A glossary of words used in the neighbourhood of Sheffield/C

CADDIS, sb. a sort of woollen stuff.

Cadas, Bombicinium. Prompt. Parv.

CADDY, adj. in good health or spirits; contented.

CADE-CHILD, sb. a child brought up with excessive care. H.

CADE-LAMB, sb. a lamb brought up in the house.

CADGE, v. to stitch lightly, to overcast.

'I cadge a garment, I set lystes in the lynyng to kepe the plyghtes in order.'—Palsgrave. When a thing is badly sewn it is said to be cadged up.

CADGE, v. to beg.

'Soon he set off an' cadged his way to Edinburgh.'—Bywater, 130.

CADGE, sb. a cage ? 'For taking down the cadge, 0-3-0.'—T. T. A., 102. 'For the old pavers belonging to the cage, 0-2-0.'—Ibid., 103.

CAKE-SPRITTLE, sb. a thin board used for turning oatcakes while over the oven. H.

CAKING DAY, sb. the 2nd of November, All Souls' Day. Hunters MS.

The Soul Mass Cake is doubtless referred to. See Hampson's Medii Ævi Kal., i. 374. And see THARF CAKE.

CAKY, adj. silly. Johnny-cake in Evans' Leicestershire Words.

GALE [kail], v. to take in turns.

'There's two an a piece a won; yo mun kale.'—Bywater, 156.

GALE [kail], sb. a turn in rotation.

'Fooast to wait a long whoil for a kail.'—Bywater, 247.

CALF-LICKED. When human hair arches in a tuft over the head it is said to be calf-licked.

CALF PLOT, a field in Ecclesall, anno 1807.

CALL, sb. need.

'There was no call for it.'

CALL, v. to scold, abuse.

CALLS, sb. pl. broad tapes fastened to the shoulders of children learning to walk. H.

CALLYWHITE LANE, a road in Dronfield parish.

Harrison mentions 'White lane' in Cowley Manor, Ecclesfield.

CAMAR HOUSE, a place in Bradfield. Harrison.

Perhaps Icel. kamarr, a chamber. It may be Icel. kambr, a ridge.

CAMBRIL, sb. a notched piece of wood to hang pigs and sheep on.

Also the back of an animal.

CAM HOUSE, near Ridgeway.

Icel. kambr, Dan. kam, a comb, crest, ridge. Cf. Cam houses in Horton, West Riding. 'Cecilia de Caume, vidua,' in Poll Tax Returns for Sheffield, 1379, p. 42. Cam occurs as a surname in the district.

CAMPFIELD, at Norton Woodseats.

There are Upper Campfield and Lower Campfield. They are also called Camping fields. Camping lane runs between Woodseats and Millhouses. See the next word. This field was probably the place where football and other village games were played. 'The camping-land appropriated to this game occurs, in several instances, in authorities of the XVth century.'—Way's Note in Prompt. Parv., p. 60. These fields adjoin the Bocking fields.

CAMPO LANE, sb. a street in Sheffield.

In Gosling's map of Sheffield, 1736, it is called 'Camper Lane.' The same map shows the position of the old 'Latin School,' or Grammar School, and the 'Writing School.' These schools were at a very short distance from Campo Lane, and it seems probable that here the game of football was played. The Grammar School was founded in 1603. The Prompt. Parv. has Campar or pleyar at footballe, pedipilusor.' (See the note in Way's edition.) In Brinsley's Grammar Schoole, cited by Mr. Furnivall in Early English Meals and Manners, p. Ixii, I find this passage:— 'By this meanes also the schollars may be kept euer in their places, and hard to their labours without that running out to the Campo (as they tearme it) at school times, and the manifolde disorders thereof; as watching and striuing for the clubbe, and loytering then in the fields.' (For the meaning of 'clubbe,' see pp. 299 and 300 of Brinsley.) Hunter says:—'The Campa field' occurs several times in the returns of their Sheffield estates by the Dukes of Norfolk, compelling Roman Catholics to register their estates with the Clerk of the Peace. This proves that there was once a field in Sheffield appropriated to this sport, and what more probable than that it was the open space now called Paradise Square? Campo lane, so called, as leading to it—in full, the Camper field lane.'—Hunter's MS. Bateman opened a barrow at the summit of a rocky hill, near Ecton mine, called by the natives the Comp.—Ten Years' Diggings, p. 34. Cf. Compton, near Ashbourne. Bateman opened a large barrow at Cawthorn Camps, Yorkshire.—Ibid., p. 206. See CAMPFIELD. As Campo Lane runs along the ridge of a steep hill, the most probable derivation is O. Icel. kambr, a ridge. There is a place called Camp green at Hathersage.

CAN, sb. the hollow or pipe-like part of an elephant's tusk. Lat. canna, Gk. κάννη, a reed. See BUN. Drinking cups, called cans, are sometimes made of this part of the tusk. They are usually ornamented with silver.

CANK, sb. a substance found in and near the beds of streams, &c., and composed of clay, stone, and a little iron. It is found in quarries, and when found it is a source of great disappointment, being of no use to the quarry owner.

CANKLOW, near Kimberworth. O. M.

CANNEL, v. to bevel the edge of a knife when ground too thin.

CANT-AND-CROSS, sb. a sort of file with a tapering edge. A section of the file forms an acute-angled triangle.

CANTLING, sb. a narrow strip of wood used by joiners for an edge or border. Also SCANTLING, q.v.

CANYERS, at Bradfield.

'The Canyers, a range of conical hills stretching about a mile in length, if indeed that stupendous work has been raised by other hands than those divine.'—Hunter's Hallamshire, p. 15. 'At one of its extremes are a very great number of small roundish hills called Kenhere [or Kenyer] Hills.'—Eastwood's Ecclesfield, p. 24, citing Watson in the Archæologia, vol. v., p, 91 seq. 'Richard Morton of Kanyers, yeoman.'—Ibid., p. 476. There is a Kens low near Middleton by Youlgreave, Derbyshire. I suspect that these are tumuli, or barrows. One, at least, of the barrows at Kenslow was a 'bowl barrow.' See KENT STORTH. Cf. A.S. cên, a torch, pinus. The pine grows on some of these hills.

CAP, v. to puzzle, to crown.

'That caps Balguy.' The Balguys were an old family in North Derbyshire. 'That's a capper,' i.e., a crowning tale or story.

CAPPEL, sb. a piece of leather to mend the toe of a shoe.

CAPPEL, v. to mend the toe of a shoe.

'Ned al want a pair a new ans, and Tom's wants cappilin.'—Bywater 194.

CAPS, sb. pl. knotted wool from sheep. See COTS.

CAP-SCREED, sb. the frill or border of a woman's cap. See SCREED.

CARKE ROYD, a field in Ecclesfield. Harrison.

CARL, v. to parch.

'Applied, I believe, only to peas.' H.

CARLINGS, sb. pl. peas parched, and eaten on Carling Sunday.

'Peas first well steeped in water and then held in a fire-shovel over a dry and parching heat. . . . Carlings are much more frequently made as a boys' sport when peas are to be had.'—Hunter's MS.

CARR, sb. a marshy place.

CARRY CORN. A man is said to be unable to carry corn when, after becoming elated by success in business, he becomes dissolute in his habits. The expression seems to be borrowed from an over-fed, restive horse.

CARSICK HILL, near Fulwood.

Ray mentions carsick, the kennel, as a Sheffield word.

CART CLOSE, in Ecclesall, anno 1807.

CARTER KNOWLE, in Ecclesall.

Harrison mentions 'Carter Inge in Ecclesfield.' There is Carter Hall, near Eckington. Carter field in Ecclesall, anno 1807. 'Willelmus del Kerter' in Poll Tax Returns for Ecclesfield, 1379, p. II. Bateman mentions 'Carder low' and 'Carter low' in Derbyshire.—Ten Years' Diggings, p. 290. He gives an account of the Carder low barrow in Vestiges, p. 63.

CARTLEDGE, a place near Dronfield.

The word occurs as a surname in the district. It appears to be curtilage, a court yard; Low Lat. cortilagium, the same as cortile, which Maigne D'Arnis defines as 'villula paucis ædificiis constructa, domus rusticana prædiolo conjuncta.' There is an ancient house at this place.

CART-RAKE, sb. a cart-rut.

CARTRICK or CATRICK FIELD, in Ecclesall, anno 1807.

Catterick, near Richmond, Yorkshire, is Cetrehia in A.S.—Toller's Bosworth.

CAT, sb. a piece of household furniture consisting of three pieces of wood so united at the centre as to stand which ever way it is set down. Compare the Chartists' cat for laming troopers' horses. Also a game played with a small piece of wood.

CATCLIFFE, near Tinsley. O. M.

CAT CROFT, a field in Dore.

CATER-CORNERED [kaiter-cornered] or CATIE-CORNERED.

'He crossed the field in a cater-cornered fashion,' means that he did not traverse two sides of it, but took a short cut across on the principle that any two sides of a triangle are together greater than the third side. 'To put things cater corner is to place them corner to corner instead of parallel. The black squares of a chessboard go cater corner.' 'The example quoted to me is "Howd that sack cater-cornered." The person addressed was holding the sack by seams, so as to afford an insufficient opening, and the request was that he should widen the mouth by holding it crosswise.'—L.

CATER-COUSINS, sb.pl. good friends.

CAT-FEET, sb. pl. marks left on linen after it is washed and dried.

CATTERSTORTH, a place in Stannington. See STORTH.

'Item a intacke called Catterstorth.'—Harrison. Perhaps O. Icel. kattarstorð, the wood of the martin cat or wild weasel. But see CATER-CORNERED.

CAUSEY, sb. a causeway or a paved footpath by the side of a road; also a bridle road.

'Payd to Wm. Atkinson for paving the calsey agaynst Hinchcliff house, 1591, ijs. vijd.'—T. T. A., 65. A field in Dore is called 'Causeway head croft.' It may be a Roman road; a paved road. Cf. Stanedge Causeway, near Foxhouse.

CAW-SINK-PIN, sb. an old pin picked from the public channels. H.

CESTERN [sestern], sb. a cistern.

'Cesterne, puteau.'—Palsg.

CHAD, sb. a twig. See CHATS.

CHAFFER.

'A meadowe called the Chaffer lying next Darwin water' in Bradfield.—Harrison.

CHANCE-CHILD, sb. an illegitimate child.

CHANCIT WOOD, sb. a wood so called in Norton parish.

CHANCLING or CHONCLING, sb. an illegitimate child.

CHAP or CHOP, sb. the cheek.

'He fetched him such a slap i't chops.'
'His chops were that sunk in at t' barber had to put a potato masher in his mouth to shave him.'
A pig's chap, a pig's cheek, is a term used by butchers.

CHAP, sb. a man.

CHAP, sb. a male sweetheart.

CHAPMAN FIELD, in Ecclesall, anno 1807.

CHAPPILD, sb. a chappel.


40 SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY.

CHAPS, sb. pi. the jaws of a vice.

CHAR or CHARK, v. to work at occasional jobs. To go a charkin is to go to burn charcoal.

CHARKIN HILL.

A common called Charkin Hill, in Ecclesfield.' Harrison. Elsewhere it is written ' Chartin Hill. Probably a place where wood was made into charcoal. See Eastwood's Ecclesfield, p. 435. Charton, Chatton, Charting, or Charking brook is first mentioned in 1599. Ibid., p. 435. See CHAR.

CHARLES CLOUGH, a place near Stannington. Harrison. CHARNOCK HALL, near Eckington.

CHASTERFIELD, sb. the pronunciation of Chesterfield. Lat. castrum.

'Agnes de ChasturfsMJ in Poll Tax Returns for Sheffield, 1379, p. 41.

CHATS, sb. pi. the seed pods of the ash. Hunter's MS.

CHATS or CHADS, sb. pi. twigs.

To go a chaddin is to go gathering twigs. Cf. Chaddesden in Derbyshire. ' Give him a good chadding* means give him a good beating.

CHATTER, v. to gnaw, to tear.

CHATTERHOUSE.

When a boy has committed an offence his comrades put him ' through the chatterhouse' About twenty boys stand in a row with their legs wide apart. As the offender goes through each pair of legs he gets a good slap behind.

CHAUNDLER, sb. a candlestick.

This word is given on the authority of Ray, who calls it a Sheffield word. I have never heard it.

CHAVE-HOLE, sb. a recess for chaff and corn in a barn. CHAVEL, v. to chew, to tear in pieces. CHAW-BACON, sb. a farm labourer.

CHAWMBER, sb. the pronunciation of chamber.

In Sheffield the ground floor is called the room, the first floor the chawmber, the second floor the garret.

CHEAP-JACK, sb. an itinerant merchant or auctioneer, who goes about from one fair to another, selling a variety of goods. His goods are housed in a covered wagon, in which he generally lives. It is pronounced cheeap.

Cf. Cheapside. M.E. cheap, a purchase.

CHECK, a word used in calling pigs to their food.


SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY. 4!

CHECKY PIG, sb. a child's name for a pig.

CHEENEY, sb. china ware.

CHEESE, sb. the seeds of the marsh mallow.

CHENEY ROW, sb. a place in Sheffield, so called after Mr. Cheney, surgeon, who lived there.

CHILDER, sb.pl children.

' Shoo's enuff to do to tak care at childer. ' Bywater^ 250.

CHILDERMAS DAY, sb. the Feast of the Innocents. Hunter's MS.

CHIMLEY, sb. a chimney. Sometimes called a chimbley. 'Wot noist chimla ornaments !' By/water, 165.

CHIN COUGH, sb. the hooping cough. Hunter writes it chink-cough.

CHINNY-MUMPS, sb.pl. 'a school boy's play, consisting in striking the chin with the knuckles; dexterously performed, a kind of time is produced.' Hunter's MS. It also means a throat malady.

CHIP, v. to chap, as the hands do in cold weather.

CHIST, sb. a chest.

' Put into the chyste, xls.' T. T. A. Lat. cista.

CHITLINGS, sb. pi. the small entrails of an animal.

W. I. of Norton, a very fat man, nicknamed Bummell, used to beg the chit lings of pigs. These he took down Mow/a lane and washed them in a dyke. He then brought them home, and, having washed them in lime and water, ate them. He said this food was delicious. In a history of Durham by Robert de Greystanes (Surtees Soc., vol. ix.), a curious account is given of the mother of a bishop whose delight it was to belabour the heads of her hand- maids with chitterlings which she had just washed in a stream. See ' Latin Story ' in Notes and Queries, 7th S. iii. 386.

CHIZEN [cheizen], v. to munch or chew.

CHIZZLE, v. to cheat.

This word occurs as jewsle in Evans' Leicestershire Words (E. D. S.).

CHOCK, sb. a thick, rectangular block of wood, used in building up a strong support for the roof in coal-mining.

CHOCK, sb. a wedge for fastening a cart to the shafts. CHOCK-FULL, adv. quite full.


42 SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY.

CHOIL, v. to file or indent a knife near the bolster, q.v.

'Then they're choiVd if they're not fether-edged vn.s.'Bywater, 52.

CHOIL, sb. the indentation on the cutting side of a knife adjoining the bolster, q.v.

CHOIL, v. to cheat, to overreach.

A boy playing at marbles said to another, ' Tha'rt choilin. 1

CHOIL IT ! Be off ! CHOMP, v. to chew.

CHOOSE-HOW-MUCH, how much soever. L.

' Choose how much I did for him, I never could please him.'

CHOW, v. to chew. A.S. cebwan.

When the lips of a vice will not bite when it is screwed up, but slip to one side without properly grasping each other, they are said to chow.

CHRIMSALL, a place- or field-name in Ecclesfield.

' Ralph and Henry Smyth for Chrimsall a parte of Dickfield Briggfield and a garden ^13 : 10 : oo.' Harrison. See CRIMSALL and CRIMEKER.

CHRISTIAN, sb. a man as distinguished from a beast.

' Nothing is more common among the countrymen than to hear Christian used to mark the distinction between man and the lower classes of animals. I have a shop bill of more than a century old of a man who attended Mans- field market to look after the health of the cattle brought there, with a Nota Bene at the end, "likewise shaves Christians" 'Hunter's MS.^

CHUB, v. to throw with marbles.

CHUCK or CHUCKIE, a domestic fowl. A word used by children.

CHUCK, sb. a darling, a pet child.

CHUCK, v. to throw.

CHUCK, sb. part of a lathe; an instrument containing two or more

  • jaws' for gripping a tool for boring, or an article to be turned.

CHUFF, adj. proud, pleased.

'Thar rare an chuff V that dog o' thoine.'

' It sometimes denotes a combination of fussiness and serene self-satisfaction which it would not be easy to characterise by any accepted English word. A Wesleyan lay preacher, in relating in the pulpit the story of Zacchseus, amused his audience by the observation that "little men oli's is just same as them theer banty-cocks, as chuff 'as chuff can. be." ' L.

CHUFFY, adj. fussy, proud, conceited.

Cotgrave has 'chuffie, fat-cheeked, swelled orpuft up in the face.'

CHUMP or JUMP, sb. the shoulder-piece of beef or mutton.


SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY. 43

CHUNTER, v. to grumble, to mutter sullenly.

CHURCH-LANE-BOB, sb. a shuffle at cards.

A few of the middle cards are pushed through. A street in Sheffield is called Church Lane.

CHURCH MASTERS, sb.pl. churchwardens. H. CHURR, sb. a whirr, a noise made by birds. CHUVEL-HEADED, adj. excessively dull and stupid.

CINDERCLIFFE, a place in Ecclesfield.

  • The name of the house is variously written Cindercliffe, corrupted into

Synocliffe and Senelcliff. 'Eastwood's Ecclesfield, p. 362. Synercliffe in 1 577 .

md., p. 365.

CINDERHILL, a common field-name about Sheffield. CINDERWIG, sb. an opprobrious epithet.

  • Old cinderwig.'*

CINGLET, sb. a vest, or piece of underclothing worn next to the skin.

CIVER HILL [Seiver hill], in Ecclesall, anno 1807. Over wood is adjacent.

These places are near Castle Dyke and Whiteley Wood. The high and almost treeless land about Whirlow was the site, as the place-names appear to show, of an early British settlement. The O. M. gives Priest hill. I am told that a man called Priest lived here early in the present century. Rushes grow on this hill. Seive, a dwarf rush. Halliwell. Danish siv, Swedish scef, a rush.

CLACK, v. to clatter, to chatter. M.E. clacken, O. Dutch klacken. CLACK, sb. noisy, foolish talk. CLAGG, v. to stick, to adhere. CLAGGY, adj. sticky, relating to the feet.

CLAM, v. to starve.

' I'm clammed,' that is, famished for want of food.

CLAM, sb. leather, paper, or lead linings for the jaws of a vice. A.S. clam, a bandage.

CLAP BENE.

' Little children are taught to clap bene, the latter word being pronounced as a dissyllable. The action is the clapping of the hands, and the morality of the action is prayer; it is the mute imploring of a blessing.' H.


44 SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY.

CLAP-CAKE. I have heard a nursery rhyme beginning :

' Clap-a-cake, clap-a-cake, baker's man, Knead and bake it as fast as you can, Stick it and prick it, and mark it with T, And throw it i't' oven for Tommy and me.'

CLAP DOWN, v. to lay down hastily. CLAPPER, sb. the tongue.

CLARISTILE FLATT.

A piece of arable land in Parke field. Harrison.

CLART, v. to strike forcibly. A variant of clout. ' Clart that rabbit on t' 'eead.'

CLART Y, adj. dirty with a degree of stickiness. H. CLAVER, sb. clover. A.S. clafre. Du. klaver.

CLAWK or CLEAK, v. to claw, to lay hold of. M.E. cttchcn. 'The cat clawked"ho\& of the fish.'

CLAWM, v. to handle roughly, to toss about.

Poor people who buy pieces of meat at the butcher's on Saturday night are said to clawm them about with their hands.

CLAY WOOD, near Bradway. O. M.

CLEAN, adv. entirely.

' It's clean gone out o' my mind.'

CLEAR, sb. a claw, a hoof. M.E. diver, 'unguis.'

A man was sent to look after some sheep. He came back and said ' they were all right and pickin' their clears. It is also used of the claws of a bird.

CLEAVE, v. to seize, to lay hold of. ' Cleave hold o' that chair. '

CLETCH, sb. a brood of chickens, &c.

CLEVER, adj. physically strong.

'She's a clever old woman,' means 'she's a woman well able to walk,' &c.

CLICK, v. to lay hold of. See CLAWK. CLINK, sb. a small or fine crack. CLINKER, sb. a strong nail for shoes. CLIPPER, sb. a close or niggardly person.

CLIP-POINT, sb. a knife shaped like a scimitar with a turned up point.


SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY. 45

CLIPPET, sb. a small brass or iron cap for the toe of a shoe.

CLIVVIS, sb. a strong hook used by miners.

It is fixed at the end of a chain or rope to hold a bucket. When the hook is fixed to the handle of the bucket it is secured with an iron pin.

CLOCKING, the noise made by a hen when she is going to sit. A variant of cluck.

CLOCKS, sb. ornaments woven into a stocking; a pattern in a stocking.

CLOCKS, sb. pi the downy head of a dandelion.

Children use these to tell the time with. If the down is blown away at one breath it is one o'clock, if it requires two puffs to blow it all away it is two o'clock, and so on up to twelve.

CLOCKS, sb. pi. blackbeetles.

CLOG, sb. a lump, as of snow on the heel, &c.

CLOG, sb. a shoe with a wooden sole.

CLOGGER, sb. a man who makes clogs.

CLOGG FIELD, in Ecclesall, anno 1807.

CLOISE, sb. a close, a field enclosed.

CLOISE, adj. close, narrow, confined.

CLOMP, v. to walk heavily.

CLOOAS, sb. pL the pronunciation of clothes.

CLOSE, adj. parsimonious, stingy.

CLOT-COLD, adj. of a deadly coldness. A dead man is said to be dot-cold.

CLOUGH [cluff), sb. a common place-name near Sheffield.

Hunter gives it as 'a floodgate where water is artificially dammed up. ' But its usual meaning is a small narrow glen or ravine. ' The fifte of September they marched an 8 miles till they came to the peathes, a dough or valley, runnyng for a sixe myles Weaste.' Holinshed's Chronicles , ed. 1577, ii. 1616, col. 2. ' For making and setting a gate at the Guttering Clough Head, xvd.' T. T. A., 54. A man at Carlton, near Barnsley, spoke of making a dough (which he pronounced clow so as to rhyme with cow) by diverting a stream into an artificial channel and damming it up. A dough is a cleft of a rock or down the side of a hill.

CLOUT, sb. a kind of nail.

CLOUT, v. to strike or beat. See CLART.


46 SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY.

CLOUT, sb. a blow.

CLOY.

There is a phrase ' as drunk as cloy. ' I have also heard ' as drunk as Chloe. '

CLUB GARDENS. See FIFTY GARDENS. CLUBS, a cry to stop rough play. Hunter's MS.

CLUMPST or CLUMPED, adj. stiff with cold. Said of the hands. Hunter's MS.

CLUNCH, sb. a lump.

'He's got a clunch o' snow on his boot heel.'

CLUNCH, adj. churlish.

CLUSE WOOD, near Rotherham.

A.S. clus. 'Clowys, water schedynge.' Prompt. Parv.

CLUSSOM, v. to enfold, encircle, to squeeze. 'Cluzzum me to thee, lad!'

CLUTCHES, sb. pi gripes. H.

COACH-GATE, a road leading from Allen Street to Upperthorpe.

COARSE, adj. rough. Said of the weather.

COB, sb. a cake of bread.

COB, sb. the top.

  • The cob of the hill.'

COB-CASTLE, sb. a building over-topping those around it. H.

COBBER, sb. a great lie.

COBBLES or COBLINGS, sb.pl. small 'nuts' or lumps of coal.

COBBLE-STONE, sb. a rounded stone used to finish a wall. The same as 'coping stone.'

COBNAR WOOD, a place near Woodscats in Norton parish, on the top of a steep hill. Cop=ca#ut, culmen, top; knarre = tafor, vertex, top. See COB.

COB-NUT, sb. a game played as described in Halliwell's Archaic Diet.

_ The nuts were hardened for the purpose. When a nut was broken it was said to be cobbered or cobbled. Hunter defines cob-nut as ' a master nut.'


SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY. 47

COCK-A-HOOP, adj. exulting. Hunter *s MS.

COCKED HAT FIELD, on the summit of the hill above Whirlow Hall.

There is a Cocked Hat at Crookes. See the Introduction. Bateman opened a large barrow near the town of Leek called Cock low. Ten Years' Diggings, p. 183.

COCKER, v. to domineer, to lord it. COCKEREL, sb. a young cock. COCKET, adj. merry. COCK-EYE, sb. a squinting eye.

COCKLANDS.

'A close of arable land and bushes called Blacklands and Cocklands Bushes lying betweene Cowley lane south,' &c., in Ecclesfield. Harrison. Probably M.E. cocke, German kocke, a heap.

COCKLE, v. to wrinkle. Said of woollen goods when they have been rained upon.

COCKLES OF THE HEART, sb. pi.

This phrase is frequently heard, but it defies definition. In 1857 Alder- man Bradley, of Sheffield, said that 'he brewed ale to warm the cockles o/ their hearts and make them work better.' Wilson's Note to Mather's Songs, P- 53-

COCKLETY, adj. unsteady, standing on a precarious balance. COCKLETY-BREAD, sb.

'The moulding [of] cocklety-bread is a sport amongst hoydenish girls not quite extinct. It consists in sitting on the ground, raising the knees and clasping them with the hands, and then using an undulatory motion as if they were kneading dough, accompanying the motion with a chant of which the following are the words :

My granny is sick and now is dead,

And we'll go mould some cocklety-bread;

Up with the heels and down with the head,

And that is the way to make cocklety-bread.

It comes from the depths of antiquity, and had formerly a purpose beyond what now belongs to it when it is merely a sport, somewhat wanton. For dough thus moulded when baked was given as a love charm. This appears from one of the questions in the Penetentiale of Burchard, Bishop of Worms, who lived under the Emperor Henry, A.D. 1020, as I find in Aubrey's Remains of Gentilism* Hunter s MS.

COCK LODGES.

' A meadow called Cock Lodges lying next unto Loxley Water. ' Harrison.

COCKLOFT, sb. a garret.

COCK-PIT, sb. the name of a piece of uninclosed land in Dore.


48 SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY.

COCKSHUTTS, sb. pi.

A farm near Beauchief Abbey is called Cockshutts Farm. There is also another place bearing this name near Lees Hall, in Norton parish. 'Cock- shut Closes,' in Thorpe Hesley. Palsgrave has Cockesshote to take wod- cockes vrithuotee.' Cotgrave has 'royztlet, a ginne or deuise to catch woodcocks. ' ' Item a spring wood of twenty-four years' groweth called Cock- shott rowe, lying betweene piper lane in part and Pitts moore in part.' Harri- son. This wood contained 51 a. 2r. i6p.

COCKSTANG, sb. a hand-barrow for carrying hay, &c. It is carried by two men like a Sedan chair.

COCK-STRIDE, sb. a considerable length. I have heard these lines :

' At New Year's tide Days lengthen a cock-stride. '

COCK-TAIL, adj. fresh and foaming. Only applied to beer.

Mather has a song called * The Cock-tail Lady.' A part of Furnace Hill is called ' the Cocktail'

COCK-THROW, sb. a three-legged piece of wood used to support the shafts of a cart when the horses are taken out.

COCK-WEB, sb. a cobweb.

COCKWELL.

'A place called Cockivell hill,' near Shefield. Hunter's Hallamshire, p.

12.

COCKY, adj. proud.

COD, sb. a pod of beans, peas, &c.

CODDLE, v. to boil or stew fruit.

When apples are roasted in the oven they are said to be coddled. Goose- berries boiled in a saucepan, with sugar and milk, are said to be coddled. Coddled peas are peas cooked like chestnuts. They are put into a tin and stewed in a hot oven.

CODDLER, sb.

When a boy has lost all his marbles, he will say ' Give me a coddler (i.e., a marble to start with), and I'll play again.'

COG, v. to beat or hammer iron ; also to beat a person. COGGER, sb. a fighter. COGGING, sb. a thrashing.

COIL, sb. coal.

'In a lease of the Prior of Bretton to a Wentworth in the reign of Henry VIII. the word is throughout written coylle? H.

  • Coy lie, calculus, carbo.' Cath. Angl.


SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY. 49

COKELY CROFT, in Cold-Aston.

COKER. * Nether Coker,' a field of nearly one acre in EcclesalJ, anno 1807.

COLCH, sb. a loud and startling noise; also a smart blow.

COLCHER, sb. a heavy fall.

  • He came a regular catcher. '

COLD-ASTON, the name of a hamlet in Dronfield parish.

It is called simply Estune in Domesday, the prefix Cold not being used before the fourteenth century. See my derivation from coaled, meaning blackened, in Notes and Queries (6th S. xi. 122). To what I have there said I will add that Cotgrave has ' charbonne, painted, marked, written with a coale; followed, smeered, blacked with coales, hence also, darkened.' The woods in the neighbourhood were much 'coaled, ' that is, burnt for making char- coal. The trade of the carbonarius lignarius (wood collier) appears to be the most frequent occupation in the Norton Parish Register. There is a ' Black Piece' wood in the township. In describing the wealth of Sheffield Manor, Harrison says, ' There may be within this manner raised iron worke w/fo'ch would afford vnto the Lord (as is thought) a thousand pounds yearly and all charges discharged, and for the maintaineing of this worke there are within this [manor] 2 thousand acres of wood and timber (besides Sheffeild Parke) whereof there are above 16 hundred acres of spring woods, besides great store of old trees fit for no other purpose but for the making of charkehole. ' In Harrison's time the Lord of the Manor of Sheffield received .103. 8s. od. yearly 'for windfall wood and diging up of old roots for charcoales.' And see BLACKO PLAINE. It will have been seen that ass=ashes, cinders, in the Sheffield dialect. From the analogy of many other names in this glossary, such as Grimethorpe, Aston would appear to mean 'cinder town.'

COLD-FIRE, sb. a fire laid ready for lighting. COLD-WELL.

' A well called Cold Well lying next Grimesthorp greene.' Harrison. Several fields at Carlton, near Barnsley, are called CoidwcU.

COLKE [coke], sb. the core of an apple, &c.

'Acolke; erula (interior pars pomi. A.).' Cath. Angl.

COLLAR, v. to entangle.

When a grinder's belt or band gets twisted round the shafting it is said to be collared or a-collar.

COLLARED, adj. smeared with black dirt, particularly soot, dirt from the fire.

^ 'Your face is all collared. . . . The r has gained a firm footing in this word in Hallamshire, but in Shropshire callow is still the word for smut, black dirt.' Hunter's MS.

COLLIFOBBLE, v. to cheat. COLLIWOBBLES, sb. pi pain in the bowels. ,


5 SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY.

COLLOAGE, v. to colleague, to conspire. COLLOP MONDAY, sb. the Monday before Lent.

COLLY CLOSES, fields in Ecclesfield. Harrison.

The word is found as a surname in Sheffield. ' Upper Colley field ' in Cold-Aston.

COLLYWOGGLE, v. to set to rights.

'I'd like to get a basin of hot water and a bit of soap and then I'd


COM, sb. a comb. COM, v. to comb.

COMBER-WOOD, near Killamarsh. O. M. O. Icel. kambr, a ridge.

COME BY, v. to obtain.

' He's come by that land in not a very straightforrard way.'

COME THY WAYS or COME THY WAY, come along. ' Cum the way, Ruth, an bring a bottle we the.' Bywater, 151.

COMFORTER, sb. a scarf worn round the neck.

COMICAL, adj. difficult, perplexing.

' Wa, this is a comical job, ooever.' CONERY.

'A close of arable called the Conery. 1 Harrison.

CONEY GARTH.

Harrison mentions Coney Garth and Coney Greaves in Cowley Manor, Ecclesfield.

CON NY, adj. handsome, pretty.

  • A conny little thing. '

CONQUER OVER, v. to exult or crow over. CONSTER, v. to construe. Hunter's MS.

COOMBES [cums, or cooms], sb. pi. the sprouts of barley when malting.

These sprouts were used for preserving bacon. The bacon was put into a large bin, and the coombes were spread on each layer of bacon or ham. It was so kept for winter use, and it was said to give a pleasant taste to the bacon and ham. ' Ctimmynge as malte, germinates. Cath. Angl. See Harrison's Description of England, ed. Furnivall, i. 156.

COOP, a call for cows. Perhaps ' come up.' COOTER, sb. a coulter, or ploughshare.


SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY. 51

COP, v. to catch.

COPER [koaper], sb. A.S. cypa t Dutch kooper^ merchant, trader. A 'horse-coper' is a horse-dealer.

COPING-STONES [coaping-stones], sb. pi. the stones which are put upon the top of a wall as a covering.

COPLEY PASTURES, fields in Sheffield Park. Harrison. COPPIN LANDS, fields in Ecclesfield. Harrison.

COPPY, sb. a coppice.

'Item she holdeth an intacke (pasture) lying between Rivelin coppy and Rivelin firth south. ' Harrison. ' Newland abas coppy. ' Ibid. ' Scales coppy, ' near Wentworth Park.

COPS, sb. pi. knotted wool from sheep.

CORBO or CORBOW, sb. a curved, hafted knife. It is sometimes called a Wharncliffe knife.

CORDWELL FARM, near Horsley Gate, Dronfield. O. M. CORF or COFE, the pronunciation of calf.

' Thear's a kah an a kofe to divoide amang noine on us.' Bywater, 23.

CORF, sb. a small wagon used in coal pits. Plural corves.

Hunter gives the singular as cork, but I cannot find that such a word exists. He also says 'It is used as a measure, so many corves making a load.' Hunter's MS.

CORKE WALLS, in Bradfield. See BAY.

' Halfe a tenement called Corke Walls Francis Wainewright hath the other half with a dwelling-house of 2 bayes and a barne and a part of a fold lying betweene Dungworth Com/won north and a highway south-west, and the halfe of the scite of this tenement contained ooa. oor. 2i^p.' 'An intacke called Corke Walls* adjoining the last piece and contain^ 2a. ir. 3o T 1 p. Harrison. It is afterwards called 'Corker Walls' and 'Corker


CORKY, adj. half-drunk.

A horse is said to go in a corky way, i.e., to step lightly.

CORN, sb. a leaf, a small quantity. ' A corn of tobacco.'

' He's an old nip-fig ; his finger nails are long enough to cut a corn of tea in two.'

CORN-CRAKE, sb. the landrail.

CORNISH, sb. a mantelshelf.

'Two candlesticks stans uppat cornish? Bywater, 153.

COTE, sb. a small shed for cattle, hens, pigs, &c.


52 SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY.

COTS, sb. knotted wool from sheep.

COTTED, adj. knotted.

Used of the wool of sheep.

COTTER or COTTERIL, sb. a small round iron pin for fastening

a bolt.

It is used for fastening windows, &c. The cotter having passed through the bolt is made secure by a small iron wedge.

COTTER, v. to strike heavily.

COUMES [coombes] HILLS, near Oughtibridge. Also Coumes Gates. O. M. They are generally called ' the Coombes.' A.S. cumb, Welsh cwm, a hollow among hills ; a narrow valley.

COUNSELLOR, sb. a barrister-at-law.

Hunter mentions ' Counsellor Parker of Woodthorpe.' Hunter's MS.

COUSIN, sb. a nephew or niece. H.

COU-TROUGH [kow-troff], sb. a trough of cold water into which a blacksmith plunges hot iron.

It is sometimes called col-trough [kowl-troff].

COW, v. to rake or scrape together. COWD, adj. cold.

COWELL, in Bradfield.

'A sheep pasture called Agden, lying betweene Agden comwon called Cowell north east and Hawkesworth firth south." Harrison.

COWFORTH.

' Item another intacke called Cowforlhe holme (wood and arable) lying betweene Loxly water north east and Stannington wood south and west.' Harrison. Cf. Oxford. This word should set at rest for ever the disputed etymology of Oxford. It is as much ' ford for oxen' as this is * ford for cows.'

COW GAP, a place in Bradfield. O. M. COWING INGE, a field in Ecclesfield. Harrison.

COWLADY or LADYCOW, sb. a small red beetle, a lady bird. There is a children's rhyme :

' Cowlady, cowlady, fly away home ; Thy house is on fire, thy children all gone.' Or,

  • Cushlady, cushlady, fly away home.'

There were other lines, which I cannot recover.

COWLEY, in Bradfield.

' Calfe Hey pastz*n? lying next the Over Hey or the Cowley.' Harrison. 'Great Cowley field' in Dore. 'Cowley Bottoms' in Dronfield. 'Ould Couley and Newfeild.' Rental, 1624.


SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY. 53

COWLEY GORE, sb. the name of a place in Dronfield parish. See GORE.

Tapering strips of land, pointed at one end, in a common field, were called gores or gored acres.

COWLICK or LICK, sb. a mess for cows, composed of chopped hay mixed with barley meal, oatmeal, &c.

COWMOUTH, the name of a farmhouse in Norton. See SOW- MOUTH.

COW-RAKE, sb. a rake for scraping ashes together.

COWS, NAMES OF. 'Cherry,' 'Bunting,' 'Green,' ' Tidswell,' 'Old Slut,' 'Lilly,' 'Rose,' 'Dewdrop,' 'Buttercup,' 'Daisy.'

Cows were often named after the persons who first owned them, or after the places from which they came.

CRACK, v. to boast.

'Nowt to crack on,' nothing to boast of.

CRACK, v. to break into a house ; to commit a felony. CRACKED, adj. foolish, mad. CRACKER, sb. a fib. CRACKSMAN, sb. a burglar. CRAMPY, adj. rheumatic, lame.

CRANFIELD. A.S. cran, a crane?

'A close called Cranfield, in Wincoe,' Ecclesfield. Eastwood, p. 373.

CRANKY, adj. mad, insane. CRAPLY, adj. brittle, easily broken.

CRATCH, sb. a wooden frame for bottles.

  • A cratch fill'd with bottles fell down the staircase.'

Mather's Songs, 16.

CRATCHETY, adj. weak, decrepit, broken, infirm.

  • This chair is very cratchety.' Generally used of a person in weak or

broken health.

CRATES, sb. pi. the game of nine holes.

This is the game described by John Jones, M.D., in his book called ' The Benefit of the Auncient Bathes of BuckstonesJ 1572, p. 12, as having been played by ladies at Buxton for their amusement in wet weather. See Pegge's ' Anonymiana,' 1818, p. 126. Jones was rector of Treeton, near Sheffield, in 1581. His daughter married a Machon, of Machon Bank. Hunter's Hallamshire, 216.

CRAUNCH or CRANCH, v. to crush.


54 SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY.

CRAVEN FIELD, in Ecclesall, anno 1817.

CRAW ROODS.

' Item, Craw roods (pasture and ara&) lying ' at Stannington. Harrison. There is a ' Crow lane ' at Unston, in Dronfield parish. The surname^ Craw- shaw occurs in the district. See Crowstone Edge. Perhaps Icel. krd, Dan. kro, a nook, corner. Cf. Cray, near Kettlewell, West Riding.

CRAY, sb. the crop of a fowl.

CREAKER, sb. a watchman's wooden rattle.

CREAKER, sb. a cricket.

CREAMS HILL, in Dore. See CrimsalL

CREOLE, sb. a cradle. M.E. credeL

CREE, v. to soften by boiling, to parboil.

CREEL, sb.

' A light frame-work placed overhead in the kitchen or other room of an ordinary farm-house, on which oatcakes are placed.' Hunter's MS.

CREEP-HEDGE, sb.

I have heard this word in the following riddle as the name of the hare: ' Creep-hedge, crop-thorn, Little cow with leather horn.' The answer to the riddle is 'a hare.'

CREEP OUT, v. to lengthen.

When days lengthen they are said to creep out. See LOOK OUT.

CRESWICKE MOOR, in Ecclesfield. Harrison.

Apparently the same as Cressville in Eastwood's Ecdesfidd, p. 124. 'Johannes de CroswickJ in Poll Tax Returns for Sheffield, 1379, p. 41.

CREW, sb. A hen-crew is a coop or cage for hens.

CRIB, sb. a rack in the middle of a farm-yard containing straw for cattle to eat.

CRICKET, sb. a low stool for children to sit on. CRIMBLES, a field in Norton Parish.

CRIMEKER.

' A close of pasture called Oakney lying between Crimeker lane, &c. ' Harrison. It is at Fulwood, and is now called Crimicar lane. There is a place called Crimicar at Fullwood. See the next word. Perhaps Icel. krim, sod, grime, and akr, an acre; the probable equivalent of Blackacre. Cf. Crimesworth Dean, Halifax.

CRIMSAL, in Ecclesfield.

' Ralph and Henry Smyth holdeth at will Crimsall, a part of Dickfield, Bright field and a garden.' Harrison. See GRIMSELLS. There is a field called Creams hill in Dore. Cf. Icel. krim, sod, grime.


SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY. 55

CRINK, v. to twist, or wrench painfully.

  • I've crinked my neck.'

CRINK, sb. a twist or bend.

When a man bends a piece of iron by hammering it he is said to crink it.

CRINKLE, v. to rumple.

CROCUS, sb. a red oxide used for polishing cutlery. Hunter's MS.

CROFT, sb. an enclosed piece of ground usually smaller than a close or field. Hunter's MS.

CROGGLE, v. to curdle.

' Yrog-croggle ' is frog-spawn.

CROGGLY, adj. curdled.

' It's all thick and waggly*

CROMWITHEY, in Bradfield. See DAYNE.

CRONK, v. to exult over with insult ; also to stoop over a fire. Also to gossip in a malicious way.

' Shoo's gone a cranking* See CROODLE.

CROOD, v. to curdle.

CROODLE, v. to cling, to nestle, to cling together for warmth. ' To croodle over the fire.' A child is said to croodle to its mother.

CROODLY, adj. cold, chill.

I have heard a child say ' Oh, mother, I feel like a hen, all croodly*

CROOK.

'Great Crook' and 'Little Crook' are fields in Ecclesall, anno 1807. See CROOKES.

CROOK, sb. a hook.

CROOKES, sb. a suburb of Sheffield. Also Crookesmoor.

'Croke. Ungustus et sinuosus, hauynge muche crakes or holowness.' Huloet. There is a place near Sheffield called Hollow Meadows, situated in a narrow valley in which are the reservoirs of the Sheffield Waterworks Company. ' The river Don, at Aluerton (Owlerton), receiueth the Bradfelde water. Then passeth it to Crakes^ and so to Sheffelde castell.' Harrison's England in Holinshed, ed. 1577, fo. 72b. Harrison's Survey mentions ' Crookes towne in Sheffield parish ;' also ' Crookes street. ' ' The crooked shall be made straight and the rough places plain.' Isaiah xl. 4. 'Darnall Crooked Harrison. ' Crooked acre' in Bradfield. Ibid. Cf. Croxden. Bateman opened a barrow at Crake Low, Tissington. Ten Years' Diggings > p. 37. A Crukton or Croketon is mentioned in the Boldon Book, p. 33. ' lidem tenent inter se moram del Croke* Ibid.) p. xlviii.

CROOKLED or CROOKELT, adj. crooked.


56 SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY.

CROPPER, sb. a bad fall.

CROSS, sb. the name of an open space in Cold- Aston where three roads meet.

It is called 'The Cross.' In this space formerly stood the stocks, which were removed about 1835. See CROSS POOL and BANNER CROSS. 'A crosse waie, or a fourecornerd streete.' Baret's Alvearie, 1580. 'Traverse. A crosse way or by lane which leads out of the highway.' Cof grave. In Ecclesfield and Bradfield are Handsom Cross, Shiregreen Cross, Wadsley Cross, Grenoside Cross, Chapel Cross, Parson Cross, Burn Cross. One or two of these may have been 'preaching crosses.' In the village of Carlton, near Barnsley, are the remains of a stone cross standing on a triangular strip of grass at the junction of three roads. These remains are still called ' the Cross.' The open space at Cold- Aston called 'the Cross' was, in my time, a common trysting-place. See IRISH CROSS. Harrison mentions ' the two white stones in Crosse Hill,' Bradfield. There is a cross, approached by Steps, in Norton churchyard.

CROSS AND PILE.

' The game of head and tail is sometimes called cross and pile.' H. See Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, 2nd ed., p. 296.

CROSS BUNS, sb. pi. sweet cakes marked with a cross and sold on Good Friday.

Children who sell them in the streets say :

' One a penny, two a penny, hot cross buns ; One for your daughters, and two for your sons : One a penny, two a penny, hot cross buns.' They are always spoken of as ' Hot cross buns.'

CROSS-EYED, adj. squinting.

CROSSPATCH or CROSSPETCH, sb. a peevish child.

CROSS POOL, a place near Crookes, in Sheffield parish. See CROSS.

CROWDER HOUSE, in Ecclesfield. O. M.

CROWDY or CROODY, sb. a mixture of oatmeal and water.

With reference to this word, see Canon Taylor's article on ' Domesday Survivals' in Contemporary Review for December, 1886, p. 887. In this district it is simply a mixture of coarse oatmeal and cold water. It is sometimes put into a pot and boiled, and then mixed with treacle. Low Lat. corrodium.

CROWNER, sb. a coroner.

'Pronounced crunner.' Hunter's MS. So far as I can ascertain it is pronounced crowner.

CROWSTONE EDGE, in Bradfield. See DAYNE and CRAW ROODS.


SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY. 57

CROW TO PULL.

The phrase * I have a crow to pull with you ' means I have a quarrel to make up with you.

CROZE, sb. a sharp cutting instrument used by coopers for cutting the groove or inlet at the ends of a cask, into which the ends are fitted.

CROZE-STOCK, sb. the wooden handle into which a croze (g.v.) is fitted.

CROZZIL, sb. a cinder only partly burnt. CRUDDLE, v. to curdle. CRUDE SICK, a field in Dore. CRUDS, sb. pi. curds. CRUNCH, v. to crush or chew up. CUCK, v. to throw.

CUCK-BALL, sb. a game at ball. The same as Pize-ball (q.v.). It is sometimes called Tut-ball.

CUCKOLD-HAVEN, a place near Ridgeway. O. M. Cf. Cuckolds Haven, in Firbeck, West Riding.

CUCKOO-GRASS, Luzula campestris.

CUCKOO SPIT, sb. white froth on leaves, enclosing the insect Cicada spumaria.

CUDDLE-ME-BUFF, sb. an intoxicating liquor.

' Hot cuddle-me-buff was the liquor. '

Mather's Songs, 77. See BUFF.

CUMBERLEY, adj. cumbrous, awkward.

CUPELOW [kewpylow], sb. a cupola, a smelting furnace for iron or lead.

CUPTY, sb. a slow ball bowled in the game of cricket, which is easy to hit at.

CURCHY, sb. a curtsey.

CURRANS, sb. pi. currants, the fruit of the garden currant.

CUSH, a call by cowherds to cows when they want them to come home to be milked.


58 SHEFFIELD GLOSSARY.

CUT, v. to hasten away.

Often used in the phrase 'cut thy stick,' meaning run away; be off.'

CUT, sb. a canal.

CUTEAU, sb. a large clasp-knife. '

CUT HIS STICKS.

A man is said to cut his sticks when he decamps or runs away.

CUTLING, sb. the art of making cutlery.

' When he wrought at cut ling mere twelves made him sick,'

Mather's Songs, 66.

CUTS, sb. //.lots.

'To draw cuts' is to draw lots. 'To draw cutte, sortiri, consorting Cath. Angl.

CUTS, sb. a dray or wagon to lead wood on. CUTTLE-HEADED, adj. foolish. H.