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A Simplified Grammar of the Swedish Language/Part II/Adverbs

Adverbs. (Omständighetsord.)

The place of the adverb in Swedish is in many cases identical with that which it occupies in English; as, den unga flickan taler väl, 'the young girl speaks well;' dagen derpå, gik han bort, 'the day after, he went away;' glädjen är förbi, 'the pleasure is over;' der du är, der vil jag vara! 'where you are, there I will be!'

The affirmative ja is used where no negative is involved, jo where the question is put in a negative form; as, Var soldaten hër i går? 'Was the soldier here yesterday?' Ja, 'Yes.' Var icke soldaten der? 'Was not the soldier there?' Jo, 'Yes.' The word ju gives a confirmative or more emphatic significance to the sentence; as, du var ju der i går? 'you (surely) were there yesterday?' It is used in connection with comparative modes of expression, and may be rendered by 'the,' as, ju för ju hellere, 'the sooner the better.'

The negative icke, 'not,' is a modification of the Old Northern gi which also appears in aldrig (aldrige), 'never.' This and ej, inte, 'not,' often follow the verb both in questions and affirmatives; as, Sjunger icke foglen? 'Is not the bird singing?' Lärkan sjunger icke, 'The lark is not singing;' Känner du inte igen doktorn här? 'Do you not know the doctor again?' Nej, jag kan inte erinra mig, 'No, I cannot remember (him).'

Certain adverbs may be used in Swedish in the same attributive sense as in English; as, endast Gud är allvetande, 'only God is omniscient.'

Others may be used with a preposition in the sense of a noun; as, jag har ej sett honom på länge, 'I have not seen him for a long time;' du har fält nog af tårar, 'you have shed enough tears.'

Some adverbs are used as relative or demonstrative pronouns; as, det tidehvarf hvari Luther framstod var en af de stora verldshistoriska epoker, 'the age in which Luther appeared marked one of the great historical epochs of the world;' hvarest vinet går in, der går vettet ut, 'where wine enters in, sense goes out.'