanish zone follows the Muluya (Mulwiya) from its mouth to near Meshra el Klila, thence, turning W., it runs immediately N. of the Wad Waghra to Jebel Mulai bu Shta; thence it strikes N.W. to the Wad Lekkus, follows its course and, afterwards, lat. 35° N., to the Atlantic coast. Both banks of the Lekkus and El Qasr and Laraish fall within the Spanish zone. The treaty also recognized the rights of Spain in the S. over the enclave of Ifni, bounded to N. by the Wad bu Sedra, to S. by the Wad Nun, to E. by a line about 15 m. from the coast. The negotiations of 1911-2 between the Powers resulted in the internationalization of the Tangier zone, consisting of Tangier, its environs and the territory of the El Fahs tribe to S. and W. of it— about 100 sq. m. in all. By this understanding Tangier was “to be given a special regime to be agreed upon later.” In 1921 Spain maintained that the possession of Tangier was indispensable to her in order to round off her protectorate zone, both from an economic and a territorial point of view. France on her side put forward claims to the town based upon her general position in Morocco and the Mediterranean. Meanwhile the Sultan is sovereign and the town and the harbour are administered by an International Commission.

On March 30 1912 Mulai Hafid signed a treaty with France accepting the protectorate, which was subsequently recognized by the Powers, who withdrew their diplomatic representatives. General Lyautey was appointed resident-general. The protectorate has an office in Paris at 21, Rue des Pyramides.

There were continued risings in the Fez-Sifru district and in the Rif during the autumn of 1911, and Fez was again besieged in March-April 1912, when the Sherifian army mutinied and killed several of their French instructors. In August a new Pretender appeared in the Sus, Hamed el Hiba, son of the notorious religious agitator Ma el ‘Ainin, who had died at Tiznit (Oct. 1910). El Hiba occupied Marrakesh (Aug. 1912) but was driven thence in Sept. and fled south. Mulai Hafid abdicated on Aug. 12, appointing his brother, Mulai Yusef, as his successor. Hafid was pensioned by France and lived for a time at Tangier; after the outbreak of the World War both he and ‘Abd el ‘Aziz resided in Europe. In Oct. Gen. Lyautey occupied Agadir. Fighting in western Morocco continued for some months among the Shiadma, Haha, Zayan and Tadla, the most powerful chiefs being two rival kaids of the Haha and Moha u Said of the Tadla. But this district and that round Fez were pacified by the spring of 1913, and attention became increasingly centred on eastern Morocco, and the need for securing communications with Algeria by the occupation of the important strategic position of Taza. This was accomplished in May 1914, in the face of much hostility from the local tribes. The following month saw the capture of the scarcely less important fortress of Khenifra in the Zayan country. These two essential positions had barely been secured when the outbreak of the World War necessitated the withdrawal of French regular troops, whereupon ensued the immediate revolt of the powerful Branes, Ghiata, and Beni Waghrain round Taza, and the Zayan in the west. The diminished French forces, however, gallantly held their own, and the great kaids of the Atlas and the bashas of Tarudant and Tiznit in the S. remained loyal. The latter kept El Hiba's forces in check. With a view to maintaining confidence, public works were continued and exhibitions and fairs were held at Casablanca (1915, 1918), Fez (1916) and Rabat (1917); these were visited by thousands of natives, and created an immense effect.

All through the war German money, arms and military instruction were lavished on the anti-French tribes through German agents harboured in the northern Spanish zone, while arms were repeatedly smuggled through Ifni and Rio de Oro. The attempt of the submarine U20, however, to land 6,000 rifles at the mouth of the Wad Nun (Oct. 1916) was frustrated. Throughout 1915 and 1916 there was fighting along the Wad Waghra, the chief native leaders being ‘Abd es Salam, ‘Abd el Malek (grandson of ‘Abd el Kader), and Raisuli, while El Hiba came N. to join them. In the Tadla, Moha u Said was simultaneously giving trouble. All these chiefs were in German pay. Military occupation was pushed forward by the French throughout 1916 and 1917, and many important posts established. The advance in the Gigu valley brought about the submission of practically the whole Tafilalt and, with the junction of several French columns on the Upper Muluya, isolated the Ghiata and Beni Waghrain in their mountain fastnesses. In May and June 1917, ‘Abd el Malek was driven from Taza and forced to take refuge in the north. On March 24, in the Sus, El Hiba's forces had met with a decisive defeat at Wijan, but he continued to receive encouragement from Germany until Oct. 1918. El Hiba died at Kerdus in the following spring, and his forces, under his brother, Merebbi Rebo, were finally dispersed by the basha of Tiznit. The Tafilalt was definitely occupied at the end of 1917, and a wireless station and aerodrome established. In Aug. 1918 the all-powerful Ait Atta of the district were stirred to revolt by a sherif, Si Moha Nifruten, but the rising was suppressed by April 1919, with the powerful aid of El Glawi, son of the deposed ex-vizir, basha of Marrakesh, who in Jan. brought 10,000 men across the High Atlas. (His brother, the Kaid el Glawi, also a loyal ally of France, had died in Aug. 1918.) In the N. intrigues and hostilities, still engineered by Germany, persisted through the early part of 1918.

In the autumn of 1919 the Beni Waghrain were stirred up by a new pretender, and the Seghrushen round Sifru by Sidi Raho. Two risings occurred in the Gharb, in the spring of 1918 and in Oct. 1920. This last was suppressed by the French occupation of the sacred city of Wazzan. Simultaneously the turbulent Ida u Tanan of the S.W. submitted. French rule was thus consolidated in all districts save the Middle Atlas, the Beni Waghrain stronghold.

In 1912 the territory occupied by the French was about 88,000 sq. km., in 1914 163,000 sq. km.; in 1921 France nominally occupied 235,000 sq. km., but exerted effective economic control over about 100,000 sq. km. only.[1]

In the Spanish zone, the lack of roads and the insecurity resulting from the anarchy and brigandage prevalent among the Rif and Jebala tribes retarded development. Fighting continued in both the eastern and western districts. In March 1919 a rising occurred N.E. of Fez, the remains of ‘Abd el Malek's movement. In the W., Raisuli as protagonist, while affecting to serve the cause of Spain, and actually, in 1916, receiving arms and money from her, was really seeking to make himself quasi-sultan of N.W. Morocco. In 1916 he entrenched himself at Fonduk ‘Ain el Jedida near Tetuan, and was driven thence only in Oct. 1919. The Tangiern-Tetuan road, which he had held, was thus reopened and the Anjera and Wad Ras tribes made their submission. A year later, however, there was fresh fighting with the Beni Huzmer and others, probably directed by Raisuli; Spanish troops from Tetuan then made a somewhat precarious entry (Oct. 14 1920) into the “forbidden city” of Sheshawan, and surrounded it by a ring of military posts. Troops advancing to join them from El Qasr were unable to reach Sheshawan, and had to fall back on their base at Laraish, leaving Raisuli free to operate from his mountain stronghold. In Nov. several attacks were made by the tribes on Spanish patrols and posts in the Tetuan-Sheshawan district, and it seemed at the close of the autumn campaign as if the more remote posts might need to be evacuated.

Administration and Finance.—The outlines of the administrative

organization in the French zone are to be found in the treaty of March 20 1912. There is on the one hand the Maghzen or Sherifian administration, and on the other the French administration of the protectorate. The resident-general has plenary powers; he promulgates the decrees given by the sultan and is the only intermediary between the sultan and foreign Governments. The Maghzen includes the grand vizir and the vizirs (ministers)—Justice and Public Worship, the Habus (religious endowments) and Domains—

the grand vizir being prime minister. Liaison is maintained between
the Maghzen and the protectorate by the councillor of the Sherifian

Government who is director of Sherifian affairs and is at the head of the technical services of control. French administration, under the high authority of the resident-general, is directed by the general secretary of the protectorate. The departments are: General Administration (Civil and Native Affairs), Finance, Economic Services (public works, agriculture, commerce and colonization, posts and telegraphs, etc.), Public Instruction and Public Health. Rabat is the administrative capital.

The French authorities supervise native administration through local bureaux de renseignements. In seven of the chief towns the old native council (Mejlis) had (1918) been reconstituted, to aid the basha in municipal government.

The protectorate at once started to restore the financial position of Morocco by the annual repayment of instalments of the public debt, and careful development of sources of revenue, such as the reformed tertib (agricultural tax). In 1919 the revenues were estimated at 102,440,000 francs, the expenditure at slightly less. In 1920 the long-standing difficulty of the double currency, then accentuated by the depreciation of the French franc compared with the Hassani peseta, was solved by the adoption of a local franc currency.

Population.—It is now recognized that past estimates of the population of Morocco, based on acquaintance with the more populous coast regions, were excessive; no statistics were obtainable up to 1920 for a great part of the interior, which seems to be very sparsely inhabited. The total native pop. is variously estimated at from 4½ millions to 5,400,000, of whom about 3½ millions live in the French zone. The European pop. (1921) numbered about 100,000, of whom, two-thirds were French. Immigration ceased during the World War but in 1919 had begun again and in that year numbered about 10,000 persons, largely at Casablanca. The most densely peopled region is that of the Atlantic coast (Gharb, Huz, etc.). In

1917 the pop. (in round numbers) of 10 principal towns was:—
Total “Total” includes

 Europeans  Jews

 Fez  105,850  850 10,000 
 Marrakesh 102,000  2,000 18,000 
 Casablanca 97,000  38,000 10,000 
 Tangier 52,000  11,700 12,000 
 Tetuan (1919)  40,000   1,000 (& garrison)  7,250 
 Rabat 37,550  9,700 3,800 
 Meknes 36,700  1,200 5,000 
 Mazagan 21,630  1,600 3,000 
 Mogador 19,000  600 9,500 
 Ujda 18,150  4,150 2,000 
Saffi had then a pop. of about 20,000; Sallee of 18,000; Melilla,

40,000, of whom 17,700 were soldiers.

Economic Development.—Despite the formidable hindrances created by the World War, the settlement and development of the French Zone proceeded steadily, the success of this “peaceful penetration” being in large measure due to the genius and popularity of Gen. Lyautey. The immigrants at Casablanca rose from 3,238 in 1911 to 29,755 in 1913; the war then caused a reduction, but in 1918 they numbered 22,140. Well-built European quarters have sprung up near the old towns; the ports have been improved, and a new port, Kenitra, on the Sebu, opened up. At Casablanca 24½ million francs were expended in 1919 in laying out new sites and in building. The amount of capital engaged in development schemes of various kinds was at the end of 1919 35 million francs. Railways have been extended, and a network of roads constructed, on some of which regular services of motor transport run. Anti-malarial and other hygienic measures have been adopted, and medical centres and travelling infirmaries set up; in 1917 these treated over 1,220,800 native patients. Native schools, teaching French, Arabic and Berber, and Jewish schools numbered 21,520 pupils in 1917. Agricultural and industrial enterprises (e.g. flour- and flax-milling) have

been fostered, and scientific and antiquarian research prosecuted.
Harbour works were (1921) in construction at most of the ports:

at Casablanca they included an inner harbour with two quays and a floating dock, and the construction of a great jetty, 2,100 metres in length (of which 1,240 metres were completed by 1921), to form an outer port. Mehediya has been superseded by Kenitra, 10½ m. up river, which, with its extensive river frontage for quays, is the only port where lighters are not required. Its trade rose from 4 million francs in 1914 to 20 million in 1915; in 1917 it equalled that of Saffi and Mogador. A channel has been cut through the bar at the mouth of the Sebu. At Rabat, a cement bridge over the Wad bu Ragrag, to supersede the ferry to Sallee, was inaugurated Jan. 1 1920.

In the Spanish Zone irrigation and cultivation have been attempted in the Selwan and Garet regions; the care of forests undertaken; schools and infirmaries established; and a native police force organized at Melilla. Extensive harbour works were (1920) in progress at Ceuta and Laraish. The mines near Melilla have been worked by several companies. Military posts have pushed forward in the Muluya and Wad Kert regions. The expenditure for 1918 (exclusive of the expenses of the military occupation) was nearly 12

million pesetas, a deficit of 8½ million pesetas having to be met by
a subvention from the home Government. In Jan. 1919 Gen.

Berenguer was appointed resident-general.

Agriculture is the principal resource of Morocco as a whole and forms the basis of the economic future of the country. The total cultivable area under French control in 1921 was estimated at approximately 25 million ac., of which 5,900,000 ac. were actually under cultivation, 5,200,000 ac. earmarked for reclamation and drainage, 12,355,000 ac. common lands, and 1,235,000 ac. forests. The chief crops are barley, wheat, maize and millet, representing 88% of the total cultivated area; other crops are vegetables, flax, hemp and henna; 124,000 ac. were under orchards and vineyards in 1919. Under proper cultivation western Morocco should become one of the richest cereal-producing areas in the world. Stock-breeding is also important; statistics for 1920 show that live stock comprised: sheep 6,700,000, goats over 2,000,000, cattle 1,300,000, pigs 130,000; while beasts of burden numbered: donkeys 420,000, camels 86,000, horses 65,000, and mules 54,000. The total area of forests in the French zone of Morocco is about 3,706,000 ac.; on the coast a belt of cork-trees covers an area of 338,000 ac.; in the Middle Atlas cedars cover 741,000 ac., and oaks and Aleppo pines about 620,000 acres. The revenue derived by the state from the exploitation of forest amounted to 1,500,000 francs in 1921.

Phosphate exists in great quantities—estimated at 100 million tons with a yield of 65%—and a decree of 1920 reserves to the sultan's Government the right of prospecting and exploiting the deposits. A start was made in 1917-8 in extracting manganese in eastern Morocco and some thousands of tons have been produced.

An oil-field extends from Fez to Laraish.
Trade.—The total foreign trade of Morocco increased from

375,000 tons, valued at 178 million francs, in 1912 to 553,000 tons and 1,056 million francs in 1920. The total foreign trade of the French zone (in 1,000 francs) rose from 319,580 in 1917 to 573,160 in 1919, excluding the commerce via Algeria, which amounted to 66,660 in 1917 and over 134,000 in 1919. English trade increased from 63,000 in 1916 to 134,500 in 1919. Spain tripled and America quadrupled her trade with Morocco during those years. Of the exports, 98% went to, and 63% of the imports were derived from, France and Algeria.

The following table gives the sea-borne trade of the various zones

in 1913 and 1918:—
(in 1,000 francs)
(in 1,000 francs)

1913 1918 1913 1918

 French zone  181,427   257,580   40,182   97,042 
 Tangier 24,455  31,600  3,408  5,820 
 Spanish zone 25,335  35,402  2,876  6,960 

The animal products exported from Morocco in 1919 were as follows:—
 (1,000 kgm.) 
 (1,000 francs) 

 Eggs 8,626  44,949 
 Goatskins 1,828  13,590 
 Wool-grease  1,480  5,243 
 Sheepskins 1,387 
 Cowhides 439  2,269 
 Wool 104  922 
 Wax 112 
The trade of Casablanca had increased from 185,000 tons in 1912

to 425,000 tons in 1920.

Communications.—There are regular services from Europe to the Moroccan ports of the Cie. Gén. Transatlantique, Cie. de Navigation Paquet, Royal Mail Steam Packet, Bland (Gibraltar), Correos

de Africa, and other lines, including Dutch and Italian.
A system of roads has been planned for the French zone; on Jan. 1

1920 2,600 km. were completed, 364 in progress and 247 surveyed. Motors are largely used for mails and passengers, e.g. between the ports and Marrakesh. The only road, as contrasted with tracks, in the Spanish zone was (1920) from Ceuta to Tetuan, though another was being constructed between Laraish and El Qasr. In that year the Tangier-Fez road was completed in the Tangier zone, and nearly so in the French, but was practically untouched in the Spanish zone.

The railways in the French zone, military lines (2-ft. gauge) open to civilian use, were being gradually changed to standard gauge (4 ft. 8½ in.). In 1920 there were 610 m. of railway. The line linking Ujda via Taza with Fez (198 m.) was completed to Tuahar (168 m.); this will later be joined by the Casablanca-Fez line, via Rabat and Meknes, which in 1920 ended 10 m. beyond Fez (221 m.). Of the Casablanca-Marrakesh line (324 m.) via Ber Reshid, which in 1920 stopped at Raid Tunsi (96 m.), 40 m. had still to be laid. A branch line runs from Ber Reshid to Wad Zem (83 m.), to be continued to Khenifra. In eastern Morocco a line under construction from Seflet to Utat el Hajj (19 m.) was open as far as Mahirija. In the Spanish zone a narrow-gauge railway runs from Ceuta to Tetuan, and

another from Tetuan to Rio Martin. There are two light railways
from Melilla to Nador, Selwan, Tiztutin and the mines. In 1920 a

line was projected from Melilla to Taza via Tafersit, and a coast line to Tangier. Work on the standard-gauge Tangier-Fez line had not actually begun in 1920, though the survey for the French section had been made. The line from Laraish to El Qasr, which will eventually join it, was half completed in 1913; the French have projected a line from Casablanca via Rabat and Kenitra to join it at Petit-Jean (132 miles).

Aeroplanes were much used in Morocco by the French during the war and will be increasingly employed for commerce. There were in 1920 a number of aerodromes, including one 6½ m. from Tangier, and a mail-passenger service, calling at several towns in Spain, plied between Rabat and Toulouse eight times a month each way.

Efficient postal services exist in the French zone; Spain has post-offices at her ports; in 1920 the only foreign post-offices were those of Great Britain, at the chief ports, and at Fez, Meknes, El Qasr, and Marrakesh. There are wireless installations at Fez, Marrakesh, Tangier, Mogador and elsewhere. A telegraph line runs across the Spanish zone from Tangier to Arbawa (French zone). Telephones are installed in Tangier and in all the towns of the French zone; Casablanca, Rabat and Kenitra are connected by telephone, and so are Tangier, Arzila and Laraish. There are submarine cables between Casablanca and Brest; Casablanca and Dakar; Tangier and Gibraltar; Ceuta and Tangier; Estopona and Peñon de Velez; Tangier and Oran and Cadiz.

Authorities.—The output of books and periodicals on Morocco during recent years has been enormous; only a selection can be mentioned here. A. Bernard, Les Confins algero-marocains (1911), Le Maroc (4th ed. 1917), La France au Maroc (1917); E. Doutté, Merrakech (1905), En Tribu (1914); L. Gentil, Le Maroc physique (1912), La recherche scientifique au Maroc (1914); J. Goulven, Le Maroc (1919); E. Laoust, Mots et Chases berbères (1920); E. Moutet, Les confréries religieuses de l'Islam marocain (1912); M. A. H. Poisson de la Martinière, Souvenirs du Maroc (1919); Suzanne Nouvel, Nomades et Sédentaires au Maroc (1919); V. Piquet, Le Maroc (1917); Comte de la Revelière, Les énergies françaises au Maroc (1917); E. Rouard de Card, Traités et accords concernant . . . Maroc (1914); C. Sainte Chapelle, La conquete de Maroc (1913); Marquis de Segonzac, Au Coeur de L'Atlas (1910); André Tardieu, La conférence d'Algésiras (1909), Le Mystère d'Agadir (1912). Works published under the auspices of the protectorate, e.g. Conférences franco-marocaines (2 vols. 1916, 1917); Le Commerce (1917) and L'Agriculture (1918) au Maroc; Rapport général sur la situation du Protectorat . . . 1914 (Gen. Lyautey, 1916); Carnet des itinéraires principaux du Maroc (1917); Villes et Tribus (3 vols. 1915, etc.); Annuaire économique et financier; Archives marocaines. Also Guides Bleus (Hachette), Le Maroc; L'Afrique française; France-Maroc (a superbly illustrated monthly); the Bulletins of several geographical societies, notably Algiers, Oran, and Madrid; J. Becker, Historia de Marruecos (1915); R. Donoso Cortes, Estudio geogr. polit. milit. sobre las zonas espanolas (1913); G. Delbrel, Geografia general de la Provincia del Rif (1911); A. Garcia y Perez, Ifni y el Sahara español, and Zona española del norte . . . (both 1913); Alta Comisaria de España en Marruecos . . . memoria 1917-1918; A. Vera Salas, El Rif Oriental (1918); W. B. Harris and Hon. W. H. Cozens-Hardy, Modern Morocco (1919); D. Mackenzie, The Khaliphate of the West (1911); E. A. Westermarck, Ceremonies and Beliefs connected with Agriculture . . . in Morocco (1913); Edith Wharton, In Morocco (1920); Report of the Trade, Industry and Finance of Morocco (Dept. of Overseas Trade, 1920); Morocco (London weekly); W. Arning, Marokko-Kongo (1912); O. C. Artbauer, Die Rifpiraten und ihre Heimat (1911); G. Kampffmeyer, Im neuen Marokko (1914), Nordwest Afrika und Deutschland (1914), and a Moroccan bibliography, Studien . . . der deutschmar. Bibliothek (1911, 1915); K. Neumann, Die Internationalität Marokkos (1919); W. Schroeder, Das Schutzgenossenwesen in Marokko (1917). Maps: Cartes du bureau

topographique du Maroc, 70 sheets (1913-5); Barrère, 4 sheets (1913).
(E. G. S.)

  1. For the successive stages of the occupation see map in Piquet, Le Maroc, 1917.