A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative


Welsh grammar

Historical and comparative


J. Morris Jones, M.A.

Professor of Welsh at the University College of North Wales, Bangor
late research fellow of Jesus College, Oxford

Phonology and accidence

at the Clarendon Press

Oxford University Press

LondonEdinburghGlasgowNew York

Humphrey Milford M.A.

Publisher to the University


This book”, as V. Henry says of his Breton Lexique, “has the mis­fortune to have a history.” It would be tedious, even if it were possible, to relate it in detail; but the long delay in the appear­ance of the work calls for a brief account of the facts by way of expla­nation and apology.

In the early nineties I contributed to the new edition of the Welsh encyclo­paedia Y Gwyddo­niadur an article on the Welsh language, which contained a sketch of Welsh grammar. This sketch was expanded in a course of lectures delivered to the Junior and Inter­mediate classes at Bangor after the founda­tion of the Univer­sity of Wales. The idea occurred to me of preparing the substance of the lectures for publi­cation as a textbook of Welsh grammar; but I was unable at the time to carry out the investi­gation which seemed to me necessary before such a book could be properly written.

The work was intended to be a descriptive grammar of Modern Welsh with special reference to the earlier period. Late Modern Welsh is more arti­ficial, and in some respects further removed from the spoken language, than Early Modern Welsh, owing largely to the influence of false etymo­logical theories; and the object which I had in view was the practical one of determin­ing the tradi­tional forms of the literary language. Even scholars have been deceived by the ficti­tious forms found in diction­aries; thus “dagr” given by Silvan Evans, after Pughe, as the sg. of dagrau, is quoted as a genuine form even by Strachan, Intr. 33; see below p. 212 Note. I had however chiefly in mind the ordinary writer of the language, to whom a clear idea of the literary tradition is at least equally important. The first draft of the book was begun in 1899; but I was dis­satisfied with it, and made a fresh start a year or two later. The progress of the second draft was much hindered by exami­nation work which took up the greater part of my long vacation for some years. In 1907 I had finished the accidence and written more than half of the syntax. As Early Modern lite­rature consists almost wholly of verse in the strict metres, I found myself in the syntax quoting more and more from Medieval prose. At last I was forced to the conclu­sion that the Medieval period would have to be dealt with in the earlier portion, which would therefore have to be entirely re-written. Many Medieval forms had already been quoted in it, in order to show that the Early Modern forms followed the old tradition, espe­cially where the late written form is arti­ficial; in some cases the etymology also was given, in order to show further that the tradi­tional form had developed regularly. In re-casting the first portion I thought it would be well to bring together the laws by which Welsh sounds are derived from Keltic and Primitive Aryan, so that by reference to them any formation or word might be compared with its cognates, and traced to its origin. Thus from a descrip­tive grammar of Modern Welsh the book grew into a Welsh Grammar Histor­ical and Compar­ative.

In its present form the work was commenced early in 1908; and the Phonology and Accidence now published were completed in the Spring of 1912. The volume has taken a year to print; and I have not found the time too long for the final revision of the copy and the correc­tion of proofs.

A few words may here be said of the most important previous works on the subject. The earliest known Welsh grammar is that preserved in the Red Book of Hergest (r.g.), and printed from a late copy as Dosparth Edeyrn Dafod Aur by Ab Ithel; apart from the treatment of sounds and metres this is little more than a defi­nition of the parts of speech. Simwnt Vychan's grammar (P.Ỻ.) is also of value only for its prosody. The first printed Welsh grammar was written by Dr. Griffith Roberts, and appeared at Milan in 1567. It gives an interest­ing account of the language as it was written before the influence of Salesbury made itself felt; but the most remark­able feature of the book is the section on etymology, which records the discovery by the author of the fact that the sound-changes which take place in Latin loan-words were capable of being stated as laws. Dr. J. D. Rhys's grammar appeared in 1592. The author wrote excellent Welsh, though his peculiar alphabet makes it appear uncouth; and his grammar is an attempt to describe the language as he wrote it. It is cast almost wholly in the form of tables, and is less syste­matic in reality than in appear­ance. The prosody, which is valuable, was contrib­uted by contem­porary bards. In 1593 a small grammar was published by Henry Salesbury, in which literary and dialectal forms are given, but are not distin­guished.

Dr. John Davies published his grammar in 1621, the year after the appear­ance of the revised Bible, which is believed to be chiefly his work. The grammar repre­sents the result of a careful study of the works of the bards. It was the first Welsh grammar to be based on an exami­nation of the actual facts of the language of standard authors. Medieval bards are quoted in modern­ized spelling; in that respect, therefore, the work is not in the strict sense histori­cal. But the author's analysis of the Modern literary language is final; he has left to his succes­sors only the correc­tion and amplifi­cation of detail.

The grammar of William Owen (later W. O. Pughe) prefixed to his Diction­ary, 1803, stands at the opposite pole. It is written on the same principle as the diction­ary, and repre­sents the language not as it is, or ever was, but as it might be if any suffix could be attached mechanic­ally to any stem. The author's method can best be realized by imagining a Latin gram­marian evolving out of the stems of volo the presents ind. volo, volis, volit; vīo, vīs, vīt ; vulo, vuls, vult; velo, vels, velt; vello, vellis, vellit, and the infin­itives volere, vīere, vulere, velere, vellere, with perhaps a note stating that these infin­itives are “seldom used” (see his Gr.² 66, 68), or alterna­tively a footnote to the effect that velle “is as often used” (do. 67). Examples are quoted of such forms as are genuine; and the impres­sion is conveyed by the suggestio falsi of “seldom”, “as often”, and the like, that the others also occur. To the author truth meant con­formity with his theory; facts, perverse enough to disagree, were glossed over to save their character.

In 1853 appeared the first edition of Rowland’s work, which was regarded for more than a gene­ration as the standard grammar of Modern Welsh. It is for the most part a descrip­tion of the written Welsh of the 19th century; but the paradigms contain many of Pughe’s spurious forms. The author had prac­tically no knowledge of any Welsh older than that of the Bible transla­tion; he records recent usages, but is unable to throw any light on them, or to decide between genuine and counter­feit forms. The use which he makes of Dr. Davies often shows that he was incapable of under­standing him; e.g. in profess­ing to give Davies's table of diph­thongs, after including iw wy among the falling diph­thongs he imagines that he has done with those combi­nations, and omits them from the rising class, without perceiv­ing that the very object of the classifi­cation is to distin­guish between falling iw̯ w͡y and rising i̯w w̯y. But his book contains a quantity of sound, if ill-digested, infor­mation about Late Welsh; and marks the return to common sense after the domi­nation of Pughe.

The foundations of modern Keltic philology were laid by I. C. Zeuss in his great Gram­matica Celtica, which was published in 1853. The sections devoted to Welsh grammar contain a wonder­fully complete and accurate analysis of the language of the Red Book Mabi­nogion (ed. Lady Charlotte Guest, 1849), the Black Book of Chirk (in a.l., 1841), and the Welsh passages in Liber Landa­vensis (ed. Rees, 1840).

In 1908 appeared the first part of Pedersen’s Ver­gleichende Grammatik der kelti­schen Sprachen; two of the remaining three parts have since been issued. This important work is mainly compar­ative as its title suggests, and deals with the deri­vation and develop­ment of the gram­matical forms of all the Keltic languages. It records the latest results of Keltic philology, but is in some respects rather markedly indi­vidual.

Strachan’s Introduction to Early Welsh appeared posthumously in 1909. It contains a Medieval Welsh grammar, reader and glossary. The grammar was written by Strachan in a few weeks in 1907, and one cannot but wonder with his editor at “the amazing rapidity with which he toiled”. The work embodies forms from texts inac­cessible to Zeuss, and is naturally the product of a more advanced knowledge. Its value is somewhat lessened by the fact that a large number of forms and phrases are quoted without refer­ences.

Of the scope of the present work I have already spoken. It embraces roughly that of the grammars of Davies, Strachan, and Pedersen (so far as this relates to Welsh). The sections dealing with the deri­vation of Welsh sounds were planned and partly written before the appear­ance of Pedersen’s work; but I had the advantage of consult­ing the latter in filling in the detail. I have however examined each rule for myself; many new examples are adduced, and the conclu­sion arrived at differs in some cases from Pedersen’s. In §§ 75, 76 I have attempted a solution of the extra­ordinarily difficult problems presented by the develop­ment of original diph­thongs in Welsh. I hope the result is in the main sound, though some of the details are tentative. In § 63 I have endeav­oured to compress into a few pages an account of the Aryan vowel system, a knowledge of which is essential to an under­standing of the vocalism of the derived languages. The section follows the lines of Hirt’s sugges­tive work Der idg. Ablaut; the notation (R, F, etc.) is an adap­tation and elabo­ration of Hirt’s. Apart from the Welsh examples the section contains nothing new except the notes on the place of a in the system (v (2)) and the treatment of long diph­thongs (vii (5)). In the discus­sion of philo­logical questions generally my obliga­tion to Brugmann’s great work is so obvious as hardly to need statement; for the writing of pre­historic forms his scheme has been adopted, and is departed from in only one partic­ular: ₑr, ₑn etc. are used here, as by Hirt, instead of r̥r, n̥n etc. I have also learnt much from Meillet’s brilliant Intro­duction, and have borrowed from him the con­venient use of the term “sonant” to denote the sounds which oscillate between vowels and conso­nants in Pr. Ar. In the search for the origin and cognates of Welsh vocables I have made extensive use of Walde’s Wörter­buch, which contains, in a concise form and fully indexed, a vast collec­tion of the results of recent investi­gation in this field; Boisacq’s Diction­naire I have also found most valuable. For the purposes of Keltic philology I have consulted with much profit Thurney­sen’s admirable grammar of Old Irish. The sections treating of the deri­vation of sounds are fuller than they were origi­nally intended to be; and with the material thus provided I was led further to attempt to trace to their origin all inflex­ions and important grammat­ical forms. But in order to save space I have generally given only the expla­nation which seemed to me in each case the most probable; thus the fact that Pedersen’s equation of W. ynteu with Ir. intī or his deri­vation of eiδ-aw from *esi̯o is not mentioned does not neces­sarily mean that it has not been consid­ered, but that I regard it as less likely than the expla­nation offered in the text.

I have to express my gratitude to Dr. Gwenogvryn Evans, who was kind enough to lend me for the purposes of this work his manu­script referred to as tr., his tran­scripts of numerous poems by G.Gr., G.Gl., Gu.O., D.N., D.E., H.D., I.F. and Ỻ., and to furnish me with proofs of w.m. before it was issued, and of r.p. and b.t. which have not yet appeared; and to Mr. J. H. Davies who gener­ously lent me for several years his tran­scripts of about 200 of the poems of T.A., and verified readings for me in mss. at the National Library. For the latter service I am also indebted to Mr. T. Gwynn Jones at the National Library, and to Mr. J. Ifano Jones at the Free Library, Cardiff. I have to thank Mr. Shankland for the readiness with which he has assisted me in various ways at the Library of the Univer­sity College of North Wales. The first proof of every sheet was read by my colleague Professor Hudson-Williams; proofs of the Accidence were read by my assistant Mr. Ifor Williams; proofs of the Phonology and revises of the Accidence were read by Sir John Rhys. To each of them, and to the Reader at the Press, I am indebted for the correc­tion of errors which had escaped me. Every reference to a printed book was verified by myself in the first proofs, and I hope few errors remain un­connected; refer­ences to mss. were compared with my notes and with entries in the Report on Welsh Manu­scripts, but it was of course impos­sible, except in a few cases, to check the reading with the original. My thanks are due to Mr. Ifor Williams for much valuable criticism and many hints; I owe to him the expla­nation of i’w, Ml. yw, as a metath­esis of w͡y p. 277, see p. xxvii below. I desire to acknowl­edge my deep obli­gation to my teacher Sir John Rhys, who has always been ready to help with criticism and advice. Lastly, I owe a debt of gratitude to the Fellows of Jesus College who elected me to a research fellow­ship for a period in order to enable me to devote my long vacations to the work.

J. Morris Jones.

May 31st, 1913.


Introduction: page
Origin and General History 1
Orthography and Pronunciation:
The Alphabet 9
The Vowels 11
The Consonants 18
Note.—Transcription 29
Sounds in Combination:
Syllabic Division 30
Diphthongs. Falling Diphthongs 31
Rising Diphthongs 37
Ambiguous Groups 41
Accentuation 47
Quantity 65
The Aryan Vowels in Keltic 74
Aryan Vowel Gradation 78
Keltic Vowels in British and Welsh 85
The Short Vowels 85
Affection of Short Vowels 89
The Long Vowels 93
The Diphthongs 97
Later Modifications of Vowels 110
Vowel Variation in Modern Welsh 116
Vowel Mutation 116
Vowel Affection 120
The Aryan Consonants in Keltic and British 122
The Explosives 124
The Spirants 133
The Sonants 147
Interchange of Consonants:
Consonant Alternation 155
Assimilation, Dissimilation, and Metathesis 159
British and Latin Consonants in Welsh:
The Soft Mutation 161
The Nasal Mutation 167
The Spirant Mutation 175
Initial Mutation 176
Later Consonant Changes:
Loss of Voiced Spirants and Sonants 177
Provection 181
Loss of Syllables 188
The Article 192
Nouns 194
Number 195
Parisyllabic Nouns 195
Imparisyllabic Nouns 198
u-stems 198
n-stems 200
i-stems 202
t-stems 206
r-stems 209
Vowel Changes 210
Plural of Nouns with Singular Endings 213
Plural formed from Derivatives 214
Double Plurals 215
Plural Doublets 216
Singular Doublets 217
Desynonymized Doublets 218
Anomalous Plurals 219
Nouns with no Plural 220
Nouns with no Singular 221
Gender 222
Derivative Nouns 229
Number 234
Gender 238
Comparison 241
Derivative Adjectives 255
Numerals 258
Compound Nouns and Adjectives 260
Personal Pronouns 270
Possessive Adjectives 282
The Relative Pronoun 284
Interrogative Pronouns, Adjectives and Adverbs 289
Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives 294
Pronominalia 299
Verbs 315
The Regular Verb 317
Notes and Additional Forms 319
Origins of the Welsh Verb:  
The Aryan Verb 330
The Welsh Verb 331
Contracted Forms 340
Irregular Verbs:
The Verb 'To Be' 346
Compounds of the Verb 'To Be' 351
Af, Gwnaf, Deuaf 359
Verbs with Old Perfects 369
Verbs with t-Aorists 372
Defective Verbs 373
Verbal Stems 380
Verbal Nouns 385
Verbal Adjectives 396
Compound Verbs 397
Prepositions 397
Adverbs 422
Conjunctions 440
Interjections 450
Index 453


I. Signs

√ ‘root’.

< ‘from, comes from’.
> ‘giving, gives’.
The angle points in the direction of the change.

: ‘(is) cognate with’, used to connect forms having a common element, but usually varying in formation or vowel-grade. The common use of the sign as roughly equiv­alent to ‘viz.’ does not clash with the above, and has been retained.

= is used for three purposes; (1) between forms which according to the laws of their respec­tive languages imply the same ground-form; it replaces the usual colon only where it is desired to point out identity of formation as well as of root, etc.;—(2) between refer­ences to, or various readings of, the same passage in two different mss.;—(3) between two desig­nations of the same ms., book or person; or two charac­ters of the same value, etc.

≡ ‘(is) pronounced’; it generally introduces a phonetic transcription, see Note p. 29; but in some cases the phonetic spelling occurs in contem­porary texts, and a reference is given.

| denotes syllabic division, see p. 31; division of feet on p. 18.

/ (1) between words quoted denotes that they rhyme, or correspond in cyng­hanedd, i.e. have the same conso­nantism or accen­tuation or both;—(2) between letters denotes that they alternate, see e.g. § 101 iii;—(3) in refer­ences, see VI i.

* prefixed to a form denotes that it is not attested, but only inferred from a compar­ison of cognates, or from the known action of sound-laws. It also marks hypo­thetical forms (and meanings) generally.

A dot under a vowel denotes that it is sounded close.

A comma under a vowel denotes that it is sounded open.

˛ under a vowel denotes that it is nasalized; thus Fr. bon.

Marks and symbols explained in the body of the work: accent marks § 39; , § 100; § 17 xi ¶; w͡y § 38 i; l̥, m̥, n̥, r̥ § 57; ₑn, etc. § 61 i (2), § 62 i (2), § 63; ə § 57; k̑, g̑, q, ɡ, q ɡ § 84; ŋ, ŋ̑, § 17 vi; § 19 iv; §16 ii (3), § 25 iii; ɏ § 16 v (2); ɥ, ỿ; § 16 i; § 22 iv; § 17 iv; δ § 19 iii; χ, χ̑ § 17 iii; § 14 ii (2); F, F°, L, L°, V, R, R², R₁ etc. § 63.

Meanings are given in single inverted commas; double inverted commas are used to quote the words of the original when the words explained are taken from a trans­lation; also as ordinary quotation marks.

II. Terms

abl. ‘ablative’

acc. ‘accusative’

adj. ‘adjective’

adv. ‘adverb’

aff. ‘affixed’ (in Index ‘affir­mative’)

anal. ‘analog-y, -ical’

aor. ‘aorist’

auto. ‘autograph’

cf. ‘compare’

conj. ‘conjunctive’ or ‘conju­gation’

cpv. ‘comparative’

dat. ‘dative’

def. ‘definite’

denom. ‘denominative’

do. ‘same book (or author)’

e.g. ‘for example’

eqtv. ‘equative’

f., fem. ‘feminine’

gen. ‘genitive’

gl. ‘gloss on’

ib. ‘same book and page’

id. ‘same meaning’

i.e. ‘that is’

impers., imps. ‘imper­sonal’

impf. ‘imperfect’

impv. ‘imperative’

ind. ‘indicative’

indef. ‘indefinite’

inf. ‘infixed’

inj. ‘injunctive’

instr. ‘instrumental’

interr. ‘interrogative’

intj. ‘interjection’

l.c. ‘in place cited’

lit. ‘liter-ary, -ally’

loc. ‘locative’

m., mas., ‘masculine’

nom. ‘nominative’

obj. ‘object(ive)’

obl. ‘oblique’

orig. ‘original(ly)’

perf. ‘perfect’

pers. ‘person(al)’

pl. ‘plural’

plup. ‘pluperfect’

pos. ‘positive’

pref. ‘prefix(ed)’

prep. ‘preposition’

pres. ‘present’

prob. ‘probably’

pron. ‘pronoun’ or ‘pro­nounced’ according to context.

prov. ‘proverb’

q.v. ‘which see’

redupl. ‘reduplicated’

rh. ‘rhyming’

sc. ‘scribal’

sg. ‘singular’

spv. ‘superlative’

subj. ‘subjunctive’, rarely ‘subject’

suff. ‘suffix’

s.v. ‘under the word’

unacc. ‘unaccented’

v.a., v.adj. ‘verbal adj.’

vb. ‘verb’

v.n. ‘verbal noun’

voc. ‘vocative’

III. Languages

Abbreviations denoting languages are obvious contractions of the names of languages given on p. 1.

Mn. ‘Modern'. Ml. ‘Medieval’ or ‘Middle'. O. ‘Old'. Pr. ‘Primitive'.

Note that Ir. means ‘Old Irish’ as in Thurneysen Gr., Vendryes Gr., and Windisch, Irische Texte. Ml. and Mn. Ir. are so named.

O.E. ‘Old English’ = Anglo-Saxon. O.H.G. ‘Old High German’. Gathav. ‘Gathic Avestic’, Oldest Avestic.

Hes(ych). designates forms and meanings from the Lexicon of Hesychius.

IV. Authorities

Periodicals and works on grammar and philology

Ab Ithel, see Dosp. Ed.

Anwyl, Gr.: A Welsh Grammar for Schools…​By E. Anwyl, M.A. Oxon. London 1898–9.

Arch. Camb.: Archæologia Cambrensis.

Boisacq: Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque…​Par Émile Boisacq. α–ὀρχ-. Heidelberg and Paris 1907-13.

Brugmann: Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen2… Strass­burg, I 1897, II i 1906, II ii 1911. [The Eng. trans. of the 1st edn., vol. iv, 1895 = 1 II iii revised, has also been used.]

Camden4: Britannia…​Londini 1594.

CIL.: Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Berolini 1862 ff.

Coel. y B.: Traethawd ar Hynafiaeth ac Awdurdodaeth Coelbren y Beirdd…​Gann Taliesin Williams (Ab Iolo). Llanym­ddyfri 1840.

Cymmrodor: Y Cymmrodor, the Magazine of the Honour­able Society of Cymmro­dorion.

D.: Antiqvæ Lingvæ Britannicæ, nunc communiter dictæ Cambro-Britannicae…​Rvdimenta…​Londini 1621, by Dr. John Davies of Mallwyd, author of D.D. below; see above, p. v.

D.D.: Antiquæ Linguæ Britannicæ, Nunc vulgo dictae Cambro-Britannicæ…​et Lingvae Latinæ Dictio­narium Duplex…​Londini, Impensis Joan. Davies SS. Th. D. An. Dom. 1632.

Dosp. Ed.: Dosparth Edeyrn Davod Aur; or the Ancient Welsh Grammar…​to which is added Y Pum Llyfr Kerddwriaeth…​With Eng. trans. and Notes, by the Rev. John Williams Ab Ithel M.A. Llan­dovery 1856.

Fick4 ii : Urkeltischer Sprachschatz von Whitley Stokes. Übersetzt…​von Adalbert Bezzen­berger. Göttingen 1894, being the 2nd vol. of the 4th ed. of Verglei­chendes Wörter­buch der indo­germani­schen Sprachen von August Fick.

G. Mechain: Gwaith y Parch. Walter Davies A.C. (Gwallter Mechain). Dan ol. y Parch. D. Silvan Evans B.D. 3 vols. Caer­fyrddin 1868.

G.R.: Dosparth Byrr ar y rhann gyntaf i ramadeg cymraeg…​[Milan] 1567. Reprinted as a suppl. to RC. 1870–83 under the title A Welsh Grammar and other Tracts by Griffith Roberts.

Henry (or Henry Lex.): Lexique étymologique des termes les plus usuels du breton moderne. Par Victor Henry. Rennes 1900.

Hirt Abl.: Der indogermanische Ablaut…​von Herman Hirt. Strass­burg 1900.

Holder: Altceltischer Sprachschatz. Leipzig 1891 ff.

IA.: Anzeiger fur indogermanische Sprach- und Altertumskunde. Supplement to IF.

IF.: Indogermanische Forschungen. Zeitschrift für indo­germani­sche Sprach- und Altertums­kunde, herausgeg. von K. Brugmann und W. Streit­berg. Strass­burg.

J.D.R.: Cambrobrytannicæ Cymraecæve Lingvæ Institvtiones et Rvdimenta​…​con­scripta à Joanne Dauide Rhæso Monensi Lan­uaethlæo Cambro­brytanno. Londini 1592.

J.J.: Transcripts and original notes on orthography etc. in the hand of John Jones of Gelli Lyfdy, fl. 1590-1630.

KZ.: Kuhn's Zeitschrift = Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprach­forschung auf dem Gebiete der indo­germani­schen Sprachen.

Legonidec: Grammaire celto-bretonne​…​Par J. F. M. M. A. Legonidec. Paris 1807

Lhuyd: Archæologia Britannica​…​By Edward Lhuyd​…​Oxford 1707.

Lindsay: The Latin Language: An Historical Account of Latin Sounds, Stems, and Flexions. By W. M. Lindsay. Oxford 1894.

Lindsay EWS.: Early Welsh Script. By W. M. Lindsay. Oxford 1912.

Llyfryddiaeth: Llyfryddiaeth y Cymry​…​Gan y diweddar Barch. William Rowlands (Gwilym Lleyn). Ed. by D. Silvan Evans. Llan­idloes 1869.

Loth Voc.: Vocabulaire vieux-breton​…​Par J. Loth. Paris 1884.

Macbain: An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language. By Alexander Macbain. 2Stirling 1911.

Meillet Dial.: Les dialectes indo-européens. Par A. Meillet. Paris 1908.

Meillet Intr.: Introduction à l'étude comparative des langues indo-européennes. 2Paris 1908.

Mendus Jones Gr.: Gramadeg Cymreig Ymarferol​…​Gan J. Mendus Jones (1Llan­idloes 1847), 2 Caer­narfon n.d.

Mona Ant.: Mona Antiqua Restaurata​…​By Henry Rowlands. 1Dublin 1723.

MSL.: Mémoires de la Societé de Linguistique de Paris. Paris.

O'Donovan (or O'Don. Gr.): A Grammar of the Irish Language​…​By John O'Donovan. Dublin 1845.

Paul-Strong: Principles of the History of Language. By Hermann Paul. Trans. by H. A. Strong. London 1891.

Pedersen Gr.: Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen, von Holger Pedersen. i Göttingen 1909; ii, 1. Teil ib. 1911.

Sir J. Price: see y.l.h. under VI ii.

R. I. Prys: Orgraph yr Iaith Gymraeg. Gan R. I. Prys a Thomas Stephens. Dinbych 1859.

Pughe: A Dictionary of the Welsh Language​…​To which is prefixed a Welsh Grammar. By W. Owen Pughe. 2Denbigh 1832.

RC.: Revue Celtique​…​Paris.

Rhys CB.: Celtic Britain. By J. Rhys. London 21884.

Rhys CC.: Notes on The Coligny Calendar. By Sir John Rhŷs. From the Proceedings of the British Academy iv.

Rhys CF.: Celtic Folklore Welsh and Manx. By John Rhŷs​…​Oxford 1901.

Rhys CG.: Celtae and Galli. By John Rhŷs. From the Proc. of the British Acad. ii.

Rhys CIFI.: The Celtic Inscriptions of France and Italy. By John Rhŷs. From the Proc. of the Brit. Acad. ii.

Rhys CIG.: The Celtic Inscriptions of Gaul. By Sir John Rhŷs. From the Proc. of the Brit. Acad. v.

Rhys LWPh.: Lectures on Welsh Philology. By John Rhys. 2London 1879.

Rhys no.: Number of inscription in LWPh2.

Richards: Antiquæ Linguæ Britannicæ Thesaurus, being a British, or Welsh-English Diction­ary​…​By.. Thomas Richards. 3Dolgelley 1815.

Rowland: A Grammar of the Welsh Language​…​By Thomas Rowland. 4Wrexham [1876].

Salesbury: A Dictionary in Englyshe and Welshe​…​by Wyllyam Salesbury. London 1547. Cymmro­dorion Soc. Reprint. See also under V.

Seebohm: see under VI ii.

Silvan Evans: A Dictionary of the Welsh Language. By the Rev. D. Silvan Evans, a–en-. Carmarthen 1888–1906.

Silvan Evans, Llythyraeth: Llythyraeth yr Iaith Gymraeg. Gan D. Silvan Evane. Caerfyrddin 1861.

Sommer: Handbuch der lateinischen Laut- und Formenlehre​…​Von Dr. Ferdinand Sommer. Heidel­berg 1902.

S.R.: Siôn Rhydderch = Grammadeg Cymraeg​…​O Gasgliad, Myfyriad ac Argraph­iad John Rhydderch​…​Mwythig (Shrews­bury) 1728.

T. Stephens: see R. I. Prys.

Stokes, Fick: see Fick.

Strachan Intr.: An Introduction to Early Welsh. By the Late John Strachan.. Manchester 1909.

S.V.: Pump Ỻyfr Kerδwriaeth [Welsh Grammar and Prosody by Simwnt Vychan, see V]; see p.. under VI ii.

T. Charles: Geiriadur Ysgrythyrol​…​3Bala 1836.

Tegai: Gramadeg Cymraeg​…​Gan Hugh Hughes (Tegai). 3Caernarfon [1859].

Tegid: A Defence of the Reformed System of Welsh Orthography​…​By the Rev. John Jones M.A. [Tegid]. Oxford 1829; and another tract; confuted by W. B. Knight, to whom the chief credit is due for saving the Welsh Bible from the vandalism of Pughe's followers.

Thurneysen Gr.: Handbuch des Altirischen​…​Von Rudolf Thurneysen. i. Teil: Grammatik. Heidel­berg 1909.

Thurneysen KR.: Keltoromanisches. Von Rudolf Thurneysen. Halle 1884.

T.J.: The British Language in its Lustre, or a Copious Dictionary of Welsh and English​…​Compiled by the great Pains and Industry of Tho. Jones. London 1688.

TPS.: Transactions of the Philological Society. London.

Tr. Cym.: The Transactions of the Honour­able Society of Cymmro­dorion. London.

Troude: Nouveau dictionnaire pratique breton-français​…​Par A.-E. Troude. Brest 1876.

Troude, Dic. Fr.-Bret.: Nouveau dictionnaire pratique français & breton​…​Par A. Troude. 3Brest 1886.

Vendryes Gr.: Grammaire du vieil-irlandais​…​Par J. Vendryes​…​Paris 1908.

Walde: Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, von Dr. Alois Walde​…​Heidelberg 11906, 21910.

Whitney: A Sanskrit Grammar​…​By William Dwight Whitney. 3Leipzig 1896.

Williams Lex: Lexicon Cornu-Britannicum.. By the Rev. Robert Williams M.A​…​Llan­dovery 1865.

ZE.: Grammatica Celtica​…​Construxit I. C. Zeuss​…​Editio Altera curavit H. Ebel​…​Berolini 1871.

ZfCP.: Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie, hg. v. Kuno Meyer und L. Chr. Stern. Halle a. S.

Other references seem to require no explanation. The most important of the works used, but not referred to, are the following: A New English Dictiona­ry. – Skeat, An Etymo­logical Diction­ary of the English Language 41910. – Kluge, Etymo­logisches Wörter­buch der deutschen Sprache 71910. – Prellwitz, Etymo­logisches Wörter­buch der griechi­schen Sprache 21905. – Macdonell, A Sanskrit-English Diction­ary 1893. – Wiedemann, Handbuch der litau­ischen Sprache 21897. – Wright, A Primer of the Gothic Language 21899. – Windisch, Irische Texte mit Wörter­buch 1880. – Loth, Les mots latins dans les langues britto­niques – 1892. Rhys, The Outlines of the Phonology of Manx Gaelic 1894.

V. Authors

(m. before an author’s initials in brackets denotes that the quotation is from a marwnad in his memory.)

A.R.: Absalom Roberts (Conway Vale), d. 1862 (?), see .m.

B.A.: Bedo Aeddren (Llangwm, 15/44 R.), c. 1500.

B.Br.: Bedo Brwynllys (Brec.), c. 1460.

B.D.: Bleddyn Du [Bleδyn Tu § 111 vii (2)], c. 1350.

B.F.: y Brawd Fadawg ap Gwallter, c. 1250.

B.Ph.B.: Bedo Phylip Bach, c. 1480.

B.V.: Bleddyn Vardd, fl. 1250–90.

C.: Cynddelw (Powys), fl. 1150–1200.

Ca.: Casnodyn, c. 1320.

Ceiriog: John Ceiriog Hughes, 1832–87.

D.B.: Dafydd Benfras, fl. 1200–50.

D.E.: Dafydd ab Edmwnd (Flintsh.), fl. 1450–80.

D.G.: Dafydd ap Gwilym (N. Card.), fl. 1350–80; ref. to Barddoniaeth Dafydd ab Gwilym​…​Llundain, 1789.

D.I.D. : Deio ab Ieuan Du (Card.), c. 1480.

D.Ỻ.: Dafydd Llwyd ap Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, c. 1480.

D.N.: Dafydd Nanmor (Beddgelert), c. 1460.

Dr. M.: William Morgan (C’vonshire), 1541–1604; Bp. of St. Asaph, translator of the Bible, 1588.

Dr. P.: Richard Parry (Ruthin), 1560–1623; Bp. of St. Asaph, editor of the revised Bible, 1620. Internal and other evidence points to the version being largely if not mainly by Dr. John Davies.

D.W.: Dewi Wyn o Eifion = Dafydd Owen (Llanystumdwy), 1784–1841; ref. to Blodau Arfon​…​Caerlleon (Chester), 1842.

D. y C.: Dafydd y Coed, c. 1330.

E.F.: Eben Fardd = Ebenezer Thomas (S. C’von), 1802–63; ref. to Gweithiau Barddonol Eben Fardd. [Bangor, n.d.]

E.M.: Edward Morris (Cerrig y Drudion), d. 1689; ref. to Edward Morris​…​ei Achau.. etc. Liverpool 1902.

E.P.: Edmwnd Prys, Archdeacon of Merioneth, 1541–1623; ref. to Edmwnd Prys​…​Gan. T. R. Roberts (Asaph). Caer­narfon 1899. ps. refers to his metrical version of the Psalms.

E.S.: Elidir Sais, fl. 1160–1220.

E.U.: Edward ab Urien, c. 1610.

G.: Gwalchmai (Anglesey), fl. 1150–90.

G.B.: Gwynfardd Brycheinog (Brec.), c. 1170.

G.C.: Gruffudd ap Cynfrig Goch, p. 119, error in p 64/122 r. for Rhys ap Cynfrig Goch p 97/244 (“nai.. i I.G.” ?); p 100/408; 133/129 r. (? = R.G.G.).

G.D.A.: Gwilym Ddu o Arfon, c. 1300.

G Gl.: Guto’r Glyn (Denb.), fl. 1450–80.

G.Gr.: Gruffudd Gryg (Anglesey), c. 1370.

G.Gw.: Gruffudd ap Gwrgeneu, c. 1200.

G.H.: Gruffudd Hiraethog (N. Denb.), fl. 1520–60.

G.I.H.: Gwilym ab Ieuan Hen, c. 1460.

G.I.Ỻ.F.: Gruffudd ab Ieuan ap Llywelyn Fychan (Denb.), fl. 1500–25; selected poems ed. by J. C. Morrice, Bangor Welsh MSS. Soc. 1910.

G.J.: Griffith Jones, Rector of Llanddowror, 1684–1761.

G.M.D.: Gruffudd ap Maredudd ap Dafydd, c. 1320–50.

Gr.O.: Goronwy Owen (Anglesey), 1723–69; ref. to Gwaith y Parch. Goronwy Owen​…​Llanrwst, 1860. (In R. Jones’s edn., 1876, the text is tampered with.)

G.S.: Guto ap Siancyn y Glyn = G.Gl.

G.T.: Gwilym Tew (Glam.), c. 1450.

Gu.O., Gut.O.: Gutun Owain (Denb.), fl. 1450–90.

G.V.: Gruffudd Vychan, c. 1320.

G.Y.C.: Gruffudd ab yr Ynad Coch, c. 1280.

H.A.: Huw Arwystl c. 1550.

H.C.Ỻ.: Huw (or Hywel) Cae Llwyd, c. 1480 [ r. p. 428 footn. for 1525 read 1475].

H.D.: Huw Dafi, or Hywel ap Dafydd ab Ieuan ap Rhys (Brec.), c. 1480.

H.K.: Hywel Kilan (l ≡ l-l) (Llŷn?), c. 1480.

H.M.: Hugh Maurice (Denb.), 1622–1709; ref. to Eos Ceiriog​…​2 vols. Wrexham, 1823.

H.O.G.: Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd, Prince of the House of Gwynedd, d. 1170.

H.R.: Hywel Rheinallt, c. 1480.

H.S.: Hywel Swrdwal (Montgomerysh.), c. 1450; ref. to Gwaith Barddonol Hywel Swrdwal a’i Fab Ieuan, ed. by J. C. Morrice, Bangor Welsh MSS. Soc., 1908.

I.B.H.: Ieuan Brydydd Hir (Merioneth), c. 1450.

I.C.: Iorwerth ab y Cyriawg, c. 1360.

I.D.: Ieuan Deulwyn (Carm.), fl. 1460–80; ref. to Gwaith Ieuan Deulwyn, ed. by Ifor Williams, Bangor Welsh MSS. Soc. 1909.

I.F.: Iorwerth Fynglwyd (Glam.), c. 1490.

I.G.: Iolo Goch (Denb.), fl. 1370–1405; ref. to Gweithiau Iolo Goch​…​Gan Charles Ashton, Cymmro­dorion Soc., 1896.

I.H.S.: Ieuan ap Hywel Swrdwal, c. 1470; ref. as for H.S., q.v.

I.Ỻaf.: Ieuan Llavar, c. 1590.

Io.G. = I.G.

I.R.: Ieuan ap Rhydderch ab Ieuan Llwyd, c. 1420.

I.T.: Ieuan Tew o Gydweli, c. 1460 (often confused with the later, and lesser, Ieuan Tew who graduated at the Caerwys Eistedd­fod of 1568).

L.G.C.: Lewis Glyn Cothi, fl. 1440–80; ref. to Gwaith Lewis Glyn Cothi​…​Oxford 1837.

L.M.: Lewis Morris (Llywelyn Ddu o Fôn), 1701–65.

L.Môn: Lewis Môn, c. 1500.

L.Mor.: Lewis Morgannwg, c. 1520.

Ỻ.: Llawdden (Llandeilo, i.mss. 320), c. 1460.

Ỻ.G.: Llywelyn Goch Amheurig Hên, c. 1380.

M.: Meilyr (Anglesey), c. 1137.

M.B.: Madog Benfras, c. 1380.

M.D.: Madog Dwygraig, c. 1370.

M.K.: Maurice Kyffin; ref. to Deffynniad Ffydd Eglwys Loegr 1595, reprint ed. by Wm. Pochard Williams, Bangor 1908.

M.Ỻ.: Morgan Llwyd o Wynedd, 1619–1659; ref. to Gweithiau Morgan Llwyd o Wynedd, i ed. by Thomas E. Ellis, Bangor 1899; ii ed. by John H. Davies, Bangor 1908.

M.R.: Maredudd ap Rhys, c. 1440.

O.G.: Owain Gwynedd, c. 1580.

P.M.: Llywarch ap Llywelyn, Prydydd y Moch (Wigwer, St. Asaph; “wele [gwely] Pridith Mogh” at “Wyckewere”, Seebohm 31), c. 1160–1220.

R.C.: Rhys Cain, c. 1580.

R.D.: Richard Davies (Conway), Bp. of St. Davids, 1501–81; translator of some epistles in Wm.S.’s N.T. 1567.

R.G.D.: Robert ap Gwilym Ddu = Robert Williams, Betws Fawr, Llanystumdwy, 1767–1850; ref. to Gardd Eifion​…​Dolgellau 1841.

R.G.E.: Rhys Goch Eryri (C’vonsh.), c. 1430.

R.G.G.: Rhys Goch Glyndyfrdwy, c. 1420 (?), see G.C.

R.Ỻ.: Rhys Llwyd ap Rhys ap Rhicart, c. 1460.

R.M.: Richard Morris (Anglesey, brother of L.M.), 1703–79; editor of Bible, 1746, 1752.

R.V.: Rowland Vaughan, Gaer Gai, Llanuwchllyn, d. 1667.

Salesbury, see Wm.S.

S.B.: Siôn Brwynog (o Frwynog ym Môn), d. 1562.

S.C.: Siôn Cent (Kentchurch), c. 1420.

S.M.: Siôn Mawddwy (native of Glam.), c. 1580.

S.Ph.: Siôn Phylip (Ardudwy, Mer.), 1543–1620.

S.T.: Siôn Tudur (Wigwer, St. Asaph), d. 1602.

S.V.: Simwnt Vychan (Ruthin), born c. 1530, d. 1606; author of P..

T.: Talhaiarn = John Jones, Llanfair Talhaearn, 1810–69; ref. to Gwaith Talhaiarn, i London 1855, ii London 1862, (iii Llanrwst 1869).

T.A.: Tudur Aled (N. Denb.), fl. 1480–1520.

W.Ỻ.: Wiliam Llŷn (? Llŷn ; res. Oswestry), 1535–80; ref. to Barddoniaeth Wiliam Llŷn​…​Gan y Parch. J. C. Morrice M.A. Bangor 1908.

W.M.: William Morris (brother of L.M.), 1705–63.

Wm.S.: Wyllyam Salesbury (Llanrwst); translator of the bulk of N.T. 1567; joint tr. and ed. of Pb. 1567, 1586; etc.

Wms.: William Williams, Pant y Celyn (Carm.); hymn-writer, 1717–91; ref. to Gwaith Prydy­ddawl​…​William Williams​…​sef yr Holl Hymnau​…​Caer­fyrddin, 1811, defin­itive edn. by his son.

VI. Sources

I. Collections of manuscripts

The name of the collection is denoted by a sm. cap. initial without a stop; the number of the ms. follows, and generally the number of the page or folio, separated by an oblique stroke; thus p 99/469 means Peniarth ms. 99, page (or folio) 469. The mss., except those of the Brit. Mus., are numbered as in the Histor­ical Manu­scripts Commis­sion’s Report on Manu­scripts in the Welsh Language. r. after a reference indicates that the words quoted appear in the Report. As many of the quota­tions are taken from tran­scripts in some of which only the p. or fol. of the opening lines of a poem was given, the reference may be to the piece beginning on the p. or fol. named.

a = British Museum Additional Manuscripts.
c = Cardiff Free Library Manuscripts.
j = Manuscripts in the Jesus College Library, Oxford.
= Llanstephan Manuscripts, now in the National Library of Wales.
m = Mostyn Manuscripts, at Mostyn Hall.
p = Peniarth Manuscripts, now in the National Library of Wales.
Stowe = British Museum Stowe Manuscripts.

ii. manuscripts and texts

O.W. materials are distinguished thus †. References are not usually given to the pages of ox., ox. 2, juv. and m.c., as Loth Voc. forms an index to these mss. The reference is to pages except where otherwise stated below.

a.c.: Annales Cambriæ in Y Cymmrodor ix 152–169; reference to years. [Early 12th cent. literal tran­script of late 10th cent. orig. by scribe ignorant of Welsh, see Philli­more’s preface.]

a.g.: Athrawaeth Gristnogavl [Milan 1568]. By Morys Clynoc; ed. by G.R. Cymmrodorion Soc. Reprint 1880.

a.l.: Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales​…​2 vols. 1841.

b.a.: The Book of Aneirin = c 1, circa 1250. Facsimile and Text by J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Pwllheli 1908. [Parts are tran­scribed literally from older copies not under­stood by the scribe.]

bar.: Barddas… With trans. and notes by J. Williams ab Ithel. i Llandovery 1862; (ii London 1874). [Late Gwentian.]

b.b.: The Black Book of Carmarthen = p 1, end of 12th cent. Ed. by J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Pwllheli 1906.

b.ch.: The Black Book of Chirk = p 29 = a.l. ms. a., circa 1200. Quotations taken from the orig. ms. (Quota­tions from a.l. are referred to the latter.)

b.cw.: Gweledigaetheu y Bardd Cwsc. [By Ellis Wynne]. Llundain 1703. Reprint ed. by J. Morris Jones, Bangor 1898.

br.: Y Brython. i Weekly; ii–iv Monthly; v Quarterly. Tremadoc 1858–63. [Contains old cywyddau etc.]

b.s.ch: The Book of St. Chad. 9th cent. entries in W., see Lindsay EWS. 1–6; transcribed (with fac­similes) in l.l. pp. xliii–xlviii; ref. to nos. of entries ib.

b.t.: The Book of Taliessin = p 2, circa 1275; ref. to the edn. about to be published by Dr. Gwenog­vryn Evans.

c. i and c. ii: Ceinion Llenyddiaeth Gymreig… Dan olygiad y Parch. Owen Jones. 2 vols. London 1876.

c.b.y.p.: Cyfrinach Beirdd Ynys Prydain.​…​Dan olygiad​…​Iolo Morganwg. Abertawy (Swansea) 1829.

c.c.: The Cefn Coch MSS.​…​Ed. by the Rev. J. Fisher. Liverpool 1899. [Late 16th and 17th cent.; mostly poetry.]

c.g. Cant o Ganeuon. Gan John Ceiriog Hughes. Wrexham [1863].

c..: Cynfeirdd Lleyn: 1500–1800​…​Cynnulledig​…​gan J. Jones (Myrddin Fardd). Pwllheli 1905.

c.m.: Ystorya de Carolo Magno. From the Red Book of Hergest. Ed. by Thomas Powell. Cymmrod. Soc. 1883.

cp.: Fragment of an Old Welsh Computus. 23 lines [10th cent.]. Fac., transcr. and transl. by E. C. Quiggin. ZfCP. viii 407–10. Ref. to lines.

cy.: Reproductions in Y Cymmrodor.

d.: Quoted in D., see under IV.

d.g.: By G.Gr. etc., printed in D.G.; see under V.

d.p.o.: Drych y Prif Oesoedd​…​Gan Theophilus Evans​…​²Mwythig (Shrews­bury) [1740]. Reprint ed. by Samuel J. Evans​…​Bangor 1902.

d.t.: Diddanwch Teuluaidd: neu Waith Beirdd Mon​…​²Caernarfon 1817.

e.: Egluryn Phraethineb​…​Gan Mr. William Salesbury, a​…​Mr. Henri Perri​…​Lhundain 1595; ³Llanrwst 1829. Ref. to chapters.

e.g.: Eos Gwynedd​…​Gan.. John Thomas, Pentre’r Foelas. Dan olygiaeth G. Caledfryn. Llanrwst [1845].

e.p.: Quoted in E.P.; see under V.

f.: Flores Poetarum Britannicorum​…​O gasgliad J[ohn] D[avies] SS. Th. D.​…​Mwythig (Shrews­bury) 1710.

f.n.: Y Flodeugerdd, Newydd. Casgliad o gywyddau​…​Wedi eu golygu gan W. J. Gruffydd. Cardiff 1909. [Early Mn. verse.]

g.: Gorchestion Beirdd Cymru​…​O Gasgliad Rhys Jones​…​Amwythig (Shrews­bury) 1773. [Early Mn. verse.]

g.c.: The History of Gruffydd ap Cynan. The Welsh Text with trans., intr., and notes. By Arthur Jones. Man­chester 1910. [Pp. 102–142 = p 17/1–16, mid-13th cent.]

gen. Old-Welsh Genealogies in Y Cymmrodor ix 169–83; ref. to nos. of genealogies. [From the same ms. as a.c., q.v.]

g.r. Quoted in G.R., see under IV.

gre. (or Greal): Y Greal; sev Cynnulliad o Orchestion ein Hynaviaid​… Llundain 1805–7.

h.g.: Hen Gwndidau, Carolau, a Chywyddau​…​[Ed.] by Hopcyn​…​and Cadrawd​…​Bangor 1910. [Gwentian 16th–17th cent.]

Hyff. Gynn(wys): Hyfforddiad Gynnwys I Wybodaeth jachusol o Egwyddorjon a Dyledswyddau Crefydd​…​Gan Weinidog o Eglwys Loegr [Griffith Jones]. Llundain 1749.

h.m. ii: Selections from the Hengwrt MSS​…​in the Peniarth Library. Vol. ii. Ed​…​by.. Robert Williams​…​transl. contd. by.. G. Hartwell Jones.. London 1892. [Vol. i is referred to as s.g.]

i.mss.: Iolo Manuscripts​…​Coll​…​by.. Edward Williams, Iolo Morganwg​…​Llan­dovery 1848. [Contains cywyddau etc. besides late Gwentian memoranda].

juv.: Glosses in the Juvencus ms., Cambridge Univ. Libr. Published by Stokes in Kuhn’s Beiträge iv 385–421. [9th to 11th cent., Lindsay EWS. 16.]

juv. sk.: The verses in the Juvencus ms., printed in Skene’s Four Ancient Books of Wales ii 1–2.

l.g.c.: Appearing in L.G.C., see under V.

l.l.: Liber Landavensis, c. 1150. The Text of the Book of Llan Dâv​…​by J. Gwenogvryn Evans​…​[and] John Rhys.. Oxford 1893. [Contains documents with O.W. forms literally tran­scribed].

.a.: Llyfr yr Ancr, dated 1346. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh​…​Ed. by J. Morris Jones​…​and John Rhŷs​…​Oxford 1894.

.b.m.: Llyfr Bychan Mawddwy, a 16th cent. ms. in the National Libr. of Wales.

.h.: Y Llyfr Hir in the National Libr. of Wales. [ms. collection by W. Jones (Bleddyn), of Early Mn. cywyddau.]

.m.: Lloches Mwyneidd-dra​…​Gan Absalom Roberts. Llanrwst 1845. [Contains coll. of old penillion telyn.]

m.a.: The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales​…​3 vols. London 1801–7. [Corpus of Ml. poetry and prose. ²Denbigh 1870.]

m.c.: Glosses on Martianus Capella in the Libr. of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, ed. by Stokes in Arch. Camb. 1873 pp. 1–21. [Mostly 9th cent., Lindsay EWS. 22.]

m.e.: Mil o Englynion = Pigion Englynion fy Ngwlad​…​Gan Eifionydd. i² and ii, Liverpool 1882.

m.l.: Morris Letters. The Letters of Lewis, Richard, William and John Morris, of Anglesey​…​1728–1765. Transcr​…​and ed. by John H. Davies​…​2 vols. Oxford 1906–9.

m.m.: Meddygon Myddfai. The Physicians of Myddvai​…​Transl. by John Pughe.. F.R.C.S​…​and ed. by.. John Williams Ab Ithel. Llan­dovery 1861. [Pp. 1–34 are from r.b. 928 ff.]

N.T.: New Testament.

o.b.: Oriau’r Bore. Gan John Ceiriog Hughes. ²Wrexham n.d.

o.h.: Oriau’r Hwyr. Gan John Ceiriog Hughes. ⁵Wrexham [1872].

ox.: Oxford Liber Commonei and Ovid, Bodleian Libr., Auct. F 4. 32. Date 817, Lindsay EWS. 7 (812, Dosp. Ed. 10). Glosses in W. and notes in mixed Lat. and W., printed in ZE. 1052–60.

ox. 2: Cod. Oxoniensis Posterior. Glosses in Bodl. 572 printed in ZE. 1060–3 as W. ; given as Corn. in Loth Voc. ix; shown to be W. by Loth, RC. xiv 70; 10th cent.

Pb.: Prayerbook.

p.g.g.: Pattrwm y Gwir-Gristion​…​Chester 1723. Reprint ed. by H. Elvet Lewis. Bangor 1908.

p..: Pump Ỻyfr Kerδwriaeth by S.V. = j 9 autograph; printed (from a copy by J.J. of a copy of the orig.) in Dosp. Ed. pp. xlii–cxxviii. p.. refers to the latter, j 9 to the auto. ms.

r.b.: The Red Book of Hergest = j 1, late 14th and early 15th cent. Quotations taken direct from the ms.; ref. to columns.

r b.b.: Red Book Bruts. The Text of The Bruts from the Red Book of Hergest. Ed. by John Rhŷs​…​and J. Gwenog­vryn Evans. Oxford 1890.

r.g.: Red Book Grammar; cols. 1117–1142 of r.b. Ref. to columns. The Bangor MSS. Soc. will shortly publish an edn. by the writer.

rh.b.s.: Rheol Buchedd Sanctaidd​…​Llundain 1701. Transl. of Jer. Taylor’s Holy Living by Ellis Wynne, author of b.cw.

r.m.: Red Book Mabinogion. The Text of the Mabinogion​…​from the Red Book of Hergest. Ed. by John Rhŷs​…​and J. Gwenog­vryn Evans. Oxford 1887.

r.p.: Red Book Poetry ; quotations taken from corrected proofs of the edn. about to be published by Dr. J. Gwenog­vryn Evans. Ref. to columns.

Ruthin Court Rolls: The Court Rolls of the Lordship of Ruthin..…​of the Reign of King Edward the First. Ed​…​by R. A. Roberts. Cymmrod. Record Series. London 1893. [Contains Welsh names in Norman-Fr. spelling.]

Seebohm Trib. Sys.: The Tribal System in Wales​…​by Frederic Seebohm​…​London 1895. [Contains repro­ductions of Norman documents with Welsh names.]

s.g.: Selections from the Hengwrt MSS​…​Vol. i. Y Seint Greal​…​Ed​…​by.. Robert Williams. London 1876 [= p11, end of 14th cent.]

sk.: The Four Ancient Books of Wales​…​By William F. Skene. Edinburgh 1868. Vol. ii. [Texts; now super­seded except pp. 1–2, see juv.]

tr.: Tremvan ms.; cywyddau etc. in the hand of Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt 1592–1666; used by the editor of g.; now in the posses­sion of Dr. J. Gwenog­vryn Evans.

w.: 13th cent. ms. copied by Dr. Davies in 1617, since lost sight of, recently re-discov­ered; Davies’s copy in a 14869, the source of the poems of M., G., H.O.G., etc. in m.a. i. A repro­duction, ed. by the present writer, will be issued in the Univ. of Wales Guild Series.

w.b.: The White Book of Rhydderch = p 4 and 5.

w.m.: The White Book Mabinogion​…​Ed. by J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Pwllheli 1907. From the White Book of Rhydderch = p 4, late 13th cent. Ref. to columns. The volume also contains other early versions of the Mabi­nogion, incl. the fragments in p 6/i, ii, circa 1225; ref. in this case to pages distin­guished by “p.”

w.m.l.: Welsh Medieval Law​…​Harl. MS. 4353​…​13th cent.​…​By A. W. Wade-Evans. Oxford 1909.

y.l.h.: Yn y lhyvyr hwnn y traethir Gwyδor kymraeg, etc., 1546. By Sir John Price. Reprint ed. by John H. Davies.. Bangor 1902.


P. 54, § 44 i, l. 9, read Kellynnawc (lll)

P. 71, § 54 ii, l. 1, after b, d, g, insert f, dd,

P. 113, § 78 i (2), l. 7, delete ;—raccw § 210 x (3)

P. 131, iv, l. 8, insert * before g̑hu̯er-

P. 153, l. i, read di|e|fyl

P. 166, iv (3), l. 6, for *ad-rim- read *ad-rīm-

P. 194, l. 9, insert * before is-le.

P. 277, l. 7, delete * before w͡y

The metathesis was suggested by Mr. Ifor Williams; unfortunately I over­looked his note in his Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys (1910), p. 20, in which he adduces examples of wy m.a.² 145b and uy do. 227b, so that the form need not have been starred. The same expla­nation is given by Pedersen Gr. ii (1911), p. 158.

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1925.

The author died in 1929, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.