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A History of the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania/Appendix

< A History of the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania

APPENDIX.




A.—page 57.


Dr. Shippen's course of Anatomical Lectures will begin on Thursday, the 14th of November, 1765. It will consist of sixty lectures, in which the situation, figure, and structure of all the Parts of the Human Body will be demonstrated on the fresh subject; their respective uses explained, and their Diseases, with the Indications and Methods of Cure, briefly treated of; all the necessary Operations in Surgery will be performed, a Course of Bandages given, and the whole will conclude with a few plain and general directions in the Practice of Midwifery. Each Person to pay six Pistoles.

“Those who incline to attend the Pennsylvania Hospital, and have the Benefit of the curious anatomical Plates and Casts there, to pay six Pistoles to that useful Charity.

A Course of Lectures on the Materia Medica, by John Morgan, M. D., F. R. S., and Professor of Medicine in the College of Philadelphia. Price, Four Pistoles.

“This Course will commence on Monday, the 18th day of November, and be given three times a week, at the College, viz., Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, at three o’clock in the afternoon, till finished, which will last between three and four months.

“To render these lectures as instructive as possible to students of Physic, the Doctor proposes, in the course of them, to give some useful Observations on Medicine in general, and the proper manner of conducting the study of Physic. The authors to be read in the Materia Medica will be pointed out. The various Substances made use of in Medicine will be reduced under Classes suited to the principal Indications in the cure of Diseases. Similar virtues in different Plants, and their comparative powers, will be treated of, and an Enquiry made into the different Methods which have been used in discovering the Qualities of Medicines; the virtues of the most efficacious will be particularly insisted upon; the Manner of preparing and combining them will be shown by some instructive Lessons upon Pharmaceutic Chemis-try: This will open to students a general Idea both of Chemistry and Pharmacy. To prepare them more effectually for understanding the art of prescribing with Elegance and Propriety, if time allows, it is proposed to include in this course some critical Lectures upon the chief Preparations contained in the Dispensatories of the Royal College of Physicians at London and Edinburgh. The whole will be illustrated with many useful Practical Observations on Diseases, Diet, and Medicines.

“No person will be admitted without a Ticket for the whole course. Those who propose to attend this course are desired to apply to the Doctor for Tickets, at least a week before the Lectures begin. A Dollar will be required of each student, to matriculate, which will be applied in purchasing Books for a Medical Library in the College for the Benefit of the Medical Students.

John Morgan.

“P. S. Two convenient lower stores to be let by Dr. Morgan, under his dwelling on Water Street, near Walnut Street, where Mr. Mease lately lived, at a very reasonable rate.”


B.—page 91.


Commencement of the College of Philadelphia, June 28, 1769.

“The Degree of Bachelor of Medicine was conferred on James Armstrong, Josias Carroll Hall, John Hodge, John Houston, Thomas Pratt, Alexander Skinner, Myndert Veeder, and John Winder.

“The Medical Exercises were the following:—

“An oration in honor of Medicine, by Mr. Hall.

“A Forensic Dispute, whether Medicine hath done most good or harm in the world, by Messrs. Alexander Skinner and John Hodge.

“An oration on the most probable method of obtaining a good old age, by Mr. John Winder.

“In the composition of these exercises the young gentlemen gave full proofs of learning, as well as a thorough acquaintance with their subjects and the History of Physic, and they were honored with the close attention and warm approbation of the audience. Mr. Skinner’s part of the Forensic Dispute, in particular, seemed to afford singular entertainment, from the candid freedom which he took with his own Profession, and the very humorous manner in which he attempted to prove that Medicine had done more harm than good in the world; which Position of his was, however, very seriously and fully replied to by Mr. Hodge. To this succeeded a very solemn and interesting charge, in which the Provost addressed himself chiefly to the graduates in the arts, adding, with respect to the graduates in Physic, that he had prevailed on a gentleman of their own Profession, whose precepts would receive Dignity from his years and experience, to lay before them what he thought requisite as well for the honour of the College, as for promoting their own future honour and usefulness in life. This part was accordingly performed by Dr. Thomas Bond, in a manner so truly feeling and affectionate that it could not fail to make a serious impression on those for whom it was designed.”—Pennsylvania Gazette, July 6, 1769.


C.—page 75.


The following is the announcement of the course under the organization of the Faculty at the date specified:—

College of Philadelphia, Oct. 13, 1769.

Dr. Rush’s Introductory Lecture to his course of Chemistry will be delivered publickly at the College on Monday, the 30th inst., at 11 o’clock in the Forenoon.

Dr. Morgan’s Course of Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Physic will begin on Monday, the 30th inst., at 3 o’clock in the afternoon.

Dr. Bond’s Course of Clinical Lectures will begin on Tuesday, the 31st inst., at 11 o’clock in the forenoon, at the Pennsylvania Hospital.

Dr. Kuhn’s Course of Materia Medica will begin on Wednesday, the first of November, at 11 o’clock in the forenoon.

Dr. Shippen’s Course of Anatomy and Surgery will be given on Wednesday, the first of November, at six o’clock in the evening.

“Those gentlemen who propose to attend these lectures are desired to call on the respective Professors for Tickets of Admission, any time before the course commences.”—Pennsylvania Gazette.


D.—page 75.


Minutes of Board of Trustees, May 20, 1771.

“Agreed to the explanation made by the Faculty of the Clause for examining the Candidates for a Doctor’s Degree in Physic, which is as follows:—

“That such Candidates be examined on their Theses before the day of Commencement, and on that day, immediately before receiving their Degrees, they be asked a few Questions in Latin on the subject of their Thesis, which they are to answer in the same language.

“It is the order of the Trustees that the Fee for the Degree of Doctor in Physic, be to the Provost one Guinea, and one Guinea to each of the Medical Professors, and that the Public Commencement be held on Friday, June 28th.

“It is ordered that all the Fees on Degrees be paid or settled for before the conferring of Degrees.

“At the Commencement June 28th, 1771, the Degree of Bachelor of Physic was conferred on Benjamin Alison, Jonathan Easton, John Kuhn, Frederick Kuhn, Bodo Otto, Robert Pottinger, and William Smith.

“Messrs. Jonathan Elmer, of N. J.; Jonathan Potts, of Potts-grove, Pa.; James Tilton, of Dover; and Nicholas Way, of Wilmington, then presented themselves, agreeably to the Rules of the College, to defend, in Latin, the Dissertations printed for the Degree of Doctor in Physic.

“Mr. Elmer’s Piece, ‘De Causis et Remediis sitis in Febribus,’ was impugned by Dr. Kuhn, Professor of Botany and Materia Medica.

“Mr. Potts, ‘De Febribus intermittentibus, potissimum ter-tianis,’ was impugned by Dr. Morgan, Professor of the Theory and Practice of Physic.

“Mr. Tilton’s ‘De Hydrope’ was impugned by Dr. Shippen, Professor of Anatomy.

“Mr. Way’s ‘De Variolarum Insitione’ was impugned by Dr. Rush, Professor of Chemistry.

“Each of the candidates having judiciously answered the objections made to some parts of their Dissertations, the Provost conferred upon them the Degree of Doctor of Physic, with particular solemnity, as the highest mark of literary honour which they could receive in the Profession.

“Dr. Morgan, who was appointed to that part of the Business, entered into a particular account of those Branches of study which the Medical Gentlemen ought still to prosecute with unremitted Diligence, if they wished to be eminent in their Profession, laying down some useful rules for an honourable practice in the Discharge of it. He observed that the ‘oath’ which was prescribed by Hippocrates to his Disciples had been generally adopted in Universities and Schools of Physic on like occasions, and that laying aside the form of oaths, the College, which is of a free spirit, wished only to bind its Sons and Graduates by the ties of Honour and Gratitude, and that therefore he begged leave to impress upon those who had received the distinguished Degree of Doctor, that as they were among the foremost sons of the Institution, and as the Birth Day of Medical Honours had arisen upon them with auspicious lustre, they would, in their practice, consult the safety of their Patients, the good of the community, and the dignity of their Profession, so that the Seminary from which they derived their Titles in Physic, might never have cause to be ashamed of them.”


E.—page 81.


* * * “It has given Dr. Shippen much pain to hear that notwithstanding all the caution and care he has taken to preserve the utmost decency in opening and dissecting dead bodies, which he has persevered in chiefly from the motive of being useful to mankind, some evil-minded persons, either wantonly or maliciously, have reported to his disadvantage that he has taken up some persons who are buried in the Church Burying Ground, which has distressed the minds of his worthy Fellow Citizens. The Doctor, with much pleasure, improves this opportunity to declare that the Report is absolutely false, and to assure them that the bodies he dissected were either of persons who had wilfully murdered themselves, or were publickly executed, except now and then one from Potter’s field, whose death was owing to some particular disease, and that he never had one body from the church or any private Burial Place.”—Pennsylvania Gazette, Oct. 31, 1765.


F.—page 120.


Number of Graduates from 1768 to 1810.


It is impossible to present a complete list of the students attending lectures in the College and University prior to 1810. No catalogues are in existence to which to refer for information, and all that can be known of the progressive prosperity of the School is derived from the annual registration of the graduates. For a long time no regular minutes of the Faculty of Medicine appear to have been kept, and our source of knowledge of the affairs of the Medical Department is the record of the Board of Trustees. The system of rotation in the office of Dean was not calculated to secure the methodical transcription of the business operations of the Faculty, which is now desirable in determining points of historical interest, and, until the appointment of Dr. Horner as permanent Dean, perfect regularity in the preservation of all the minutiæ connected with attendance and graduation, was not introduced. The following summary may be regarded as correct with reference to the graduates within the period specified above; it was carefully prepared by Drs. Wood and Horner, and introduced into the sketch of the Medical Department published with the general list of graduates.[1]

A.D. 1768, Graduates . . 10 A.D. 1783, Graduates . . 4
1769, . . 8 1784, . . 8
1770, . . 1 1785, . . 9
1771, . . 7 1786, . . 4
1773, . . 2 1787, . . 5
1780, . . 3 1788, . . 6
1781, . . 2 1789, . . 3
1782, . . 8

It will be perceived that there is a deficiency from 1773 to 1780. This was the period of the political troubles, which occupied the attention of the country, and of the most stirring events of the Revolution.

In the College. In the University.
A.D. 1790, Graduates . . 5 A.D. 1790, Graduates . . 12
1791, . . 5 1791, . . 1

In the University from 1792 to 1810.

A.D. 1792, Graduates . . 6 A.D. 1802, Graduates . . 22
1793, . . 10 1803, . . 15
1794, . . 8 1804, . . 13
1795, . . 4 1805, . . 24
1796, . . 4 1806, . . 21
1797, . . 14 1807, . . 31
1798, . . 12 1808, . . 60
1799, . . 8 1809, . . 63
1800, . . 10 1810, . . 65
1801, . . 10

From 1810 to the present date, the lists of students and of graduates have been carefully recorded; the following is the summary:—

A.D. 1810-11 Matriculates . . 406 Graduates . . 63
1811-12 . . 387 . . 70
1812-13 . . 349 . . 61
1813-14 . . 345 . . 62
1814-15 . . 319 . . 44
1815-16 . . 388 . . 70
1816-17 . . 436 . . 74
1817-18 . . 465 . . 87
1818-19 . . 422 . . 102
1819-20 . . 330 . . 78
1820-21 . . 325 . . 66
1821-22 . . 357 . . 77
1822-23 . . 455 . . 101
1823-24 . . 424 . . 96
1824-25 . . 487 . . 111
1825-26 . . 440 . . 114
1826-27 . . 441 . . 131
1827-28 . . 409 . . 133
1828-29 . . 362 . . 109
1829-30 . . 421 . . 127
1830-31 . . 410 . . 151
1831-32 . . 386 . . 134
1832-33 . . 367 . . 117
1833-34 . . 432 . . 145
1834-35 . . 390 . . 135
1835-36 . . 398 . . 132
1836-37 . . 405 . . 162
1837-38 . . 380 . . 157
1838-39 . . 403 . . 158
1839-40 . . 444 . . 163
1840-41 . . 412 . . 166
1841-42 . . 363 . . 114

A.D. 1842-43, Matriculates . . 850 Graduates . . 117
1843-44, . . 424 . . 153
1844-45, . . 446 . . 164
1845-46, . . 462 . . 168
1846-47, . . 411 . . 163
1847-48, . . 508 . . 174
1848-49, . . 499 . . 190
1849-50, . . 439 . . 178
1850-51, . . 466 . . 167
1851-52, . . 410 . . 151
1852-53, . . 431 . . 166
1853-54, . . 463 . . 177
1854-55, . . 426 . . 178
1855-56, . . 372 . . 142
1856-57, . . 454 . . 154
1857-58, . . 435 . . 145
1858-59, . . 409 . . 142
1859-60, . . 528 . . 173
1860-61, . . 465 . . 176
1861-62, . . 309 . . 92
1862-63, . . 319 . . 78
1863-64, . . 401 . . 101
1864-65, . . 425 . . 117
1865-66, . . 520 . . 164
1866-67, . . 468 . . 156
1867-68, . . 408 . . 153


G.—page 195.


Professors of the University connected with the Pennsylvania Hospital.

1. John Morgan, from 1773 to 1777, 8 yrs. 11 mos.
1778 to 1783,
2. Adam Kuhn, 1774 to 1781, 22 yrs. 6 mos.
1782 to 1798,
3. James Hutchinson, 1777 to 1778,
1779 to 1793,
4. William Shippen, Jr., 1778 to 1779, 11 yrs. 11 mos.
1791 to 1802,
5. Benjamin Rush, 1783 to 1813, 29 yrs. 10 mos.
6. Caspar Wistar, 1793 to 1810, 16 yrs. 5 mos.
7. Philip Syng Physick, 1794 to 1816, 22 yrs. 1 mo.
8. Benjamin Smith Barton, 1798 to 1815, It yrs. 6 mos.
9. John Redman Coxe, 1802 to 1807, 4 yrs. 9 mos.
10. Thomas C. James, 1807 to 1832, 25 yrs. 10 mos.
11. John Syng Dorsey, from 1810 to 1818, 8 yrs. 6 mos.
12. Hugh L. Hodge, 1832 to 1854, 22 yrs.
13. George B. Wood, 1835 to 1859, 24 yrs.
14. Jacob Randolph, 1835 to 1848, 12 yrs. 10 mos.
15. George W. Norris, 1836 to 1863, 27 yrs.
16. William Pepper, 1842 to 1859, 17 yrs.
17. Joseph Carson, 1849 to 1854, 5 yrs.
18. Francis Gurney Smith, 1859 to 1864, 5 yrs.

Professors of the University connected with the Almshouse.

[Philadelphia Hospital.]

Adam Kuhn, 1774-1776
Benjamin Rush, 1774-1777
Samuel P. Griffitts, 1788-1789
Caspar Wistar, 1788-1790
William Shippen, Jr., 1789-1790
Thomas C. James, 1797-1821
Philip Syng Physick, 1801-1805
Benjamin Smith Barton, 1804-1805
John Syng Dorsey, 1805-1811
1814-1818
Nathaniel Chapman, 1805-1815
1822-1832
William Gibson, 1821-1840
William E. Horner, 1821-1845
Samuel Jackson, 1822-1845
Hugh L. Hodge, 1822-1835
Jacob Randolph, 1832-1837
Henry H. Smith, 1854-1857
R. A. F. Penrose, 1854-1868
Joseph Carson, 1855-1857
Alfred Stillé, 1865


H.—page 133.


The first Society established in Philadelphia originated with Dr. Morgan, and a number of other practitioners, including Dr. J. Kearsley, Jr., Gerardus Clarkson, James A. Bayard, Robert Harris, and George Glentworth. It was Called the “Philadelphia Medical Society.” To this Association reference must have been made by Dr. Rush in a letter to Dr. Morgan, in 1768, when he says: “By means of Dr. Huck’s and Dr. Franklin’s friends, I have been introduced to Sir John Pringle, and have the honour of belonging to a Medical Society, which meets every Wednesday evening at his house. The plan of it is not unlike the Medical Society you have established in Philadelphia; it consists of only eight or ten, who are all Sir John’s particular friends.” The Society in which Dr. Morgan and the gentlemen mentioned were interested, did not survive the Revolution, when another Association was formed, entitled the “American Medical Society.” With respect to this we have met with the following notice:—

“ The American Medical Society will meet at the College on Monday, Nov. 2d (1783), at 7 o’clock in the evening.

Henry Stuber, Sec.

Four other Societies subsequently came into existence. The College of Physicians was organized in 1787, and was the third body of medical men associated for medical improvement. Next came the Philadelphia Medical Society, the Academy of Medicine, and the Medical Lyceum, which latter, in 1816, was merged into the Medical Society.

The Philadelphia Medical Society was instituted in 1789, was first incorporated in 1792, and re-chartered in 1827. It was intended “for the purpose of mutual improvement in the science of medicine, and for the promoting of medical knowledge.” It consisted of Junior and Honorary members; the first-mentioned pertaining to the class of students. The exercises consisted of papers on medical subjects, and debates upon them, in which all were permitted to participate. This Society, after a spirited career of sixty years, ceased an active existence in 1846. Besides Drs. Rush and Barton, two other Professors of the University were elected to the office of President. Dr. Physick succeeded Dr. Barton in 1815, and Dr. Chapman succeeded Dr. Physick in 1837. It was the fourth Medical Society organized in this city, and was evidently founded in imitation of the Edinburgh Medical Society.

  1. The General Catalogue of Graduates was published in 1839, and revised in 1845.