An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language/M

An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language  (1911)  by Alexander MacBain
M

M

mab, a tassel; a side-form of pab, q.v.

màb, abuse, vilify:

mabach, lisping, stammering; cf. M. Eng. maflen, Du. maffeln, to stammer.

mac, a son, Ir. mac, O. Ir. macc, W. mab, O. W. map, Cor. mab, Br. map, mab, Ogam gen. maqvi: *makko-s, *makvo-s, son, root mak, rear, nutrire, W. magu, rear, nurse, Br. maguet: I. E. mak, ability, production; Gr. μακρός, long, μάκαρ, blessed; Zend maçanh, greatness; Lettic mázu, can, be able. Kluge compares Got. magaths, maid, Ag. S. magþ, Eng. maid, further Got. magus, boy, Norse mögr, which,

however, is allied to O. Ir. mug (pl. mogi), slave. The Teut. words also originally come from a root denoting "might, increase", Gr. μῆχος, means, Skr. mahas, great. Hence macanta, mild: "filial".

macamh, a youth, generous man, Ir. macamh, macaomh, a youth, E. Ir. maccoem: from mac and caomh.

mach, a mach, outside (motion to "out"), Ir. amach, E. Ir. immach; from in and magh, a field, mach being its accusative after the prep. in, into: "into the field". Again a muigh, outside (rest), is for E. Ir. immaig, in with the dat. of magh: "in the field". See an, ann and magh.

machair, a plain, level, arable land, Manx magher, Ir., M. Ir. machaire, macha; *makarjo-, a field; Lat. mâceria, an enclosure (whence W. magwyr, enclosure, Br. moger, wall). So Stokes. Usually referred to *magh-thìr, "plain-land", from magh and tìr.

machlag, matrix, uterus, Ir. machlóg (O'B., etc.), M. Ir. macloc; cf. Ger. magen, Eng. maw.

macnas, sport, wantonness, Ir. macnas (do.), macras, sport, festivity; from mac.

mactalla, macalla, echo, Ir., M. Ir. macalla; from mac and obsolete all, a cliff, g. aille (*allos), allied to Gr. πέλλα, stone (Hes.), Norse fjall, hill, Eng. fell. See also †ail, which is allied.

madadh, a dog, mastiff, so Ir., M. Ir. madrad: E. Ir. matad (McCon.), maddad (Fel.), W. madog, fox (cf. W. madryn, reynard): *maddo-, *mas-do-, the mas possibly being for mat-s, the mat of which is then the same as math- of mathghamhuin, q.v. Connection with Eng. mastiff, Fr. mâtin, O.F. mestiff, from *mansatinus, "house-dog", would mean borrowing.

madadh, mussel:

màdog, madog, a mattock, W. matog; from M. Eng. mattok, now mattock, Ag. S. mattuc.

màdar, madder, Ir. madar, the plant madder; from the Eng.

madhanta, valiant, dexterous in arms, Ir. madhanta: "overthrowing", from the E. Ir. verb maidim, overthrow, break, from *matô, Ch. Sl. motyka, ligo, Polish motyka, hoe (Bez.).

maduinn, morning, Ir. maidin, O. Ir. matin, mane, maten; from Lat. matutina, early (day), Eng. matin.

màg, a paw, hand, lazy bed, ridge of arable land, E. Ir. mác: *mankâ, root man, hand, Lat. manus, Gr. μάρη, Norse mund, hand. Sc. maig is from Gaelic.

magadh, mocking, Ir. magadh, W. mocio; from the Eng. mock.

magaid, a whim; from Sc. maggat, magget.

magairle(an), testicle(s), Ir. magairle, magarla, E. Ir. macraille (pl.): *magar-aille, "magar stones"; magar and all of mactalla: magar = *maggaro-, root mag, meg, great, powerful, increas? Cf., however, mogul.

màgan, toad; properly mial-mhàgain, "squat beast"; from màg above.

magh, a plain, a field, Ir. magh, O. Ir. mag, W. ma, maes (*magestu-), Cor. mês, Br. maes, Gaul. magos: *magos, *mages-, field, plain, "expanse", from root magh, great, Skr. mahî, the earth, mahas, great; Gr. μῆχος, means, Lat. machina, machine; Got. magan, be able, Eng. may.

maghan, stomach: N. magi.

maghar, bait for fish, so Ir., E. Ir. magar (Corm.), small fry or fish:

maibean, a cluster, bunch; see mab.

maide, a stick, wood, Ir., E. Ir., matan, a club: *maddio-, *mas-do-; Lat. malus (= *mâdus), mast; Eng. mast.

màidhean, delay, slowness:

màidse, a shapeless mass:

màidsear, a major; from the Eng.

Màigh, May, E. Ir. Mái; from Lat. Maius, Eng. May.

màigean, a child beginning to walk, a fat, little man: from màg.

maighdeag, concha veneris, the shell of the escallop fish; from maighdean? Cf. madadh, mussel.

maighdean, a maiden, so Ir., late M. Ir. maighden (F.M.); from M. Eng. magden, maiden, Ag. S. mœden, now maiden.

maigheach, a hare, Ir. míol bhuidhe (for míol mhuighe), E. Ir. míl maighe, "plain beast"; from mial and magh. The G. is an adj. from magh: *mageco-, "campestris".

maighistir, maighstir, master, Ir. maighisdir, M. Ir. magisder, W. meistyr, Cor. maister; from Lat. magister, Eng. master.

màileid, a bag, wallet, knapsack, Ir. máiléid, máilín; see mála.

maille ri, with, Ir. maille re, O. Ir. immalle, malle; for imb-an-leth, "by the side", mu an leth now.

màille, mail armour; from the Eng. mail.

mainisdir, a monastery, so Ir., E. Ir. manister; from Lat. monasterium.

mainne, delay, Ir. mainneachdna; cf. O. Ir. mendat, residence, O. G. maindaidib (dat.pl.), Skr. mandiram, lodging, habitation; Lat. mandra, a pen, Gr. μάνδρα (do.).

mainnir, a fold, pen, goat pen, booth, Ir. mainreach, mainneir, M. Ir. maindir; Lat. mandra, Gr. μάνδρα, pen, as under mainne. K.Meyer takes it from early Fr. maneir, dwelling, Eng. manor.

mair, last, live, Ir. mairim, O. Ir. maraim: *marô; Lat. mora, delay *mṛ-.

màireach, to-morrow, Ir. márach, E. Ir. imbârach, to-morrow, iarnabárach, day after to-morrow, W. bore, boreu, morning, y fory, to-morrow, M.W. avory, Br. bure, morning, *bârego- (Stokes, Zimmer): *mṝ-ego-, root mṝgh, mṛgh (mṛg?); Got. maurgins, morning, da maurgina, to-morrow, Eng. morrow, Ger. morgen, etc.

mairg, pity! Ir. mairg, E. Ir. marg, vae: *margi-; Gr. μάργος, mad, Lat. morbus(?). Usually referred to *mo-oirc, *mo oirg, "my destruction", from org, destroy (See tuargan).

mairiste, marriage; from the Eng.

màirneal, a delay, Ir. mairneulachd, tediousness, a sailing:

mairtir, a martyr, so Ir., E. Ir. martir, W. merthyr; from Lat. martyr, from Gr. μάρτυς márturos, a witness.

maise, beauty, so Ir., E. Ir. maisse, from mass, comely; root mad, med, measure, Eng. meet, Ger. mässig, moderate; further Eng. mete, etc.

maistir, urine, so Ir.; *madstri, root mad, Lat. madeo.

maistreadh, churning, so Ir.; root mag: Gr. μαγίς, μάσσω, Ch. Sl. masla, butter.

maith, math, good, Ir., O. Ir. maith, W. mad, Cor. mas, M. Br. mat: *mati-s, root mat, met, measure, I. E. , measure, as in meas, q.v.? Bez. suggests as an alternative Skr. úpa-mâti, affabilis, Gr. ματίς (= μέγας, Hes.).

maith, math, pardon, Ir. maitheam (n.), E. Ir. mathem, a forgiving, W. maddeu, ignoscere, root mad, "be quiet about", Skr. mádati, linger, mandas, lingering, Got. ga-môtan, room; see mainnir. Rhys regards the W. as borrowed from Ir.; if so, G. is same as maith, good.

màl, rent, tax, M. Ir. mál, W. mâl, bounty; from Ag. S. mál, tribute, M. Eng. māl, now mail (black-mail), Sc. mail.

màla, a bag, budget, Ir. mála; from the M. Eng. māle, wallet, bag (now mail), from O. Fr. male, from O. H. G. malha.

mala, pl. malaichean (mailghean in Arg., cf. duilich, duilghe), eyebrow, Ir. mala, O. Ir. mala, g. malach, M. Br. malvenn, eyelash: *malax; Lit. blakstenai, eyelashes, blakstini, wink, Lettic mala, border, Alban. mal, hill, border.

malairt, an exchange, so Ir., M. Ir. malartaigim, I exchange, also "destroy": in E. Ir. and O. Ir. malairt means "destruction", which may be compared to Lat. malus, bad.

malc, putrefy: *malqô; Lit. nu-smelkiù, decay, Servian mlak, lukewarm (Strachan), O. H. G. moa(h)wên, tabere (Bez.). It has also been referred to the root mel, grind.

màlda, gentle, Ir. málta; Gr. μαλθακός, soft (see meall).

mall, slow, Ir., O. Ir. mall (W. mall, want of energy, softness?); Gr. μέλλω, linger (*melno-); Lat. pro-mello, litem promovere. It has also been refered to the root of Gr. μαλθακός, soft (see meall), and to that of Lat. mollis, soft, Eng. mellow.

mallachd, a curse, so Ir., O. Ir. maldacht, W. mellith, Br. malloc'h; from Lat. maledictio, Eng. malediction.

màm, large round hill, Ir. mam, mountain, M. Ir. mamm, breast, pap (O'Cl.): "breast, pap", Lat. mamma, mother, breast, Eng. mamma, etc. Hence màm, an ulcerous swelling of the armpit.

màm, a handful, two handfuls, Ir., M. Ir. mám, handful, W. mawaid, two handfuls: *mâmmâ (Stokes), from *manmâ, allied to Lat. manus, hand? Cf., however, màg.

màn, a mole on the skin, arm-pit ulcer; side form màm.

manach, a monk, Ir., E. Ir. manach, M. Ir. mainchine, monkship, monk's duties (cf. abdaine), W. mynach, Br. manac'h; from Lat. monachus, Eng. monk. Hence manachainn, a monastery.

manach, the angel fish:

manachan, the groin:

manadh, an omen, luck, E. Ir. mana, omen; Lat. moneo, warn, advise; Ag. S. manian, warn, exhort.

mànas, the portion of an estate famed by the owner, a large or level farm; from the Sc. mains, Eng. manor.

mandrag, mandrake, Ir. mandrác; from the Eng. W. mandragor is from M. Eng. mandragores, Ag. S. mandragora.

mang, a fawn, M. Ir. mang, E. Ir. mang (Corm.): Celtic root mag (mang), increase, Eng. maiden, Got. magus, boy (see mac).

mangan, a bear; see mathghamhain.

mannda, manntach, lisping, stammering, Ir. manntach, toothless, stammering, E. Ir. mant, gum, O. Ir. mend, dumb, etc., Ir. meann, dumb (O'Br.), W. mant, jaw, mantach, toothless jaw: *mandϑto-, jaw; Lat. mandere, eat, mandibula, a jaw; further is Eng. meat, Gr. μασάομαι, chew, eat, root mad.

mànran, a tuneful sound, a cooing, humming, Ir. manrán:

maodail, a paunch, stomach, ruminant's pouch, Ir. méadail, maodal, meadhail (Lh.), M. Ir. medhal (Ir. Gl., 235), métail: *mand-to-? Root mad, mand, eat, as under mannda?

maoidh, grudge, reproach, Ir. maoidhim, grudge, upbraid, bra, E. Ir. máidim, threaten, boast, O. Ir. móidem, gloriatio: *moido-; root moid, meid; M.H.G. gemeit, grand, O. H. G. kameit, jactans, stolidus, O. Sax. gemêd, stupid, Got. gamaids, bruised. See miadh.

maoidhean, personal influence, interest; from Sc. moyen (do.), Fr. moyen, a mean, means, Eng. means, from Lat. medianus, median, middle.

maoile, brow of a hill; see maol.

maoim, terror, onset, eruption, surprise, Ir. maidhm, a sally, eruption, defeat, E. Ir. maidm, a breach or breaking, defeat: *matesmen- (Stokes), *matô, break; Ch. Sl., Pol. motyka, a hoe. Some give the root as allied to Skr. math, stir, twirl, Lit. mentùris, whorl.

maoin, wealth, Ir. maoin, O. Ir. máin: *moini-; Lat. mūnus, service, duty, gift (Eng. munificence), communis, common; Got. ga-mains, common, Eng. mean; Lit. maínas, exchange.

maoineas, slowness; see màidhean.

maoirne, a bait for a fishing hook (N. H.), maoirnean, the least quantity of anything; cf. maghar, root mag, grow.

maois, a large basket, hamper, maois-eisg, five hundred fish, Ir. maois, W. mwys, hamper, five score herring, Cor. muis, moys; Sc. mese, five hundred herring, Norse meiss, box, wicker basket, meiss síld, barrel-herrings, O. H. G. meisa, a basket for the back; Lit. maiszas, sack, Ch. Sl. mėchŭ. The relationship, whether of affinity or borrowing, between Celtic and Teutonic, is doubtful. The Brittonic might come from Lat. mensa, a table, and the Gadelic from the Norse.

maoiseach, maoisleach, a doe, heifer: maol-sech (maol, hornless); see mís.

maol, bald, Ir. maol, O. Ir. máel, máil, W. moel, Br. maol: *mailo-s; Lit. mailus, something small, smallness, Ch. Sl. mėlŭkŭ, small; further root mei, lessen (see maoth). The Ir. mug, servant, has been suggested as the basis: *mag(u)lo-, servile, "short-haired, bald"; but this, though suitable to the W., would give in G. mál. Cf. Ir. mál, prince, from *maglo-. Hence maol, brow of a hill or rock, W. mael, a conical hill?

maolchair, the space between the eyebrows; from maol.

maol-snèimheil, lazy, careless, indifferent (H.S.D.), maol-snè(imh), maol-snìomh (Rob.), a lazy one:

maor, an officer of justice or of estates, Ir. maor, an officer, O. G. mœr, máir (B. of Deer), W. maer, steward; from Lat. major, whence Eng. mayor.

maorach, shell-fish, Ir. maorach; cf. Gr. μúραινα (u long), lamprey, σμῦρος, eel.

maoth, soft, Ir. maoth, E. Ir. móeth, O. Ir. móith: *moiti-s; Lat. mîtis, mild; further root mei, lessen (see mìn).

mar, as, Ir., M. Ir. mar, E. Ir., O. Ir. immar, quasi: *ambi-are, the prepositions imm (now mu) and air? W. mor, as, Corn., Br. mar, is explained by Ernault as unaccented Br. meur, G. mór, big.

mar ri, M. G. far ri (D. of L.): from mar and ri.

màrach, a big, ungainly woman (Arg.); from mór, with neuter termination ach. Also màraisg.

marag, a pudding, M. Ir. maróc, hilla, E. Ir. mar, sausage; from the Norse mörr, dat. mörvi, suet, blóð-mörr, black pudding.

marasgal, a master, regulator, Ir., M. Ir. marascal, regulator, marshal; from M. Eng. and O. Fr. marescal, now marshal.

marbh, dead, Ir. marbh, O. Ir. marb, W. marw, Cor. marow, Br. maro, M. Br. marv; *marvo-s, root mṛ; Lat. morior, die; Lit. mirti, die; Gr. μαραίνω, destroy; Skr. mar, die.

marc, a horse, G. and Ir. marcach, a horseman, E. Ir. marc, horse, W., Cor., Br. march, Gaul. μαρκα-ν (acc.): *marko-s, *markâ; O. H. G. marah, mare, meriha, horse, Norse marr, mare, Ag. S. mearh, Eng. mare and marshal.

marg, a merk: from the Eng. mark, Sc. merk, Norse mörk, g. markar.

margadh, a market, so Ir., M. Ir. margad, marcad, E. Ir. marggad from M. Eng. market, from Lat. mercatus.

màrla, marl, Ir. márla, W. marl; from Eng. marl. The G. has the sense of "marble" also, where it confuses this word and Eng. marble together.

marmor, marble, Ir. marmur; from Lat. marmor. A playing marble is in the G. dialects marbul, a marble.

màrrach, enchanted castle which kept one spell-bound, labyrinth, thicket to catch cattle (M'A.). Root mar, mer, deceive, as in mear, brath.

marrum, marruin, cream, milk, and their products (Carm.). Cf. marag.

màrsadh, marching, Ir. marsáil; from the Eng.

mart, a cow, Ir. mart, a cow, a beef, E. Ir. mart, a beef; hence Sc. mart, a cow killed for family (winter) use and salted, which Jamieson derives from Martinmas, the time at which the killing took place. The idea of mart is a cow for killing: *martâ, from root mar, die, of marbh?

Màrt, March, Ir. Márt, E. Ir. mairt, g. marta, W. Mawrth; from Lat. Martius, Eng. March.

martradh, maiming, laming, Ir. mairtrighim, murder, maim, martyrise, O. Ir. martre, martyrdom; from Lat. martyr, a martyr, whence Eng.

màs, the buttock, Ir. más, E. Ir. máss: *mâsto-; Gr. μήδεα, genitals, μαστός, μαζός, breast, cod, μαδάω, lose hair; Lat. madeo, be wet; root mád, mad.

mas, before, ere: see mus.

màsan, delay, Ir. masán (O'B., etc.):

masg, mix, infuse; from the Sc. mask, Swed. mäske, to mash, Fries. mask, draff, grains, Eng. mash.

masgul, flattery:

masladh, disgrace, Ir. masla, masladh, despite, shame, disgrace:

math, good, Ir. math; see maith. This is the commonest form in G., the only Northern Dialect form.

math, forgive: see maith.

mathaich, manure land; from math?

màthair, mother, Ir. máthair, O. Ir. máthir, W. modryb, dame, aunt, O. Br. motrep, aunt: *mâtêr; Lat. mâter; Gr. μήτηρ, Dor. mátcr (a long); Norse móðir, Eng. mother; Skr. mâtâr.

mathghamhuin, a bear, Ir. mathghamhuin, E. Ir. mathgaman, from math- and gamhainn; with math, bear (?), cf. W. madawg, fox, and possibly the Gaul. names Matu-genos, Matuus, Teuto-matus, etc.

meacan, a root, bulb, Ir. meacan, any top-rooted plant, O. Ir. meccun, mecon, Gr. μήκων, poppy; O. H. G. mági, Ger. mohn; Ch. Sl. maku: *mekkon-, root mek, mak of mac?

meachainn, mercy, an abatement, meachair, soft, tender, meachran, hospitable person, Ir. meach, hospitality:

meadar, a wooden pail or vessel, Ir. meadar, a hollowed-out drinking vessel, churn, M. Ir. metur; from Lat. metrun, measure, metre, meter.

meadar, verse, metre; for root, etc., see above word.

meadhail, joy; see meadhrach.

meadh-bhlàth, luke-warm: "mid-warm"; O. Ir. mid-, mid-, root med, medh, as in next.

meadhon, the middle, so Ir., O. Ir. medón, im-medón, M.W. ymeun, W. mewn, within, Br. y meton, amidst; cf. for form and root Lat. mediânum, the middle, Eng. mean, further Lat. medius, middle; Gr. μέσος; Eng. middle; etc.

meadhrach, glad, joyous, Ir. meadhair, mirth, meadhrach, joyous, E. Ir. medrach: *medro-; Skr. mad, rejoice, be joyful, máda, hilarity. But medu, ale?

mèag, whey, Ir. meadhg, E. Ir. medg, W. maidd (*meðjo-), Cor. maith, O. Br. meid, Gallo-Lat. mesga, whey, whence Fr. mègue: *mezgâ, whey; O.Slav. mozgu, succus, marrow (Thurneysen), to which Brugmann adds O. H. G. marg, marrow (Eng. marrow), Lit. mazgoti, wash, Lat. mergo, merge.

meaghal, barking, mewing, alarm; see miamhail.

meal, possess, enjoy, Ir. mealadh (n.), M. Ir. melaim, I enjoy: possibly from the root mel, mal, soft, as in mealbhag. Cf. O. Ir. meldach, pleasant, Eng. mild.

mealasg, flattery, fawning, great rejoicing; see miolasg.

mealbhag, corn poppy; cf. Lat. malva, mallow, whence Eng. mallow; Gr. μαλάχη, root mal, mel, soft, "emollient", Gr. μαλακός, soft, Lat. mulcere.

mealbhan, sea bent (Suth.), sand dunes with bent (W. Ross):

mealg, milt of fish; for *fealg = sealg?

meall, a lump, hill, Ir. meall, lump, knob, heap, E. Ir. mell, Br. mell, joint, knot, knuckle, Gaul. Mello-dunum (?), now Melun: *mello-, from *melno-; O.Slav. iz-molêti, just out, proturberate (Bez. with query); *mḷso; cf. Gr. μέλος, limb, part.

meall, deceive, entice, Ir. meallaim, M. Ir. mellaim, deceive, E. Ir. mell, error: melsô (Stokes), root mel, mal, bad; Lat. malus; Lit. mìlyti, mistake, mélas, lie; Gr. μέλεος, useless; Armen. meλ', peccatum. O. Ir. meld, pleasant (?), Gr. ἀμαλός, root mela, grind.

meallan, clach-mheallain, hail, Ir. meallán (Fol., O'R.); from meall, lump?

meambrana, parchments, Ir. meamrum, O. Ir. membrum; from Lat. membrana, skin, membrane, from membrum.

meamhair, meomhair, memory, Ir. meamhair, O. Ir. mebuir, W. myfyr; from Lat. memoria, Eng. memory.

meamna, meanmna, spirit, will, Ir. meanma (n.), meanmnach (adj.), O. Ir. menme, g. menman, mens; *menmês, g. menmenos, root men, mind, think; Skr. mánman, mind, thought, manye, think; Lat. memini, remember, mens; Gr. μέμονα, think, μνῆμα, monument; Eng. mean, mind; etc.

mean, meanbh, small, E. Ir. menbach, small particle: *mino-, *minvo-, root min; Lat. minus, Eng. diminish, Lat. minor, minutus, minute; Gr. μινúθω, lessen; Got. minus, less: root mi, mei. See mi-. Stokes gives also an alternate root men, Skr. manâk, a little, Lat. mancus, mamed, Lit. mènkas, little.

meanachair, small cattle, sheep or goats (Dial.); for meanbh-chrodh.

mèanan, a yawn, Ir. méanfach, E. Ir. mén-scailim, I yawn, "mouth-spread", mén, mouth, ménogud, hiatus; cf. W. min, lip, edge, Cor. min, meen, Br. min, snout. Strachan and Stokes suggest the stem *maknâ, *mekno-, root mak; Ag. S. maga, stomach, Ger. magen, Eng. maw.

meang, guile, Ir. meang, E. Ir. meng: *mengâ; Gr. μάγγανον, engine (Eng. mangle), μαγγανεúω, juggle; Lat. mango, a dealer who imposes. Cf. N. mang, traffic, monger.

meang, whey; Dial. for mèag.

meangan, meanglan, a twig, Ir. meangán, beangán: *mengo-, Celtic root meg, mag, increase; see under maighdean, mac. Cf. M. Ir. maethain, sprouts.

meann, a kid, Ir. meannán, meann, W. myn, Cor. min, Br. menn: *mendo-, kid, "suckling"; Alban. mεnt, suck; O. H. G. manzon, ubera; perhaps Gr. μαζός, breast (Stokes, Strachan) It may be from the root min, small (*minno-), a form which suits the W. best.

meannd, mint; from the Eng.

meantairig, venture; from Eng. venturing. W. mentra.

mear, merry, Ir. mear; cf. Eng. merry, Ag. S. merge, myrige, O. H. G. murg, murgi (root mṛgh). The E. Ir. mer, mad, is allied to mearachd. O. Ir. meraigim, prurio. Lat. meretrix.

mearachd, error, Ir. mearaighim, I err, mearughadh, a mistaking, erring, M. Ir. merugud, wandering, root mer, mṛ; Gr. ἁμαρτανω, miss (see brath); Eng. mar, Got. marzian, cause to stumble. Cf. E. Ir. mer, mad, meracht, mad act, O. Ir. meraige, a fool, O. Br. mergidhaam, I am silly, which Loth joins to Gr. μάργος, mad.

mearcach, rash; from the root of mear.

mearganta, brisk, lively, meargadaich, be impatient (Suth), Ir. mearganta, brisk; from mear.

mèarsadh, marching; see màrsadh.

mearsuinn, vigour, strength; cf. marsainn, abiding, from mar, remain.

meas, fruit, Ir. meas, fruit, especially acorns, measog, acorn, E. Ir. mess, fruit, W. mes, acorns, Cor. mesen, glans, Br. mesenn, acorn: *messu-, root, med, mad, eat (see manntach), and, for force, cf. Eng. mast, fruit of forest trees, Ag. S. maest, fruit of oak or beech, Ger. mast.

meas, judgement, opinion, respect, Ir. meas, O. Ir. mess, *messu-, root med; Lat. meditari, think, modus, method; Gr. μέδομαι, think of; Got. mitan, measure, Eng. mete: further root , measure, Eng. metre, meter, etc.

measan, a lapdog, Ir. measán, E. Ir. measan, meschu:

measair, a tub, measure; see miosar.

measarra, temperate, modest, Ir. measarrdha, O. Ir. mesurda: mensura (Stokes). But it may be from meas, judgment.

measg, am measg, among, Ir. measg, a measg, among, W. ym mysg, M. Br. e mesg: *med-sko-, root med, medh, as in meadhon, middle.

measg, measgach, mix, Ir. measgaim, E. Ir. mescaim, W. mysgu: *miskô, *mig-skô, root, mig, mik; Gr. mígnomi, mísgw; Lat. misceo; Eng. mix, Ger. mischen; Lit. maiszýti; Skr. miksh.

measgan, a dish to hold butter, Ir. míosgan; see miosgan. But cf. E. Ir. mescan, a lump of butter, M. Ir. mesgan, masa; from measg, mix?

meat, meata, feeble, soft, cowardly, Ir. meata, E. Ir. meta, cowardly: *mit-tavo-; see meath. W. has meth, failure. *mettaios (St.)

meath, fail, fade, become weak, dishearted, Ir. meathaim, fail, droop, soften, E. Ir. meth, failure, decay: *mitô, root mit, the short form of root meit, moit (see maoth).

meidh, a balance, Ir. meadh, O. Ir. med, d. meid, W. medd, centre of motion: *medâ, root med, mete; Lat. modius, a peck: Gr. μέδιμνος, a measure (6 modii); Eng. mete. See meas further. Hence meidhis, a measure, instalment (Arg., M'A.).

meidhinnean, mèigean, hip-joints:

meigead, the bleating of a goat or kid, Ir. meigiodaigh; Gr. μηκάομαι, bleat, μήκας, she-goat, "bleater"; Ger. meckern, bleat; Skr. makakas, bleating; root mêk, mek, mak, an onomatopoetic syllable.

mèil, bleat, Ir. méidhlighim, M. Ir. meglim, I bleat, megill, bleating; Ger. meckern: see meigead. G. is for *megli- or *mekli.

meil, beil, grind, Ir. meilim, O. Ir. melim, W. malu, Br. malaff: *melô; Lat. molo; Gr. μúλλω; O. H. G. malan, grin, Eng. meal, mill; Lit. málti, molo. Hence meildreach, meiltir, a quantity of corn sent to grind, meiltear, miller.

meilcheart, chilblain (Arg.), Ir. miolcheárd (Kerry), miolchartach, miolcartán, milchearta (Tirconnell); root in meilich.

meile, the thick stick by which the quern is turned, a quern, Ir. meile, hand-mill: "grinder"; from meil?

meilearach, long sea-side grass; from Norse melr, bent.

meilich, become chill with cold, be benumbed; from the root mel, crush, grind. See meil.

meiligeag, sea-pod, husk of peas, etc.:

meill, the cheek, Ir. meill; G. méill, blubber-lip (M'L., M'E.), méilleach, beilleach, blubber-lipped (meilleach, H.S.D.); see béilleach.

méilleag, beilleag, outer rind of bark:

mèin, mèinn, ore, mine, Ir. méin, mianach, E. Ir. míanach, W. mwyn: *meini-, meinni-, root mei, smei, smi; O.Sl. mêdi, aes; O. H. G. smîda, metal, Eng. smith (Schräder).

mèin, meinn, disposition, Ir. méin, M. Ir. mèin, mind, disposition: "metal, mettle"; seemingly a metaphoric use of the foregoing word. A root mein, mind, mean, appears to exist in Eng. mean, Ger. meinen; cf. W. myn, mind. Thurneysen compares Eng. mien.

mèineil, flexible, sappy, substantial; from méin, ore: "gritty"?

meirbh, spiritless, delicate, so Ir., E. Ir. meirb, W. merw: *mervi-; O. H. G. maro, soft, mellow, Ger. mürbe, Ag. S. mearo, Norse merja, crush; Gr. μαραίνω, destroy, μάρναμαι, fight; Lat. martus, hammer, "crusher"; etc. See marbh from the same root ultimately (mer, mar). Hence merbh, digest.

meirean nam magh, agrimony, Ir. meirín na magh (O'B., méirín (Con.):

meirg, rust, Ir. meirg, O. Ir. meirg, meirc, Br. mergl: *mergi-, "red, dark"; Eng. murk, Ag. S. mirce, Norse myrkr (cf. G. dearg and Eng. dark). Ernault compares Gr. μάργος, senseless; and it has been joined to O. W. mergid, debilitas, O. Br. mergidhehan, evanesco, root mar, mer, fade, die.

meirghe, a banner, Ir. meirge, E. Ir. mergge; from the Norse merki, a banner, mark, Eng. mark (Zimmer).

meirle, theft, meirleach, thief, Ir. meirleach, E. Ir. merle, theft, merlech, thief; root mer, mra (as in bradach); see mearachd. Stokes compares Gr. ἀμείρω, deprive; but this is likely ṇ-μερjω, privative or a and root mer (μέρος, share).

meirneal, a kind of hawk; from the Eng. merlin.

meiteal, metal, Ir. miotal; from the Eng. metal, Lat. metallum.

mèith, fat, sappy, Ir. méith, méath, O. Ir. méth, W. mwydo, soften: *meito-; the e grade of the root seen in *moiti- (in maoth, q.v.), the root being mit, meit, moit (meath, mèith, maoth).

meòg, whey; better than mèag.

meòraich, meditate, remember, Ir. méamhruighim, M. Ir. mebrugud, rehearsing, remembering; from Lat. memoria. See meamhair, also spelt meomhair, with the verb meomhairich = meòraich.

meuchd, mixture (Dial.): *meik-tu, root meik, mik, as in measg.

meud, miad, size, Ir. méid, méad, W. maint, Cor. myns, Br. meñt: *mṇti-, ment, "measure", a nasalised form of the root met, measure, Lat. mensus, having measured, mētior (vb.), Gr. μέτρον, measure; etc. Bez. queries its alliance only with Norse munr, importance. Usually referred to the root mag, meg (*maganti-), great, or to that of minig, q.v.

meur, miar, a finger, Ir. meur, O. Ir. mér. Strachan suggests the stem *makro-, root mak, great, mighty, Gr. μακρóς, long, Lat. macer, lean, macte, good luck, Zend. maç, great. Brugmann has compared it to Gr. μόκρωνα (Hes.), sharp (Lat. mucro).

mhàin, a mhàin, only, Ir. amháin, E. Ir. amáin. It has been divided into a prefix and root form: a-máin, the latter being parallel to Dor. Gr. μῶνος, Gr. μόνος, alone. Cf. O. Ir. nammá, tantum, "ut non sit magis" (na-n-má, Zeuss).

mi, I, Ir., O. Ir. , W. mi, Cor. my, me, Br. me: *mê, *me; Lat. ; Gr. με; Eng. me; Skr. .

mi-, un-, mis-, Ir., O. Ir. mí-, root , mei, mi, lessen; Gr. μείων, less; Lat. minus, less; Eng. mis-, Got. missa- (*miþto-). See maoth, mìn. Stokes makes mí- a comparative like μείων, and rejects the Teutonic words.

miadan, miadar, miad, a meadow, mead; from the Eng. meadow.

miadh, respect, esteem, so Ir., O.ir. míad, fastus, dignity, O. Br. muoet, fastu: *meido-, fame: O. H. G. kameit, iactans, stolidus, M.H.G. gemeit, bold, O.Sax. gemêd, haughty (Bez.); allied to Eng. meed, Gr. μισθός, pay, Lat. miles, soldier. Cf. Gr. τιμή, fame, price.

mial, louse, animal, Ir. míol, animal, whale, louse, E. Ir. míl, W. mil, beast, Cor., Br. mil: *mêlo-n, animal: Gr. μῆλον, sheep; Norse smali, sheep, Eng. small. Hence G. mial-chu, greyhound, W. milgi, Cor. mylgy.

mialladh, bad-fortune (N. H.):

mialta, pleasant (H.S.D.), O. Ir. meld, melltach, pleasant; Eng. mild; G. μαλθακός, soft. See malda.

miamhail, mewing (of cat), Ir. miamhaoil; Eng. mewl, from O. Fr., Fr. miauler: an onomatopoetic word.

miann, desire, Ir. mian, O. Ir. mían: *meino-; Eng. mean, Ger. meinen, to mean; O.Slov mėnją (do.). Cf W. myn, desire, Br. menna, to wish, which may be from the short form min beside mein. (Otherwise Loth in Voc. Vieux-Br., 145).

mias, a dish, Ir. mías, a dish, mess, platter, E. Ir. mias; from L. Lat. mêsa, mensa, a table, whence Ag. S. mýse, table, Got. mes, table, dish.

mil, honey, Ir. mil, O. Ir. mil, g. mela, W. mêl, Cor., Br. mil: *meli-; Lat. mel; Gr. μέλι; Got. miliþ; Arm. meλr.

milc, meirc, sweet, sweetness (Carm.):

milcean, solid warm white whey (Carm.):

mìle, a thousand, a mile, Ir. míle, O. Ir. míle, a thousand, W., Br. mil, Cor. myl, myll; Lat. mîle (whence Eng. mile), mille. The Celtic words are borrowed doubtless.

mileag, a melon; from the Eng.

mileart, honey dew (N. H.):

mìlidh, a champion, Ir. mileadh, mílidh (O'B.), E. Ir. mílid; from Lat. miles, militis, soldier.

milis, sweet, Ir., O. Ir. milis, W. melys: *melissi-; from mil.

mill, destroy, Ir., O. Ir. millim: *mel-ni-, root mele, fail, miss; Lit. mìlyti, fail; Gr. μέλεος, useless, wretched, ἀμβλίσκω, cause, miscarriage. the root of Eng. melt (*meld, Gr. ἀμαλδúνω, destroy) has been suggested, the mel of which is the same as above. It may be root mel, crush, mill.

millteach, mountain grass, good grass; Norse melr, bent grass.

min, meal, Ir. min, g. mine, O. Ir. men: *miná, root min, lessen. Strachan suggests two derivations; either allied to (1) Lit. mìnti, tread, Ch. Slav. męti, crush, Gr. ματέω, tread on, from root men, tread, or from (2) *mecsn, root meq, menq, grind, Ch. Slav. mąka, meal, Gr. μάσσω, knead. But mexn- would give G. menn.

mìn, soft, delicate, Ir., E. Ir. mín, W. mwyn, gentle, Cor. muin, gracilis, Br. moan, fine: *mîno-, meino-, root mei, lessen; Gr. μείων, less, μινúθω, lessen; Lat. minor, less, minister. Hence mìnich, explain. Stokes has apparently two derivations for mìn—the one above and *mêno-, allied to Gr. μανός (a long), thin.

minidh, an awl, Ir. meanadh, E. Ir. menad, W. mynawyd, Br. minaoued, M. Br. menauet: *minaveto-; Gr. σμινúη, mattock, σμίλη (ι long), chiesel.

minicionn, mid's skin; from meann and *cionn (see boicionn).

minig, minic, often, Ir. minic, O. Ir. menicc, W. mynych, Cor. menough: *menekki-s; Got. manags, many, Ger. manach, Eng. many.

minis, degree, portion (M'A.), root of mion.

ministear, a minister, Ir. mínistir; from Lat. minister, servant, whence Eng. minister.

miobhadh, ill-usage, as by weather; from mi-bhàidh.

mìobhail, unmannerly (Arg.); mi+modhail.

miodal, flattery, Ir. miodal:

miodhoir, a churl, niggard one; see miùghair.

mìog, miog, (H.S.D.), a smile, sly look, Ir. míog: *smincu-, root smi, smile, Eng. smile, Gr. μειδάω, Skr. smayate, laughs.

miolaran, low barking or whining of a fawning dog: see next word.

miolasg, flattery, fawning (as a dog), keen desire; from the root smi, smile? See míog.

mion, small, so Ir.; root min, Lat. minor, etc. Also mean, meanbh, q.v.

mionaid, a minute, Ir. minuit (dat.); from the Eng.

mionn, an oath, Ir. mionn, g. mionna, E. Ir. mind, oath, diadem; the mind was the "swearing reliques" of a saint, O. Ir. mind, a diadem, insignia, O. W. minn, sertum: *menni-; cf. O. H. G. menni, neck ornament, Ag. S. mene, neck chain, Lat. monile. See muineal further. Stokes gives the stem as *mindi-, but no etymology. Windisch (Rev.Celt.5) equates minn with Lat. mundus, ornament, world.

miontan, a titmouse, Ir. miontán; from mion, small, *minu-, Lat. minor, etc., as under mín.

mìorbhuil, a miracle, Ir. míorbhuil, E. Ir. mírbail; from Lat. mīrabile, Eng. marvel.

miortal, myrtal, Ir. miortal (Fol.); from the English. W. has myrtwydd, myrtle trees.

mìos, a month, Ir. , míos, g. míosa, O. Ir. , g. mís, W. mis, Cor. mis, Br. mis, miz: *mêns, g. *mensos; Lat. mensis; Gr. μέν: Skr. mâs; further Eng. month.

mios, miosa, worse, Ir. measa, O. Ir. messa: *missôs; Got. O. H. G. missa-, mis-, Eng. mis-, miss. See mi-.

mìosach, fairy flax, purging flax, Ir. míosach: "monthly"; from mìos, "from a medicinal virtue it was supposed to possess" (Cameron).

miosar, a measure (as of meal), Ir. miosúr, E. Ir. messar, phiala, O. Ir. mesar, modus, W. mesur; from the Lat. mensura, Eng. measure.

miosgan, butter kit, Ir. míosgán; from mias, a dish.

miosguinn, envy, malice, Ir. mioscuis (míoscuis, Con.), E. Ir. miscen, hate, O. Ir. miscuis; Gr. μῖσος (= mītos); Lat. miser, wretched (= mit-s-ro-s); root mit, mi.

miotag, a mitten, Ir. miotóg, mitín, mittens; from Eng. mitten, O. Fr. mitaine.

mìr, a bit, piece, Ir., O. Ir. mír, pl. mírenn: *mêsren, piece of flesh; Skr. mâmsá, flesh; Got. mimz (do.); Lit. mėsà, flesh (Stokes, Thur., Brug.). Allied also is Lat. membrum, member; I. E. mêmso-m, flesh.

mircean, kind of sea-weed; cf. N. máru-kjarni, fucus vesiculosus (Lewis).

mire, pastime, Ir. mire, sport, madness, M. Ir. mire, madness; see mear.

mirr, myrrh, Ir. miorr, E. Ir. mirr, W. myr; from Lat. myrrha, Eng. myrrh.

mìs, mìseach, maoilseach, goat, doe (Carm.) = maoisleach.

misd, the worse for, Ir. misde, meisde, M. Ir. meste, E. Ir. mesai-die = messa-de, "worse of"; from mios and de, of.

misg, drunkenness, Ir. meisge, misge, E. Ir. mesce, O. Ir. mescc, drunk: *mesko-, *meskjâ, from *med-sko-, also E. Ir. mid, g. meda, mead, W. medd, hydromel, O.Cor. med, sicera, Br. mez, hydromel: *medu-; Gr. μέθυ, wine; Eng. mead; Ch. Slav. medŭ, honey, wine; Skr. mádhu, sweet, sweet drink, honey.

misimean-dearg, bog-mint, Ir. misimín dearg:

mìslean, a mountain grass, sweet meadow grass (Cameron); for milsean, from milis, sweet; cf. Ir. milsean mara, a sort of sea-weed; mìsleach, sweetness (Hend.).

misneach, misneachd, courage, Ir. meisneach, M. Ir. mesnech: *med-s-, root med of meas: "think, hope".

mistear, a cunning, designing person; from misd.

mith, an obscure or humble person; from the root mi, mei as in mi-, miosa.

mithear, weak, crazy, Ir. mithfir, weak; see mith.

mithich, proper time, tempestivus, Ir. mithid, O. Ir. mithich, tempestivus: *meti-, Lat. māturus, Eng. mature.

mithlean, sport, playfulness:

miùghair, niggardly; from mi and fiù or fiù-mhor? cf. miodhoir.

mnathan, wives, Ir., E. Ir. mná, wives: *bnâs; see bean

mo, my, O. Ir. mo, mu, W. fy, M.W. my (from myn), Corn., Br. ma (which aspirates): *mou, *movo: formed on the analogy of do, du, from the pronomial root me (see mi). W. myn or my n- is allied to Zend. mana, Lit. manè (for me-né), Ch. Sl. mene.

, greater, Ir. , O. Ir. móa, máo, máa, móo, , W. mwy, O. W. mui, Corn. moy, Br. mui: *mâjôs; Lat. mâjor, greater (Eng. major); Got. mais, more (adv.), maiza, greater, Eng. more: root of mór, q.v.

mobainn, maltreating, handling roughly; see moibean.

moch, early, Ir. moch, early, O. Ir. moch, mane: *moq-; also O. Ir. mos, soon, W. moch, early, ready, Corn. meugh: *moqsu; Lat. mox, soon; Zend. moshu, Skr. mokshú, soon: also Gr. μάψ, idly, rashly. See mus. Hence mocheirigh, early rising, mochthrath, early morning, M. Ir. mochthrath, O. Ir. mochtratae, matutinus.

mochd, move, yield (Oss. Ballads); cf. M. Ir. mocht, gentle, weak, W. mwytho, soften, pamper, Eng. meek, Norse mjukr, soft, meek.

mòd, a court, trial, meeting; from the Norse mót, meeting, town-meeting, court of law, Ag. S. mót, gemót, Eng. moot, meet.

modh, manner, Ir. modh, O. Ir. mod, W. modd; from Lat. modus. Hence modh, respect, E. Ir. mod; cf. Eng. manners for sense.

modhan, the sound of a bagpipe or other musical instrument (H.S.D., also moghun):

mòdhar, soft, gentle (modhar, M'A.); from modh.

mòg, clumsy hand or foot; see màg, smòg.

mogach, shaggy, hairy:

mogan, a footless stocking; from the Sc. moggan, moggans.

mogan, spirits from oats (Uist):

mogul, a husk, mesh (of a net), Ir. mogal, cluster, mesh of a net, husk, apple of the eye, E. Ir. mocoll (do.), O. Ir. mocul, subtel: *mozgu-, I. E. mozgho, knot, mesh; Lit. mázgas, knot, mesh; O. H. G. mascâ, Ger. masche, Eng. mesh; Gr. μόσχος, sprout, calf. Lat. macula, a mush, is not allied. Dialect G. mugairle, bunch of nuts (Glenmoriston).

mogur, bulky, clumsy:

moibean, moibeal, a mop, broom, Ir. moipal; from Eng. mop.

moibleadh, a gnawing, half-chewing: "making a mop of"; from above.

móid, a vow, Ir. móid, M. Ir. móit, E. Ir. moit (Corm.): *monti-, W. gofuno, to vow, O. Br. guomonian, polliceri, which Bugge and Stokes connect with W. mun, hand (cf. Ag. S. mund, Lat. manus). But see bóid. Stokes now says votum.

mòid, the greater, Ir. móide, more, M. Ir. móti: *mò+de. Cf. misd.

moighre, robust, handsome:

moil, matted hair; see molach (*mḷ-).

moilean, a fat, plump child, a lump; cf. Ir. moil, molan, a heap. To this Lat. môles may be compared.

mòin, mòine, peat, moss, Ir. móin, g. móna, E. Ir. móin, pl. móinte, W. mawn, peat, turf: *mân-; Lat. mâno, flow, Eng. emanate. Strachan takes it from *mokni-, root mok, mak, Ch. Sl. mokrŭ, wet, Lit. makone, puddle; Stokes agrees, giving Celtic as *mâkni-, môkni-. It is doubtful if W. k would disappear before n (cf. deur). W. has also a form migen, mign, a bog.

moineis, false delicacy (M'A.), moinig, vanity, boasting; from root mon, men, mind?

moire, a more, certainly, hercle, Ir. iomorro, indeed, however, O. Ir. immurgu, autem.

moirear, a lord, O. G. mormær (Book of Deer), M. G. morbhair (M'V.), M. Ir. mormhaer (Muireach Albanach), murmor (M'Firbis); from mór and maor, "great steward".

mòirneas, creat cascade, streams (Oss. Ballads); from mór and eas?

moit, pride, sulkiness, Ir. moiteamhuil, sulky, nice, pettish (Con., O'R., M'F.); cf. E. Ir. mochtae, magnified, *mog-tio-s, root mog, mag, great. O. Ir. móidem, boasting, praise.

mol, praise, advise, Ir. molaim, O. Ir. molid, laudat, W. moli, mawl, laus, Br. meuli: *molô, *mâlo, "magnify"; root mōl, mel, be strong; Gr. μάλα, very; Lat. melior, better; Lit. milns, very many, Ch. Slav. iz-molêti, eminere (Stokes). Windisch has compared it to Ch. Sl. moliti, ask, Lit. myleti, love, Gr. μέλε, friend, μείλιχος, gentle.

mol, mal, a shingly beach; from Norse möl, g. malar, pebbles, bed of pebbles on the beach; root mel, grind.

molach, hairy, rough, Ir. mothlach, rough, bushy (O'R.), muthalach, shaggy (Fol.). If the Irish form is right, it cannot be allied to I. E. mḷo-s, wool, Gr. μαλλός, wool, tuft, Lit. millas, woolen stuff.

moll, chaff, Ir. moll (O'R.), W. mwl: *muldo-; Eng. mould, Got. mulda, dust, O. H. G. molt, dust, mould; root mel, grind. Borrowed from Welsh?

mollachd, a curse; the Northern form of mallachd, q.v.

mòlltair, a mould; from Eng. moulter, mould.

molltair, miller's share of the grain or meal (Lewis) = multure:

monadh, a mountain range, W. mynydd, mons, Cor. menit, meneth, O. Br. -monid, M. Br. menez, mountain: *monijo-, *menijo-, root men, eminere, Eng. eminent. Cf. Welsh inscription Monedorigi, "mountain-king"; also middle G. name of St Andrews—Rig-monath (Chronicles). The Ir. monadh appears only in Lh.; O'Br. gives mónadh. The G. word may have been borrowed from the Picts along with the place-names in which it appears: it is rare in Argyle topography.

monaid, heed:

monais, slowness, negligence; root men, stay, Gr. μένω.

monar, a diminutive person or thing, monaran, a mote; see munar.

monasg, chaff, dross; from the root of the above.

monmhur, monaghar, a murmuring noise, Ir. monmhar, monbhar, murmuring, monghair, monghar, roaring: *mon-mur; cf. Lat. murmur.

mór, great, Ir. mór, O. Ir. mór, már, W. mawr, O. W., Cor. maur, Br. meur, Gaul. -mârós; Gr. -μωρος, great, famed (ἐγχεσί-μωρος) in spear-throw; Got. -mêrs, famed, mêrian, proclaim, O. H. G. mâri, famed, -mar in Germanic names Ger. märchen, a tale, Norse mœrr, famous; Slav. -meru (Vladimir, etc.); Lat. merus, Eng. mere. A shorter form of the stem (*mâro-) appears in , greater (), q.v.

morbhach, land liable to sea flooding, Ir. murbhach, M. Ir. murmhagh; from muir and magh. Hence the locative A' Mhor'oich, the G. name of Lovat. Aran Ir. muirbheach, sandy soil by the seaside.

morghath, a fishing spear; "sea-spear", from muir and gath? M. Ir. murgai (B. of Lis.).

mòrnan, a small timber dish, Ir. mórnán:

mort, murder, Ir. mort, M. Ir. martad, slaughtering; from Lat. mort- of mors, mortis, death.

mortar, mortar, Ir. mortaoil; from the Eng.

mosach, nasty, dirty; see musach.

mosgail, waken, arouse, Ir. músguilim, músglaim, M. Ir. romuscail, he awoke, musclait, they wake: *imm-od-sc-al, root sec of dùisg.

mosradh, coarse dalliance, mosraiche, smuttiness; from mos with suffix radh. See musach for root.

mothaich, perceive, Ir. mothuighim, M. Ir. mothaigim, perceive, O. Ir. mothaigid, stupeat (?); root mot, met, Lit. matyti, see, Lettic matít, perceive, Ch. Slav. motriti, spectare, Gr. ματεúω, seek.

mothan, bog violet:

mòthar, loud noise, swelling of the sea, mothar, noise as from a cave (M'A.):

mothar, a park, clump of trees (Arm.), M. Ir. mothar, enclosure, a place studded with bushes:

mu, about, Ir. um, im, O. Ir. imb, imm-, W. am, Cor., Br. am-, em, Gaul. ambi: *ambi, *ṃbi; Lat. ambi-; Gr. ἀμφί; Ag. S. ymb.

muc, a pig, Ir. muc, O. Ir. mucc, W. moch, pigs, Br. moc'h, pigs: *mukku-; Lat. mûcus, muccus, mucus; Gr. μúξα, phlegm, ἀπομúσσω, wipe the nose, μυκτήρ, nose; Skr. muñcáti, let loose.

mucag, a hip or hep, fruit of the dog-rose, M. Ir. mucóra; from muc above. Cf. Gr. μúκης, a mushroom, from the same root.

mùch, smother, press down, Ir., O. Ir. múchaim, also E. Ir. múch, smoke, W. mwg, smoke, Cor. mok, megi, stifle, Br. mik, suffocation, miga, be suffocated, moguiet, smoke: *mûko-, root smûk, smûg, (smûgh, smaugh), Eng. smoke, Gr. σμúχω, smoulder (v long). Stokes suggests old borrowing from the Ag. S. Hence mùchan, a vent or chimney, Ir. múchán (O'B.).

mùdan, a covering, covering for a gun:

mugha, destruction, decay, Ir. múgha, a perishing, straying, M. Ir. mugud, slaying, mogaim, I slay:

mugharn, ankle, so Ir.; cf. W. migwrn, ankle, joint, Br. migorn, cartilage, which Stokes compares to Lat. mucro, point.

muidhe, a churn, E. Ir. muide, a vessel, buide, a churn, W. buddai, churn. Stokes compares buide and buddai to Gr. πίθος, jar, Lat. fedelia, pot, which is related to Eng. body. The form muidhe has been compared to Lat. modius, a peck, Fr. muid, hogshead.

muidse, a mutch; from the Sc. mutch, Ger. mütze.

mùig, mùg, cloudiness, gloom, surliness, Ir. múig: *munki-, root muk, smoke, as in mùch? Or *mūggi-, allied to Eng. muggy?

muigh, a muigh, outside; see mach.

muilceann, fell-wort, Ir. muilcheann:

muileach, dear, beloved: *molico-, from mol, praise?

muileag, a cranberry:

muileann, a mill, so Ir., O. Ir. mulenn, muilend, W., Corn., Br. melin; from Lat. molîna, a mill, molo, grind (see meil). G. muillear, miller, E. Ir. muilleóir, is for *muilneóir.

muileid, a mukle, Ir. múille; from Lat. mulus.

muillean, a husk, particle of chaff; from moll.

muillean, a truss (of hay or straw): cf. Sc. mullio (Orkney), and see under mul, heap.

muillion, a million, Ir. milliun; from the L. Lat. millionem, coined from mille, a thousand.

muilteag, a certain small red berry (Dial. H.S.D.). See muileag.

muime, a step-mother, nurse, Ir. buime, muime, a nurse, E. Ir. mumme, nurse, stepmother: *mud-s-mjâ, nurse, "suckler", root mud, suck; Lat. mulier, woman; Gr. μúξω, suck, μúδος, damp; Lit. máudyti, bath. It has also been paralleled to Lat. mamma, Ger. muhme, mother's sister, stepmother.

muin, teach, instruct, Ir. múinim, O. Ir. múnim:

muin, the back, Ir. muin, E. Ir. muin, back, neck, W. mwn, neck: *moni-, neck; Skr. mányâ, neck; Lat. monile, necklace; O. H. G. menni, neck ornaments, Ag. S. mene, neck-chain; Ch. Slav. monisto, necklace. See muineal, muing. Gaulish had also μανιάκης, collar or torque.

mùin, micturate, Ir. mún, urine, E. Ir. mún, root meu , befoul; Skr. mū́tra urine; possibly also Lat. mûto, mutto, penis, E. Ir. moth, ball ferda.

muineal, the neck, Ir. muineul, E. Ir. muinél, W. mwnwgl: *moniklo-; from *moni- of muin, back, q.v.

muineasach, depressed (Glenmoriston):

muing, a name, Ir. muing, O. Ir. mong, W. myng (m.), M. Br. móe, Br. moue: *mongâ, *mongo-, root mon of muin, back, q.v. Further is Eng. mane, Norse mön, Ger. mähne; Swed. and Dan. manke is especially close to Gaelic.

muinichill, muilichinn (Arg.), a sleeve, Ir. muinichille, muinchille, E. Ir. munchille; from Lat. manicula, manica, long sleeve, from manus, hand.

muinighin, confidence, trust, so Ir., E. Ir. muinigin; from *moni-, love, desire, Norse munr, love, O.Sax. munilîk, lovable; root men, think (Lat. mens, Eng. mind, etc.).

muinne, stomach (Arg.). Cf. mionach.

muinnte, munnda, beauteous; cf. Lat. mundus.

mùinnteachd, disposition (Dial.); for root see muinighin, and cf. O. Ir. muiniur, I think.

muinntir, household, people, Ir. muinntir, O. Ir. muinter, muntar. This is regarded by Stokes, Zimmer, and Güterbock as an early borrowing from the Lat. monasterium, monastery; the word familia is often applied to monasteries by Irish writers.

muir, the sea, Ir. muir, O. Ir. muir, gen. mora, W. môr, Cor., Br. mor, Gaul. mor-: *mori-, sea; Lat. mare; Eng. mere, Ger. meer; Ch. Slav. morje.

mùire, leprosy; from mùr, a countless number, q.v.

muirgheadh, a fisihing spear; see morghath.

muirichinn, children, family, Ir. muiridhin, a charge, family: *mori-, care, charge, root mer, smer, remember; Lat. memoria, memory; Gr. μέριμνα, care; Skr. smarati, think, mind, *mori-gen-.

mùirn, joy, affection, Ir. múirn, múirnín (Eng. mavourneen, my darling), M. Ir. múirn, muirn: *morni-, root mor, mer, smer, as in muirichinn above.

mùiseag, a threat, muiseag (Arm.); from mus of musach.

muisean, a mean, sordid fellow; see musach for the root.

mùisean, a primrose, Ir. múiseán (O'B.):

muiseal, a muzzle, Ir. muisiall; from the Eng.

muisginn, an English pint, mutchkin; from the Sc. mutchkin, Dutch mutsje, an eighth part of a bottle.

mul, a conical heap, mound, Ir. mul, moil, E. Ir. mul-, eminence: *mulu-; cf. Norse múli, jutting crag, "mull", Ger. maul, snout. Cf. Gr. mulon, little heap of dried grass. mul-conain, conical suppurating sore.

mul, axle, Ir. mul, mol, shaft; cf. Gr. μελίη, ash, spear.

mulachag, a cheese, Ir., M. Ir. mulchán:

mulad, sadnmess; root mu, mutter?

mulart, dwarf elder, Ir. mulabhúrd, malabhúr, mulart (O'B.):

mulc, push, butt; cf. Lat. mulceo, mulco, stroke, beat.

mulc, a shapeless lump, lump; mulcan, a pustule; cf. meall:

mullach, the top, Ir., O. Ir. mullach: *muldâko-, *muldo-, top, head; Ag. S. molda, crown of the head; Skr. mûrdhán, top, head.

mult, a wedder, Ir., O. Ir. molt, W. mollt, Cor. mols, vervex, Br. maout, a sheep (mas.): *molto-, root mel, mol, crush, grind, "mutilate"; Russ. molitǐ, cut, cut up, O. H. G. muljan, triturate. Hence M.Lat. multo, whence Fr. mouton, a sheep, Eng. mutton.

munar, a trifle, a trifling person, monar, diminutive person or thing:

munganachd, bullying:

mùnloch, a puddle, Ir. múnloch, gen. múnlocha; from mún and loch.

mur, unless, Ir. muna (Donegal Ir. mur; Monaghan has amur = acht muna, unless), M. Ir. mun, moni, mona, E. Ir., O. Ir. mani; from ma, if, and ni, not: "if not". The G. r for n is possibly due to the influence of gur and of the verbal particl ro- (in robh); mun-robh becoming mur-robh.

mùr, a wall, bulwark, palace, Ir., E. Ir. múr, W. mur; from Lat. mûrus, a wall.

mùr, countless number (as of insects), E. Ir. múr, abundance; Gr. μυρίος (u long), countless, ten thousand; Skr. bhûri, many. Stokes compares rather Gr. -μυρα of πλήμυρα (u long), πλημυρίς (u short or long), flood tide, flood. mùr, leprosy = countless number.

muran, sea-bent, Ir. muraineach, bent grass; from muir, the sea. Norse has mura, goose-grass.

murcach, sorrowful, Ir. murcach, múrcach; cf. M. Br. morchet, anxiety, now morc'hed, Cor. moreth, chagrin. Eng. murky, Norse myrkr could only be allied by borrowing. Cf. Lat. marceo, droop.

mùrla, a coat of mail:

murlach, the king-fisher:

murlag, murluinn, a kind of basket, murlach, fishing basket (M'A.), Ir. muirleog, a rod basket for sand eels and wilks (Donegal). Cf. Sc. murlain, a narrow-mouthed basket of a round form.

murlan, rough head of hair:

murrach, able, rich, murrtha, successful, M. Ir. muire, muiredach, lord, Murdoch; Ag. S. maere, clarus, Norse maerr, famous (Stokes), same root as mór.

murt, murder; see mort.

murtachd, sultry heat, weariness produced by heat:

mus, before, ere; cf. O. Ir. mos, soon, mox, used as a verbal particle; it is allied to moch, being from *moqsu, Lat. mox.

musach, nasty, Ir. mosach (O'R., Sh.), W. mws, effluvia, stinking, Br. mous, muck, mouz, crepitus ventris: *musso-, *mud-so-, root mud, be foul or wet; Gr. μúσος (= μúδ-σος), defilement, μúδος, clamminess, decay; Lit. mudas, dirty sea-grass: root mu (), soil, befoul, G. mùin, Eng. mud, etc.

musg, a musket, Ir. músgaid, L.M. Ir. muscaed (F.M.); from the Eng.

mùsg, rheum about the eyes, gore of the eyes; from the root , befoul, be wet, as discussed under musach, mùin.

musgan, dry-rot in wood, Ir. musgan, mustiness, mouldiness; Lat. muscus, moss; Eng. moss, mushroom; Lit. musai (pl.), mould. This word is not in H.S.D., but it is implied in Arm. and is in M'E.; also in common use.

mùsgan, pith of wood, porous part of a bone (H.S.D.). Armstron gives also the meanings attached to musgan, above; the words are evidently the same.

mùsgan, the horse fish:

mùsuinn, confusion, tumult, Ir. múisiún, codlata, hazy state preceding sleep. From Eng. motion?

mutach, short, E. Ir. mut, everything short: *mutto-, root mut, dock; Lat. mutilus, maimed (Eng. mutilate), muticus, docked; Gr. μίτυλος, hornless.

mùtan, mutan, a muff, fingerless glove, also mutag (Arms.); from miotag, with a leaning on mutach, short. Thurneysen takes it from mutach without reference to miotag. Ir. has muthóg (Con.).

mùth, change, M.W. mudaw; from Lat. mûto, I change.