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This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1924. It may be copyrighted outside the U.S. (see Help:Public domain).

A


PRACTICAL TREATISE


ON


BREWING,


BASED

ON CHEMICAL AND ECONOMICAL PRINCIPLES;


WITH

FORMULÆ FOR PUBLIC BREWERS,

AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR

Private Families.


BY WILLIAM BLACK,

PRACTICAL BREWER.


FOURTH EDITION.


LONDON:

PRINTED FOR

LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS,

PATERNOSTER-ROW.

1849.

London
Spottiswoodes and Shaw,
New-street-square




Dedication of the Third Edition.


TO

THOMAS GRAHAM, ESQ.,

PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY IN THE LONDON UNIVERSITY,

F. R. S., &c. &c.,


This Work is Dedicated,


AS A TESTIMONY OF


HIGH RESPECT FOR HIS PROFESSIONAL ABILITIES,


AND ESTEEM FOR HIS PRIVATE WORTH,


BY


HIS OBLIGED AND FAITHFUL FRIEND,

THE AUTHOR.




PREFACE

TO THE THIRD EDITION.




The success of two Editions of the Treatise on Brewing, has encouraged the Author to offer to the Public a Third Edition, carefully revised and corrected. A considerable quantity of important matter has also been added, which has had the benefit of being revised by Professor Graham, of the London University, whose eminence in the science of Chemistry is universally acknowledged. In no instance does the Author refer to the opinions of others: all the information which he communicates being derived entirely from his own practical experience, in all parts of the United Kingdom.




CONTENTS.




....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7
As commonly met with in springs
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8
Stagnant
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9
Running
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
11
Different qualities described
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
12
Specific gravity
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
12
Temperatures at which germination is destroyed
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
13
Component parts of, and malt
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
15
Best for malting
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
16
Time allowed for wetting
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
17
How to work on floors
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
18
Drying
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
20
Best mode of drying
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
21
How to select
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
22
Shipped malts
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
23
How to judge of quality
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
25
Grinding
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
26
When necessary to be re-dried
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
27
Brown or blown malts
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
28
Roasted
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
29
Injurious effects of electro-chemical action on fermentation
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
30
Paper read to the British Association
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
31
Cases in point No.1
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
39
2
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
40
3
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
42
4
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
43
5
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
45
Letter to the Author
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
48
Site of
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
49
Coppers, size of
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
50
Mash-tun, ditto
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
51
Underback, ditto
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
51
Coolers, size of and construction of
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
52
Fermenting tuns, ditto
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
53
Of metals, such as are generally used
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
54
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
56
Further remarks on
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
59
Best temperature for
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
59
No time to be lost
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
62
Use of hot or cold Water in last mashings
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
64
Produce of, according to barrels turned on the malt
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
66
Charring the worts by high pressure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
71
Long or short boiling
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
71
On the tendency of worts to get tainted in the coolers: its causes and preventives
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
72
How to calculate
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
78
How best to be taken
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
81
How to be considered
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
83
Regulators for gyle-tuns
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
85
Best description of, as recommended by the Author
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
85
Best mode of preserving
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
88
Best quantities to be used in Brewing
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
89
M. Turpin’s theory
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
92
Professor Liebeg’s refutation
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
93
Whether frequent changes of yeast are necessary or not in the brewery
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
95
Letter to the Author, by Mr. Baker
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
97
Ditto by Messrs. Nash
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
98
Ditto by Messrs. Holt
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
98
Causes of Unsoundness
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
99
Litmus paper an useful test
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
101
Best temperatures for
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
102
Supposed cause of using over-high temperatures
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
102
Regular fermentation described
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
103
Irregular ditto ditto
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
106
Inert ditto ditto
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
107
Boiling ditto ditto
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
108
Close ditto ditto
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
109
Long and short ditto
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
110
Skimming ditto ditto
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
112
Fretting ditto ditto
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
113
Yeast-bitten ditto ditto
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
114
Acetous fermentation described
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
115
Distillers’ Wash
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
117
Further remarks
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
118
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
120
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
121
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
123
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
127
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
129
Best season for Brewing
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
130
Slack dried or moist Malt hurtful
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
133
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
133
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
136
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
138
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
139
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
141
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
144
Causes of Beer not keeping
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
147
Mode of Preparing
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
154
How to be used
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
155
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
157
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
158
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
159
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
161
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
163
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
164

APPENDIX.


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
162
For a party gyle
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
175
Fermentation of the Best Ale
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
182
Second Ale
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
184
Further remarks on Boiling
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
187
One Copper Two Boilings
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
189
One Copper One Boiling
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
194
Ale of twenty-six pounds’ Gravity
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
194
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
198
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
207
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
208
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
215
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
217
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
219
Atmospheric Electricity
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
232
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
236
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
244
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
246
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
248