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A Simplified Grammar of the Swedish Language/Part I/Pronouns

PRONOUNS. (Ersättningsord.)

The Personal Pronouns in Swedish are:—

Singular.
Nom., jag, I; du, thou; han, he; hon, she; det, it.
Gen., hans; hennes; dess.
D., Acc., mig; dig; honom; henne; det; sig, self (reflect).


Plural.
Nom., vi, we; i, ni, you; de, they.
Gen., deras.
D., Acc., oss; eder (er); dem.

The reflective pronoun sig is used in all genders for the third person, both singular and plural. For the special use of the personal pronouns, see Part II.

The Possessive Pronouns are:—

Singular. Plural.
masc. and fem. neuter. all genders.
min, mitt, my. mina, my.
din, ditt, thy. dina, thy.
sin, sitt, his, her. sina, their.
vår, vårt, our. våra, our.
eder, er, edert (ert), your. edra, your.

Sin, sitt, sina are used (as in Danish) in a subjective reflective sense, whilst hans, hennes, dess are only used objectively; as, Fadern äskar sitt barn, och söker befrämja dess väl, 'a father loves his (own) child, and strives to promote his (the child's) welfare.

The Demonstrative Pronouns are:—

Singular. Plural.
masc. and fem. neuter. all genders.
Nom., etc., den, det, the, this, that. N., de, the, these.
G., dess (dens), dess, " G., deras, " "
D., Acc., dem, " "
Singular.
masc. fem. neuter.
Nom., denne (a), denna, detta, this.
Gen., dennes (as), dennas, dettas, "
Plural.
masc. fem. neuter.
Nom., desse (a), dessa, dessa.
Gen., desses (as), dessas, dessas.
Sing., den samme (a), m., den samma, f., det samma, the same
Plur., de samme (a), " de samma, " de samma, ""

The Reciprocal Pronouns hvarandra, hvarannan, 'one another,' 'each other,' take s in the genitive.

The Interrogative and Relative Pronouns are:—

Nom., ho, hvem, who; hvad, what.
Gen., hvars (hvems), " hvars, "
D., Acc., hvem, " hvad, "

Hvad för en, m., f., hvad för ett, n., hvad för, pl., are occasionally used instead of the relative hvilken, m., f., hvilket, n., Gen. hvilkens, hvilkets, N. A. D. pl. hvilka, for all genders, Gen. hvilkas, 'which.'

Som, 'whom,' 'which,' 'that,' is not declinable.

The principal Indefinite Pronouns are:—

En, Gen. ens, pl. ena, 'one,' 'some one,' generally used only in the objective case.

Man, 'one,' 'they,' used only in the nominative singular.

Någon, m., f., något, n., pl. några, 'some one,' 'any one;' ingen, m., f., intet, n., pl. inga, 'no one,' 'none;' bägge, båda, 'both;' mången, m., f., månget, n., pl. många, 'many,' 'many a one;' annan, m., f., annat, n., pl. andra, 'other;' ömse, 'both,' 'each;' sjelf, m., f., sjelft, n., pl. sjelfva, 'other;' dylik, 'such;' egen, m., f., eget, n., pl. egna, 'own.'