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1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Tewfik, Ahmed, Pasha

TEWFIK, AHMED, Pasha (1843-), Turkish statesman, was born in Constantinople in 1843, and in 1859 entered the army. In 1870 he quitted the military service and was attached to the translation bureau of the Sublime Porte. He entered the diplomatic service and acted as political agent for the army of the Danube and the Balkans during the Russo-Turkish War (1877-8). He was subsequently attached to the Turkish legation at Athens, where he later became minister. In 1884 he was appointed ambassador to Berlin, but in 1895 was recalled in order to become Minister of Foreign Affairs. After the Young Turk revolution he became grand vizier (1909), but the same year was sent as ambassador to London. In 1912 he was again grand vizier for a brief period. On the close of the World War (Nov. 1918), during which his sympathies were with the Entente, he became grand vizier for the third time, and formed a Government which excluded all members of the Committee of Union and Progress. He resigned in March 1919, but again became head of the Government on the resignation of Damad Ferid Pasha in Oct. 1920.