An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language/D

An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language  (1911)  by Alexander MacBain
D

D

, two, Ir. , O. Ir. (m.), (f.), da n- (n.), W. dau (m.), dwy (f.), Cor. dou, diu, Br. daou, diou, (f.), *dvâ, *dvâu (m.), dvei (f.), dvabin (dat.); Skr. dvau, dvâ, dve (f., n.); Gr. δúω; Lat. duô: Got. tuai, Eng. two.

dabhach, a vat, a measure of land (either one or four ploughgates, according to locality and land), O. G. dabach (Bk.of Deer), Ir. dabhach, a vat, *dabâkâ; Gr. θάπτω, bury, τάφος, grave; root dhabh, dhôbh, deepen, dig out. Cf. Lit. dü*biú, hollow out. Bezzenberger suggests alliance with Eng. top, Ger. topf. Eng. tub, if allied to the Ger. zuber, is from the root of two, "a two-eared" vessel. Also dabhoch, and in place-names Doch-.

dàcha, more likely; see dócha.

dachaidh, home (adverb), a home, Ir. do thigh, M. Ir. dia tig, home, E. Ir. dia thaig; from do and tigh. In Ir. the phrase is a prepositional adverb; in Gaelc it ceases to be a phrase and becomes a welded noun.

dad, anything, aught, tittle, M. G. dad, mote (in sunbeam), Ir. dadadh, dadamh, aught, a jot, etc., *da-z-dho-, root da, divide, Lit. dalìs, part, Gr. δασμός, division? See †dàil. Hence dadmun, a mote, and dadum = dad.

dag, a pistol; from M. Eng. dag, a pistol, from Fr. dague, a dagger, whence Br. dag. The change of meaning from "dagger" to "pistol" is one which occurs in the history of "pistol" itself, for it originally meant "dagger". Eng. dagger is allied.

daibhir, poor, Ir. daidhbhir, M. Ir. daidber: *do-adberi-, from do- and adber, *ád-bherô, Lat. adfero. See saoibhir.

dàicheil, handsome, Ir. dóigheamhuil, well appointed, decent; see dácha, dócha, dòigh.

daidein, daddy, Ir. daidín, daid, M. Ir. datán, foster-father, datnait, foster-mother, W. tad, Cor. tat; Lat. tata; Gr. τέττα; Lit. tetýtis, Ch. Sl. teta; Skr. tatás. Eng. dad is borrowed from the Welsh (Skeat).

daigeil, firm or well-built (of a man) - Arg. Cf. daingean.

dail, a wooden collar for cattle; cf. W. dal, a hold, catch, Br. dal, a holding; root dhê, dhô, set? Cf. Gr. θήκη, repository, τίθημι, place, Lat. facîo, etc. But see dáil, delay.

dail, a dale, meadow, from Norse dalr, Eng. dale.

dàil, delay, credit, Ir. dáil, M. Ir. dál, gen. dála, respite, *dâli-; from dvôl, dvel, whence Eng. dwell, Norse dvöl, delay.

dàil, a meeting, so Ir., O. Ir. dál, O. W. datl, forum, W. dadl, sermo, O. Br. dadlou, curiæ, Br. dael, *datlâ, root dha, dhê, set, as in dail (Ernault). Stokes suggests connection with O.Sl. , dicere.

dàil, †dàl, portion, tribe, Ir. and O. Ir. dáil, dál, Bede daal = part, Dalreudini, later Dál-riata, Dalriada, the early Scotic kingdom of Argyle, etc: *dâlo-, root , divide, Gr. δατέομαι, divide, δασμός, division, Lit. dalis, a part, Skr. dā́ti, cut off, dalas, part. The verb dailich, distribute, is given in H.S.D. as a dialectic form; the Ir. is dáilim. Zimmer thinks dáil, meeting, and dáil, part, are originally the same.

dailgneachd, prophetic vision. See tairgneachd.

dàimh, relationship, Ir. dámh, tribe, family, E. Ir. dám: *dâmâ, tribe, company; Gr. δῆμος, Dor. δᾶμος, people, tribe, Eng. democracy. It is usual to compare O. W. dauu, cliens, W. daw (dawf), son-in-law, M. Br. deuff, Br. den (do.); but these words may be allied to Gr. δάμαρ, spouse, and be from the root dam, dom, house.

daingean, strong, firm, so Ir., O. Ir. daingen, W. dengyn, barbarous, *dangeno-, firm, hard, verb *dengô, E. Ir. dingim, press. Bezzenberger compares Norse tengja, fasten, tie together, Ag. S. tengan, press, O. H. G. gi-zengi, conjunctus. Thurneysen compares W. tengyn, obstinate, and Gr. tangoner, press. It is possible to connect daingean with Norse dyngja, heap, women's apartment, Ag. S. ding, carcer, Lit. dengiu, cover; perhaps O. H. G. tunc, earth-house, Eng. dung.

dàir, inire vaccam, Ir. dáir, M. Ir. dair, *dârô, root dhṝ-, dhoro, Gr. θρώσκω, spring, θορός, semen viri, Skr. dhā́ra, stream, seed.

dairireach, rattling noise, E. Ir. der-drethar, cries, W. dâr, noise, daredd, tumultuous noise, root der, dher, as in Gr. θρῆνος, dirge, Skr. dhraṇ, sound, Eng. drone. See dùrd and stairirich.

dais, a heap of hay or peats, O. Ir. ais, a heap, W. dâs, O. W. das, M. Br. dastum, to mass, *dasti- (for G. and W.); Ag. S. tass (whence Fr. tas). Bezzenberger and Stokes correlate it with Norse des, hay heap, Sc. dass.

dais, dois, a blockhead (H.S.D.), daiseachan, insipid rhymer (Arm.); seemingly borrowed from the Sc. dawsie, stupid, dase stupefy. For root, see dàsachd. Norse dasi, lazy fellow.

dais, a musical instrument:

daithead, a diet; from the Eng. See dìot.

dala, one of two; see under dara.

dall, blind, Ir., E. Ir. dall, W., Br. dall, Cor. dal, *dvalno-, I. E. dhvḷ-no-; Got. dvals, foolish, Eng. dull; Lat. fallo, cheat (= dhalnó); Gr. θολερός, turbid. Hence inter alia, dallag, a field shrew, a mole, Ir. dallóg.

dallanach, a winnowing fan; from dall.

dalma, bold, forward, obstinate: "vigorous"?, root dhḷ in duille.

dalta, foster-son, god-son, O. G. dalta (Bk.of Deer), Ir. dalta, O. Ir. dalte, *daltaio-s, root dhê, dhêl, suck; Gr. θῆλυς, female; Lat. fêlo, suck, femina; etc. (Stokes, Strachan). See deoghail. It has been usual to refer dalta to the root al of altram, the d being considered as the remains of de, the prepositional prefix (*de-altjo-s).

dàm, a dam; from the Eng.

dàmais, draughts, bord dàmais, draught board; from the Sc. dams, dambrod, Ger. dambrett, from Fr. dame, dame, draughts, Lat. domina.

damh, ox, stag, so Ir., O. Ir. dam, Cor. da, dama, M. Br. dauat, sheep, Br. danvad, sheep, demm, roe, *damo-s; Lat. dâma, damma, deer; Gr. δαμάλης, a stier, δάμαλις, a calf; Skr. damya, untamed stier. Allied is Eng. tame, Lat. domare, Eng. domestic, etc.

dàmhair, rutting time; for damh-dhàir, from damh and dàir (H.S.D.).

dàmhair (H.S.D.), damhair (Sh., Arm.), earnest, keen:

damhan-allaidh, spider, Ir. damhán-alla, O. Ir. damán n-allaid (g.pl.), "wild little deer"; see damh and allaidh.

damnadh, cursing, condemnation, so Ir., M. Ir. damnad; from Lat. damnatio.

dàn, fate, destiny, Ir. dán; cf. M. Ir. dán, gift, W. dawn, gift, talent, Lat. dônum, root , Gr. δίδωμι, give, Skr. , give.

dàn, a poem, Ir. dán, song, O. Ir. dán, g. dáno, ars. *dâsnu-, root dâs, know; Gr. δήνεα, plans, arts, δαήμον, skilful; Ch. Sl. danhanh, wisdom; Skr. damsána, miracle (Stokes).

dàn, bold, Ir. dána, O. Ir. dáne, dána, *dâsnavo-s, from the root of dán above (Stokes).

danns, dance (thou), dannsa, damhsa, a dance, Ir. damhsa, W. dawns; from the Eng.

dao, obstinate, O. Ir. doe, g. doi, tardus, *dausio-s; Ag. S. dysig, foolish, Eng. dizzy, O. H. G. tusîc, stultus, Ger. thor, foolish (Stokes, Windisch).

daobhaidh, wicked, perverse (Heb.); see dao.

daoch, strong dislike, horror, daochan, anger (Sh.):

daoi, wicked, a wicked man, Ir. daoi, a wicked or foolish person; opposite of saoi (with do-, *du-), which see for root.

daoimean, a diamond; from the Eng.

daol, daolag, a beetle, Ir. daol, E. Ir. dael, doel, dail: *daoilo-, root dei, di, as in dian, q.v. Stokes connects with M. Ir. dael, grightsomeness, root dvei, fright, Gr. δέος, a fright, Skr. dvis, hate.

daolair, a lazy man, a niggard, Ir. daol, lazy (O'R.):

daonnan, daondan, continually, always *d'aon-tan (?), "from one time". Cf. greis.

daor, enslaved, so Ir., O.Ir dóir; opposite of saor (with negative (do), *du-), which see for root.

daor, dear, Ir. daor, daoradh, making dear (Four Masters); from M. Eng. deere, deore, dear (Stokes).

daorach, intoxication; cf. Sc. deray, mirthful noise at a banquet, M. Eng. derai, disorder, from Fr. desroi, dis-array.

dar, when (conj.), Northern form for 'n uair; probably d'uair = do-uair.

dara, second, so Ir.; M. G. darle (Oss. Ballad, Fernaig MS), *ind-araile, "the other", from ind = an, the, and O. Ir. araile, alius = ar+aile, air+eile, q.v., alalijos, Br. arall. Also an dala, the one of two, O. Ir., indala, from ind and aile, that is an and eile. Further, dàrna (= dala), E. Ir. indarna, *ind-araile n-ai, the one of them (two), O. Ir. indala n-ai, where ái, eorum, is the pl. of a, his.

darach, oak, Ir. dair, darach, E. Ir. dair, gen. darach, W., Cor. dar, *darik-; Lat. larix, Eng. larch; Gr. (Maced.) δάρυλλος, oak, δρῦς (do.), dóru, spear; Eng. tree, etc. Hence darach, body of a boat.

darcan, the hollow of the hand (Dialectic, H.S.D.); cf. deàrna.

darcan, a teal:

dàrna, one of two; see under dara.

darnaig, darn, darning; from the Eng. darning, which is itself from W. darn, piece, patch (root dera, split, Eng. tear).

dàsachd, rage, madness, M. G. dásacht (M'V.), Ir. dásachd, O. Ir. dásacht, insania; Ag. S. dwáes, foolish, Sc. dawsie, Du. dwaas, senseless (Strachan).

dath, colour, Ir., E. Ir. dath, *datu-; from the root dha, dhê, place, as in dail, etc.?

dàth, singe, Ir. doghaim, E. Ir. dóthim, inf. dóud, daif (n.), Br. deuiff, to burn, *daviô, I burn; Gr. daíw, burn; Skr. du, dunóti, burn, davas, a brand.

dathas, fallow deer; damhasg, dabhasg; from damh+seasg (?).

de, of, Ir. de, O. Ir. de, di, O. W. di, W. y, Cor. the, Br. di, *de, *di, *dê; Lat. ; from dvê, a case-form from dvô, two. Gaelic and Irish confuse this prep. with do, to; a confusion which even extends to O. Ir. in pre-accentual de compounds. Hence do of the past tenses: do chaidh, went, i.e., deach; do rinn, did, from do-gníu, I do, etc.

, what; also gu dé; a curtailed form of ciod è, "what is it"; from ciod and è, q.v. Ir caidé, Galway godé.

, an dé, yesterday, Ir. ané, (andé), O. Ir. indhé, W. y ddoe, Br. deac'h, M. Br. dech, *sendi-gesi, art. an and *gesi; Lat. heri (= *hesî); Gr. χθές; Eng. yesterday. The Celtic forms are all influenced by the word for "to-day", G. an diu, O. Ir. indiu, W. heddyw, dyw; from diu, *divo, day, q.v. Zimmer in fact refers the word to the root of diu (Zeit.30 17). *jesi, ghjesi, heri, etc. (St.).

: teine dé, M. Ir. tene díait, lightning; *deia, shine with -anti or -anta (n.) (St.).

dèabh, drain, dry up, dèabhadh (pronounced dè-u, shrinking (as the staves of a wooden vessel), Dialectic deò; I. E. dhevo-, run, Eng. dew, Gr. θέω, run, Skr. dhav, run, flow.

deacaid, boddice, jacket; from Eng. jacket.

deacair, difficult, surly, Ir. deacair, O. Ir. deccair; for di-acar: prep. de and acar, as in socair, q.v.

deach, went; the post-particicle or enclitic form of do chaidh, q.v. Ir. deachaidh, O. Ir. dechud.

deachd, dictate, so Ir., deachdadh (n.); from Lat. dicto, dictatio, whence Eng. dictation.

deadhan, a dean; from the Eng.

deagh, good, Ir. deagh, O. Ir. deg-, dag-, W. da, Cor. da, bonum (gl.), Gaul. Dago-, *dago-, *dego-, "good, acceptable"; Gr. δέχεσθαι, receive. Further allied to Gr. δεξιός, right, δέκομαι receive; Lat. dexter, right, decus, doceo; Gaelic deas, O. Ir. dech, best (superlative to deagh or maith).

deaghad, living, diet, morals (Uist); see dìot.

deaghaidh: see déidh.

deal, friendly (H.S.D., M'E.); see dìleas.

deal, deala, a leech, Ir. deal, a blood-sucker (O'R.); from I. E. root dhê, suck, as in deoghail, q.v. Cf. Lit. dėlė, leech; also Ir. (and G. in Dict. therefrom) deala, teat, E. Ir. del.

dealaich, separate, Ir. dealuighim, E. Ir. deligim, deil, separation; I. E. delo-, to split, Skr. dalítas, split, Gr. δέλτος, tablet, Lit. dalis, part. Cf. †dàil, part.

dealan, dealanach, lightning, Ir. dealán, spark, flaming coal, *dilo-: root di, dei (dêi), deya (Fick), shine; Gr. δέελος (= δέj-ελος), conspicuous, δῆλοσ, ηλεαρ; Sκρ. δî, shine; further is *dei-vo-s, whence G. dia, etc. M. Ir. tene-gelain, "lightning", now "will o' the wisp"; tene-gelan, fireflaught.

dealan-dé, butterfly, Ir. dalán-dé, dealán-dé. The G. also means the phenomenon observed by shirling a stick lighted at the end. Apparently the meaning is "God's fire". For , see dia.

dealan-doruis, door-bolt (Sh., O'R.); see deil.

dealas, zeal, dealasach, zealous; from the Eng. zeal, zealous.

dealbh, form, so Ir., O. Ir. delb, W. delw, Br. -delu, *delvo-, root del; Lat. dolare, hew, dolo, a pike; Gr. δαιδάλλω, embellish, work cunningly; O. H. G. zol, log; Ch. Sl. dely, vat.

dealg, a pin, skewer, so Ir., O. Ir. delg, M.W. dala, sting, fang, W. dal, a catch, Cor. delc, monile, *delgos; Ag. S. telgan virgultum, twig, Du. telg, M.H.G. zelge, Norse tjálgr, a prong; Lit. dalgís, scythe (?). Bezzenberger compares Norse dálkr, a cloak pin; cf. Ag. S. dalc, buckle.

dealradh, brightness, so Ir., E. Ir. dellrad, jubar; from deal-, as in dealan, q.v.

dealt, dew, Ir. dealt, M. Br., Br. delt, moist, damp:

dealunn, loud barking (H.S.D.); see deileann.

deamhan, a demon, so Ir., O. Ir. demon; from Lat. daemon, from Gr. δαίμων, Eng. demon.

deamhais, deimheis, shears, Ir. deimheas (pronounced díos), E. Ir. demess, *di-mess, "two-edged"; from di of da, two, and E. Ir. mess, edge (Cormac's Gl.), "cutter", from root met, mow, cut, as in meath, meith, cut, prune, Lat. meto. Cf. Gaul, mataris.

dèan, do, Ir. déan (imper.), O. Ir. dén, dénim: enclitic or post-particle form of O. Ir. dogníu, G. , I do; from de, of, and gnî of gnìomh, q.v. Inf. dèanamh (= de-gnîmu-).

deann, haste, speed; cf. E. Ir. denmne, haste, which Cormac explains as di-ainmne, "non-patience", from ainmne, patience; root men, wait (Lat. maneo, etc.).

deannag, a small pinch, a grain, deannach, mill dust, Ir. deanóg, a pinch, grain:

deannal, conflict, stir, so Ir. (O'R.); from deann. In the sense of "flash" (H.S.D.), deannal seems a metathetical form of dealan.

deanntag, a nettle, Ir. neantóg, M. Ir. nenntóg, E. Ir. nenaid, *nenadi-, for *ne-nadi, a reduplicated form; Ag. S. netele, Eng. nettle; Lit. néndrė, pipe, tube. The t of G. and Ir. is due to the same phonetic law that gives teine the pl. teintean.

dearail, poor, wretched, Ir. dearóil, E. Ir. deróil, feeble, O. Ir. deróil, penuria, from der-, privative prefix (see deargnaidh), and óil, abundance, which Windisch has referred to *pâli-, a form of the root pḷ, pel, full, as in lán.

dearbadan, dearbadan-dé, butterfly (M'D., H.S.D.):

dearbh, certain, so Ir., O. Ir. derb, *dervo-; I. E. drevo-, whence Ag. S. treówe, Eng. true, Ger. treu.

dearc, dearcag, a berry, so Ir., O. Ir. derc, *derkes-, Skr. drâkshâ, grape, vine (Stokes); root derk, see, the idea being "conspicuous". Cf. Gr. δράκων, dragon, δορκάς, gazelle, from the root derk, see. See dearc, behold. The O. Ir. derucc, g. dercon, glans, is, like Ger. eichel, glans (from eiche, oak), from the root of darach, oak (Zimmer).

dearc, dearc-luachrach, a lizad, Ir. earcluachra, the "earc of the rashes", M. Ir. erc, speckled, red, Ir. earc, salmon, W. erch, fuscus, darkish, *erko-s, for perko-; Gr. περκνός, dark-blue, πέρκη, a perch; Skr. pṛçnis, speckled; Ger. forelle, a trout, O. H. G. forhanna. For meaning, cf. breac, a trout, "the speckled one". The d of G. dearc belongs to the article.

dearc, an eye, a cave, hole, Ir. dearc (do.), O. Ir. derc (do.); from the root derk, behold. See verb dearc: "eye-pit" gives the meaning "cave". Shaw has deirc for "pit" in Engl.Gael. section.

dearc, behold, see, Ir. dearcaim, O. Ir. dercaim, video, derc, eye, *derkô, I see, perfect *dedorka (cf. chunnairc = con-darc I. E. derk, see; Gr. δέρκομαι, δέδορκα, have seen; O. H. G. zoraht, bright; Skr. darç, see.

dearg, red, so Ir., O. Ir. derg, *dhergo-s; Eng. dark, Ag. S. deorc.

deargad, deargant, a flea, Ir. deargán, dreancuid, deargnuid, E. Ir. dergnat: *derg-nat, "reddener", from dearg, red?

deàrgnaidh, unlearned (Arm.; M'A. says "Irish"), Ir. deargnaidh, *der-gnadi-; from der-, privative prefix (di+air, see de and air), and root gnâ, gen, know, as in aithne.

deàrlan, brimful; *der-lán; from intensive prefix der (= de+ro) and làn, full.

dearmad, neglect, forgetfulness, so Ir., O. Ir. dermet, *der-mét; from der-, priv. particle (see deàrgnaidh) and mét, *mento-, mind; root men, think; Lat. mens, mentio, commentum; Eng. mind; etc.

dearmail, anxiety (M'D.), anxious (H.S.D.):

deàrn, do, Ir. deárnaim, O. Ir. derninn, facerem, *di-ro-gnî-, a side form of dèan with infixed ro. See dèan.

deàrna, the palm of the hand, Ir. déarna, E. Ir. derna; cf. Gr. δῶρον, palm, handbreadth, δάρις, the distance between the thumb and little finger, a span (Hes.), δαρεἱρ, the distance between the big and little fingers (Hes.). It is further referred to the I. E. root der, split, open (Fick, Prellwitz).

dearras, keenness, obstinacy; see diarras.

deàrrsach, a swig of liquor (Wh.):

deàrrsadh, radiance, effulgence, Ir. dearsgaim, dearsgnaim, I polish, burnish, M. Ir. dersnaigim, explain, make clear, *de-ro-sec-, root sec, see, Eng. see? Hence deàrrsgnuìdh burnished, brilliant. The word †deàrsgnaidh, excellent, is allied to O. Ir. dersigem, præcellimus, dirósci, excels, doroscai, præstet, *di-roscag- (Thur.), *roscag = ro-od-sec-, root sec, pass, as in seach? E. Ir. dersciagthech, splendid.

deas, right, south, Ir. deas, O. Ir. dess, W. deheu, Cor. dyghow, M. Br. dehou, *dekso-s, *deksivo-s (Stokes); Lat. dexter; Gr. δεξιός; Got. taihsva; Lit. deszinė (n.), Ch. Sl. desǐnŭ, right; Skr. daksina-s.

deasbair, a disputant, deasbaireachd, disputation, Ir. deaspoirim (O'R., Sh.); cf. cuspair.

deasbud, a dispute; from the Eng. dispute, Lat. disputo.

deasgainn, rennet, barm, deasgadh, lees, yeast, Ir. deasgadh, lees, O. Ir. descad, faex, fermentum, leaven *desc-âtu (Z. 803): *disc-atu-; cf. Lat. faex, for ðaix. Gaelic root dik, whence dik-sko, then desc-.

deasgraich, a terogeneous mass (= dreamsgal, H.S.D.):

deasmaireas, curiosity, deasmas (Sh.), Ir. deismireach, deismis, curious (O'B., O'R.):

deasoireach, spicy (Sh., H.S.D.):

deat, an unshorn year-old sheep or wedder, deathaid, *det-anti-, "sucking one"; from det, de, suck. See deoghail.

deatam, anxiety; cf. O. Ir. dethitiu, dethiden, care. For root, see dìdean. M'A. has also deatamach, necessary, which seems allied.

deathach, deatach, smoke, Ir., M. Ir. deatach, O. Ir. , g. diad, E. Ir. dethach, detfadach, smoky, W. dywy, vapour. From I. E. root dhêu, dheu, dhu, dhve, smoke, air; Lat. fûmus, smoke; Gr. θυμιάω, to smoke; Ch. Sl. dymŭ (n.); Skr. dhûmas. Ir. is for dīvâ, from dhêu, or dhêv; the gen. diad is phonetically like the nom. biad, food (*bivoto-n). The form deatach is probably for *dett-acos, dett being from dhve (cf. Gr. θεός, for θεσ-ός, from dhve-s-). The t (= tt) of deatach is difficult to account for. For phonetics cf. beathach.

déibhleid, a feeble or awkward person, M. Ir. déblén, E. Ir. dedblén, weakling, from dedbul, weak; the opposite of adhbhal, q.v. (di-adbul). Stokes allows the alternate possibility of it being from Lat. dêbilis; see dìblidh.

deic (cha deic), convenient; cf. O. Ir. tecte, becoming, anas tecte, quod decet:

deich, ten, so Ir., O. Ir. deich n-, O. W. dec, W. deg, Cor. dek, Br. dec, *dekṇ; Lat. decem; Gr. δέκα; Got. taihun, Eng. ten; Skr. dáçan. deicheamh, tenth, O. Ir. dechmad, W. decvet, Cor. degves, Br. decvet, *dekṃmeto-s (Brug.), an extension (by the superlative suffix -to-) of *dekṃmo-s, Lat. decimus.

déide, déideadh, toothache, Ir. déideadh. See deud.

déideag, a pebble, toy; cf. éiteag.

déidh, desire; a noun formed from the adverbial phrase an déidh, after.

déidh, an déidh, after, Ir. a n-diaigh, O. Ir. i n-dead, post, E. Ir. i n-diaid, from O. Ir. déad, finis, W. diwedd, finis, Cor. deweth, Br. diuez, *dê-ved-on (Stokes); from the root ved, lead, as in toiseach, q.v. (Stokes prefers ved of feadhainn. Also deidh, déigh, the latter a bad form etymologically. The O. Ir. had also the form degaid (= di-agaid), the opposite of i n-agid, now an aghaidh, against, adversus.

deidhinn, mu dheidhinn, concerning, of; cf. E. Ir. dágin, daigind, im dágin, because of, because, dáig, déig, for the sake of, because (prep. and conj.), O. Ir. dég, quia. See dòigh.

deifir, haste, speed, Ir. deifir, deithfir, M. Ir. deithbhireach (O'Cl.), speedy, busy; to which Stokes and Ernault compare W. difrif, serious, M. Br. adevry, seriously.

deigh, ice, Ir. oighear, snow, leac-oighir, ice, O. Ir. aig, g. ega, aigred, W. ia, Cor. iey, glacies, Br. yen, cold, *jagi-, ice; Norse jaki, piece of ice, jökull, iceberg, Ag. S. gicel, piece of ice, Eng. icicle (= ís-gicel); Lit iżas, ice lump. The d of G. is prothetic, arising from the art.: O. Ir. ind-aig.

deighlean, a quire of paper (Sh., O'B.), Ir. deighleán:

deil, an axle, Ir. deil, an axle, rod, turner's lathe, O. Ir. deil, rod, Cor. dele, antempna, O. Br. deleiou, antemnarum, Br. delez, *deli-, *deljo-; I. E. root del, split. See dealaich. Stokes refers it to the root dhel, whence Ger. dolde, umbel, O. H. G. tola, racemus, Gr. θάλος, a short twig; as in duileag, q.v.

deil, dil, keen, diligent (Arg.); formed from dealas, zealous.

deil, leech; Dialectic for deal.

deilbh, a forming, warping (for weaving), so Ir.; see dealbh.

déile, a plank, deal; from the Eng. deal.

deileann, loud, sharp barkings, E. Ir. deilm, stem delmen, noise, alarm:

deileas, a grudging, eagerness; see dealas.

deilgneach, thorny, prickly, Ir. deilgneach, thorns; from dealg. Cadal-deilgneach, the prickly sensation in a numbed limb.

déilig, deal with, a dealing; from Eng. dealing.

deillseag, a slap with the open hand, déiseag:

deiltreadh, gilding, lacquering; *deilt-rad, from †deilt, separation, root del of dealaich?

deimheis, a shears; see deamhais.

deimhinn, certain, Ir. deimhin, O. Ir. demin, demnithir, certius, *demeni-, I. E. root dhê, set, fix, dhemen-, setting, Gr. θέμεναι, set, θέμα, a pledge, theme, θέμις, law, "something laid down"; Eng. doom, deem; etc.

déine, eagerness; see dian.

deir, a deir, says (said), inquit, Ir. deirim, O. Ir. adbeir, dicit; deir is the root-accented fort (*ad-bérô) of abair (the prepositional accuented form, *ád-berô). See abair. The a of a deirim belongs to the ad-, while the d of it takes the place of b in the root (ber).

déirc, alms, so Ir., M. Ir. déarc, desheirc, O. Ir. dearc, deircc, desercc (caritas), for de-shercc; see searc, love.

deireadh, end, so Ir., O. Ir. dered, O. G. derad (Bk.of Deer): *der-vedo-n, root ved as in déidh, q.v.? Ascoli suggests that der is the basis, the opposite of er, front, from the proposition air (*pare). Hence deireas, injury.

déis, an déis, after, so Ir., O. Ir. di éis, retro, O. G. daneis, after them (di-an-éis), O. Ir. éis, footstep, track, *in-sti, root sto, sta, stand, Lat. instare? Strachan gives the stem as *encsi-, from eng, footstep, as in eang, q.v.; Stokes takes it from *pend-ti, root ped, as in eadh, Eng. foot.

deis-dé, a sanctuary, halting place, halt (Wh.); dess dé, "God's right hand" (K.Meyer in "King Eochaid").

deisciobul, a disciple, Ir. deisciobal, O. Ir. descipul, W. dysgybl, Br. diskibil; from Lat. discipulus.

deise, a suit of clothes; from deas. Ir., M. Ir. deise, a robe; E. Ir. deis, entourage of chief. Cf. for meaning Eng. suit.

déiseag, a slap; see deillseag.

deiseil, southward, sun-ward, E. Ir. dessel; from deas and sel (*svel), W. chwyl. See deas and seal.

deismireach, curious; see deasmaireas.

déistinn, déisinn, disgust, Ir. déistion, edge (set the teeth on edge), disgust. Cf. M. Ir. déistiu, refuse of everything, posterity, from déis?

deithneas, deithneamhach, etc.; from déine, from dian.

deò, breath, Ir. deó in gu deo, ever, *dveso-; I. E. dhves, breathe; W. dywy? Lit. dvėsti, breath, dvásė, spirit, breath, Russ. dvochati; Gr. θεός, god (= θεσ-ός); M.H.G. getwâs, ghost.

deoch, a drink, Ir. deoch, g. dighe, O. Ir. deug, g. dige, *degu-. To degu- Bezzenberger cfs. Lit. dażýti, dip, wet, tinge. W. diod, M. Br. diet, are referred by Stokes to the root dhê, suck, as in deoghail, or to *dê-patu (Lat. potus).

deòdhas, deòthas, eagerness, desire (deothas, M'F., O'R.); from dhevo-, Gr. θέω, run, θυμός, soul, etc. See deathach.

deoghail, suck, Ir. diuilim, deolaim, M. Ir. diul (n., dat.), *delu-, root del as in deal, leech; I. E. dhê, suck; Lat. fêlare, suck, fêmina, woman, "suck-giver"; Gr. θῆλυς, female, θηλή, teat, θηλάζω, suck; Skr. dháyati (do.). The Breton forms show n; Br. dena, suck. See dìonag.

deòidh, fa dheòidh, at last, finally, Ir. fá dheoidh, O. Ir. fo diud, postremo; dat. case of O. Ir. déad, end. See déidh for derivation.

deòin, assent, Ir., E. Ir. deóin, *degni-; I. E. root deg, degh; Gr. δοκέω, seem, δόξα, opinion, διδαχή, teaching, Lat. doceo, doctrina, etc. See deagh, good.

deòradh, an alien, Ir. deóraidh, a stranger, exile, M. Ir. deorad. Stokes thinks the word is borrowed from Brittonic - Br. devroet, depaysé, "dis-countrified" (di-brog-, see brugh), Cor. diures, exul. deòradh: opposite of urradh, guarantor, = di-urradh (Jub.). air-rad (Meyer). Hence the name Dewar.

detheine, a heated boring iron: *déthéine, the accent being on the second portion teine, fire. For , see dealan-dé.

detheoda, henbane (M'D.):

detìach, deteigheach, the gullet, weasand (M'D., Sh., etc.): peculiar as accented on iach, properly det-íach; Dial. it-ioch, epiglottis (Arg.).

deubh, shrink; see dèabh.

deubhann, a fetter for a horse:

deuchainn, diachainn, a trial, attempt, Ir. d'fhéachain, to see. See feuch, feuchainn.

deud, a tooth, Ir. déad, O. Ir. dét, W. dant, Cor. dans, Br. dant. dṇtâ (Stokes); Lat. dens (dentis); Gr. ὀδοúς (g. ὀδόντος); Eng. tooth, Got tunþus; Lit. dantìs; Skr. dant-.

deug, diag, -teen, e.g., cóig-deug, fif-teen, Ir. déag, O. Ir. déc, deac, W. deng, ten (?). The exact relationship of deug to deich is difficult to decide. The other I. E. languages, as a rule, make 13 to 19 by combining the unit numeral with 10, as Ger. drei-zehn, Ag. S. ðríténe, Lat. tridecim. *dvei-penge (St.).

deur, diar, a tear, drop, Ir. déar, deór, O. Ir. dér, W., Cor., dagr, O. Br. dacr, M. Br. dazrou, tears, *dakru; Gr. δάκρυ; Lat. lacrima, for dacrima; Eng. tear, Got. tagr.

Di-, -day; the prefix in the names of the days of the week, Ir., O. Ir. dia, die (O. Ir.), W. dydd, Cor. det (for dedh), Br. dez, dijas (*dejes-?); Lat. diês; Skr. dyáús, day, sky; Gr. Zεúς, Dιός, Jove. Allied to dia, god. Di-dòmhnuich, Sunday, Ir. Domhnach, E. Ir. domnach, from Lat. (dies) dominica, Lard's day - dominus, lord; Di-luain, Monday, Ir. Dia-luain, M. Ir. luan, W. Dydd Llun, from Lat. dies Lunæ, "day of the moon"; Di-màirt, Tuesday, Ir. Dia-mairt, E. Ir. máirt, W. Dydd mawrth, from Lat. dies Martis, "day of Mars"; Di-ciaduinn, Di-ciadaoin, Wednesday, Ir. Dia-céadaoine, O. Ir. cétáin, cétóin, de cétain (de = dia = Lat. die), dia cetáíne, from ceud, first, and aone, fast, q.v., E. Ir. áine: "day of the first fast", Friday being the second and chief day; Diardaoin, Thursday, Ir. Dia-dhardaoin, E. Ir. dardóen = etar dá óin, "between two fasts" - the day between the two fasts of Wednesday and Friday; Di-haoine, Friday, Ir. Dia-aoine, Dia-haoine, E. Ir. áine, dia áine, O. Ir. dia oine dídine (day of the last fast): "day of the fast", from aoin, fast, q.v.; Di-sathuirn, Saturday, Ir. Dia-sathuirn, M. Ir. satharn, dia sathairn, from Lat. dies Saturni, day of Saturn.. The days of the week were originally named (in Egypt) after the seven planets of the ancients - Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jove, Jove, Venus, Saturn.

di-, negative prefix, Ir. , dío-, O. Ir. , W. di, *dê; Lat. , of. See de. Also dim, diom- (dìmeas, dimbrigh, diombuaidh, diomal).

dia, a god, so Ir., O. Ir. día, W. duw, O. W. duiu, Cor. duy, Br. doe, Gaul. dêvo, Dειουονα = Dîvona, *deiuo-s; Lat. dîvus (for deiuos), deified one, deus; Gr. δῖος, divine; Norse tívar, gods, Eng. Tues-day, "day of Tiw", the war-god; Lit. dḗvas, Pruss. deiwas; Skr. devá. Hence diadhaidh, pious, Ir. diadha, O. Ir. diade, divinus.

diabhol, devil, Ir. diabhal, O. Ir. diabul, W. diawl, Br. diaoul; from Lat. diabolus, whence also Eng. devil.

diachadaich, especially (Heb.):

diallaid, a saddle, so Ir., M. Ir. diallait, cloak, O. Ir. dillat, clothes, W. dillad, M. Br. dillat.

dialtag, a bat, Ir. ialtóg. See ialtag.

diamhain, idle; see dìomhain rather.

diamhair, secret, Ir. diamhair, M. Ir., E. Ir. diamair, O. Ir. diamair, dimair. Root mar, remain; dí-mar, disappear?

dian, keen, hasty, so Ir., O. Ir. dían, *deino-s; root dei, , hasten; Gr. δίεμαι, hasten; Skr. , dîyati, hurry, allied to the root , div, shine.

dianag, a two-year-old sheep; cf. O. Ir. dínu, lamb, from the root dhê, suck. See deoghail. But Sc. dinmont?

Diardaoin, Thursday; see Di-.

diardan, anger, Ir. díardaoin, E. Ir. diartain; from di-, intensive prefix (E. Ir. , as in dímór, excessively great), from de, and ardan, pride. Cf. andiaraid, wrathful.

diarras, dìorras, stubbornness, vehemence, Ir. díorruisg, fierceness, rashness: dí-réidh?

dias, an ear of corn, so Ir., O. Ir. días, W. twys (pl.): *steipsâ, root steip, stiff, Lat. stipes, stake, stipula, Eng. stiff? Cf. geug and W. cang, ysgainc, for phonetics.

dibheach, an ant (H.S.D. quotes only O'R., while Arms. makes it obsolete; M'A. has it), Ir. dibheach: *de+beach?

dibhfhearg, vengeance, indignation, Ir. dibhghearg, díbhfearg (Keat.), E. Ir. díbérg; from dim and fearg; see di- of diardan.

dibhirceach, diligent (Sh.; H.S.D., which refers to C. S., but neither in M'A. nor M'E.), Ir. dibhirceach, diligent, violent (O'B., etc.):

dìbir, forsake; see dìobair.

dibith, dimbith, luckless, lifeless (Carm.):

dìblidh, abject, vile, Ir. díbligh, O. Ir. diblide, senium; seemingly from Lat. dêbilis, weak, feeble (Eng. debilitate, etc.). Zim. (Zeit. 24) has suggested *dí-adbul, "un-great", from adbul, i.e. adhbhal, q.v.

dìbrigh, dimbrigh, contempt, Ir. dimbrigh; from dim-, dí-, and brìgh, q.v.

dìchioll, diligence, Ir. díthchioll: *dícell-; for cell, see timchioll. Or from ciall, sense; "attention to"?

Di-ciadaoin, Wednesday; see Di-.

dìd, a peep; an onomatopoetic word.

dìdean, protection, a fort, Ir. dídean, O. Ir. dítiu, g. díten, *di-jemtion- (Stokes); root jem, cover, protect, Lett. ju'mju, ju'mt, cover a roof. The O. Ir. verb is do-emim tueor. Ascoli makes the root em, as in Lat. emo, buy. Cf. eiridinn.

Di-dòmhnuich, Sunday; see Di-.

difir, difference, Ir. difir, dithfir, M. Ir. dethbir; from Lat. differo, Eng. differ.

dìg, a wall of loose stones, a dike; from the Sc. dike, Eng. dike.

dil, eager, keen. See deil.

dìl, dìle, dìlinn, a flood, Ir. díle, pl. díleanna, E. Ir. díli, g. dílenn, diluvium; from Lat. diluvium (Stokes), whence Eng. deluge.

dile, dill (M'D.); from the Eng.

dìleab, a legacy, Ir. dilb (O'R.):

dileag, a small drop; from dìle, flood.

dìleas, dear, faithful, Ir. díleas, O. Ir. díles, proprius, own, *dêlesto-, dêl, I. E. dhêl, dhê, suck, Lat. filius, femina, etc. See deoghal. Zeuss has suggested di+leas, from leas, advantage.

dìleigh, digest, dìleaghadh, digesting, Ir. dìleaghadh, from di-leagh, root of leagh, melt.

dileum (accent on leum), a shackle; di+leum, q.v.

dìlinn, leac dhìlinn, a stone in situ, a rock appearing above ground: "natural", from dìl- as in dìleas.

dìlleachdan, an orphan, Ir. dílleachda, O. Ir. dilechtu, orfani: "derelict", from di- and leig, let go (di-lēc-, let go).

dimbrigh, contempt; see dìbrigh.

dìmeas, contempt, Ir. dímheas, O. Ir. dímess; from dí-, dím-, and meas.

dinn, press, force down, squeeze, Ir. dingim, ding, a wedge, E. Ir. dingim, perf. dedaig, *dengô; Ag. S. tengan, press, Norse tengja, fasten (Bezzenberger). See daingean. Brugmann refers it to *dhinghô, Lat. fingo, mould, feign, I. E. dheigh, Eng. dough.

dinnein, a small heap, Ir. dinn, a hill, fortified hill, E. Ir. dinn dind (do.), *dindu-; Norse tindr, spike, peak, Ger. zinne, pinnacle, Eng. tine. But cf. Gr. θίς, θινός (ι long), a heap, Skr. dhanvan.

dìnneir, a dinner, Ir. dinnéar; from the Eng.

dinnsear, ginger, Ir. gingsear, M. Ir. sinnsar; from M. Eng. ginger, Lat. zingiber.

dìobair, forsake, Ir. dìbirim; for +ìobair, q.v. di-ud-ber (St.).

dìobhail, loss, Ir. díoghabhail, O. Ir. dígbail, deminutio; dì- and gabhail, q.v.

dìobhargadh, persecution, dìobhargach, fierce, keen, Ir. dibheargach, vindictive; see dibhfhearg.

dìobhuir, vomit: *de+beir, Lat. defero; from de and beir.

diocail, lower, diminish (H.S.D., which quotes MSS. only); +ad-cal; from càil?

dìochain, forgetfulness; Dialectic for dichuimhne, that is di- and cuimhne.

diod, diodag, a drop; from the Eng. jet? jot?

diog, a syllable, Ir. digim, diugam, cluck as a hen: G. diug, the call to hens. Onomatopoetic.

diogail, tickle, Ir. giglim, O. Ir. fogitled (for fogicled?). The G. seems borrowed from the Eng. tickle, kittle; and possibly all are onomatopoetic, and reshaped in later times. Cf. Eng. giggle, Lat. cachinnus.

diogair, eager, Ir. díogar (O'R.), E. Ir. dígar (?):

dìogan, revenge, Ir. díogan (O'B., etc.); the word is Irish (not in M'A.; M'E. marks it doubtful.):

dìoghail, dìol, avenge, pay, Ir. díoghalaim, díolaim, O. Ir. dígal (n.), W., Cor. dial, *dê-galâ. See gal, valour, etc.

dìoghluim, glean, dìoghluim, a gleaning, Ir. díoghluim (n.): *ge-gluim; for gluim, see foghlum.

dìol, pay, Ir. díolam, M. Ir. dílaim; see dìoghail.

dìolan, illegitemate, M. G. diolain (M'V.), Ir. díolanlas, fornication (O'B.): *dílánamnas, "non-conjugium"? See lánain.

diomadh, discontent, pain, Ir. diomadh, diomdha; see diùmach.

diomarag, clover seed:

diomasach, proud, Ir. díomus, pride, M. Ir. díumus, pride, "too great measure": dí-od-mess, root mess of comus (Zimmer).

diombach, diombuidheach, displeased, Ir. diombuidheach, unthankful; from diom-, dim-, un-, and buidheach, thankful, q.v. Confused with diùmach, q.v.

diombuaidh, unsuccessfulness, diombuan, transitory: negative compounds of buaidh and buan, q.v.

dìomhain, idle, Ir. díomhaoin, O. Ir. dímáin; from dí- and maoin, "office-less"; see maoin.

dìomhair, secret; see diamhair.

dìon, protection, Ir. díon, E. Ir. dín, g. dína, *dênu-; root dhê, set?

diong, match, equal, pay, E. Ir. dingbain, ward off, dingbála, worthy: *din-gab, "off-give". See gabh.

diongmhalta, perfect, Ir. díongmhalta, perfect, sure. See diong above.

dionnal, a shot, fight; see deannal.

diorachd, ability (H.S.D.): Cf. Ir. dír, proper, *dêr.

dìorras, vehemence, vehement anger; see diarras.

diosd, a jump, kick with the heels (Dialectic); from Sc. jisk, caper.

dìosg, barren, dìosgadh, barrenness, not giving milk, Ir. díosc, díosg: dī-sesc-; see seasg. For its composition, see déirc.

diosg, a dish; from Lat. discus, Norse diskr, Ag. S. disc, Eng. dish.

dìosgan, a creaking or gnashing noise, Ir. díosgán. See gìosgan.

dìot, a meal, dìot mhór, dinner, M. Ir. diet, diit, E. Ir. díthait; from Lat. diaeta, Eng. diet; dithit, feast during day (Meyer), dithait (ǐ) (Táin).

dìpin, a deepening (in a net), a certain measure of a net; from Sc. deepin, a net, Eng. deep.

dìr, ascend; curtailed from dìrich.

dìreach, strait, Ir. díreach, O. Ir. dírech, *dê-reg, root reg, stretch; Lat. rego, directus, Eng. direct, etc. The root is found also in éirigh, rach, etc. Hence dìrich, straighten, ascend.

dis, susceptible to cold, Ir. dís, poor, miserable, E. Ir. diss, dis, weak, *de-sti-? Root sta.

dìsleach, stormy, uncouth, straggling, Ir. dísligheach, deviating, dí-slighe, slighe, path, q.v. In the sense of "stormy", the derivation is doubtful.

dìsne, a die, dice, Ir. dísle; from M.Eng dys, dice.

dìt, condemn, Ir. díotach, condemnatory, díotáil, an indictment; from the M. Eng. dîten, indict, Sc. dite - a parallel form to indict, endit, from Lat. indicto, dicto, dictate, dico, say. Further Sc. dittay.

dith, press together, dithimh, a heap (Sh.):

dìth, want, defeat, Ir. díth, O. Ir. díth, destruction, *dêto, from (as in de, of, dì-, un-); Lat. lêtum (=dêtum), death (Stokes).

dìthean, daisy, darnel, blossom, M. Ir. dithen, darnel, Manx jean (do.):

dithis, a pair, two, Ir. dís, O. Ir. dias, g. desse, dat. and acc. diis (also días, díis), duitas, *dveistâ, from the fem. *dvei, O.Ir , two. See . O. Ir. dias, *dveiassa: cf. Lat. bes, bessis, from *bejess (St.).

dìthreabh, a desert, Ir. díthreabh, O. Ir. dithrub; from dí- and treb; see treabh, aitreabh.

diu, diugh (to)-day, an diu, to-day, Ir. andiu, aniu, O. Ir. indiu, W. heddyw, M. Br. hiziu, Br. hirio, *divo- (Stokes); Skr. divâ; Lat. diû. See Di-, day. The an (O. Ir. in) is the article.

diù, worth while: *do-fiù; see fiù.

diùbhaidh, diùgha, refuse, the worst, diu (M'F., M'E), Ir. díogha; opposite of rogha. See roghainn.

diùbhail, mischief, loss; see dìobhail.

diùbhras, difference, diubhar (Arm.): *divr, *difr, from differ of Lat. differo. See difir.

diuc, the pip, a sickness of fowls:

diùc, a duke, Ir. diubhce, diúic (Keat.); from the Eng. duke.

diùcair, a ducker, a bladder for keeping nets at the proper depth under water; from the Eng. ducker.

diuchaidh, addled:

diùdan, giddiness, diudan (Arm.):

diug, an interjection to call hens, cluck, Ir. diugam, cluck: onomatopoetic. See diog.

diugan, mischance (H.S.D., which marks it as Dialectic):

diugh, to-day; see diu.

diùid, tender-hearted, a spiritless person, Ir. diúid, O. Ir. diuit, semplex:

diùlanas, bravery, Ir. díolúntas, earlier diolmhaineach, soldier, mercenarius; from dìol, pay.

diùlt, refuse, Ir. diúltaim, E. Ir. díultaim, O. Ir. díltuch, refusing, doríltiset, negaverunt, *di-îlt (Thu.). Zimmer suggests the root of Lat. lateo, lurk, Stokes gives *de-laudi ("Celt. Dec."), and Ascoli hesitates between *di-la- (la, throw, Gr. ἐλαúνω) and *di-shlond. Possibly an active form of till, return. díltud, v.n. of do-sluindi.

diùmach, displeased, Ir. díomdhach, M. Ir. dímdach, dimmdach: *dim-med-, root med, mind, as in meas.

dleas, dleasnas, duty, Ir. dlisdeanas, legality, E. Ir. dlestanas (do.), *dlixo-, *dḷg-so-, right; see dligheadh.

dligheadh, law, right, Ir. dlígheadh, O. Ir. dliged, W. dyled, dled, debt, *dligeto-n, Cor. dylly, debere, Br. dle, debt, *dḷgô, I owe; Got. dulgs; Ch.Sl dlugu (do.).

dlo, a handful of corn, dlò (M'L., M'E.), Ir. dlaoigh, a lock of hair or anything, E. Ir. dlai, a wisp; cf. W. dylwf, wisp, and Lat. floccus?

dluigheil, handy, active (Dial.), Ir. dlúigh, active (O'B.), M. Ir. dluigh, service, E. Ir. dluig, service, *dlogi-; same root as dligheadh.

dlùth, close, Ir. dlúth, E. Ir. dlúith, O. Ir. dlútai, (pl.), dlúthe, adhaerendi, *dluti-. Cf. Gr. θλάω, crush. dru?

dlùth, the warp of a web, Ir., O.Ir dlúth, stamen, W. dylif (*dlû-mi-?; from the above root (dlû).

do, to, Ir. do, O. Ir. do, du, Cor. dhe, O. Br. do, Br. da; Eng. to, Ag. S. , Ger. zu; Lat. -do (endo, indu); Gr. -δε. Stokes derives the prep do from the verbal particle do, to. See the next word.

do, a verbal particle denoting "to, ad", Ir. do, O. Ir. do-, du-, also to-, when it carries the accent (e.g. dobiur, I give, *do-bérô, but tabair, give, *tó-bere; W. du-, dy-, y. Cf. Gat. du, to prep. and prefix, for *þu?

do, thy, Ir. do, O. Ir. do, du, W. dy, E.W. teu, Cor. dhe, Br.da, *tovo; Lat. tuus; Skr. táva, etc. See tu.

do-, du-, prefix of negative quality, Ir. do-, dó-, O. Ir. do-, du-, *dus-; Skr. dus-; Gr. δυσ-; Got. taz-, Ger. zer-. Its opposite is so, q.v. Following the analogy of so, it aspirates the consonants though originally it ended in s.

dobair, a plasterer (M'D.), Ir. dóbadóir, W. dwbiwr; from M. Eng. dauber, Eng. daub.

dòbhaidh, boisterous: *du-vati-, root vet, as in onfhadh, q.v.

dobhar, water, Ir. dobhar, E. Ir. dobur, W. dwfr, Cor. dofer, Br. dour, Gaul. dubrum, *dubro-n, *dub-ro-, root dub, deep, as in domhain, q.v. Cf. Lit. dumblas, mire, Lett. dubli (do.); Lit. duburys, a place with springs, dumburýs; Ger tümpel, a deep place in flowing or standing water. Hence dobharchu ("water-dog") and dobhran, the otter.

docair, grievous, hard, trouble, E. Ir. doccair, uneasiness, trouble.

docha, preferable, is docha, prefer; see toigh.

dòcha, more likely, Ir. dócha, O. Ir. dochu; comparative of dóigh, O. Ir. dóig, likely, *dougi-, *douki-; Gr. δεúκει, thinks, ἀδευκής, unseemly; Ger. zeuge, witness; further allied is Lat. dûco. Connection with Gr. δοκέω has been suggested, and Zimmer has analysed it into *do-ech, *do-sech, root sec, say (as in casg, etc.: Cam.), citing the by-form toich (G. toigh), which is a different word. Hence dòchas, dòigh.

dochair, dochar, hurt, damage, so Ir., E. Ir. dochor; from do- and cor-, i.e., cor, state: dochar, "bad state". See cor, sochair. Hence dochartach, sick.

dochann, injury, hurt, M. Ir. dochond, ill-fortune, O. Ir. conaichi, felicior, from *cuno-, high, root ku (as in curaidh)?

dòchas, hope, Ir. cóchas, M. Ir. dóchus; see dòcha.

docran, anguish (Sh., Arm.; not H.S.D.); cf. docrach, hard, from docair.

dod, a tantrum, fret, Ir. sdoid (n.), sdodach (adj.), dóiddeach, quarrelsome (Con.). Cf. Sc. dod.

dòdum, a teetotum (Dialectic); from the Eng.

dog, a bit; from the Eng. dock.

dogadh, mischief (Sh.), O. Ir. dodcad (Str.).

dogail, cynical, doganta, fierce; from the Eng. dog.

dògan, a sort of oath (Dialectic, M'L.); Sc. daggand, Eng. doggonit, Amer. doggond.

dogha, a burdock, Ir. meacan dogha; Eng. dock, Ag. S. docce.

doibhear, rude, uncivil, so Ir. (Lh., which H.S.D. quotes, O'B., etc.): "ill-bearing"; from do- and beus.

doicheall, churlishness, Ir. doicheall, g. doichle; E. Ir. dochell, grudging, inhospitality: opposed to E. Ir. sochell, meaning "kindness", soichlech. Root is that of timchioll. Gaul. Sucellos, a god's name.

dòid, the hand, grasp, Ir. dóid, E. Ir. dóit, O. Ir. inna n-doat, lacertorum, *dousenti-; Skr dos (*daus), doshan, fore-arm, Zend daosha, shoulder. Strachan, who cites the meanings "hand, wrist", suggests a stem *doventi-, from I. E. dheva (move violently), comparing Gr. καρπός, wrist, from qṛp, turn. Hence dòideach, muscular.

dòid, a small farm: "a holding"; from dòid, hand. Cf. dòideach, firmly grasping.

dòideach, frizzled up, shrunk (of hair); from dàth, singe.

dòigh, manner, manner, trust, Ir. dóigh. For root, see dòcha.

doilbh, difficult (H.S.D.), dark (Sh., O'B.), Ir. doilbh, dark, gloomy: cf. suilbh.

doileas, injury; from do- and leas.

doilgheas, sorrow, so Ir.; from doiligh, sorry, the Ir. form of duilich, q.v.

doilleir, dark, Ir. cóiléir; see soilleir.

doimeag, a slattern; cf. Ir. doim, poor, and for root, see soimeach.

doimh, bulky, gross; see dòmhail.

doimh, doimheadach, vexing, galling: *do-ment-, "ill-minded".

doimheal, stormy (Sh.; not H.S.D.):

dòineach, sorrowful, baneful (Arm., who has doineach with short o), O. Ir. dóinmech, dóinmidh. Dr. N. M'L. "fateful". dàn?

doinionn, a tempest, Ir. doineann, O. Ir. doinenn. See soineann.

doirbeag, a minnow, tadpole, Ir. dairb, a marsh worm, murrain caterpillar, E. Ir. duirb (acc.), worm, *dorbi-: I. E. derbho-, wind, bend, Skr. darbh, wind, M.H.G. zerben, whirl.

doirbh, hard, difficult, so Ir., O. Ir. doirb; see soirbh.

doire, grove, Ir. doire, daire, O. Ir. daire (Adamnan), Derry, W. deri, oak grove; see darach.

doireagan, peewit; Dialectic form of adharcan.

doireann, doirionn, (Arg.), tempestuous weather; see doinionn. For phonetics, cf. boirionn.

doirionta, sullen, so Ir.; cf. the above word.

dòirling, dòirlinn, isthmus, beach, Ir. doirling, promontory, beach: *do-air-líng- (for ling, see leum)? For meaning, see tairbeart

dòirt, pour, Ir. doirtim, dórtadh (inf.), E. Ir. doirtím, O. Ir. dofortad, effunderet, dorortad, was poured out, *fort-, root vor, ver, pour, E. Ir. feraim, I pour, give; Lat. ûrina, urine; Gr. οὖρον; Norse úr, drizzling raing, Ag. S. vär, sea; Skr. vā́ri, water. to this Stokes refers braon (for vroen-, veróenâ?).

doit, foul, dark (H.S.D. only):

dòit, a small coin less than a farthing; from the Sc. doit.

dol, going, Ir. dul, O. Ir. dul, inf. to doluid, dolluid, ivit, from luid, went, *ludô, from I. E. leudho, go, Gr. ἐλεúσομαι, will come, ἤλυθον, came. Stokes and Brugmann refer luid to *(p)ludô, root plu, plou of luath, q.v.

dòlach, destructive: "grievous"; from †dòl, grief, Sc. dool, from Lat. dolor.

dolaidh, harm, so Ir., E. Ir. dolod, O. Ir. dolud, damnum, O. G. dolaid, burden, charge; its opposite is E. Ir. solod, profit: *do-lud, "mis-go"; from lud of luid, go (Ascoli).

dòlas, grief, Ir. dólas: formed from sòlas, consolation on the analogy of other do- and so- words. See sòlas.

dòlum, mean, surly, wretchedness, poverty. Cf. dòlach.

dom, the gall, gall-bladder; see domblas

domail, damage; apparently founded on Lat. damnum.

domblas, gall, bile, Ir. comblas, M. Ir. domblas ae, i.e., "bitterness of the liver"; from M. Ir. domblas, ill-taste; from do-mlas. See blas.

domhach, a savage; see doimh.

dòmhail, bulky: M. Ir. derg-domla, pl., from *domail, root of meall: *do-fo-mell?

domhain, deep, so Ir., O. Ir. domain, W. dwfn, Br. don, *dubni-s, *dubno-s; Eng. deep, Got diups; Lit. dubùs, deep dumburýs, a hole in the ground filled with water, dauba, ravine, Ch. Sl. dŭbrǐ, ravine: I. E. dheub. See also dobhar.

domhan, the Universe, so Ir., O. Ir. domun, Gaul. Dubno-, Dumno- (in many proper names, as Dubnotalus, Dumnorix, "World-king", Gaelic Domhnall, *Dumno-valo-s, W. Dyfnual, Celtic *dubno-, the world, the "deep"; another form of domhain above. Cf. Eng. deep for the "sea". D'Arbois de Jubainville explains Dubno- of Gaulish names as "deep", Dumnorix, "deep king", "high king"; and he has similarly to explain Biturix as "king for aye", not "world king": all which seems a little forced.

Dòmhnach, Sunday, so Ir., E. Ir. domnach; from Lat. dominica, "the Lord's". See under Di-.

don, evil, defect, Ir. don; see next word.

dona, bad, so Ir., E. Ir. donae, dona, wretched, bad; opposite to sona, son, happy. See sona.

dongaidh, moist, humid; from the Sc. donk, Eng. dank.

donn, brown, Ir. O. Ir. donn, W. dwn, Gaul. Donnus, Donno-; *donno-s, *dus-no-; Lat. fuscus; Eng. dusk, dust. Eng. dun may be hence.

donnal, a howl, complaint; *don-no-, I. E. dhven, whence Eng. din, Skr. dhvana, sound. Meyer says: "Better donal, fem." G. is masc.

dorbh, dorgh, a hand-line, Ir. dorubha; also drogha, q.v.

dorc, a piece (Dialectic): *dorco-, root der, split, Eng. tear; N. dorg.

dorch, dark, Ir. dorcha, O. Ir. dorche; opposed to sorcha, bright, *do-reg-io-, root reg, see, Lit. regiù, I see. See rosg. The root reg, colour, Gr. ῥέξω, colour, ἔρεβος, Erebus, Norse rökr, darkness, Ragna-rökr, twilight of the gods, is allied. Ascoli and Zimmer refer it to the Gadelic root rich, shine, O. Ir. richis, coal, Bret. regez, glowing embers, Skr. ric, ṛc, shine.

dòrlach, a handful, quantity: *dorn-lach, from dòrn, a fist.

dòrn, a fist, Ir. dorn, O. Ir. dorn, W. dwrn, Cor. dorn, O. Br. dorn, Br. dourn, hand, Gaul. Durnacos, *durno-; Gr. δῶρον, palm, δάρειρ, δάριν, a span; Lettic dúrc, fist; I. E. root der split. *dver, *dur, strong.

dorra, more difficult, Ir. dorrach, harsh, M. Ir. dorr, rough, *dorso-; Czech drsen, rough (Stokes, Strachan).

dorran, vexation, anger, Ir. dorrán, M. Ir. dorr, *dorso-; see above word.

dòruinn, pain, anguish, Ir. dóghruing. Cf. E. Ir. dogra, dógra, lamenting, anguish, dogar, sad, from do- and gar, q.v.

dorus, a door, Ir., O. Ir. dorus, W. drws, Cor. daras, O.Cor. dor, Br. dor, *dvorestu-; Lat. fores; Gr. θúρα; Eng. door; Lit. dùrys; Skr dvā́r.

dos, a bush, tuft, Ir. dos, O. Ir. doss, *dosto-, root dus; Lat. dumus (= dus-mus), thicket; Eng. tease, teasel.

dosdan, a kind of food given to horses; from Eng. dust.

dosgadh, dosgainn, misfortune; cf. Ir. dósgathach, improvident. From do- and sgath, q.v. Ir. dosguidhtheach, morose, extravagant.

dotarra, sulky; see dod.

doth, a doating on one; cf. Sc. daut, dote, M. Eng. doten.

dràbach, dirty slovenly, Ir. drabaire, drabóg, slut, drab, a stain; from Eng. drab. See drabh. Hence drabasda, obscene.

drabh, dissolve, drabhag, dregs, drabhas, filth, E. Ir. drabar-slog, rabble; from Eng. draff, allied to Ger. treber, Norse draf. Stokes thinks that the G. is allied to, not derived from, the Eng. The Eng. word drab is allied to draff, and so is dregs.

dràbh, scatter, dissolve (M'A., Arg.), not drabh (H.S.D., which, however, has drabhach, rifted). dràbhach, wide-sutured, rifted (Arg.):

dràc, a drake; from the Eng. See ràc.

dragh, trouble, O. Ir. g. mor-draige, roughness: *drago-, I. E. dregho-, Ag. S. trega, vexation, Norse tregr, dragging, slovenly, trega, grieve; Skr. drâgh, pain; Gr. *ταραχή, τρᾱχúς (St.).

dragh, pull, draw, Ir. dragáil; from the Eng. drag, draw, Norse drega.

dràgon, a dragon, Ir. dragún, E. Ir. drac, g. dracon; from Lat. draco(n), Eng. dragon.

dràichd, a slattern (Arm.):

draighlichd, a trollop, draggle-tail (Arg.); from Eng. draggle-tail? Cf. draghlainn under draoluinn.

draillsein, a sparkling light (Sh., H.S.D.); see drillsean.

draimheas, a foul mouth; cf. Ir. drabhas, a wry mouth, dramhaim, I grin. The G. seems from drabh above.

draing, a snarl, grin; see dranndan.

dràm, dram, a dram, Ir. dram; from the Eng.

dramaig, a foul mixture, crowdie (Sh., H.S.D.); from the Sc. dramock.

drannd, dranndan, a hum, snarl, Ir. draint, dranntán, M. Ir. drantaigim, I snarl; from a Celtic *dran, I. E. dhreno-, sound, drone; Eng. drone; Gr. θρῆνος, dirge; Skr. dhraṇ, sound, murmur.

drann, dranna, a word (M'A., Arg.); same as drannd.

draoch, a fretful or ghastly look, hair standing on end, Ir. driuch, fretfulness, angry look: root dhrigh; Gr. θρίξ, τριχός, hair. For meaning, cf. snuadh, hue, hair.

draoi, draoidh, druidh, a magicician, druid, Ir. draoi, gen. pl. druadh, E. Ir. drai, drui, g. druad, Gaul. druides (Eng. druid). Its etymology is obscure. Stokes suggests relationship with Eng. true, G. dearbh, q.v., or with Gr. θρέομαι, cry, (as in drannd, dùrd), or Gr. ἄθρέω, look sharp, Pruss. dereis, see. Thurneysen analyses the word as dru, high, strong, see truaill. Brugmann and Windisch have also suggested the root dru, oak, as Pliny did too, because of the Druids' reverence for the oak tree. Ag. S. drý, magus, is borrowed from the Celtic. draoineach, druineach, artisan, "eident" person (Carm.); draoneach, "any person that practices an art" (Grant), agriculturist; druinneach, artist (Lh.). Ir. druine, art needlework; θρόνα, flowers in embroidery drugs.

draoluinn, delay, tediousness, drawling; from the Eng. drawling, Sc. drawl, to be slow in action, drawlie, slow and slovenly. Dialectic draghlainn, a slovenly person, a mess.

drapuinn, tape; from the Eng. drape.

draos, trash, filth, Ir. draos. Cf. Eng. dross.

dràsda, an dràsda, now, Ir. drásda, M. Ir. trasta, for an tràth sa, this time.

drathais, drawers; from the Eng.

dreach, aspect, Ir. dreach, E. Ir. drech, W. drych, M. Br. derch, *dṛkâ, *dṛkko-, root derk as in dearc, q.v.

drèachd, dreuchd, duty, office, Ir. dréacht, song, O. Ir. drécht, portio, *drempto-, root drep, Gr. δρέπω, pluck, cull (Strachan).

dreag, drèag, a meteor or portent; from the Ag. S. dréag, apparition, Norse draugr, ghost. Also driug.

dreall, dreoll, door-bar, dreallag, a swingle-tree: dṛs-lo-, root der, split, Eng. tree? Cf. W. dryll, *dhruslo, θραυω.

dreallaire, an idler; see drollaire.

dreallsach, a blazing fire; see drillsean.

dream, a tribe, people, Ir. dream, E. Ir. dremm; from dream, bundle, handful, manipulus, Br. dramm, a sheaf, *dregsmo-; Gr. δράγμα, a handful, δράσσομαι; Ch. Sl. drazhaiti, grasps; Skr. darh, make fast, I. E. dergho-, fasten. Hence dreamsgal, a heterogeneous mass. dreg: dreng, tramp? Cf. drong.

dreamach, peevish, dream, snarl; cf. Ir. dreamhnach, perverse, E. Ir. dremne, fierceness, from dreamh, surly, *dremo-, from drem, drom, rush, Gr. δρόμος, a race. G. dreamach may be for *dregsmo-, root dreg as in dreangan.

dreangan, a snarler, Ir. drainceanta, snarling, drainc, a snarl, also draint, W. drengyn, a surly chap, dreng, morose, *drengo-, root dreg, from dhre of dranndan.

dreas, bramble, bramble-bush, Ir. dreas; see dris.

dreasair, a dresser (house-furniture).

dreathan-donn, wren, Ir. dreaán, drean, W. dryw, *drivo-, *dṛ-vo-, root der, dher, jump? See dàir. Cf. for sense Gr. τρόχιλος. or from dhrevo, cry, Gr. θρέομαι, G. drannd, q.v.

dreigeas, a grin, peevish face, E. Ir. dric, wrathful; *dreggo-, root dreg as in dreangan.

dreimire, a ladder, Ir. dréimire, E. Ir. dréimm, ascent, vb. dringim, W. dringo, scandere, *drengô. Bezzenberger compares the Norse drangr, an up-standing rock (cf. cliff and climb. The root dreg of dreimire has also been compared to Ger. treppe, staircase, Eng. tramp. See dream, people, "goers". Ir. ag dreim, advancing.

dréin, a grin: *dreg-ni-, root dreg of dreangan.

dreòchdam, the crying of the deer; from dhrevo, dhre, cry.

dreòlan, a wren, Ir. dreólán: *drivolo-; see dreathan.

dreòlan, a silly person, Ir. dreólán, W. drel, a clown; from Eng. droll? Thurneysen prefers to consider these words borrowed from Eng. thrall, Norse þrœl. The word appears as dreòlan, dreallaire, drollaire. In the sense of "loiterer", these words are from the Norse drolla, loiter, Eng. droil.

dreòs, a blaze:

dreugan, a dragon (Dialectic); see dràgon.

driachan, plodding, obstinacy, Ir. driachaireachd: *dreiqo-; cf. Eng. drive, from dhreip.

driamlach, a fishing line, Manx rimlagh, E. Ir. ríamnach: *reimmen-; see réim.

driceachan, tricks (M'D.).

drifeag, hurry (Heb.); see drip.

dril, a spark, sparkle, Ir. dril, drithle, pl. drithleanna, M. Ir. drithle, dat. drithlinn, also drithre, *drith-renn- (for -renn-, see reannag), *drith. Hence drillsean, sparkles, from drithlis, a spark. drìllsean, rushlight, rush used as wick.

driodar, dregs, lees, Ir. dríodar, gore, dregs: *driddo-, *dṛd-do-, root der, Eng. tear. Cf. Sc. driddle.

driog, a drop, Ir. driog (dríog, Con.), driogaire, a distiller; seemingly borrowed from Norse dregg, M. Eng. dreg, dregs.

driongan, slowness, Ir. driongán, a plaything, worthless pastime:

drip, hurry, confusion, Ir. drip, bustle, snare: *drippi-, *dhribh, Eng. drive? N. drepa, hit.

dris, a bramble, brier, Ir. dris, O. Ir. driss, O. W. drissi, W. dryssien, Cor. dreis, Br. drezen, *dressi-. Bezzenberger suggests a stem *drepso, M.H.G. trefs, Ger. trespe, darnel, M. Eng. drauk (= dravick of Du.), zizanium. It must be kept separate from droighionn, O. Ir. draigen, Celtic root dṛg, thought G. dris might be for *dṛg-si-, for the W. would be in ch, not s. See droighionn.

drithlean, a rivet:

drithleann, a sparkle, Ir. drithlinn; oblique form of dril.

driubhlach, a cowl, so Ir. (O'R.); Sh. has dribhlach.

driùcan, a beak, Ir. driuch. M'A. gives also the meaning, "an incision under one of the toes". See draoch.

driuchactivity (M'A.):

driuchan, a stripe, as in cloth (M'A.):

driug, a meteor, portent; see dreag.

dròbh, a drove; from the Eng.

drobhlas, profusion, so Ir.:

droch, evil, bad, Ir. droch, O. Ir. droch, drog, W. drwg, Cor. drog, malum, M. Br. drouc, *druko-. Usually compared to Skr. druh, injure, Ger. trug, deception. Stokes has suggested dhruk, whence Eng. dry, and Bezzenberger compares Norse trega, grieve, tregr, unwilling (see dragh).

drochaid, a bridge, Ir. droichiod, O. Ir. drochet:

drog, a sea-swell at its impact on a rock (Arg.):

drogaid, drugget, Ir. drogáid (O'R.); from the Eng.

drogha, a nad fishing line; also dorgh, dorbh, Ir. dorubha, drubha; Norse dorg, an angler's tackle.

droich, a dwarf, Ir. droich, *drogi-, allied to Teut. dwergo-, Ger. zwerg, Norse dvergr, Eng. dwarf.

droigheann, bramble, thorn, Ir. droigheann, O. Ir. draigen, W. draen, Cor. drain, drein, Br. drean, *dragino-: cf. Gr. τραχúς, rough, θράσσω, confuse, Eng. dregs. Bezzenberger compares Lit. drìgnės, black henbane, Gr. δράβη. Ebel referred it to the same origin as Gr. τέρχνος, twig. Also droighneach, (1) thorn, (2) lumber, "entanglement".

droinip, tackle:

drola, a pot-hook, Ir. drol, droltha, M. Ir. drol, drolam, handle, E. Ir. drolam, knocker, ring:

droll, an animal's tail, a door bar, unwieldy stick; cf. drallag for the last two meanings.

droll, drollaire, a lazy fellow; see dreòlan.

droman, the alder tree; see troman.

drong, droing, people, tribe, Ir. drong, E. Ir. drong, O. Br. drogn, drog, factio, Gaul. drungus, whence Lat. drungus, a troop (4th century), *drungo-; Got. driugan, serve as a soldier, Ag. S. dryht, people, Norse drótt, household, people.

drongair, a drunkard; from the Eng.

dronn, the back, Ir. dronnóg: *dros-no-, root dros of druim, q.v.

dronng, a trunk; from the Eng.

drothan, a breeze (M'D.):

druabag, a small drop, druablas, muddy water, druaip, dregs, lees. The first is from Eng. drop; druablas is from M. Eng. drubli, turbid, Sc. droubly; and druaip is from Norse drjúpa, drip. drubhag and drùigean (Wh.).

drùb, a wink of sleep, a mouthful of liquid; from Norse drjúpa, drip. See the above words.

drùchd, dew, Ir. drúchd, E. Ir. drúcht, *drūb-bu, root dhreub; Ag. S. dréapian, trickle, Eng. drip, drop, Norse drjúpa, drip, Ger. triefen.

drùdh, penetrate, pierce, drùidh; see the next.

drùdhadh, oozing, soaking; cf. Skr. dru, dráva, melt, run, Got. ufar-trusian, besprinkle. Cf. Gaul. Druentia (Gaelic Druie, a river in Strathspey).

drugair, a drudge, Ir. drugaire; from M. Eng. druggar, a dragger, Eng. drudge.

druid, close, Ir. druidim, E. Ir. druit, close, firm, trustworthy: *druzdo-, *drus, W. drws. See dorus. Stokes now refers *druzdi- to the same source as Eng. trust.

druid, a starling, Ir. druid, E. Ir. truid, Manx truitling, W. drudwy, Br. dred, dret: *struzdi; Lat. turdus, thrush; Lit. stázdas (Bohemian drazd), thrush, Eng. throstle.

druidh, a magician; see draoi.

drùidh, penetrate; see drùdh. Cf. Ir. treidhim; treaghaim (Sh.).

druim, back, ridge, so Ir., O. Ir. druimm, pl. dromand, W. trum, *drosmen-; Lat. dorsum.

drùis, lust, drùiseach, drùth, lecherous, Ir. drúis, adultery, E. Ir. drúth, lewd, a harlot, *drūto-. Cf. M. Eng. drüð, darling, O. Fr. drud (do.), druerie, love, whence M. Eng. druerie, Sc. drouery, illicit love. Mayhew refers the Fr. and Eng. to O. H. G. drút dear (also trút, drúd): a Teut. dreuð? Cf. Ger. traut, beloved (Kludge).

druma, a drum, Ir., M. Ir. druma; from the Eng.

druman, elder; see troman.

drumlagan, a cramp in back, wrists, etc. (M'D.):

, meet, proper, Ir., E. Ir. . This Stokes regards as borrowed from O. Fr. (= debntus), whence Eng. due. But see dùthaich, dual.

du-, do-, prefix denoting badness of quality, Ir., O. Ir. du-, do-, *dus; Gr. δυσ-; Got. tuz-, Norse tor-; Skr. dus-. See do-.

duaichnidh, gloomy, ugly, Ir. duaichniúghadh, to disfigure. See suaicheantas.

duaidh, a horrid scene, a fight, Ir. dúaidh, evil (O'B.): *du-vid?

duairc, uncivil, Ir., E. Ir. duairc: opposite of suairc, q.v.

duaireachas, a squabble, slander: du-aireachas. See eireachdail.

duairidh, dubharaidh, a dowry; from the Eng.

duais, a reward, so Ir., E. Ir. duass, gift: *dovestâ; Gr. δοῦναι, to give (= douénai): Lit. důti (do.), dovanà, a gift; Lat. duint (= dent). Root , give.

dual, a lock of hair, Ir., E. Ir. dual, *doklo-; Got. tagl, hair, Ag. S. taegl, Eng. tail, Norse tagl, horse's tail.

dual, hereditary right, so Ir., M. Ir. dúal, *dutlo-; see dúthaich. Stokes refers it to Fr. , as he does , q.v. Ir. dúal, just, proper, might come from *duglo-, root dhugh, fashion, Gr. τεúχειν, Got. dugan, Eng. do.

duan, a poem, song, so Ir., E. Ir. dúan, *dugno-; Lettic dugát, cry as a crane (Bez.). Stokes derives it from dhugh above under dual.

duarman, a murmur; cf. torman from toirm.

dùbailte, Ir. dubâilte; from M. Eng. duble, O. Fr. doble, Lat. duplex.

dubh, black, Ir. dubh, O. Ir. dub, W. du, O. W. dub, Cor. duv, Br. du, *dubo-; Gr. τυφλός (= quf-lós, blind; Got. daubs, deaf, Ger. taub, Eng. deaf, also dumb. Cf. Gaul. river name Dubis, now Doubs.

dubhach, sad, Ir. dúbhach, O. Ir. dubach; see subhach.

dubhailc, wickedness, Ir. dúbhailce; see subhailc.

dubhailteach, sorrowful; founded on dubh.

dubhair, said; see thughairt.

dùbhaith, a pudding:

dubhan, a hook, Ir. dubhán, M. Ir. dubán:

dubhchlèin, the flank (H.S.D. from MSS.):

dùbhdan, a smoke, straw cinders, soot; from dubh. Cf. Ir. dúbhadán, an inkstand.

dùbhlaidh, gloomy, wintry; cf. dubhlà, a dark day, day of trial. From dubh.

dùbhlan, a challenge, Ir. dubhshlán; from dubh and slàn; Ir. slán, defiance.

dubhliath, the spleen, O. Ir. lue liad, lua liath, Cor. lewilloit, W. lleithon, milt of fish. Cf. Lat. liēn.

dubhogha, the great grandson's grandson; from dubh and ogha: dubh is used to add a step to fionnogha, though fionn here is really a prep., and not fionn, white. See fionnogha.

dùc, dùcan, (Perth), a heap (Arm.); *dumhacán, E. Ir. duma, mound, heap. Root of dùn.

dùchas, hereditary right; see dùthaich.

dud, a small lump (M'A.); see tudan.

dùd, a tingling in the ear, ear, Ir. dúd. See next word.

dùdach, a trumpet, M. G. doytichy (D. of Lis.), Ir. dúdóg: onomatopoetic. Cf. Eng. toot.

dùdlachd, depth of winter:

duìdseag, a plump woman of low stature (Perth); "My old Dutch"; dùitseach (Arm.). Dutchman, docked cock..

dùil, expectation, hope, Ir. dúil, *dûli-, root du, strive, Gr. θυμός, soul; Lit dumas, thought (Stokes for Gr.).

dùil, an element, Ir. dúil, O. Ir. dúil, dúl, *dûli-; Skr. dhûli-, dust; Lit. dulkės (do.); Lat. fuligo, soot. Stokes (Dict.) refers it to *dukli-, root duk, fashion; Ger. zeugen, engender; further Lat. duco. Hence dialectic Na dùil, poor creatures! Ir. dúil means "creature" also. Hence also dùileag, a term of affection for a girl.

duileasg, dulse, Ir. duileasg, M. Ir. duilesc, W. dylusg, what is drifted on shore by floods. Hence Sc. dulse. Jamieson suggests that the G. stands for duill' uisge, "water-leaf".

duilich, difficult, sorry, Ir. doiligh, E. Ir. dolig; cf. Lat. dolor, grief.

duille, a leaf, Ir., M. Ir. duille, W. dalen, M. Br. del; Gr. θúλλα, leaves, θάλλω, I bloom; Ger. dolde, umbel: root dhḷ dhale, bloom, sprout. Gaul. πεμπε-δουλα, "five leaved", is allied.

duillinnean, customs, taxes (M'D.):

dùin, shut, Ir. dúnaim "barricading"; from dùn, q.v.

duine, a man, Ir., O. Ir. duine, pl. dóini (= *duáñji, W. dyn, pl. dyneddon, Cor., Br. den, dunjó-s: "mortal"; Gr. θανε̂ιν, die, θάνατος, death, θνητός; Eng. dwine; Skr. dhvan, fall to pieces.

duircein, the seeds of the fir, etc., duirc-daraich, acorns. See dorc. O. Ir. derucc, glans, is referred by Windisch to the root of darach, q.v.

duiseal, a whip; from M. Eng. duschen, strike, of Scandinavian origin, now dowse.

dùiseal, dùsal, slumber; from Norse dúsa, doze, Eng. doze.

duisleannan, ill-natured pretences, freaks (Dialectic, H.S.D.), dùisealan (M'E.); from dúiseal: "dreaming"?

dùisg, awake, Ir. dúisgim, dúisighim, O. Ir. diusgea, expergefaciat, *de-ud-sec-, root sec as in caisg, q.v.

dul, dula, a noose, loop, Ir. dul, dol, snare, loop, W. dôl, noose, loop, doli, form a ring or loop; Gr. δόλος, snare; Lat. dolus, etc.

dula, a pin, peg, Ir. dula; cf. Lat. dolo, a pike, M.H.G. zol, a log.

dùldachd, a misty gloom; see dúdlachd.

dùmhlaich, increase in bulk; see dòmhail.

dùn, a heap, a fortress, Ir., O. Ir. dún, W. din, Gaul. dûnum, -δουνον, *dûno-n, *dûnos-; Ag. S. tún, Eng. town, Ger. zaun, hedge, Norse tún (do.); Gr. δúνασθαι, can. Root deva, , to be strong, hard, whence also dùr.

dunach, dunaidh, woe; from dona?

dùr, dull, stubborn, Ir., E. Ir. dúr, W. dir, force, Br. dir, steel, Gaul. dûrum, fortress, *dûro-, Lat. dûrus. For further connections see dûn.

dùrachd, dùthrachd, good wish, wish, diligence, Ir. dúthrachd, O. Ir. dúthracht, *devo-traktu-s-, *trakkô, press; Ag. S. thringan, Ger. dringen, press forward, Eng. throng (Stokes). Windisch has compared Skr. tark, think, which may be the same as tark of tarkus, spindle, Lat. torqueo. Verb dùraig.

dùradan, durradan, an atom, mote, Ir. dúrdán; from the root dûr as in dùr above: "hard bit"?

durc, a lumpish person:

durcaisd, turcais, pincers, nippers, tweezers; from Sc. turkas, from Fr. turquoise, now tricoises, "Turkish" or farrier's pincers.

dùrd, a syllable, sound, humming, Ir., E. Ir. dórd, dordaim, mugio, W. dwrdd, sonitus, tordd, *dordo-s, root der, sound, I. E. dher; Lettic dardėt rattle. Further Gr. θρῆνος, dirge, τονθρúς, muttering, Norse drynr, roaring, Eng. drone; root dhre.

durga, surly, sour, Ir. dúrganta. Cf. Ir. dúranta, morose. G. seems to be from Norse durga, sulky fellow, Eng. dwarf.

durlus, water-cress; from dur = dobhar and lus, q.v.

durraidh, pork, a pig, durradh! grumphy! Cf. dorra.

durrag, a worm:

durrghail, cooing of a dove, Ir. durdail; also currucadh, q.v. Onomatopoetic.

durrasgach, nimble (Dial., H.S.D.):

dursann, an unlucky accident, Ir. dursan, sorrowful, hard (O'R.); from the stem of dorra.

dus, dust, duslach, from Eng. dust.

dùsal, a slumber; from the Eng. doze. See dùiseal.

dùslainn, a gloomy, retired place:

dùth, hereditary; see .

dùthaich, a country, district, Ir. dúthaigh, O. Ir. duthoig, hereditary (M. Ir. dúthaig, G. dùthchas, hereditary right: root as in dùn? Cf .

duthaich, great gut (M'Lagan):

duthuil, fluxus alvi = dubh-ghalar; from dubh and tuil.