Open main menu

کتاب شکرستان

در صرف ونحو پارسي

تصنیف یونس اوکسفردي

a

GRAMMAR

of the

PERSIAN LANGUAGE,

BY SIR WILLIAM JONES,

of university college oxford, and of the royal societies

of london and copenhagen.


چو عندلیب فصاحت فروشد ای حافظ

تو قدر او نسخن کفتن دري بشکن


THE NINTH EDITION, WITH CONSIDERABLE ADDITIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS, AND SOME SPECIMENS OF THE FINEST PERSIAN AND ARABICK HAND WRITING, FOR THE EXERCISE OF THE STUDENT, BY THE REV. SAMUEL LEE, B. D. D. D. OF THE UNIVERSITY OF HALLE : HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF PARIS : HONORARY ASSOCIATE OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LITERATURE : , MEMBER OF THE ORIENTAL TRANSLATION COMMITTEE, AND OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND : AND PROFESSOR OF ARABICK IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. LONDON: PRINTED BY W. NICOL, CLEVELAND ROW, FOR PARBURY, ALLEN, AND CO. ; S. BAGSTER ; T. CUTHELL ; JOHN RICHARDSON; HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO. ; G. B. WHITTAKER ; BLACK, YOUNG, AND YOUNG J HOWELL AND STEWART ; W. MASON ; AND HENRY STEEL. 1828.

page

[ xxi ]

THE TABLE OF CONTENTS.



  1. Of the Letters,
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    page 1-4
  2. Of the Consonants,
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    4-9
  3. Of the Vowels,
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    10-12
  4. Of the Orthographical Marks,
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    12-13
  5. Numerical Values of the Letters,
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    13-14
  6. Modes of Describing Letters and Words,
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    14-17
  7. Of the Figures Tarkhim and Imalah,
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    17
  8. Praxis on the Reading,
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    17-20
  9. Kinds of Writing,
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    20-21

  1. Of the Nouns,
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    21-22

    Of Case, ----- 22-24 Of Indefinite Nouns, Nouns of Unity, S?c. - - 24-28 Of the ij of Supplication, Endearment, 8?c. - - 28-30 Of Numbers, - - - - 30-32 Of Persian Attributives, - - - 33-34 Of the Separate Pronouns, - - - 34-36 Of the Possessive Pronouns, Inseparable, tyc. - 36-37 Of the Reciprocal Pronouns, - - - 37-39 Of the Demonstrative Pronouns, - - 39-40 Of the Relative Pronouns, - - - 40-41 Of the Persian Verbs, - - - 41-42 Conjugation of Abstract and Substantive Verbs, - 42-49 Of Forming the Tenses, - - - 49-65

xxii CONTENTS.

General Paradigm Active Voice, - - page 65-69 Passive Voice, - - - • 69-72 Of the Causal Verb, - - - - 72-73 Of the Composition and Derivation of Words, - 74-81 Of the Formation of Nouns, - - - 81-84 Of Diminutive Nouns, - - - 84-85 Of the Hasili Masdar, - - - 85-87 Of Nouns of Place, - - - - 87-88 Of Compound Verbs, - - - 88-92 Of the Persian and Arabick Numerals, - - 93-95 Of the Ordinals, - - - - 95-96 Persian Adverbs, - - - - 96-97 Interrogatives, - • - 97-98 Conjunctions, Prepositions, Interjections, - 98-100 Of the Persian Syntax, - - 101 Of Indefinite Nouns, fyc. - - - 101-104 Construction of the Numerals, - 104 Of Nouns Qualifying one another, - - 104-107 Of the Comparative and Superlative Degrees, - 107-108 . Of the Relative Pronouns, - - - * 109 - 1 12 Of the Subject and Predicate, • • 112-114 Of the Concordance of the Subject and Predicate, - 114-116 Of the Subject of Verbs, - - - 116-117 On the Government of Verbs, - - 118-120 CONTENTS. xxiii Of the Term of Circumstance, - - page 120-121 Of the Noun of Discrimination, - - 121-123 Of Corroboration and Exchange, - - 123 - 124 On the Tenses of the Verb, - - - 124-125 Of the Present Tense, - - - 125-127 Of the Simple Preterite, - - - 127-128 Of the Preter imperfect and Potential Tenses, - 128-130 On the Persons, - 130-131 Of the Particles, - 131-132 APPENDIX I. Ott *Ae Arabick Verbs and Nouns, - - 133-134 Paradigm of the 1st Conjugation Active Voice, - 134-136 Passive Voice of the 1st Conjugation, - - 137-138 On the Defective Verbs, - - - 138-140 General Paradigm of the Active Voice, - 141 Of the Passive Voice, - 142 Remarks on the General Paradigm, - - 142-144 On Ababick Nouns, ... 144-145 ZVz&fe of Infinitives of the 1st Conjugation, - 145-147 Table of Pluriliterals of the 1st Conjugation, - 147-148 T«6/c of Attributives, * 148 Ta&/e of Nouns of Excess, - ' -■ - 149 Table of Jamids, ... - • 149 Table of Increased Jamids, - - 150 Ttf&/e o/ Quadriliteral Jamids, - - - 150 Ta^/e of Augmented Jamids, - - 151 xxiv CONTENTS. Table of Quinquiliteral Jdmids, - - page 151 Table of Augmented Quinquiliteral Jdmids, - - 151 Of Masdars implying Unity of Action, - - 151-2 Of the Noun of Superiority, - 152 Of the Noun of Instrument, Time, and Place, • 152-154 Of the Noun of Excess, - 154 Of the Diminutive Noun, ... 154-155 Of the Formation of the Feminine from the Masculine Gender, 155-156 Of the Relative Noun, ... 156-158 Of the Artificial Infinitive, - 159 Of Number, .... 159-161 Of the Broken Plurals, - • - 161 Tables of Broken Plurals, - - 162 Plurals of Paucity, - 162 Plurals of Multitude, - 163-165 Of the Last of Plurals, - — - 165-166 Of the Declension of Nouns, - - 166-168 On the Arabick Pronouns. Of the Separate Pronouns, ... 169 Of the Affixed Pronouns, - 169-171 Of the Reflective Pronouns, - 171 Of the Demonstrative Pronouns, ■ - - 171-173 Arabick Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections, 173-175 Oh ^e Arabick Syntax, - - 176 On the Combination of Words, - - - 176-179 CONTENTS. XXV The Concordance of the Subject with the Predicate, page 179-181 On the Objective Cases of Verbs, - - - 181 On the Use of the Tenses, - - - 182 - 183 On the Terms of Circumstance and Discrimination, 183-185 Of the Numerals, .... 185-186 Of the Abstract Verbs, - - - - 186 Of the Particles affecting the Terminations of the Present Tense, - 186-188 On the Passive Verb, - - - 188 Of Particles Affecting the Cases of Nouns, - 188-189 Of the Vocative Particles, - - - 190 On the Definite Article ال, - - - 190-191 APPENDIX II. On the Persian Pbosody, - 192 On the Quantity of Syllables, - - 192-195 On the Feet used in Persian Prosody, - - 195-196 On the Measures of the different kinds of Verse, - 196 Examples, «... 196-201 APPENDIX III. Praxis. A Persian Fable with an Analysis, - 202-228 Poetical and Prose Translations of a Persian Song, 229 -232 APPENDIX IV. A Vocabulary with Advertisement, - - 233-281