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WASHINGTON (State) (see 28.358).—The pop. in 1920 was 1,356,621, an increase of 214,631, or 18.8%, over the 1,141,990 of 1910, as against an increase of 120.4% in the preceding decade.

The density of pop. was 20.3 per sq. m.; in 1910 17.1. The urban pop. (in 35 places of 2,500 or more) was 55.2% of the whole, as against 53% in 1910. The pop. of the eight cities having more than 15,000 was:—

1920 1910  Increase 
per cent

 Seattle  315,312   237,194  32.9 
 Spokane 104,437  104,402   
 Tacoma 96,965  83,743  15.8 
 Everett 27,644  24,814  11.4 
 Bellingham 25,585  24,298  5.3 
 Yakima 18,539  14,082  31.7 
 Walla Walla  15,503  19,364   -19.9 
 Aberdeen 15,337  13,660  12.3 

The most significant change in the characteristics of the pop. was the increased number of Japanese and especially of Japanese women. In 1900 there were 5,617 Japanese, or 1.1% of the total pop., 96.7% being males. In 1910 the Japanese had increased 130.2% to a total of 12,929, which was still 1.1% of the total pop., 86.9% being males. In 1920 there were 17,114 Japanese, or 1.3% of the total. The rate of increase was 32.4% and the percentage of males had declined to 65.3. One reason for the proportional increase of females was the privilege, prior to the legislative session of 1921, of acquiring title to land in the names of native-born children of Japanese parents.

Agriculture.—During the decade 1910-20 the number of farms increased from 56,192 to 66,288; the acreage of improved land from 6,373,311 ac. to 7,129,343 ac.; the value of all farm property from $637,543,411 to $1,057,429,848. The average value of land per acre in 1910 was $44.18; in 1920 $60.22. The following table shows the change in acreage, production, and value of the chief crops for the decade 1909-19.

Acreage Production Value

 Wheat  1919   2,494,160   41,837,909 bus.   $91,206,642 
1909 2,118,015  40,920,390 bus.  35,102,370 
 Oats 1919 191,673  8,073,481 bus.  8,073,481 
1909 269,742  13,228,003 bus.  5,870,857 
 Barley 1919 84,568  2,249,856 bus.  3,374,792 
1909 171,888  5,834,615 bus.  3,331,930 
 Indian corn 1919 34,799  901,905 bus.  1,623,433 
1909 26,033  563,025 bus.  404,367 
 Potatoes 1919 55,132  5,866,710 bus.  12,320,093 
1909 57,897  7,667,171 bus.  2,993,737 
 Hay and forage  1919 1,064,130  2,013,913 tons  47,717,065 
1909 742,741  1,399,597 tons  17,200,252 
 Sugar beets 1919 5,363  46,386 tons  500,969 
1909 1,270  6,556 tons  38,007 

Crops of increasing importance are bulbs, flowers, vegetable seeds, flax, filberts, and English walnuts. Prohibition increased enormously the demand for berry-juices. Three-fifths of the loganberries produced in the United States come from Washington (1,157,778 qt. in 1919, valued at $208,402). The evergreen wild blackberry (supposed to have been introduced from Hawaii) is spreading through the river valleys, and the fruit is shipped in carload lots to the canneries. In 1919 the state ranked first in the production of apples and third in hops (1,615,761 lb., valued at $727,092). The growth of the chief orchard crops between 1909 and 1919 was as follows:—

Production Value

 Apples  1919   21,568,691 bus.   $38,823,641 
1909 2,672,100 bus.  2,925,761 
 Peaches 1919 1,544,859 bus.  3,321,449 
1909 84,494 bus.  118,918 
 Pears 1919 1,728,759 bus.  3,025,331 
1909 310,804 bus.  328,895 
 Plums and Prunes  1919 785,920 bus.  1,532,546 
1909 1,032,077 bus.  600,503 

The following table shows the growth in number and value of domestic animals during the decade 1910-20.

 Number  Value

 Horses  1920   296,381   $25,069,336 
1910 280,572  29,680,849 
 Mules 1920 23,091  2,930,813 
1910 12,185  1,776,297 
 Milch cows  1920 289,635  23,648,537 
1910 186,233  7,988,133 
 Sheep 1920 623,779  7,750,407 
1910 475,555  1,931,170 
 Swine 1920 264,747  5,049,249 
1910 206,135  1,674,927 

In 1917-8 condenseries used 205,657,654 lb. of whole milk to produce 1,844,097 cases of condensed milk, valued at $8,870,825. Cream and butter were sent to the cities from 110 creameries. In 1919 in 19 factories the production of cheese was 2,004,365 lb., valued at $348,669.

During the decade 1910-20 the irrigated farms increased from 7,664 to 13,271; irrigated acreage from 334,378 ac. to 529,899 acres. The Reclamation Service of the Federal Government has impounded the waters in Keechelus Lake (Kittitas county) and other lakes to serve large projects in the Yakima valley. The Kittitas county project under the state law was designed to reclaim 70,000 ac.; the Klickitat county project to irrigate 90,000 acres. The largest enterprise is the Columbia Basin project, to utilize the waters of Pend Oreille lake and river for the irrigation of 1,750,000 acres.

Mining.—The value of gold production decreased from $840,000 in 1911 to $280,000 in 1919. The amount of silver produced increased from 230,000 oz. to 299,000 oz.; copper from 196,000 lb. to 1,320,000 lb.; lead from 848,000 lb. to 1,700,000 lb.; zinc from 25,000 lb. to 39,000 pounds. Coal mined in 1911 was 3,573,000 tons; in 1919 3,100,000 tons. During the decade 1910-20 five new cement plants were established in the state, and large quantities of Portland cement exported. Of increasing importance are clay products, such as paving brick, sewer pipe, and terra cotta.

Manufactures.—The following table shows the growth of manufactures 1909-14.

1914 1909

 Number of establishments 3,829  3,674 
 Wage-earners (average) 67,205  69,120 
 Capital $277,715,262  $222,261,229 
 Salaries 11,504,088  9,826,579 
 Wages 51,703,052  49,766,368 
 Cost of materials 136,609,309  117,887,688 
 Value of products 245,326,456  220,746,421 
 Value added by manufacture  108,717,147  102,858,733 

The chief items were lumber and timber products, flour-mill and grist-mill products, slaughtering and meat-packing, butter, cheese and condensed milk, printing and publishing, malt liquors, canning and preserving. In 1914 the state ranked twenty-third in value of products and twenty-seventh in number of wage-earners.

Water Power.—Chief Engineer Merrill, of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, has prepared a chart showing the distribution of water-power resources in the United States. The total represents 54,000,000 H.P. Washington is shown to exceed all other states, with 16% of the total, California being second with 14.5% and Oregon third with 12.3 per cent. Efforts were being made in 1921 to secure Government control of trunk lines for the distribution of hydro-electric power.

Ports and Commerce.—During and immediately after the World War the commerce passing through the district of Puget Sound was second only to that of New York. A law approved on March 14 1911 authorized the organization of ports, and where these are made coextensive with the areas of first-class counties they become ports of the first class. These have elaborate powers of taxation and management. Seattle, Tacoma, Aberdeen and other cities have taken advantage of this law to improve their harbours and to build great wharves and other conveniences to handle the increasing commerce.

Highways.—The state has embarked upon the task of providing an extensive system of improved roadways. These include the Washington link of the Pacific Highway, intended to extend from Alaska to the Straits of Magellan, another highway around Puget Sound to the Pacific; and highways across the Cascade Range and eastern Washington. The Federal Government maintains the Mt. Rainier National Park and the Olympic National Monument. Efforts were being made in 1921 to preserve the Mt. Baker and the Mt. Adam national parks. National forests include 12,000,000 ac. within the state. The Legislature has created a state Park Board authorized to receive lands for parks and to preserve strips of native forest growth along the highways.

History. Ernest Lister, Democrat, became governor in 1913 and was reëlected in 1916. He died June 14 1919, and was succeeded by Lt.-Gov. Louis F. Hart, Republican. Governor Hart was elected to succeed himself in 1920. He recommended what is known as the Governor's Administrative Code of 1921, one of the most significant changes in the state government since its organization. It was enacted by the Legislature, and many boards of commissioners were abolished. The work formerly in their hands was entrusted to appointive officers.

Commerce with many nations developed rapidly during the decade 1910-20. In Seattle there were in 1921 24 resident consuls representing foreign countries. By far the greater number of vessels coming to ports of Puget Sound were under the Japanese flag. Branches of Japanese banks were established. In 1921 the Legislature passed a law restricting alien ownership of land, aimed especially at the Japanese. It provides that: an alien shall not own land or take or hold title thereto; no person shall take or hold land or title to land for an alien; land now held by or for aliens in violation of the constitution of the state is forfeited to and declared to be the property of the state; land hereafter conveyed to or for the use of aliens in violation of the constitution or of this Act shall thereby be forfeited to and become the property of the state. The word “alien” is so defined that it does not include an alien who has in good faith declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, but does include all other aliens and all corporations and other organized groups of persons a majority of whose capital stock is owned or controlled by aliens or a majority of whose members are aliens. During the World War many yards were established for the building of steel and wooden ships. A special railway was built into the spruce forests of Clallam county to get materials for airplanes. The Federal Government established a permanent cantonment at Camp Lewis, near Tacoma. A naval training station was established on the campus of the university of Washington in Seattle.

Progressiveness was shown in such legislation as the working men's compensation law (1911), initiative and referendum (1913), recall of public officers (1913) and aid for destitute mothers (1915). To meet the high cost of government the Legislature in 1921 enacted laws levying a poll-tax on every person between the ages of 21 and 50, and a tax of one cent on each gallon of gasoline used by motor vehicles; the tuition charges in state institutions of learning, and the fees for licences for automobiles and for fish-dealers and others were also increased.

During the World War the state supplied to the army 45,154 men; navy 11,887; and marine corps 1,767. The state's subscriptions to the Liberty loans were: First, $17,070,650; Second, 38,481,100; Third, $42,907,950; Fourth, $70,189,650; Fifth, 45,024,150. (E. S. M.)