Beowulf (Harrison and Sharp)/Glossary

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ac, conj. denoting contrariety: hence 1) _but_ (like N.H.G. sondern), 109, 135, 339, etc.--2) _but_ (N.H.G. aber), _nevertheless_, 602, 697, etc.--3) in direct questions: nonne, numquid, 1991.

āglǣca, āhlǣca, ǣglǣca, -cea, w. m. (cf. Goth, aglo, _trouble_, O.N. agi, _terror_, + lāc, _gift, sport: = misery, vexation, = bringer of trouble_; hence): 1) _evil spirit, demon, a demon-like being_; of Grendel, 159, 433, 593, etc.; of the drake, 2535, 2906, etc.--2) _great hero, mighty warrior_; of Sigemund, 894; of Bēowulf: gen. sg. āglǣcan(?), 1513; of Bēowulf and the drake: nom. pl. þā āglǣcean, 2593.

āglǣc-wīf, st. n., _demon, devil, in the form of a woman_; of Grendel's mother, 1260.

aldor. See ealdor.

al-wealda. See eal-w.

am-biht (from and-b., Goth, and-baht-s), st. m., _servant, man-servant_: nom. sg. ombeht, of the coast-guard, 287; ombiht, of Wulfgār, 336.

ambiht-þegn (from ambiht n. officium and þegn, which see), _servant, man-servant_: dat. sg. ombiht-þegne, of Bēowulf's servant, 674.

an, prep, with the dat., _on, in, with respect to_, 678; _with, among, at, upon_ (position after the governed word), 1936; with the acc., 1248. Elsewhere on, which see.

ancor, st. m., _anchor_: dat. sg. ancre, 303, 1884.

ancor-bend, m. (?) f. (?), _anchor-cable_: dat. pl. oncer-bendum, 1919.

and, conj. (ond is usual form; for example, 601, 1149, 2041), and 33, 39, 40, etc. (See Appendix.)

anda, w. m., _excitement, vexation, horror_: dat. wrāðum on andan, 709, 2315.

and-git, st. n., _insight, understanding_: nom. sg., 1060. See gitan.

and-hātor, st. m. n., _heat coming against one_: gen. sg. rēðes and-hāttres, 2524.

and-lang, -long, adj., _very long._ hence 1) _at whole length, raised up high_: acc. andlongne eorl, 2696 (cf. Bugge upon this point, Zachers Ztschr., 4, 217).--2) _continual, entire_; andlangne dæg, 2116, _the whole day_; andlonge niht, 2939.

and-lēan, st. n., _reward, payment in full_: acc. sg., 1542, 2095 (hand-, hond-lean, MS.).

and-risno, st. f. (see rīsan, surgere, decere), _that which is to be observed, that which is proper, etiquette_: dat. pl. for andrysnum, _according to etiquette_, 1797.

and-saca, w. m., _adversary_: godes andsaca (Grendel), 787, 1683.

and-slyht, st. m., _blow in return_: acc. sg., 2930, 2973 (MS. both times hond-slyht).

and-swaru, st. f., _act of accosting_: 1) to persons coming up, _an address_, 2861.--2) in reply to something said, _an answer_, 354, 1494, 1841.

and-weard, adj., _present, existing_: acc. sg. n. swīn ofer helme and-weard (_the image of the boar, which stands on his helm_), 1288.

and-wlita, w. m., _countenance_: acc. sg. -an, 690.

an-sund, adj., _entirely unharmed_: nom. sg. m., 1001.

an-sȳn, f., _the state of being seen_: hence 1) _the exterior, the form_, 251: ansȳn ȳwde, _showed his form_, i.e. appeared, 2835.--2) _aspect, appearance_, 929; on-sȳn, 2773.

an-walda, w. m., _He who rules over all, God_, 1273. See Note.

atelīc, adj., _terrible, dreadful_: atelīc egesa, 785.

atol, adj. (also eatol, 2075, etc.), _hostile, frightful, cruel_: of Grendel, 159, 165, 593, 2075, etc.; of Grendel's mother's hands (dat. pl. atolan), 1503; of the undulation of the waves, 849; of battle, 597, 2479.--cf. O.N. atall, fortis, strenuus.

attor, st. n., _poison_, here of the poison of the dragon's bite: nom., 2716.

attor-sceaða, w. m., _poisonous enemy, of the poisonous dragon_: gen. sg. -sceaðan, 2840.

āwa, adv. (certainly not the dative, but a reduplicated form of ā, which see), _ever_: āwa tō aldre, _fōr ever and ever_, 956.


ā, adv. (Goth, áiv, acc. from aiv-s aevum), _ever, always_, 455, 882, 931, 1479: ā syððan, _ever afterwards, ever, ever after_, 283, 2921.--_ever_, 780.--Comp. nā.

ād st. m. _funeral pile_: acc. sg. ād, 3139; dat. sg. āde, 1111, 1115.

ād-faru, st. f., _way to the funeral pile_, dat. sg. on ād-fære, 3011.

ādl, st. f. _sickness_, 1737, 1764, 1849.

āð, st. m., _oath in general_, 2740; _oath of allegiance_, 472 (?); _oath of reconciliation of two warring peoples_, 1098, 1108.

āð-sweord, st. n., _the solemn taking of an oath, the swearing of an oath_: nom. pl., 2065. See sweord.

āðum-swerian, m. pl., _son-in-law and father-in-law_: dat. pl., 84.

āgan, verb, pret. and pres., _to have, to possess_, w. acc.: III. prs. sg. āh, 1728; inf. āgan, 1089; prt. āhte, 487, 522, 533; with object, geweald, to be supplied, 31. Form contracted with the negative: prs. sg. I. nāh hwā sweord wege (_I have no one to wield the sword_), 2253.

āgen, adj., _own, peculiar_, 2677.

āgend (prs. part. of āgan), _possessor, owner, lord_: gen. sg. āgendes, _of God_, 3076.--Compounds: blǣd-, bold-, folc-, mægen-āgend.

āgend-frēa, w. m., _owner, lord_: gen. sg. āgend-frēan, 1884.

āhsian, ge-āhsian, w. v.: 1) _to examine, to find out by inquiring_: pret. part. ge-āhsod, 433.--2) _to experience, to endure_: pret. āhsode, 1207; pl. āhsodon, 423.

āht, st. n. (contracted from ā-wiht, which see), _something, anything_: āht cwices, 2315.

ān, num. The meaning of this word betrays its apparent demonstrative character: 1) _this, that_, 2411, of the hall in the earth mentioned before; similarly, 100 (of Grendel; already mentioned), cf. also 2775.--2) _one_, a particular one among many, a single one, in numerical sense: ymb āne niht (_the next night_), 135; þurh ānes cræft, 700; þāra ānum, 1038; ān æfter ānum, _one for the other_ (Hrēðel for Herebeald), 2462: similarly, ān æfter eallum, 2269; ānes hwæt, _some single thing, a part_, 3011; se ān lēoda duguðe, _the one of the heroes of the people_, 2238; ānes willan, _for the sake of a single one_, 3078, etc.--Hence, again, 3) _alone, distinguished_, 1459, 1886.--4) _a_, in the sense of an indefinite article: ān ... fēond, 100; gen. sg. ānre bēne (or to No.2[?]), 428; ān ... draca, 2211--5) gen. pl. ānra, in connection with a pronoun, _single_; ānra gehwylces, _every single one_, 733; ānra gehwylcum, 785. Similarly, the dat. pl. in this sense: nemne fēaum ānum, _except a few single ones_, 1082.--6) solus, _alone_: in the strong form, 1378, 2965; in the weak form, 145, 425, 431, 889, etc.; with the gen., āna Gēata duguðe, _alone of the warriors of the Gēatas_, 2658.--7) solitarius, _alone, lonely_, see ǣn.--Comp. nān.

ān-feald, adj., _simple, plain, without reserve_: acc. sg. ānfealdne geþōht, _simple opinion_, 256.

ān-genga, -gengea, w. m., _he who goes alone_, of Grendel, 165, 449.

ān-haga, w. m., _he who stands alone_, solitarius, 2369.

ān-hȳdig, adj. (like the O.N. ein-rād-r, _of one resolve_, i.e. of firm resolve), _of one opinion_, i.e. firm, brave, decided, 2668.

ānga, adj. (only in the weak form), _single, only_: acc. sg. āngan dōhtor, 375, 2998; āngan eaferan, 1548; dat. sg. āngan brēðer, 1263.

ān-pæð, st. m., _lonely way, path_: acc. pl. ānpaðas, 1411.

ān-rǣd, adj. (cf. under ān-hȳdig), _of firm resolution, resolved_, 1530, 1576.

ān-tīd, st. f., _one time_, i.e. the same time, ymb ān-tīd ōðres dōgores, _about the same time the second day_ (they sailed twenty-four hours), 219.--ān stands as in ān-mod, O.H.G. ein-muoti, _harmonious, of the same disposition_.

ānunga, adv., _throughout, entirely, wholly_, 635.

ār, st. m., _ambassador, messenger_, 336, 2784.

ār, st. f., 1) _honor, dignity_: ārum healdan, _to hold in honor_, 296; similarly, 1100, 1183.--2) _favor, grace, support_: acc. sg. āre, 1273, 2607; dat. sg. āre, 2379; gen. pl. hwæt ... ārna, 1188.--Comp. worold-ār; also written ǣr.

ār-fæst, adj., _honorable, upright_, 1169; of Hunferð (with reference to 588). See fæst.

ārian, w. v., (_to be gracious_), _to spare_: III. sg. prs. w. dat. nǣnegum ārað; of Grendel, 599.

ār-stæf, st. m.,(elementum honoris), _grace, favor_: dat. pl. mid ārstafum, 317.--_Help, support_: dat. pl. for ār-stafum, _to the assistance_, 382, 458. See stæf.

āter-tēar, m., _poisonous drop_: dat. pl. īren āter-tēarum fāh (steel which is dipped in poison or in poisonous sap of plants), 1460.


æðele, adj., _noble_: nom. sg., of Bēowulf, 198, 1313; of Bēowulf's father, 263, where it can be understood as well in a moral as in a genealogical sense; the latter prevails decidedly in the gen. sg. æðelan cynnes, 2235.

æðeling, st. m., _nobleman, man of noble descent_, especially the appellation of a man of royal birth; so of the kings of the Danes, 3; of Scyld, 33; of Hrōðgār, 130; of Sigemund, 889; of Bēowulf, 1226, 1245, 1597, 1816, 2189, 2343, 2375, 2425, 2716, 3136; perhaps also of Dæghrefn, 2507;--then, in a broader sense, also denoting other noble-born men: Æschere, 1295; Hrōðgār's courtiers, 118, 983; Heremōd's courtiers, 907; Hengest's warriors, 1113; Bēowulf's retinue, 1805, 1921, 3172; noble-born in general, 2889. --Comp. sib-æðeling.

æðelu, st. n., only in the pl., _noble descent, nobility_, in the sense of noble lineage: acc. pl. æðelu, 392; dat. pl. cyning æðelum gōd, _the king, of noble birth_, 1871; æðelum dīore, _worthy on account of noble lineage_, 1950; æðelum (hǣleþum, MS.), 332.--Comp. fæder-æðelu.

æfnan, w. v. w. acc., _to perform, to carry out, to accomplish_: inf. ellen-weorc æfnan, _to do a heroic deed_, 1465; pret. unriht æfnde, _perpetrated wrong_, 1255.

ge-æfnan, 1) _to carry out, to do, to accomplish_: pret. pl. þæt geæfndon swā, _so carried that out_, 538; pret. part. āð wæs geæfned, _the oath was sworn_, 1108.--2) _get ready, prepare_: pret. part. geæfned, 3107. See efnan.

æfter (comparative of af, Ags. of, which see; hence it expresses the idea of _forth, away, from, back_), a) adv., _thereupon, afterwards_, 12, 341, 1390, 2155.--ic him æfter sceal, _I shall go after them_, 2817; in word æfter cwæð, 315, the sense seems to be, _spoke back, having turned_; b) prep. w. dat., 1) (temporal) _after_, 119, 128, 187, 825, 1939, etc.; æfter beorne, _after the_ (death of) _the hero_, 2261, so 2262; æfter māððum-welan, _after_ (obtaining) _the treasure_, 2751.--2) (causal) as proceeding from something, denoting result and purpose, hence, _in consequence of, conformably to_: æfter rihte, _in accordance with right_, 1050, 2111; æfter faroðe, _with the current_, 580; so 1321, 1721, 1944, 2180, etc., æfter heaðo-swāte, _in consequence of the blood of battle_, 1607; æfter wælnīðe, _in consequence of mortal enmity_, 85; _in accordance with, on account of, after, about_: æfter æðelum (hǣleþum, MS.)frægn, _asked about the descent_, 332; ne frīn þū æfter sǣlum, _ask not after my welfare_, 1323; æfter sincgyfan grēoteð, _weeps for the giver of treasure_, 1343; him æfter dēorum men dyrne langað, _longs in secret for the dear man_, 1880; ān æfter ānum, _one for the other_, 2462, etc.--3) (local), _along_: æfter gumcynnum, _throughout the races of men, among men_, 945; sōhte bed æfter būrum, _sought a bed among the rooms of the castle_ (the castle was fortified, the hall was not), 140; æfter recede wlāt, _looked along the hall_, 1573; stone æfter stāne, _smelt along the rocks_, 2289; æfter lyfte, _along the air through the air_, 2833; similarly, 996, 1068, 1317, etc.

æf-þunca, w. m., _anger, chagrin, vexatious affair_: nom., 502.

ge-æhtan, w. v., _to prize, to speak in praise of_: pret. part. geæhted, 1866.

ge-æhtla, w. m., or ge-æhtle, w. f., _a speaking of with praise, high esteem_: gen. sg. hȳ ... wyrðe þinceað eorla geæhtlan, _seem worthy of the high esteem of the noble-born_, 369.

æglǣcea. See āglǣcea.

æl-fylce (from æl-, Goth. ali-s, ἄλλος, and fylce, O.N. fylki, collective form from folc), st. n., _other folk, hostile army_: dat. pl. wið ælfylcum, 2372.

æl-mihtig (for eal-m.), adj., _almighty_: nom. sg. m., of the weak form, se æl-mihtiga, 92.

æl-wiht, st. m., _being of another species, monster_: gen. pl. æl-wihta eard, of the dwelling-place of Grendel's kindred, 1501.

æppel-fealu, adj., _dappled sorrel_, or _apple-yellow_: nom. pl. æppel-fealuwe mēaras, _apple-yellow steeds_, 2166.

ærn, st. n., _house_, in the compounds heal-, hord-, medo-, þrȳð-, win-ærn.

æsc, st. m., _ash_ (does not occur in Bēowulf in this sense), _lance, spear_, because the shaft consists of ash wood: dat. pl. (quā instr.) æscum and ecgum, _with spears and swords_, 1773.

æsc-holt, st. n., _ash wood, ashen shaft_: nom. pl. æsc-holt ufan grǣg, _the ashen shafts gray above_ (spears with iron points), 330.

æsc-wiga, w. m., _spear-fighter, warrior armed with the spear_: nom. sg., 2043.

æt, prep. w. dat., with the fundamental meaning of nearness to something, hence 1) local, a) _with, near, at, on, in_ (rest): æt hȳðe, in _harbor_, 32; æt symle, _at the meal_, 81, æt āde, _on the funeral-pile_, 1111, 1115; æt þē ānum, _with thee alone_, 1378; æt wīge, _in the fight_, 1338; æt hilde, 1660, 2682; æt ǣte, _in eating_, 3027, etc. b) _to, towards, at, on_ (motion to): dēaðes wylm hrān æt heortan, _seized upon the heart_, 2271; gehēton æt hærgtrafum, _vowed at_ (or _to_) _the temples of the gods_, 175. c) with verbs of taking away, _away from_ (as starting from near an object): geþeah þæt ful æt Wealhþēon, _took the cup from W_., 630; fela ic gebād grynna æt Grendle, _from Grendel_, 931; æt mīnum fæder genam, _took me from my father to himself_, 2430.--2) temporal, _at, in, at the time of_: æt frumsceafte, _in the beginning_, 45; æt ende, _at an end_, 224; fand sīnne dryhten ealdres æt ende, _at the end of life, dying_, 2791; similarly, 2823; æt feohgyftum, _in giving gifts_, 1090; æt sīðestan, _finally_, 3014.

æt-grǣpe, adj., _laying hold of_, prehendens, 1270.

æt-rihte, adv., _almost_, 1658.


ǣdre, ēdre, st. f., _aqueduct, canal_ (not in Bēow.), _vein_ (not in Bēow.), _stream, violent pouring forth_: dat. pl. swāt ǣdrum sprong, _the blood sprang in streams_, 2967; blōd ēdrum dranc, _drank the blood in streams_(?), 743.

ǣdre, adv., _hastily, directly, immediately_, 77, 354, 3107.

ǣðm, st. m., _breath, gasp, snort_: instr. sg. hreðer ǣðme wēoll, _the breast_ (of the drake) _heaved with snorting_, 2594.

ǣfen, st. m., _evening_, 1236.

ǣfen-gram, adj., _hostile at evening, night-enemy_: nom. sg. m. ǣfen-grom, of Grendel, 2075.

ǣfen-lēoht, st. n., _evening-light_: nom. sg., 413.

ǣfen-ræst, st. f., _evening-rest_: acc. sg. -ræste, 647, 1253.

ǣfen-sprǣc, st. f., _evening-talk_: acc. sg. gemunde ...ǣfen-sprǣce, _thought about what he had spoken in the evening_, 760.

ǣfre, adv., _ever, at any time_, 70, 280, 504, 693, etc.: in negative sentences, ǣfre ne, _never_, 2601.--Comp. nǣfre.

ǣg-hwā (O.H.G. ēo-ga-hwër), pron., _every, each_: dat. sg. ǣghwǣm, 1385. The gen. sg. in adverbial sense, _in all, throughout, thoroughly_: ǣghwæs untǣle, _thoroughly blameless_, 1866; ǣghwæs unrīm, _entirely innumerable quantity_, i.e. an enormous multitude, 2625, 3136.

ǣg-hwæðer (O.H.G. ēo-ga-hwëdar): 1) _each_ (of two): nom. sg. hæfde ǣghwæðer ende gefēred, _each of the two_ (Bēowulf and the drake) _had reached the end_, 2845; dat. sg. ǣghwæðrum wæs brōga fram ōðrum, _to each of the two_ (Bēowulf and the drake) _was fear of the other_, 2565; gen. sg. ǣghwæðres ... worda and worca, 287.--2) _each_ (of several): dat. sg. heora ǣghwæðrum, 1637.

ǣg-hwǣr, adv., _everywhere_, 1060.

ǣg-hwilc (O.H.G. ēo-gi-hwëlih), pron., unusquisque, _every_ (one): 1) used as an adj.: acc. sg. m. dǣl ǣghwylcne, 622.--2) as substantive, a) with the partitive genitive: nom. sg. ǣg-hwylc, 9, 2888; dat. sg. ǣghwylcum, 1051. b) without gen.: nom. sg. ǣghwylc, 985, 988; (wæs) ǣghwylc ōðrum trȳwe, _each one_ (of two) _true to the other_, 1166.

ǣg-weard, st. f., _watch on the sea shore_: acc. sg. ǣg-wearde, 241.

ǣht (abstract form from āgan, denoting the state of possessing), st. f.: 1) _possession, power_: acc. sg. on flōdes ǣht, 42; on wæteres ǣht, _into the power of the water_, 516; on ǣht gehwearf Denigea frēan, _passed over into the possession of a Danish master_, 1680.--2) _property, possessions, goods_: acc. pl. ǣhte, 2249.--Comp. māðm-, gold-ǣht.

ǣht (O.H.G. āhta), st. f., _pursuit_: nom. þā wæs ǣht boden Swēona lēodum, segn Higelāce, _then was pursuit offered to the people of the Swēonas, (their) banner to Hygelāc_ (i.e. the banner of the Swedes, taken during their flight, fell into the hands of Hygelāc), 2958.

ǣled (Old Sax. eld, O.N. edl-r), st. m., _fire_, 3016.

ǣled-lēoma, w. m., _(fire-light), torch_: acc. sg. lēoman, 3126. See lēoma.

ǣn (oblique form of ān), num., _one_: acc. sg. m. þone ǣnne þone..., _the one whom_..., 1054; oftor micle þonne on ǣnne sīð, _much oftener than one time_, 1580; forð onsendon ǣnne, _sent him forth alone_, 46.

ǣne, adv., _once_: oft nalles ǣne, 3020.

ǣnig, pron., _one, any one_, 474, 503, 510, 534, etc.: instr. sg. nolde ... 0nige þinga, _would in no way, not at all_, 792; lȳt ǣnig mearn, _little did any one sorrow_ (i.e. no one), 3130.--With the article: næs se folccyning ... ǣnig, _no people's king_, 2735.--Comp. nǣnig.

ǣn-līc, adj., _alone, excellent, distinguished_: ǣnlīc ansȳn, _distinguished appearance_, 251; þēah þe hīo ǣnlīcu sȳ, _though she be beautiful_, 1942.

ǣr (comparative form, from ā): 1) adv., _sooner, before, beforehand_, 15, 656, 695, 758, etc., _for a long time_, 2596; eft swā ǣr, _again as formerly_, 643; ǣr nē siððan, _neither sooner nor later_, 719; ǣr and sīð, _sooner and later_ (all times), 2501; nō þȳ ǣr (_not so much the sooner_), _yet not_, 755, 1503, 2082, 2161, 2467.--2) conjunct., _before, ere_: a) with the ind.: ǣr hīo tō setle gēong, 2020. b) w. subjunc.: ǣr gē fyr fēran, _before you travel farther_, 252; ǣr hē on hwurfe 164, so 677, 2819; ǣr þon dæg cwōme, _ere the day break_, 732; ǣr correlative to ǣr adv.: ǣr hē feorh seleð, aldor an ōfre, ǣr hē wille ..., _he will sooner_ (rather) _leave his life upon the shore, before_ (than) _he will_ ..., 1372.--3) prepos. with dat., _before_ ǣr dēaðe, _before death_, 1389; ǣr dæges hwīle, _before daybreak_, 2321; ǣr swylt-dæge, _before the day of death_, 2799.

ǣror, comp. adv., _sooner, before-hand_, 810; _formerly_, 2655.

ǣrra, comp. adj., _earlier_; instr. pl., ǣrran mǣlum, _in former times_, 908, 2238, 3036.

ǣrest, superl.: 1) adv., _first of all, foremost_, 6, 617, 1698, etc.--2) as subst. n., _relation to, the beginning_: acc. þæt ic his ǣrest þē eft gesægde (_to tell thee in what relation it stood at first to the coat of mail that has been presented_), 2158. See Note.

ǣr-dæg, st. m. (_before-day_), _morning-twilight, gray of morning_: dat. sg. mid ǣrdæge, 126; samod ǣrdæge, 1312, 2943.

ǣrende, st. n., _errand, trust_: acc. sg., 270, 345.

ǣr-fæder, st. m., _late father, deceased father_: nom sg. swā his ǣrfæder, 2623.

ǣr-gestrēon, st. n., _old treasure, possessions dating from old times_: acc sg., 1758; gen. sg. swylcra fela ǣrgestrēona, _much of such old treasure_, 2233. See gestrēon.

ǣr-geweorc, st. n., _work dating from old times_: nom. sg. enta ǣr-geweorc, _the old work of the giants_ (of the golden sword-hilt from Grendel's water-hall), 1680. See geweorc.

ǣr-gōd, adj., _good since old times, long invested with dignity_ or _advantages_: æðeling ǣrgōd, 130; (eorl) ǣrgōd, 1330; īren ǣrgōd (_excellent sword_), 990, 2587.

ǣr-wela, w. m., _old possessions, riches dating from old times_: acc. sg. ǣrwelan, 2748. See wela.

ǣs, st. n., _carcass, carrion_: dat. (instr.) sg. ǣse, of Æschere's corpse, 1333.

ǣt, st. m., _food, meat_: dat, sg., hū him æt ǣte spēow, _how he fared well at meat_, 3027.

ǣttren (see attor), adj., _poisonous_: wæs þæt blōd tō þæs hāt, ǣttren ellorgāst, se ǣr inne swealt, _so hot was the blood, (and) poisonous the demon_ (Grendel's mother) _who died therein_, 1618


bana, bona, w. m., _murderer_, 158, 588, 1103, etc.: acc. sg. bonan Ongenþēowes, of Hygelāc, although in reality his men slew Ongenþēow (2965 ff.), 1969. Figuratively of inanimate objects: ne wæs ecg bona, 2507; wearð wracu Wēohstānes bana, 2614.--Comp.: ecg-, feorh-, gāst-, hand-, mūð-bana.

bon-gār, st. m. _murdering spear_, 2032.

ge-bannan, st. v. w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the person, _to command, to bid_: inf., 74.

bād, st. f., _pledge_, only in comp.: nȳd-bād.

bān, st. n., _bone_: dat. sg. on bāne (on the bony skin of the drake), 2579; dat. pl. heals ealne ymbefēng biteran bānum (here of the teeth of the drake), 2693.

bān-cofa, w. m., "cubile ossium" (Grimm) of the body: dat. sg. -cofan, 1446.

bān-fāg, adj., _variegated with bones_, either with ornaments made of bone-work, or adorned with bone, perhaps deer-antlers; of Hrōðgār's hall, 781. The last meaning seems the more probable.

bān-fæt, st. n., _bone-vessel_, i.e. the body: acc. pl. bān-fatu, 1117.

bān-hring, st. m., _the bone-structure, joint, bone-joint_: acc. pl. hire wið halse ... bānhringas bræc (_broke her neck-joint_), 1568.

bān-hūs, st. n., _bone-house_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bānhūs gebræc, 2509; similarly, 3148.

bān-loca, w. m., _the enclosure of the bones_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bāt bānlocan, _bit the body_, 743; nom. pl. burston bānlocan, _the body burst_ (of Grendel, because his arm was torn out), 819.

bāt, st. m., _boat, craft, ship_, 211.--Comp. sǣ-bāt.

bāt-weard, st. m., _boat-watcher, he who keeps watch over the craft._ dat. sg. -wearde, 1901.

bæð, st. n., _bath_: acc. sg. ofer ganotes bæð, _over the diver's bath_ (i.e. the sea), 1862.

bærnan, w. v., _to cause to burn, to burn_: inf. hēt ... bānfatu bærnan, _bade that the bodies be burned_, 1117; ongan ... beorht hofu bærnan, _began to consume the splendid country-seats_ (the dragon), 2314.

for-bærnan, w. v., _consume with fire_: inf. hȳ hine ne mōston ... brondefor-bærnan, _they_ (the Danes) _could not burn him_ (the dead Æschere) _upon the funeral-pile_, 2127.

bǣdan (Goth, baidjan, O.N. beðia), _to incite, to encourage_: pret. bǣdde byre geonge, _encouraged the youths_ (at the banquet), 2019.

ge-bǣdan, w. v., _to press hard_: pret. part. bysigum gebǣded, _distressed by trouble, difficulty, danger_ (of battle), 2581; _to drive, to send forth_: strǣla storm strengum gebǣded, _the storm of arrows sent with strength_, 3118; _overcome_: draca ... bealwe gebǣded, _the dragon ... overcome by the ills of battle_, 2827.

bǣl (O.N. bāl), st. n., _fire, flames_: (wyrm) mid bǣle fōr, _passed (through the air) with fire_, 2309; hæfde landwara līge befangan, bǣle and bronde, _with fire and burning_, 2323.--Especially, _the fire of the funeral-pile, the funeral-pile_, 1110, 1117, 2127; ǣr hē bǣl cure, _ere he sought the burning_ (i.e. died), 2819; hātað ... hlǣw gewyrcean ... æfter bǣle, _after I am burned, let a burial mound be thrown up_ (Bēowulf's words), 2804.

bǣl-fȳr, st. n., _bale-fire, fire of the funeral-pile_: gen. pl. bǣlfȳra mǣst, 3144.

bǣl-stede, st. m., _place for the funeral-pile_: dat. sg. in bǣl=stede, 3098.

bǣl-wudu, st. m., _wood for the funeral-pile_, 3113.

bǣr, st. f., _bier_, 3106.

ge-bǣran, w. v., _to conduct one's self, behave_: inf. w. adv., ne gefrægen ic þā mǣgðe ... sēl gebǣran, _I did not hear that a troop bore itself better, maintained a nobler deportment_, 1013; hē on eorðan geseah þone lēofestan līfes æt ende blēate gebǣran, _saw the best-beloved upon the earth, at the end of his life, struggling miserably_ (i.e. in a helpless situation), 2825.

ge-bǣtan (denominative from bǣte, _the bit_), w. v., _to place the bit in the mouth of an animal, to bridle_: pret. part. þā wæs Hrōðgāre hors gebǣted, 1400.

be, prep. w. dat. (with the fundamental meaning _near_, "but not of one direction, as æt, but more general"): 1) local, _near by, near, at, on_ (rest): be ȳdlāfe uppe lǣgon, _lay above, upon the deposit of the waves_ (upon the strand, of the slain nixies), 566; hæfde be honda, _held by the hand_ (Bēowulf held Grendel), 815; be sǣm tweonum, _in the circuit of both the seas_, 859, 1686; be mæste, _on the mast_, 1906; by fȳre, _by the fire_, 2220; be næsse, _at the promontory_, 2244; sæt be þǣm gebrōðrum twǣm, _sat by the two brothers_, 1192; wæs se gryre lǣssa efne swā micle swā bið mægða cræft be wǣpnedmen, _the terror was just so much less, as is the strength of woman to the warrior_ (i.e. is valued by), 1285, etc.--2) also local, but of motion from the subject in the direction of the object, _on, upon, by_: gefēng be eaxle, _seized by the shoulder_, 1538; ālēdon lēofne þēoden be mæste, _laid the dear lord near the mast_, 36; be healse genam, _took him by the neck, fell upon his neck_, 1873; wǣpen hafenade be hiltum, _grasped the weapon by the hilt_, 1757, etc.--3) with this is connected the causal force, _on account of, for, according to_: ic þis gid be þē āwræc, _I spake this solemn speech for thee, for thy sake_, 1724; þū þē lǣr be þon, _learn according to this, from this_, 1723; be fæder lāre, _according to her father's direction_, 1951.--4) temporal, _while, during_: be þē lifigendum, _while thou livest, during thy life_, 2666. See bī.

bed, st. n., _bed, couch_: acc. sg. bed, 140, 677; gen. sg. beddes, 1792; dat. pl. beddum, 1241.--Comp: deað-, hlin-, læger-, morðor-, wæl-bed.

ge-bedde, w. f., _bed-fellow_: dat. sg. wolde sēcan ewēn tō gebeddan, _wished to seek the queen as bed-fellow, to go to bed with her_, 666.--Comp. heals-gebedde.

bēgen, fem. bā, _both_: nom. m., 536, 770, 2708; acc. fem. on bā healfa, _on two sides_ (i.e. Grendel and his mother), 1306; dat. m. bām, 2197; and in connection with the possessive instead of the personal pronoun, ūrum bām, 2661; gen. n. bēga, 1874, 2896; bēga gehwæðres, _each one of the two_, 1044; bēga folces, of _both peoples_, 1125.

ge-belgan, st. v. (properly, _to cause to swell, to swell_), _to irritate_: w. dat. (pret. subj.) þæt hē ēcean dryhtne bitre gebulge, _that he had bitterly angered the eternal Lord_, 2332; pret. part. gebolgen, 1540; (gebolge, MS.), 2222; pl. gebolgne, 1432; more according to the original meaning in torne gebolgen, 2402.

ā-belgan, _to anger_: pret. sg. w. acc. oð þæt hyne ān ābealh mon on mōde, _till a man angered him in his heart_, 2281; pret. part. ābolgen, 724.

ben, st. f., _wound_: acc. sg. benne, 2725.--Comp.: feorh-, seax-ben.

benc, st. f., _bench_: nom. sg. benc, 492; dat. sg. bence, 327, 1014, 1189, 1244.--Comp.: ealu-, medu-benc.

benc-swēg, st. m., (_bench-rejoicing_), _rejoicing which resounds from the benches_, 1162.

benc-þel, st. n., _bench-board, the wainscotted space where the benches stand_: nom. pl. benc-þelu, 486; acc. pl. bencþelu beredon, _cleared the bench-boards_ (i.e. by taking away the benches, so as to prepare couches), 1240.

bend, st. m. f., _bond, fetter_: acc. sg. forstes bend, _frost's bond_, 1610; dat. pl. bendum, 978.--Comp.: fȳr-, hell-, hyge-, īren-, oncer-, searo-, wæl-bend.

ben-geat, st. n., (_wound-gate_), _wound-opening_: nom. pl. ben-geato, 1122.

bera (O.N. beri), w. m., _bearer_: in comp. hleor-bera.

beran, st. v. w. acc., _to carry_; III. sg. pres. byreð, 296, 448; þone māððum byreð, _carries the treasure_ (upon his person), 2056; pres. subj. bere, 437; pl. beren, 2654; inf. beran, 48, 231, 291, etc.; heht þā se hearda Hrunting beran, _to bring Hrunting_, 1808; up beran, 1921; in beran, 2153; pret. bær, 495, 712, 847, etc.; mandryhtne bær fǣted wǣge, _brought the lord the costly vessel_, 2282; pl. bǣron, 213, 1636, etc.; bǣran, 2851; pret. part. boren, 1193, 1648, 3136.--The following expressions are poetic paraphrases of the forms _go, come_: þæt wē rondas beren eft tō earde, 2654; gewītað forð beran wǣpen and gewǣdu, 291; ic gefrægn sunu Wīhstānes hringnet beran, 2755; wīgheafolan bær, 2662; helmas bǣron, 240 (conjecture); scyldas bǣran, 2851: they lay stress upon the connection of the man with his weapons.

æt-beran, _to carry to_: inf. tō beadulāce (_battle_) ætberan, 1562; pret. þā hine on morgentīd on Heaðorǣmas holm up ætbær, _the sea bore him up to the Heaðorǣmas_, 519; hīo Bēowulfe medoful ætbær _brought Bēowulf the mead-cup_, 625; mægenbyrðenne ... hider ūt ætbær cyninge mīnum, _bore the great burden hither to my king_, 3093; pl. hī hyne ætbǣron tō brimes faroðe, 28.--2) _bear away_: æt līc ætbær, 2128.

for-beran, _to hold, to suppress_: inf. þæt hē þone brēostwylm forberan ne mehte, _that he could not suppress the emotions of his breast_, 1878.

ge-beran, _to bring forth, to bear_: pret. part. þæt lā mæg secgan sē þe sōð and riht fremeð on folce ... þæt þes eorl wǣre geboren betera (_that may every just man of the people say, that this nobleman is better born_), 1704.

oð-beran, _to bring hither_: pret. þā mec sǣ oðbær on Finna land, 579.

on-beran (O.H.G. in bëran, intpëran, but in the sense of carere), auferre, _to carry off, to take away_: inf. īren ǣrgōd þæt þæs āhlǣcan blōdge beadufolme onberan wolde, _excellent sword which would sweep off the bloody hand of the demon_, 991; pret. part. (wæs) onboren bēaga hord, _the treasure of the rings had been carried off_, 2285.--Compounds with the pres. part.: helm-, sāwl-berend.

berian (denominative from bær, _naked_), w. v., _to make bare, to clear_: pret. pl. bencþelu beredon, _cleared the bench-place_ (by removing the benches), 1240.

berstan, st. v., _to break, to burst_: pret. pl. burston bānlocan, 819; bengeato burston, 1122.--_to crack, to make the noise of breaking_: fingras burston, _the fingers cracked_ (from Bēowulf's gripe), 761.

for-berstan, _break, to fly asunder_: pret. Nægling forbærst, _Nægling_ (Bēowulf's sword) _broke in two_, 2681.

betera, adj. (comp.), _better_: nom. sg. m. betera, 469, 1704.

bet-līc, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. n., of Hrōðgār's hall, 781; of Hygelāc's residence, 1926.

betst, betost (superl.), _best, the best_: nom. sg. m. betst beadurinca, 1110; neut. nū is ofost betost, þæt wē ..., _now is haste the best, that we..._, 3008; voc. m. secg betsta, 948; neut. acc. beaduscrūda betst, 453; acc. sg. m. þegn betstan, 1872.

bēcn, st. n., _(beacon), token, mark, sign_: acc. sg. betimbredon beadu-rōfes bēcn (of Bēowulf's grave-mound), 3162. See beacen.

bēg. See bēag.

bēn, st. f., _entreaty_: gen. sg. bēne, 428, 2285.

bēna, w. m., _suppliant_, supplex: nom. sg. swā þū bēna eart (_as thou entreatest_), 352; swā hē bēna wæs (_as he had asked_), 3141; nom. pl. hȳ bēnan synt, 364.

ge-betan: 1) _to make good, to remove_: pret. ac þū Hrōðgāre wīdcūðne wēan wihte gebēttest, _hast thou in any way relieved Hrōðgār of the evil known afar_, 1992; pret. part. acc. sg. swylce oncȳððe ealle gebētte, _removed all trouble_, 831. --2) _to avenge_: inf. wihte ne meahte on þām feorhbonan fǣhðe gebētan, _could in no way avenge the death upon the slayer_, 2466.

beadu, st. f., _battle, strife, combat_: dat. sg. (as instr.) beadwe, _in combat_, 1540; gen. pl. bād beadwa ge-þinges, _waited for the combats_ (with Grendel) _that were in store for him_, 710.

beadu-folm, st. f., _battle-hand_: acc. sg. -folme, of Grendel's hand, 991.

beado-grīma, w. m., _(battle-mask), helmet_: acc. pl. -grīman, 2258.

beado-hrægl, st. n., _(battle-garment), corselet, shirt of mail_, 552.

beadu-lāc, st. n., (_exercise in arms, tilting_), _combat, battle_: dat. sg. tō beadu-lāce, 1562.

beado-lēoma, w. m., (_battle-light_), _sword_: nom. sg., 1524.

beado-mēce, st. m., _battle-sword_: nom. pl. beado-mēcas, 1455.

beado-rinc, st. m., _battle-hero, warrior_: gen. pl. betst beadorinca, 1110.

beadu-rōf, adj., _strong in battle_: gen. sg. -rōfes, of Bēowulf, 3162.

beadu-rūn, st. f., _mystery of battle_: acc. sg. onband beadu-rūne, _solved the mystery of the combat_, i.e. gave battle, commenced the fight, 501.

beadu-scearp, adj., _battle-sharp, sharp for the battle_, 2705.

beadu-scrūd, st. n., (_battle-dress_), _corselet, shirt of mail_: gen. pl. beaduscrūda betst, 453.

beadu-serce, w. f., (_battle-garment_), _corselet, shirt of mail_: acc. sg. brogdne beadu-sercean (because it consists of interlaced metal rings), 2756.

beado-weorc, st. n., (_battle-work_), _battle_: gen. sg. gefeh beado-weorces, _rejoiced at the battle_, 2300.

beald, adj., _bold, brave_: in comp. cyning-beald.

bealdian, w. v., _to show one's self brave_: pret. bealdode gōdum dǣdum (_through brave deeds_), 2178.

bealdor, st. m., _lord, prince_: nom. sg. sinca baldor, 2429; winia bealdor, 2568.

bealu, st. n., _evil, ruin, destruction_: instr. sg. bealwe, 2827; gen. pl. bealuwa, 281; bealewa, 2083; bealwa, 910.--Comp.: cwealm-, ealdor-, hreðer-, lēod-, morðor-, niht-, sweord-, wīg-bealu.

bealu, adj., _deadly, dangerous, bad_: instr. sg. hyne sār hafað befongen balwon bendum, _pain has entwined him in deadly bands_, 978.

bealo-cwealm, st. m., _violent death, death by the sword_(?), 2266.

bealo-hycgende, pres. part., _thinking of death, meditating destruction_: gen. pl. ǣghwæðrum bealo-hycgendra, 2566.

bealo-hȳdig, adj., _thinking of death, meditating destruction_: of Grendel, 724.

bealo-nīð, st. m., (_zeal for destruction_), _deadly enmity_: nom. sg., 2405; _destructive struggle_: acc. sg. bebeorh þē þone bealonīð, _beware of destructive striving_, 1759; _death-bringing rage_: nom. sg. him on brēostum bealo-nīð wēoll, _in his breast raged deadly fury_ (of the dragon's poison), 2715.

bearhtm (see beorht): 1) st. m., _splendor, brightness, clearness_: nom. sg. ēagena bearhtm, 1767.--2) _sound, tone_: acc. sg. bearhtm ongeāton, gūðhorn galan, _they heard the sound, (heard) the battle-horn sound_, 1432.

bearm, m., gremium, sinus, _lap, bosom_: nom. sg. foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. on bearm scipes, 35, 897; on bearm nacan, 214; him on bearm hladan bunan and discas, 2776.--2) figuratively, _possession, property_, because things bestowed were placed in the lap of the receiver (1145 and 2195, on bearm licgan, ālecgan); dat. sg. him tō bearme cwōm māððumfæt mǣre, _came into his possession_, 2405.

bearn, st. n., 1) _child, son_: nom. sg. bearn Healfdenes, 469, etc.; Ecglāfes bearn, 499, etc.; dat. sg. bearne, 2371; nom. pl. bearn, 59; dat. pl. bearnum, 1075.--2) in a broader sense, _scion, offspring, descendant_: nom. sg. Ongenþēow's bearn, of his grandson, 2388; nom. pl. yldo. bearn, 70; gumena bearn, _children of men_, 879; hæleða bearn, 1190; æðelinga bearn, 3172; acc. pl. ofer ylda bearn, 606; dat. pl. ylda bearnum, 150; gen. pl. niðða bearna, 1006.--Comp.: brōðor-, dryht-bearn.

bearn-gebyrdu, f., _birth, birth of a son_: gen. sg. þæt hyre ealdmetod ēste wǣre bearn-gebyrdo, _has been gracious through the birth of such a son_ (i.e. as Bēowulf), 947.

bearu, st. m., (_the bearer_, hence properly only the fruit-tree, especially the oak and the beech), _tree_, collectively _forest_: nom. pl. hrīmge bearwas, _rime-covered_ or _ice-clad_, 1364.

bēacen, st. n., _sign, banner_, vexillum: nom. sg. beorht bēacen godes, _of the sun_, 570; gen. pl. bēacna beorhtost, 2778. See bēcn.

ge-bēacnian, w. v., _to mark, to indicate_: pret. part. ge-bēacnod, 140.

bēag, st. m., _ring, ornament_: nom. sg. bēah (_neck-ring_), 1212; acc. sg. bēah (the collar of the murdered king of the Heaðobeardnas), 2042; bēg (collective for the acc. pl.), 3165; dat. sg. cwōm Wealhþēo forð gān under gyldnum bēage, _she walked along under a golden head-ring, wore a golden diadem_, 1164; gen. sg. bēages (of a collar), 1217; acc. pl. bēagas (rings in general), 80, 523, etc.; gen. pl. bēaga, 35, 352, 1488, 2285, etc.-- Comp.: earm-, heals-bēag.

bēag-gyfa, w. m., _ring-giver_, designation of the prince: gen. sg. -gyfan, 1103.

bēag-hroden, adj., _adorned with rings, ornamented with clasps_: nom. sg. bēaghroden, cwēn, of Hrōðgār's consort, perhaps with reference to her diadem (cf. 1164, 624.

bēah-hord, st. m. n., _ring-hoard, treasure consisting of rings_: gen. sg. bēah-hordes, 895; dat. pl. bēah-hordum, 2827; gen. pl. bēah-horda weard, of King Hrōðgār, 922.

bēah-sele, st. m., _ring-hall, hall in which the rings were distributed_: nom. sg., of Heorot, 1178.

bēah-þegu, st. f., _the receiving of the ring_: dat. sg. æfter bēah-þege, 2177.

bēah-wriða, w. m. _ring-band_, ring with prominence given to its having the form of a band: acc. sg. bēah-wriðan, 2019.

bēam, st. m., _tree_, only in the compounds fyrgen-, glēo-bēam.

bēatan, st. v., _thrust, strike_: pres. sg. mearh burhstede bēateð, _the steed beats the castle-ground_ (place where the castle is built), i.e. with his hoofs, 2266; pret. part. swealt bille ge-bēaten, _died, struck by the battle-axe_, 2360.

beorh, st. m.: 1) _mountain, rock_: dat. sg. beorge, 211; gen. sg. beorges, 2525, 2756; acc. pl. beorgas, 222.--2) _grave-mound, tomb-hill_: acc. sg. biorh, 2808; beorh, 3098, 3165. A grave-mound serves the drake as a retreat (cf. 2277, 2412): nom. sg. beorh, 2242; gen. sg. beorges, 2323.--Comp. stān-beorh.

beorh, st. f., _veil, covering, cap_; only in the comp. hēafod-beorh.

beorgan, st. v. (w. dat. of the interested person or thing), _to save, to shield_: inf. wolde fēore beorgan, _place her life in safety_, 1294; here-byrne ... sēo þe bāncofan beorgan cūðe, _which could protect his body_, 1446; pret. pl. ealdre burgan, 2600.

be-beorgan (w. dat. refl. of pers. and acc. of the thing), _to take care, to defend one's self from_: inf. him be-beorgan ne con wom, _cannot keep himself from stain_ (fault), 1747; imp. bebeorh þē þone bealontð, 1759.

ge-beorgan (w, dat. of person or thing to be saved), _to save, to protect_: pret. sg. þæt gebearh fēore, _protected the life_, 1549; scyld wēl gebearg līfe and līce, 2571.

ymb-beorgan, _to surround protectingly_: pret. sg. bring ūtan ymb-bearh, 1504.

beorht, byrht, adj.: 1) _gleaming, shining, radiant, shimmering_: nom. sg. beorht, of the sun, 570, 1803; beorhta, of Heorot, 1178; þæt beorhte bold, 998; acc. sg. beorhtne, of Bēowulf's grave-mound, 2804; dat. sg. tō þǣre byrhtan (here-byrhtan, MS.) byrig, 1200; acc. pl. beorhte frætwe, 214, 897; beorhte randas, 231; bordwudu beorhtan, 1244; n. beorht hofu, 2314. Superl.: bēacna beorhtost, 2778. --2) _excellent, remarkable_: gen. sg. beorhtre bōte, 158. --Comp.: sadol-, wlite-beorht.

beorhte, adv., _brilliantly, brightly, radiantly_, 1518.

beorhtian, w. v., _to sound clearly_: pret. sg. beorhtode benc-swēg, 1162.

beorn, st. m., _hero, warrior, noble man_: nom. sg. (Hrōðgār), 1881, (Bēowulf), 2434, etc.; acc. sg. (Bēow.), 1025, (Æschere), 1300; dat. sg. beorne, 2261; nom. pl. beornas (Bēowulf and his companions), 211, (Hrōðgār's guests), 857; gen. pl. biorna (Bēowulf's liege-men), 2405.--Comp.: folc-, gūð-beorn.

beornan, st. v., _to burn_: pres. part. byrnende (of the drake), 2273.--Comp. un-byrnende.

for-beornan, _to be consumed, to burn_: pret. sg. for-barn, 1617, 1668; for-born, 2673.

ge-beornan, _to be burned_: pret. gebarn, 2698.

beorn-cyning, st. m., _king of warriors, king of heroes_: nom. sg. (as voc.), 2149.

bēodan, st. v.: 1) _to announce, to inform, to make known_: inf. bīodan, 2893.--2) _to offer, to proffer_ (as the notifying of a transaction in direct reference to the person concerned in it): pret. pl. him geþingo budon, _offered them an agreement_, 1086; pret. part. þā wæs ǣht boden Swēona lēodum, _then was pursuit offered the Swedish people_, 2958; inf. ic þǣm gōdan sceal māðmas bēodan, _I shall offer the excellent man treasures_, 385.

ā-bēodan, _to present, to announce_: pret. word inne ābēad, _made known the words within_, 390; _to offer, to tender, to wish_: pret. him hǣl ābēad, _wished him health_ (greeted him), 654. Similarly, hǣlo ābēad, 2419; eoton weard ābēad, _offered the giant a watcher_, 669.

be-bēodan, _to command, to order_: pret. swā him se hearda bebēad, _as the strong man commanded them_, 401. Similarly, swā se rīca bebēad, 1976.

ge-bēodan: 1) _to command, to order_: inf. hēt þā gebēodan byre Wīhstānes hæleða monegum, þæt hīe..., _the son of Wihstan caused orders to be given to many of the men..._, 3111.--2) _to offer_: him Hygd gebēad hord and rīce, _offered him the treasure and the chief power_, 2370; inf. gūðe gebēodan, _to offer battle_, 604.

bēod-genēat, st. m., _table-companion_: nom. and acc. pl. genēatas, 343, 1714.

bēon, verb, _to be_, generally in the future sense, _will be_: pres. sg. I. gūðgeweorca ic bēo gearo sōna, _I shall immediately be ready for warlike deeds_, 1826; sg. III. wā bið þǣm þe sceal..., _woe to him who_...! 183; so, 186; gifeðe bið is given, 299; ne bið þē wilna gād (_no wish will be denied thee_), 661; þǣr þē bið manna þearf, _if thou shalt need the warriors_, 1836; ne bið swylc cwēnlīc þēaw, _is not becoming, honorable to a woman_, 1941; eft sōna bið _will happen directly_, 1763; similarly, 1768, etc.; pl. þonne bīoð brocene, _then are broken_, 2064; feor cȳððe bēoð sēlran gesōhte þām þe..., "terrae longinquae meliores sunt visitatu ei qui..." (Grein), 1839; imp. bēo (bīo) þū on ofeste, _hasten!_ 386, 2748; bēo wið Gēatas glæd, _be gracious to the Gēatas_, 1174.

bēor, st. n., _beer_: dat. sg. æt bēore, _at beer-drinking_, 2042; instr. sg. bēore druncen, 531; bēore druncne, 480.

bēor-scealc, st. m., _keeper of the beer, cup-bearer_: gen. pl. bēor-scealca sum (one of Hrōðgār's followers, because they served the Gēatas at meals), 1241.

bēor-sele, st. m., _beer-hall, hall in which beer is drunk_: dat. sg. in (on) bēorsele, 482, 492, 1095; bīorsele, 2636.

bēor-þegu, st. f., _beer-drinking, beer-banquet_: dat. sg. æfter bēorþege, 117; æt þǣre bēorþege, 618.

bēot, st. n., _promise, binding agreement to something that is to be undertaken_: acc. sg. hē bēot ne ālēh, _did not break his pledge_, 80; bēot eal ... gelǣste, _performed all that he had pledged himself to_, 523.

ge-bēotian, w. v., _to pledge one's self to an undertaking, to bind one's self_: pret. gebēotedon, 480, 536.

bēot-word, st. n., same as bēot: dat. pl. bēot-wordum spræc, 2511.

biddan, st. v., _to beg, to ask, to pray_: pres. sg. I. dōð swā ic bidde! 1232; inf. (w. acc. of the pers. and gen. of the thing asked for) ic þē biddan wille ānre bēne, _beg thee for one_, 427; pret. swā hē selfa bæd, _as he himself had requested_, 29; bæd hine blīðne (supply wesan) æt þǣre bēorþege, _begged him to be cheerful at the beer-banquet_, 618; ic þē lange bæd þæt þū..., _begged you a long time that you_, 1995; frioðowǣre bæd hlāford sīnne, _begged his lord for protection_ (acc. of pers. and gen. of thing), 2283; bæd þæt gē geworhton, _asked that you_..., 3097; pl. wordum bǣdon þæt..., 176.

on-bidian, w. v., _to await_: inf. lǣtað hilde-bord hēr onbidian ... worda geþinges, _let the shields await here the result of the conference_ (lay the shields aside here), 397.

bil, st. n. _sword_: nom. sg. bil, 1568; bill, 2778; acc. sg. bil, 1558; instr. sg. bille, 2360; gen. sg. billes, 2061, etc.; instr. pl. billum, 40; gen. pl. billa, 583, 1145.--Comp.: gūð-, hilde-, wīg-bil.

bindan, st. v., _to bind, to tie_: pret. part. acc. sg. wudu bundenne, _the bound wood_, i.e. the built ship, 216; bunden golde swurd, _a sword bound with gold_, i.e. either having its hilt inlaid with gold, or having gold chains upon the hilt (swords of both kinds have been found), 1901; nom. sg. heoru bunden, 1286, has probably a similar meaning.

ge-bindan, _to bind_: pret. sg. þǣr ic fīfe geband, _where I had bound five_(?), 420; pret. part. cyninges þegn word ōðer fand sōðe gebunden, _the king's man found_ (after many had already praised Bēowulf's deed) _other words_ (also referring to Bēowulf, but in connection with Sigemund) _rightly bound together_, i.e. in good alliterative verses, as are becoming to a gid, 872; wundenmǣl wrǣttum gebunden, _sword bound with ornaments_, i.e. inlaid, 1532; bisgum gebunden, _bound together by sorrow_, 1744; gomel gūðwīga eldo gebunden, _hoary hero bound by old age_ (fettered, oppressed), 2112.

on-bindan, _to unbind, to untie, to loose_: pret. onband, 501.

ge-bind, st. n. coll., _that which binds, fetters_: in comp. īs-gebind.

bite, st. m., _bite_, figuratively of the cut of the sword: acc. sg. bite īrena, _the swords' bite_, 2260; dat. sg. æfter billes bite, 2061.--Comp. lāð-bite.

biter (primary meaning that of biting), adj.: 1) _sharp, cutting, cutting in_: acc. sg. biter (of a short sword), 2705; instr. sg. biteran strǣle, 1747; instr. pl. biteran bānum, _with sharp teeth_, 2693.--2) _irritated, furious_: nom. pl. bitere, 1432.

bitre, adv., _bitterly_ (in a moral sense), 2332.

bī, big (fuller form of the prep. be, which see), prep. w. dat.: 1) _near, at, on, about, by_ (as under be, No. 1): bī sǣm twēonum, _in the circuit of both seas_, 1957; ārās bī ronde, _raised himself up by the shield_, 2539; bī wealle gesæt, _sat by the wall_, 2718. With a freer position: him big stōdan bunan and orcas, _round about him_, 3048.--2) _to, towards_ (motion): hwearf þā bī bence, _turned then towards the bench_, 1189; gēong bī sesse, _went to the seat_, 2757.

bīd (see bīdan), st. n., _tarrying hesitation_: þǣr wearð Ongenþīo on bīd wrecen, _forced to tarry_, 2963.

bīdan, st. v.: 1) _to delay, to stay, to remain, to wait_: inf. nō on wealle leng bīdan wolde, _would not stay longer within the wall_ (the drake), 2309; pret. in þȳstrum bād, _remained in darkness_, 87; flota stille bād, _the craft lay still_, 301; receda ... on þǣm se rīca bād, _where the mighty one dwelt_, 310; þǣr se snottra bād, _where the wise man_ (Hrōðgār) _waited_, 1314; hē on searwum bād, _he_ (Bēowulf) _stood there armed_, 2569; ic on earde bād mǣlgesceafta, _lived upon the paternal ground the time appointed me by fate_, 2737; pret. pl. sume þǣr bidon, _some remained, waited there_, 400.--2) _to await, to wait for_, with the gen. of that which is awaited: inf. bīdan woldon Grendles gūðe, _wished to await the combat with Grendel, to undertake it_, 482; similarly, 528; wīges bīdan, _await the combat_, 1269; nalas andsware bīdan wolde, _would await no answer_, 1495; pret. bād beadwa geþinges, _awaited the event of the battle_, 710; sǣgenga bād āgend-frēan, _the sea-goer_ (boat) _awaited its owner_, 1883; sele ... heaðowylma bād, lāðan līges (the poet probably means to indicate by these words that the hall Heorot was destroyed later in a fight by fire; an occurrence, indeed, about which we know nothing, but which 1165 and 1166, and again 2068 ff. seem to indicate), 82.

ā-bīdan, _to await_, with the gen.: inf., 978.

ge-bīdan: 1) _to tarry, to wait_: imp. gebīde gē on beorge, _wait ye on the mountain_, 2530; pret. part. þēah þe wintra lȳt under burhlocan gebiden hæbbe Hæreðes dōhtor _although H's daughter had dwelt only a few years in the castle_, 1929.--2) _to live through, to experience, to expect_ (w. acc.): inf. sceal endedæg mīnne gebīdan, _shall live my last day_, 639; ne wēnde ... bōte gebīdan, _did not hope ... to live to see reparation_, 935; fela sceal gebīdan lēofes and lāðes, _experience much good and much affliction_, 1061; ende gebīdan, 1387, 2343; pret. hē þæs frōfre gebād, _received consolation_ (compensation) _therefore_, 7; gebād wintra worn, _lived a great number of years_, 264; in a similar construction, 816, 930, 1619, 2259, 3117. With gen.: inf. tō gebīdanne ōðres yrfeweardes, _to await another heir_, 2453. With depend, clause: inf. tō gebīdanne þæt his byre rīde on galgan, _to live to see it, that his son hang upon the gallows_, 2446; pret. drēam-lēas gebād þæt hē..., _joyless he experienced it, that he_..., 1721; þæs þe ic on aldre gebād þæt ic..., _for this, that I, in my old age, lived to see that_..., 1780.

on-bīdan, _to wait, to await_: pret. hordweard onbād earfoðlīce oð þæt ǣfen cwōm, _scarcely waited, could scarcely delay till it was evening_, 2303.

bītan, st. v., _to bite_, of the cutting of swords: inf. bītan, 1455, 1524; pret. bāt bānlocan, _bit into his body_ (Grendel), 743; bāt unswīðor, _cut with less force_ (Bēowulf's sword), 2579.

blanca, w. m., properly _that which shines_ here of the horse, not so much of the white horse as the dappled: dat. pl. on blancum, 857.

ge-bland, ge-blond, st. n., _mixture, heaving mass, a turning_.--Comp.: sund-, ȳð-geblond, windblond.

blanden-feax, blonden-feax, adj., _mixed_, i.e. having gray hair, _gray-headed_, as epithet of an old man: nom. sg. blondenfeax, 1792; blondenfexa, 2963; dat. sg. blondenfeaxum, 1874; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe, 1595.

blæc, adj., _dark, black_: nom. sg, hrefn blaca, 1802.

blāc, adj.: 1) _gleaming, shining_: acc. sg. blācne lēoman, _a brilliant gleam_, 1518.--2) of the white death-color, _pale_; in comp. heoroblāc.

blǣd, st. m.: 1) _strength, force, vigor_: nom. sg. wæs hira blǣd scacen (of both tribes), _strength was gone_, i.e. the bravest of both tribes lay slain, 1125; nū is þīnes mægnes blǣd āne hwīle, _now the fulness of thy strength lasts for a time_, 1762.--2) _reputation, renown, knowledge_ (with stress upon the idea of filling up, spreading out): nom. sg. blǣd, 18; (þīn) blǣd is ārǣred, _thy renown is spread abroad_, 1704.

blǣd-āgend, pt., _having renown, renowned_: nom. pl. blǣd-āgende, 1014.

blǣd-fæst, adj., _firm in renown, renowned, known afar_: acc. sg. blǣdfæstne beorn (of Æschere, with reference to 1329, 1300.

blēat, adj., _miserable, helpless_; only in comp. wæl-blēat.

blēate, adv., _miserably, helplessly_, 2825.

blīcan, st. v., _shine, gleam_: inf., 222

blīðe, adj.: 1) _blithe, joyous, happy_ acc. sg. blīðne, 618.--2) _gracious, pleasing_: nom. sg. blīðe, 436.--Comp. un-blīðe.

blīð-heort, adj., _joyous in heart, happy_: nom. sg., 1803.

blōd, st. n., _blood_: nom. sg., 1122; acc. sg., 743; dat. sg. blōde, 848; æfter dēorum men him langað beorn wið blōde, _the hero_ (Hrōðgār) _longs for the beloved man contrary to blood_, i.e. he loves him although he is not related to him by blood, 1881; dat. as instr. blōde, 486, 935, 1595, etc.

blōd-fāg, adj., _spotted with blood, bloody_, 2061.

blōdig, adj., _bloody_: acc. sg. f. blōdge, 991; acc. sg. n. blōdig, 448; instr. sg. blōdigan gāre, 2441.

ge-blōdian, w. v., _to make bloody, to sprinkle with blood_: pret. part. ge-blōdegod, 2693.

blōdig-tōð, adj., _with bloody teeth_: nom. sg. bona blōdig-tōð (of Grendel, because he bites his victims to death), 2083.

blōd-rēow, adj., _bloodthirsty, bloody-minded_: nom. sg. him on ferhðe grēow brēost-hord blōd-rēow, _in his bosom there grew a bloodthirsty feeling_, 1720.

be-bod, st. n., _command, order_; in comp. wundor-bebod.

bodian, w. v., _(to be a messenger), to announce, to make known_: pret. hrefn blaca heofones wynne blīð-heort bodode, _the black raven announced joyfully heaven's delight_ (the rising sun), 1803.

boga, w. m., _bow_, of the bended form; here of the dragon, in comp. hring-boga; as an instrument for shooting, in the comp. flān-, horn-boga; bow of the arch, in comp. stān-boga.

bolca, w. m., "forus navis" (Grein), _gangway_; here probably the planks which at landing are laid from the ship to the shore: acc. sg. ofer bolcan, 231.

bold, st. n., _building, house, edifice_: nom. sg. (Heorot), 998; (Hygelāc's residence), 1926; (Bēowulfs residence), 2197, 2327.--Comp. fold-bold.

bold-āgend, pt., _house-owner, property-holder_: gen. pl. monegum boldāgendra, 3113.

bolgen-mōd, adj., _angry at heart, angry_, 710, 1714.

bolster, st. m., _bolster, cushion, pillow_: dat. pl. (reced) geond-brǣded wearð beddum and bolstrum, _was covered with beds and bolsters_, 1241.--Comp. hlēor-bolster.

bon-. See ban-.

bora, w. m., _carrier, bringer, leader_: in the comp. mund-, rǣd-, wǣg-bora.

bord, st. n., _shield_: nom. sg., 2674; acc. sg., 2525; gen. pl. ofer borda gebræc, _over the crashing of the shields_, 2260.--Comp.: hilde-, wīg-bord.

bord-hæbbend, pt., _one having a shield, shield-bearer_: nom. pl. hæbbende, 2896.

bord-hrēoða, w. m., _shield-cover, shield_ with particular reference to its cover (of hides or linden bark): dat. sg. -hrēoðan, 2204.

bord-rand, st. m., _shield_: acc. sg., 2560.

bord-weall, st. m., _shield-wall, wall of shields_: acc. sg., 2981.

bord-wudu, st. m., _shield-wood, shield_: acc. pl. beorhtan beord-wudu, 1244.

botm, st. m., _bottom_: dat. sg. tō botme (here of the bottom of the fen-lake), 1507.

bōt (emendation, cf. bētan), st. f.: 1) _relief, remedy_: nom. sg., 281; acc. sg. bōte, 935; acc. sg. bōte, 910.--2) _a performance in expiation, a giving satisfaction, tribute_: gen. sg. bōte, 158.

brand, brond, st. m.: 1) _burning, fire_: nom. sg. þā sceal brond fretan (_the burning of the body_), 3015; instr. sg. by hine ne mōston ... bronde forbærnan (_could not bestow upon him the solemn burning_), 2127; hæfde landwara līge befangen, bǣle and bronde, _with glow, fire, and flame_, 2323.--2) in the passage, þæt hine nō brond nē beadomēcas bītan ne meahton, 1455, brond has been translated _sword, brand_ (after the O.N. brand-r). The meaning _fire_ may be justified as well, if we consider that the old helmets were generally made of leather, and only the principal parts were mounted with bronze. The poet wishes here to emphasize the fact that the helmet was made entirely of metal, a thing which was very unusual.--3) in the passage, forgeaf þā Bēowulfe brand Healfdenes segen gyldenne, 1021, our text, with other editions, has emendated, bearn, since brand, if it be intended as a designation of Hrōðgār (perhaps _son_), has not up to this time been found in this sense in A.-S.

brant, bront, adj., _raging, foaming, going-high_, of ships and of waves: acc. sg. brontne, 238, 568.

brād, adj.: 1) _extended, wide_: nom. pl. brāde rīce, 2208.--2) _broad_: nom. sg. hēah and brād (of Bēowulf's grave-mound), 3159; acc. sg. brādne mēce, 2979; (seax) brād [and] brūnecg, _the broad, short sword with bright edge_, 1547.--3) _massive, in abundance_. acc, sg. brād gold, 3106.

ge-bræc, st. n., _noise, crash_: acc. sg. borda gebræc, 2260.

geond-brǣdan, w. v., _to spread over, to cover entirely_: pret. part. geond-brǣded, 1240.

brecan, st. v.: 1) _to break, to break to pieces_: pret. bānhringas bræc, (the sword) _broke the joints_, 1568. In a moral sense: pret. subj. þæt þǣr ǣnig mon wǣre ne brǣce, _that no one should break the agreement_, 1101; pret. part. þonne bīoð brocene ... āð-sweord eorla, _then are the oaths of the men broken_, 2064.--2) probably also simply _to break in upon something, to press upon_, w. acc.: pret. sg. sǣdēor monig hildetūxum heresyrcan bræc, _many a sea-animal pressed with his battle-teeth upon the shirt of mail_ (did not break it, for, according to 1549 f., 1553 f., it was still unharmed). 1512.--3) _to break out, to spring out_: inf. geseah ... strēam ūt brecan of beorge, _saw a stream break out from the rocks_, 2547; lēt se hearda Higelāces þegn brādne mēce ... brecan ofer bordweal, _caused the broadsword to spring out over the wall of shields_, 2981.--4) figuratively, _to vex, not to let rest_: pret. hine fyrwyt bræc, _curiosity tormented_ (N.H.G. brachte die Neugier um), 232, 1986, 2785.

ge-brecan, _to break to pieces_: pret. bānhūs gebræc, _broke in pieces his body_ (Bēowulf in combat with Dæghrefn), 2509.

tō-brecan, _to break in pieces_: inf., 781; pret. part. tō-brocen, 998.

þurh-brecan, _to break through_, pret. wordes ord brēosthord þurh-bræc, _the word's point broke through his closed breast_, i.e. a word burst out from his breast, 2793.

brecð, st. f., _condition of being broken, breach_: nom. pl. mōdes brecða (_sorrow of heart_), 171.

ā-bredwian, w. v. w. acc., _to fell to the ground, to kill_ (?): pret. ābredwade, 2620.

bregdan, st. v., properly _to swing round_, hence: 1) _to swing_: inf. under sceadu bregdan, _swing among the shadows, to send into the realm of shadows_, 708; pret. brægd ealde lāfe, _swung the old weapon_, 796; brægd feorh-genīðlan, _swung his mortal enemy_ (Grendel's mother), threw her down, 1540; pl. git ēagorstrēam ... mundum brugdon, _stirred the sea with your hands_ (of the movement of the hands in swimming), 514; pret. part. brōden (brogden) mǣl, _the drawn sword_, 1617, 1668.--2) _to knit, to knot, to plait_: inf., figuratively, inwitnet ōðrum bregdan, _to weave a waylaying net for another_ (as we say in the same way, to lay a trap for another, to dig a pit for another), 2168; pret. part. beadohrægl brōden, _a woven shirt of mail_ (because it consisted of metal rings joined together), 552; similarly, 1549; brogdne beadusercean, 2756.

ā-bregdan, _to swing_: pret. hond up ā-bræd, _swung, raised his hand_, 2576.

ge-bregdan: 1) _swing_: pret. hring-mǣl gebrægd, _swung the ringed sword_, 1565; eald sweord ēacen ... þæt ic þȳ wǣpne gebrægd, _an old heavy sword that I swung as my weapon_, 1665; with interchanging instr. and acc. wællseaxe gebrǣ, biter and beadu-scearp, 2704; also, _to draw out of the sheath_: sweord ǣr gebrǣ, _had drawn the sword before_, 2563.--2) _to knit, to knot, to plait_: pret. part. bere-byrne hondum gebrōden, 1444.

on-bregdan, _to tear open, to throw open_: pret. onbræd þā recedes mūðan, _had then thrown open the entrance of the hall_ (onbregdan is used because the opening door swings upon its hinges), 724.

brego, st. m., _prince, ruler_: nom. sg. 427, 610.

brego-rōf, adj., _powerful, like a ruler, of heroic strength _: nom. sg. m., 1926.

brego-stōl, st. m., _throne_, figuratively for _rule_: acc. sg. him gesealde seofon þūsendo, bold and brego-stōl, _seven thousand_ see under sceat), _a country-seat, and the dignity of a prince_, 2197; þǣr him Hygd gebēad ... brego-stōl, _where H. offered him the chief power_, 2371; lēt þone bregostōl Bēowulf healdan, _gave over to Bēowulf the chief power_ (did not prevent Bēowulf from entering upon the government), 2390.

brēme, adj., _known afar, renowned_. nom. sg., 18.

brenting (see brant), st. m., _ship craft_: nom. pl. brentingas, 2808.

ā-brēatan, st. v., _to break, to break in pieces, to kill_: pret. ābrēot brimwīsan, _killed the sea-king_ (King Hæðcyn), 2931. See brēotan.

brēost, st. n.: 1) _breast_: nom. sg., 2177; often used in the pl., so acc. þæt mīne brēost wereð, _which protects my breast_, 453; dat. pl. beadohrægl brōden on brēostum læg. 552.--2) _the inmost thoughts, the mind, the heart, the bosom_: nom. sg. brēost innan wēoll þēostrum geþoncum, _his breast heaved with troubled thoughts_, 2332; dat. pl. lēt þā of brēostum word ūt faran, _caused the words to come out from his bosom_, 2551.

brēost-gehygd, st. n. f., _breast-thought, secret thought_: instr. pl. -gehygdum, 2819.

brēost-gewǣdu, st. n. pl., _breast-clothing, garment covering the breast_, of the coat of mail: nom., 1212; acc., 2163.

brēost-hord, st. m., _breast-hoard, that which is locked in the breast, heart, mind, thought, soul_: nom. sg., 1720; acc. sg., 2793.

brēost-net, st. n., _breast-net, shirt of chain-mail, coat of mail_: nom. sg. brēost-net brōden, 1549.

brēost-weorðung, st. f., _ornament that is worn upon the breast_: acc. sg. brēost-weorðunge, 2505: here the collar is meant which Bēowulf receives from Wealhþēow (1196, 2174) as a present, and which B., according to 2173, presents to Hygd, while, according to 1203, it is in the possession of her husband Hygelāc. In front the collar is trimmed with ornaments (frætwe), which hang down upon the breast, hence the name brēost-weorðung.

brēost-wylm, st. m., _heaving of the breast, emotion of the bosom_: acc. sg, 1878.

brēotan, st. v., _to break, to break in pieces, to kill_: pret. brēat bēodgenēatas, _killed his table-companions_ (courtiers), 1714.

ā-brēotan, same as above: pret. þone þe hēo on ræste ābrēat, _whom she killed upon his couch_, 1299; pret. part. þā þæt monige gewearð, þæt hine sēo brimwylf ābroten hæfde, _many believed that the sea-wolf_ (Grendel's mother) _had killed him_, 1600; hī hyne ... ābroten hæfdon, _had killed him_ (the dragon), 2708.

brim, st. n., _flood, the sea_: nom. sg., 848, 1595; gen. sg. tō brimes faroðe, _to the sea_, 28; æt brimes nosan, _at the sea's promontory_, 2804; nom. pl. brimu swaðredon, _the waves subsided_, 570.

brim-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff, cliff washed by the sea_: acc. pl. -clifu, 222.

brim-lād, st. f., _flood-way, sea-way_: acc. sg. þāra þe mid Bēowulfe brimlāde tēah, _who had travelled the sea-way with B._, 1052.

brim-līðend, pt, _sea-farer, sailor_ acc. p. -līðende, 568.

brim-strēam, st. m., _sea-stream, the flood of the sea_: acc. pl. ofer brim-strēamas, 1911.

brim-wīsa, w. m., _sea-king_: acc. sg. brimwīsan, of Hæðcyn, king of the Gēatas, 2931.

brim-wylf, st. f., _sea-wolf_ (designation of Grendel's mother): nom. sg. sēo brimwylf, 1507, 1600.

brim-wylm, st. m., _sea-wave_: nom. sg., 1495.

bringan, anom. v., _to bring, to bear_: prs. sg. I. ic þē þūsenda þegna bringe tō helpe, _bring to your assistance thousands of warriors_, 1830; inf. sceal hringnaca ofer hēaðu bringan lāc and luftācen, _shall bring gifts and love-tokens over the high sea_, 1863; similarly, 2149, 2505; pret. pl. wē þās sǣlāc ... brōhton, _brought this sea-offering_ (Grendel's head), 1654.

ge-bringan, _to bring_: pres. subj. pl. þat wē þone gebringan ... on ādfære, _that we bring him upon the funeral-pile_, 3010.

brosnian, w. v., _to crumble, to become rotten, to fall to pieces_: prs. sg. III. herepād ... brosnað æfter beorne, _the coat of mail falls to pieces after_ (the death of) _the hero_, 2261.

brōðor, st. m., _brother_: nom. sg., 1325, 2441; dat sg. brēðer, 1263; gen. sg. his brōðor bearn, 2620; dat. pl. brōðrum, 588, 1075.

ge-brōðru, pl., _brethren, brothers_: dat. pl. sæt be þǣm gebrōðrum twǣm, _sat by the two brothers_, 1192.

brōga, w. m., _terror, horror_: nom. sg., 1292, 2325, 2566; acc. sg. billa brōgan, 583.--Comp.: gryre-, here-brōga.

brūcan, st. v. w. gen., _to use, to make use of_: prs. sg. III. sē þe longe hēr worolde brūceð, _who here long makes use of the world_, i.e. lives long, 1063; imp. brūc manigra mēda, _make use of many rewards, give good rewards_, 1179; _to enjoy_: inf. þæt hē bēahhordes brūcan mōste, _could enjoy the ring-hoard_, 895; similarly, 2242, 3101; pret. brēac līfgesceafta, _enjoyed the appointed life, lived the appointed time_, 1954. With the genitive to be supplied: brēac þonne mōste, 1488; imp. brūc þisses bēages, _enjoy this ring, take this ring_, 1217. Upon this meaning depends the form of the wish, wēl brūcan (compare the German geniesze froh!): inf. hēt hine wēl brūcan, 1046; hēt hine brūcan well, 2813; imp. brūc ealles well, 2163.

brūn, adj., _having a brown lustre, shining_: nom. sg. sīo ecg brūn, 2579.

brūn-ecg, adj., _having a gleaming blade_: acc. sg. n. (hyre seaxe) brād [and] brūnecg, _her broad sword with gleaming blade_, 1547.

brūn-fāg, adj., _gleaming like metal_: acc. sg. brūnfāgne helm, 2616.

bryne-lēoma, w. m., _light of a conflagration, gleam of fire _: nom. sg., 2314.

bryne-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire_: dat. pl. -wylmum, 2327.

brytnian (properly _to break in small pieces_, cf. brēotan), w. v., _to bestow, to distribute_: pret. sinc brytnade, _distributed presents_, i.e. ruled (since the giving of gifts belongs especially to rulers), 2384.

brytta, w. m., _giver, distributer_, always designating the king: nom. sg. sinces brytta, 608, 1171, 2072; acc. sg. bēaga bryttan, 35, 352, 1488; sinces bryttan, 1923.

bryttian (_to be a dispenser_), w. v., _to distribute, to confer_: prs. sg. III. god manna cynne snyttru bryttað, _bestows wisdom upon the human race_, 1727.

brȳd, st. f.: 1) _wife, consort_: acc. sg. brȳd, 2931; brȳde, 2957, both times of the consort of Ongenþēow (?).--2) _betrothed, bride_: nom. sg., of Hrōðgār's daughter, Frēaware, 2032.

brȳd-būr, st. n., _woman's apartment_: dat. sg. ēode ... cyning of brȳdbūre, _the king came out of the apartment of his wife_ (into which, according to 666, he had gone), 922.

bunden-stefna, w. m., _(that which has a bound prow), the framed ship_: nom. sg., 1911.

bune, w. f., _can_ or _cup, drinking-vessel_: nom. pl. bunan, 3048; acc. pl. bunan, 2776.

burh, burg, st. f., _castle, city, fortified house_: acc. sg. burh, 523; dat. sg. byrig, 1200; dat. pl. burgum, 53, 1969, 2434.--Comp.: frēo, freoðo-, hēa-, hlēo-, hord-, lēod-, mǣg-burg.

burh-loca, w. m., _castle-bars_: dat. sg. under burh-locan, _under the castle-bars_, i.e. in the castle (Hygelāc's), 1929.

burh-stede, st. m., _castle-place, place where the castle_ or _city stands_: acc. sg. burhstede, 2266.

burh-wela, w. m., _riches, treasure of a castle_ or _city_: gen. sg. þenden hē burh-welan brūcan mōste, 3101.

burne, w. f., _spring, fountain_: gen. þǣre burnan wælm, _the bubbling of the spring_, 2547.

būan, st. v.: 1) _to stay, to remain, to dwell_: inf. gif hē weard onfunde būan on beorge, _if he had found the watchman dwelling on the mountain_, 2843.--2) _to inhabit_, w. acc.: meduseld būan, _to inhabit the mead-house_, 3066.

ge-būan, w. acc., _to occupy a house, to take possession_: pret. part. hēan hūses, hū hit Hring Dene æfter bēorþege gebūn hæfdon, _how the Danes, after their beer-carouse, had occupied it_ (had made their beds in it), 117.--With the pres. part. būend are the compounds ceaster-, fold-, grund-, lond-būend.

būgan, st. v., _to bend, to bow, to sink; to turn, to flee_: prs. sg. III. bon-gār būgeð, _the fatal spear sinks_, i.e. its deadly point is turned down, it rests, 2032; inf. þæt se byrnwīga būgan sceolde, _that the armed hero had to sink down_ (having received a deadly blow), 2919; similarly, 2975; pret. sg. bēah eft under eorðweall, _turned, fled again behind the earth-wall_, 2957; pret. pl. bugon tō bence, _turned to the bench_, 327, 1014; hȳ on holt bugon, _fled to the wood_, 2599.

ā-būgan, _to bend off, to curve away from_: pret. fram sylle ābēag medubenc monig, _from the threshold curved away many a mead-bench_, 776.

be-būgan, w. acc., _to surround, to encircle_: prs. swā (_which_) wæter bebūgeð, 93; efne swā sīde swā sǣ bebūgeð windige weallas, _as far as the sea encircles windy shores_, 1224.

ge-būgan, _to bend, to bow, to sink_: a) intrans.: hēo on flet gebēah, _sank on the floor_, 1541; þā gebēah cyning, _then sank the king_, 2981; þā se wyrm gebēah snūde tōsomne (_when the drake at once coiled itself up_), 2568; gewāt þā gebogen scrīðan tō, _advanced with curved body_ (the drake), 2570.--b) w. acc. of the thing to which one bends or sinks: pret. selereste gebēah, _sank upon the couch in the hall_, 691; similarly gebēag, 1242.

būr, st. n., _apartment, room_: dat. sg. būre, 1311, 2456; dat. pl. būrum, 140.--Comp. brȳd-būr.

būtan, būton (from be and ūtan, hence in its meaning referring to what is without, excluded): 1) conj. with subjunctive following, _lest_: būtan his līc swice, _lest his body escape_, 967. With ind. following, _but_: būton hit wæs māre þonne ǣnig mon ōðer tō beadulāce ætberan meahte, _but it_ (the sword) _was greater than any other man could have carried to battle_, 1561. After a preceding negative verb, _except_: þāra þe gumena bearn gearwe ne wiston būton Fitela mid hine, _which the children of men did not know at all, except Fitela, who was with him_, 880; ne nom hē māðm-ǣhta mā būton þone hafelan, etc., _he took no more of the rich treasure than the head alone_, 1615.--2) prep, with dat., _except_: būton folcscare, 73; būton þē, 658; ealle būton ānum, 706.

bycgan, w. v., _to buy, to pay_: inf. ne wæs þæt gewrixle til þæt hīe on bā healfa bicgan scoldon frēonda fēorum, _that was no good transaction, that they, on both sides_ (as well to Grendel as to his mother), _had to pay with the lives of their friends_, 1306.

be-bycgan, _to sell_: pret. nū ic on māðma hord mīne bebohte frōde feorhlege (_now I, for the treasure-hoard, gave up my old life_), 2800.

ge-bycgan, _to buy, to acquire; to pay_: pret. w. acc. nō þǣr ǣnige ... frōfre gebohte, _obtained no sort of help, consolation_, 974; hit (his, MS.) ealdre gebohte, _paid it with his life_, 2482; pret. part. sylfes fēore bēagas [geboh]te, _bought rings with his own life_, 3015.

byldan, w. v. (_to make_ beald, which see), _to excite, to encourage, to brave deeds_: inf. w. acc. swā hē Frēsena cyn on bēorsele byldan wolde (by distributing gifts), 1095.

ge-byrd, st. n., "fatum destinatum" (Grein) (?): acc. sg. hīe on gebyrd hruron gāre wunde, 1075.

ge-byrdu, st. f., _birth_; in compound, bearn-gebyrdu.

byrdu-scrūd, st. n., _shield-ornament, design upon a shield_(?): nom. sg., 2661.

byre, st. m., (_born_) _son_: nom. sg., 2054, 2446, 2622, etc.; nom. pl. byre, 1189. In a broader sense, _young man, youth_: acc. pl. bǣdde byre geonge, _encouraged the youths_ (at the banquet), 2019.

byrðen, st. f., _burden_; in comp. mægen-byrðen.

byrele, st. m., _steward, waiter, cupbearer_: nom. pl. byrelas, 1162.

byrgan, w. v., _to feast, to eat_: inf., 448.

ge-byrgea, w. m., _protector_; in comp. lēod-gebyrgea.

byrht. See _beorht_.

byrne, w. f., _shirt of mail, mail_: nom. sg. byrne, 405, 1630, etc.; hringed byrne, _ring-shirt_, consisting of interlaced rings, 1246; acc. sg. byrnan, 1023, etc.; sīde byrnan, _large coat of mail_, 1292; hringde byrnan, 2616; hāre byrnan, _gray coat of mail_ (of iron), 2154; dat. sg. on byrnan, 2705; gen. sg. byrnan hring, _the ring of the shirt of mail_ (i.e. the shirt of mail), 2261; dat. pl. byrnum, 40, 238, etc.; beorhtum byrnum, _with gleaming mail_, 3141.--Comp.: gūð-, here-, heaðo-, īren-, īsern-byrne.

byrnend. See beornan.

byrn-wiga, w. m., _warrior dressed in a coat of mail_: nom. sg., 2919.

bysgu, bisigu, st. f., _trouble, difficulty, opposition_: nom. sg. bisigu, 281; dat. pl. bisgum, 1744, bysigum, 2581.

bysig, adj., _opposed, in need_, in the compounds līf-bysig, syn-bysig.

bȳme, w. f., _a wind-instrument, a trumpet, a trombone_: gen. sg. bȳman gealdor, _the sound of the trumpet_, 2944.

bȳwan, w. v., _to ornament, to prepare_: inf. þā þe beado-grīman bȳwan sceoldon, _who should prepare the helmets_, 2258.


camp, st. m., _combat, fight between two_: dat. sg. in campe (Bēowulf's with Dæghrefn; cempan, MS.), 2506.

candel, st. f., _light, candle_: nom. sg. rodores candel, of the sun, 1573.--Comp. woruld-candel.

cempa, w. m., _fighter, warrior, hero_: nom. sg. æðele cempa, 1313; Gēata cempa, 1552; rēðe cempa, 1586; mǣre cempa (as voc.), 1762; gyrded cempa, 2079; dat. sg. geongum (geongan) cempan, 1949, 2045, 2627; Hūga cempan, 2503; acc. pl. cempan, 206.--Comp. fēðe-cempa.

cennan, w. v.: 1) _to bear_, w. acc.: efne swā hwylc mægða swā þone magan cende, _who bore the son_, 944; pret. part. þǣm eafera wæs æfter cenned, _to him was a son born_, 12.--2) reflexive, _to show one's self, to reveal one's self_: imp. cen þec mid cræfte, _prove yourself by your strength_, 1220.

ā-cennan, _to bear_: pret. part. nō hīe fæder cunnon, hwæðer him ǣnig wæs ǣr ācenned dyrnra gāsta, _they_ (the people of the country) _do not know his_ (Grendel's) _father, nor whether any evil spirit has been before born to him_ (whether he has begotten a son), 1357.

cēnðu, st. f., _boldness_: acc. sg. cēnðu, 2697.

cēne, adj., _keen, warlike, bold_: gen. p.. cēnra gehwylcum, 769. Superl., acc. pl. cēnoste, 206.--Comp.: dǣd-, gār-cēne.

ceald, adj., _cold_: acc. pl. cealde strēamas, 1262; dat. pl. cealdum cearsīðum, _with cold, sad journeys_, 2397. Superl. nom. sg. wedera cealdost, 546;--Comp. morgen-ceald.

cearian, w. v., _to have care, to take care, to trouble one's self_: prs. sg. III. nā ymb his līf cearað, _takes no care for his life_, 1537.

cearig, adj., _troubled, sad_: in comp. sorh-cearig.

cear-sīð, st. m., _sorrowful way, an undertaking that brings sorrow_, i.e. a warlike expedition: dat. pl. cearsīðum (of Bēowulf's expeditions against Ēadgils), 2397.

cearu, st. f., _care, sorrow, lamentation_: nom. sg., 1304; acc. sg. [ceare], 3173.--Comp.: ealdor-, gūð-, mǣl-, mōd-cearu.

cear-wælm, st. m., _care-agitation, waves of sorrow in the breast_: dat. pl. æfter cear-wælmum, 2067.

cear-wylm, st. m., same as above; nom. pl. þā cear-wylmas, 282.

ceaster-būend, pt, _inhabitant of a fortified place, inhabitant of a castle_: dat. pl. ceaster-būendum, of those established in Hrōðgār's castle, 769.

cēap, st. m., _purchase, transaction_: figuratively, nom. sg. næs þæt ȳðe cēap, _no easy transaction_, 2416; instr. sg. þēah þe ōðer hit ealdre gebohte, heardan cēape, _although the one paid it with his life, a dear purchase_, 2483.

ge-cēapian, w. v., _to purchase_: pret. part. gold unrīme grimme gecēapod, _gold without measure, bitterly purchased_ (with Bēowulf's life), 3013.

be-ceorfan, st. v., _to separate, to cut off_ (with acc. of the pers. and instr. of the thing): pret. hine þā hēafde becearf, _cut off his head_, 1591; similarly, 2139.

ceorl, st. m., _man_: nom. sg. snotor ceorl monig, _many a wise man_, 909; dat. sg. gomelum ceorle, _the old man_ (of King Hrēðel), 2445; so, ealdum ceorle, of King Ongenþēow, 2973; nom. pl. snotere ceorlas, _wise men_, 202, 416, 1592.

cēol, st. m., _keel_, figuratively for the ship: nom. sg., 1913; acc. sg. cēol, 38, 238; gen. sg. cēoles, 1807.

cēosan, st. v., _to choose_, hence, _to assume_: inf. þone cynedōm cīosan wolde, _would assume the royal dignity_, 2377; _to seek_: pret. subj. ǣr hē bǣl cure, _before he sought his funeral-pile_ (before he died), 2819.

ge-cēosan, _to choose, to elect_: gerund, tō gecēosenne cyning ǣnigne (sēlran), _to choose a better king_, 1852; imp. þē þæt sēlre ge-cēos, _choose thee the better_ (of two: bealonīð and ēce rǣdas), 1759; pret. hē ūsic on herge gecēas tō þyssum siðfate, _selected us among the soldiers for this undertaking_, 2639; gecēas ēcne rǣd, _chose the everlasting gain_, i.e. died, 1202; similarly, godes lēoht gecēas, 2470; pret. part. acc. pl. hæfde ... cempan gecorone, 206.

on-cirran, w. v., _to turn, to change_: inf. ne meahte ... þæs wealdendes [willan] wiht on-cirran, _could not change the will of the Almighty_, 2858; pret. ufor oncirde, _turned higher_, 2952; þyder oncirde, _turned thither_, 2971.

ā-cīgan, w. v., _to call hither_: pret. ācīgde of corðre cyninges þegnas syfone, _called from the retinue of the king seven men_, 3122.

clam, clom, st. m., f. n.? _fetter_, figuratively of a strong gripe: dat. pl. heardan clammum, 964; heardum clammum, 1336; atolan clommum (horrible claws of the mother of Grendel), 1503.

clif, cleof, st. n., _cliff, promontory_: acc. pl. Gēata clifu, 1912.--Comp.: brim-, ēg-, holm-, stān-clif.

ge-cnāwan, st. v., _to know, to recognize_: inf. meaht þū, mīn wine, mēce gecnāwan, _mayst thou, my friend, recognize the sword_, 2048.

on-cnāwan, _to recognize, to distinguish_: hordweard oncnīow mannes reorde, _distinguished the speech of a man_, 2555.

cniht, st. m., _boy, youth_: dat. pl. þyssum cnyhtum, _to these boys_ (Hrōðgār's sons), 1220.

cniht-wesende, prs. part., _being a boy_ or _a youth_: acc. sg. ic hine cūðe cniht-wesende, _knew him while still a boy_, 372; nom. pl. wit þæt gecwǣdon cniht-wesende, _we both as young men said that_, 535.

cnyssan, w. v., _to strike, to dash against each other_: pret. pl. þonne ... eoferas cnysedan, _when the bold warriors dashed against each other, stormed_ (in battle), 1329.

collen-ferhð, -ferð, adj., (properly, _of swollen mind_), _of uncommon thoughts, in his way of thinking, standing higher than others, high-minded_: nom. sg. cuma collen-ferhð, of Bēowulf, 1807; collen-ferð, of Wīglāf, 2786.

corðer, st. n., _troop, division of an army, retinue_: dat. sg. þā wæs ... Fin slægen, cyning on corðre, _then was Fin slain, the king in the troop_ (of warriors), 1154; of corðre cyninges, _out of the retinue of the king_, 3122.

costian, w. v., _to try_; pret. (w. gen.) hē mīn costode, _tried me_, 2085.

cofa, w. m., _apartment, sleeping-room, couch_: in comp. bān-cofa.

cōl, adj., _cool_: compar. cearwylmas cōlran wurðað, _the waves of sorrow become cooler_, i.e. the mind becomes quiet, 282; him wīflufan ... cōlran weorðað, _his love for his wife cools_, 2067.

cræft, st. m., _the condition of being able_, hence: 1) _physical strength_: nom. sg. mægða cræft, 1284; acc. sg. mægenes cræft, 418; þurh ānes cræft, 700; cræft and cēnðu, 2697; dat. (instr.) sg. cræfte, 983, 1220, 2182, 2361.--2) _art, craft, skill_: dat. sg. as instr. dyrnum cræfte, _with secret_ (magic) _art_, 2169; dyrnan cræfte, 2291; þēofes cræfte, _with thief's craft_, 2221; dat. pl. dēofles cræftum, _by devil's art_ (sorcery), 2089.--3) _great quantity_ (?): acc. sg. wyrm-horda cræft, 2223.--Comp.: leoðo-, mægen-, nearo-, wīg-cræft.

cræftig, adj.: 1) _strong, stout_: nom. sg. eafoðes cræftig, 1467; nīða cræftig, 1963. Comp. wīg-cræftig.--2) _adroit, skilful_: in comp. lagu-cræftig.--3) _rich_ (of treasures); in comp. ēacen-cræftig.

cringan, st. v., _to fall in combat, to fall with the writhing movement of those mortally wounded_: pret. subj. on wæl crunge, _would sink into death, would fall_, 636; pret. pl. for the pluperfect, sume on wæle crungon, 1114.

ge-cringan, same as above: pret. hē under rande gecranc, _fell under his shield_, 1210; æt wīge gecrang, _fell in battle_, 1338; hēo on flet gecrong, _fell to the ground_, 1569; in campe gecrong, _fell in single combat_, 2506.

cuma (_he who comes_), w. m., _newcomer, guest_: nom. sg. 1807.--Comp.: cwealm-, wil-cuma.

cuman, st. v., _to come_: pres. sg. II. gyf þū on weg cymest, _if thou comest from there_, 1383; III. cymeð, 2059; pres. subj. sg. III. cume, 23; pl. þonne wē ūt cymen, _when we come out_, 3107; inf. cuman, 244, 281, 1870; pret. sg. cōm, 430, 569, 826, 1134, 1507, 1601, etc.; cwōm, 419, 2915; pret. subj. sg. cwōme, 732; pret. part. cumen, 376; pl. cumene, 361. Often with the inf. of a verb of motion, as, cōm gongan, 711; cōm sīðian, 721; cōm in gān, 1645; cwōm gān, 1163; cōm scacan, 1803; cwōmon lǣdan, 239; cwōmon sēcean, 268; cwōman scrīðan, 651, etc.

be-cuman, _to come, to approach, to arrive_: pret. syððan niht becōm, _after the night had come_, 115; þē on þā lēode becōm, _that had come over the people_, 192; þā hē tō hām becōm, 2993. And with inf. following: stefn in becōm ... hlynnan under hārne stān, 2553; lȳt eft becwōm ... hāmes nīosan, 2366; oð þæt ende becwōm, 1255; similarly, 2117. With acc. of pers.: þā hyne sīo þrāg becwōm, _when this time of battle came over him_, 2884.

ofer-cuman, _to overcome, to compel_: pret. þȳ hē þone fēond ofercwōm, _thereby he overcame the foe_, 1274: pl. hīe fēond heora ... ofercōmon, 700; pret. part. (w. gen.) nīða ofercumen, _compelled by combats_, 846.

cumbol, cumbor, st. m., _banner_: gen. sg. cumbles hyrde, 2506.--Comp. hilte-cumbor.

cund, adj., _originating in, descended from_: in comp. feorran-cund.

cunnan, verb pret. pres.: 1) _to know, to be acquainted with_ (w. acc. or depend, clause): sg. pres. I. ic mīnne can glædne Hrōðulf þæt hē ... wile, _I know my gracious H., that he will_..., 1181; II. eard gīt ne const, _thou knowest not yet the land_, 1378; III. hē þæt wyrse ne con, _knows no worse_, 1740. And reflexive: con him land geare, _knows the land well_, 2063; pl. men ne cunnon hwyder helrūnan scrīðað, _men do not know whither_..., 162; pret. sg. ic hine cūðe, _knew him_, 372; cūðe hē duguð þēaw, _knew the customs of the distinguished courtiers_, 359; so with the acc., 2013; seolfa ne cūðe þurh hwæt..., _he himself did not know through what_..., 3068; pl. sorge ne cūðon, 119; so with the acc., 180, 418, 1234. With both (acc. and depend. clause): nō hīe fæder cunnon (scil. nō hīe cunnon) hwæðer him ǣnig wæs ǣr ācenned dyrnra gāsta, 1356.--2) with inf. following, _can, to be able_: prs. sg. him bebeorgan ne con, _cannot defend himself_, 1747; prs. pl. men ne cunnon secgan, _cannot say_, 50; pret. sg. cūðe reccan, 90; beorgan cūðe, 1446; pret. pl. herian ne cūðon, _could not praise_, 182; pret. subj. healdan cūðe, 2373.

cunnian, w. v., _to inquire into, to try_, w. gen. or acc.: inf. sund cunnian (figurative for _roam over the sea_), 1427, 1445; geongne cempan higes cunnian, _to try the young warrior's mind_, 2046; pret. eard cunnode, _tried the home_, i.e. came to it, 1501; pl. wada cunnedon, _tried the flood_, i.e. swam through the sea, 508.

cūð, adj.: 1) _known, well known; manifest, certain_: nom. sg. undyrne cūð, 150, 410; wīde cūð, 2924; acc. sg. fern. cūðe folme, 1304; cūðe strǣte, 1635; nom. pl. ecge cūðe, 1146; acc. pl. cūðe næssas, 1913.--2) _renowned_: nom. sg. gūðum cūð, 2179; nom. pl. cystum cūðe, 868.--3) also, _friendly, dear, good_ (see un-cūð).--Comp.: un-, wīd-cūð.

cūð-līce, adv., _openly, publicly_: comp. nō hēr cūðlīcor cuman ongunnon lind-hæbbende, _no shield-bearing men undertook more boldly to come hither_ (the coast-watchman means by this the secret landing of the Vikings), 244.

cwalu, st. f., _murder, fall_: in comp. dēað-cwalu.

cweccan (_to make alive_, see cwic), w. v., _to move, to swing_: pret. cwehte mægen-wudu, _swung the wood of strength_ (= spear), 235.

cweðan, st. v., _to say, to speak_: a) absolutely: prs. sg. III. cwið æt bēore, _speaks at beer-drinking_, 2042.--b) w. acc.: pret. word æfter cwæð, 315; fēa worda cwæð, 2247, 2663.--c) with þæt following: pret. sg. cwæð, 92, 2159; pl. cwǣdon, 3182.--d) with þæt omitted: pret. cwæð hē gūð-cyning sēcean wolde, _said he would seek out the war-king_, 199; similarly, 1811, 2940.

ā-cweðan, _to say, to speak_, w. acc.: prs. þæt word ācwyð, _speaks the word_, 2047; pret. þæt word ācwæð, 655.

ge-cweðan, _to say, to speak_: a) absolutely: pret. sg. II. swā þū gecwǣde, 2665.--b)w. acc.: pret. wēl-hwylc gecwæð, _spoke everything_, 875; pl. wit þæt gecwǣdon, 535.--c) w. þæt following: pret. gecwæð, 858, 988.

cwellan, w. v., (_to make die_), _to kill, to murder_: pret. sg. II. þū Grendel cwealdest, 1335.

ā-cwellan, _to kill_: pret. sg. (hē) wyrm ācwealde, 887; þone þe Grendel ǣr māne ācwealde, _whom Grendel had before wickedly murdered_, 1056; beorn ācwealde, 2122.

cwēn, st. f.: 1) _wife, consort_ (of noble birth): nom. sg. cwēn, 62; (Hrōðgār's), 614, 924; (Finn's), 1154.--2) particularly denoting the queen: nom. sg. bēaghroden cwēn (Wealhþēow), 624; mǣru cwēn, 2017; fremu folces cwēn (Þrȳðo), 1933; acc. sg. cwēn (Wealhþēow), 666.-Comp. folc-cwēn.

cwēn-līc, adj., _feminine, womanly_: nom. sg. ne bið swylc cwēnlīc þēaw (_such is not the custom of women, does not become a woman_), 1941.

cwealm, st. m., _violent death, murder, destruction_: acc. sg. þone cwealm gewræc, _avenged the death_ (of Abel by Cain), 107; mǣndon mondryhtnes cwealm, _lamented the ruler's fall_, 3150.--Comp.: bealo-, dēað-, gār-cwealm.

cwealm-bealu, st. n., _the evil of murder_: acc. sg., 1941.

cwealm-cuma, w. m., _one coming for murder, a new-comer who contemplates murder_: acc. sg. þone cwealm-cuman (of Grendel), 793.

cwic and cwico, adj., _quick, having life, alive_: acc. sg. cwicne, 793, 2786; gen. sg. āht cwices, _something living_, 2315; nom. pl. cwice, 98; cwico wæs þā gēna, _was still alive_, 3094.

cwide, st. m., _word, speech, saying_: in comp. gegn-, gilp-, hlēo-, word-cwide.

cwīðan, st. v., _to complain, to lament_: inf. w. acc. ongan ... gioguðe cwīðan hilde-strengo, _began to lament the_ (departed) _battle-strength of his youth_, 2113 [ceare] cwīðan, _lament their cares_, 3173.

cyme, st. m., _coming, arrival_: nom. pl. hwanan ēowre cyme syndon, _whence your coming is_, i. e. whence ye are, 257.--Comp. eft-cyme.

cȳmlīce, adv., (convenienter), _splendidly, grandly_: comp. cȳmlīcor, 38.

cyn, st. n., _race_, both in the general sense, and denoting noble lineage: nom. sg. Frēsena cyn, 1094; Wedera (gara, MS.) cyn, 461; acc. sg. eotena cyn, 421; gīganta cyn, 1691; dat. sg. Caines cynne, 107; manna cynne, 811, 915, 1726; ēowrum (of those who desert Bēowulf in battle) cynne, 2886; gen. sg. manna (gumena) cynnes, 702, etc.; mǣran cynnes, 1730; lāðan cynnes, 2009, 2355; ūsses cynnes Wǣgmundinga, 2814; gen. pl. cynna gehwylcum, 98.--Comp.: eormen-, feorh-, frum-, gum-, man-, wyrm-cyn.

cyn, st. n., _that which is suitable or proper_: gen. pl. cynna (of etiquette) gemyndig, 614.

ge-cynde, adj., _innate, peculiar, natural_: nom. sg., 2198, 2697.

cyne-dōm, st. m., _kingdom, royal dignity_: acc. sg., 2377.

cyning, st. m., _king_: nom. acc. sg. cyning, II, 864, 921, etc.; kyning, 620, 3173; dat. sg. cyninge, 3094; gen. sg. cyninges, 868, 1211; gen. pl. kyning[a] wuldor, of God, 666.--Comp. beorn-, eorð-, folc-, guð-, hēah-, lēod-, sǣ-, sōð-, þēod-, worold-, wuldor-cyning.

cyning-beald, adj., "_nobly bold_" (Thorpe), _excellently brave_ (?): nom. pl. cyning-balde men, 1635.

ge-cyssan, w. v., _to kiss_: pret. gecyste þā cyning ... þegen betstan, _kissed the best thane_ (Bēowulf), 1871.

cyst (_choosing_, see cēosan), st. f., _the select, the best of a thing, good quality, excellence_: nom. sg. īrenna cyst, _of the swords_, 803, 1698; wǣpna cyst, 1560; symbla cyst, _choice banquet_, 1233; acc. sg. īrena cyst, 674; dat. pl. foldwegas ... cystum cūðe, _known through excellent qualities_, 868; (cyning) cystum gecȳðed, 924.--Comp. gum-, hilde-cyst.

cȳð. See on-cȳð.

cȳðan (see cūð), w. v., _to make known, to manifest, to show_: imp. sg. mægen-ellen cȳð, _show thy heroic strength_, 660; inf. cwealmbealu cȳðan, 1941; ellen cȳðan, 2696.

ge-cȳðan (_to make known_, hence): 1) _to give information, to announce_: inf. andsware gecȳðan, _to give answer_, 354; gerund, tō gecȳðanne hwanan ēowre cyme syndon (_to show whence ye come_), 257; pret. part. sōð is gecȳðed þæt ... (_the truth has become known_, it has shown itself to be true), 701; Higelāce wæs sīð Bēowulfes snūde gecȳðed, _the arrival of B. was quickly announced_, 1972; similarly, 2325.--2) _to make celebrated_, in pret. part.: wæs mīn fæder folcum gecȳðed (_my father was known to warriors_), 262; wæs his mōdsefa manegum gecȳðed, 349; cystum gecȳðed, 924.

cȳð (properly, _condition of being known_, hence _relationship_), st. f., _home, country, land_: in comp. feor-cȳð.

ge-cȳpan, w. v., _to purchase_: inf. næs him ǣnig þearf þæt hē ... þurfe wyrsan wīgfrecan weorðe gecȳpan, _had need to buy with treasures no inferior warrior_, 2497.


daroð, st. m., _spear_: dat. pl. dareðum lācan (_to fight_), 2849.

ge-dāl, st. n., _parting, separation_: nom. sg. his worulde gedāl, _his separation from the world_ (his death), 3069.--Comp. ealdor-, līf-gedāl.

dæg, st. m., _day_: nom. sg. dæg, 485, 732, 2647; acc. sg. dæg, 2400; andlangne dæg, _the whole day_, 2116; morgenlongne dæg (_the whole morning_), 2895; oð dōmes dæg, _till judgment-day_, 3070; dat. sg. on þǣm dæge þysses līfes (eo tempore, tunc), 197, 791, 807; gen. sg. dæges, 1601, 2321; hwīl dæges, _a day's time, a whole day_, 1496; dæges and nihtes, _day and night_, 2270; dæges, _by day_, 1936; dat. pl. on tȳn dagum, _in ten days_, 3161.--Comp. ǣr-, dēað-, ende-, ealdor-, fyrn-, geār-, lǣn-, līf-, swylt-, win-dæg, an-dæges.

dæg-hwīl, st. f., _day-time_: acc. pl. þæt hē dæghwīla gedrogen hæfde eorðan wynne, _that he had enjoyed earth's pleasures during the days_ (appointed to him), i.e. that his life was finished, 2727.--(After Grein.)

dæg-rīm, st. n., _series of days, fixed number of days_: nom. sg. dōgera dægrīm (_number of the days of his life_), 824.

dǣd, st. f., _deed, action_: acc. sg. dēorlīce dǣd, 585; dōmlēasan dǣd, 2891; frēcne dǣde, 890; dǣd, 941; acc. pl. Grendles dǣda, 195; gen. pl. dǣda, 181, 479, 2455, etc.; dat. pl. dǣdum, 1228, 2437, etc.--Comp. ellen-, fyren-, lof-dǣd.

dǣd-cēne, adj., _bold in deed_: nom. sg. dǣd-cēne mon, 1646.

dǣd-fruma, w. m., _doer of deeds, doer_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 2091.

dǣd-bata, w. m., _he who pursues with his deeds_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 275.

dǣdla, w. m., _doer_: in comp. mān-for-dǣdla.

dǣl, st. m., _part, portion_: acc. sg. dǣl, 622, 2246, 3128; acc. pl. dǣlas, 1733.--Often dǣl designates the portion of a thing or of a quality which belongs in general to an individual, as, oð þæt him on innan oferhygda dǣl weaxeð, _till in his bosom his portion of arrogance increases_: i.e. whatever arrogance he has, his arrogance, 1741. Bīowulfe wearð dryhtmāðma dǣl dēaðe, forgolden, _to Bēowulf his part of the splendid treasures was paid with death_, i.e. whatever splendid treasures were allotted to him, whatever part of them he could win in the fight with the dragon, 2844; similarly, 1151, 1753, 2029, 2069, 3128.

dǣlan, w. v., _to divide, to bestow, to share with_, w. acc.: pres. sg. III. mādmas dǣleð, 1757; pres. subj. þæt hē wið āglǣcean eofoðo dǣle, _that he bestow his strength upon_ (strive with) _the bringer of misery_ the drake), 2535; inf. hringas dǣlan, 1971; pret. bēagas dǣlde, 80; sceattas dǣlde, 1687.

be-dǣlan, w. instr., _(to divide), to tear away from, to strip of_: pret. part. drēamum (drēame) bedǣled, _deprived of the heavenly joys_ (of Grendel), 722, 1276.

ge-dǣlan: 1) _to distribute_: inf. (w. acc. _of the thing distributed_); bǣr on innan eall gedǣlan geongum and ealdum swylc him god sealde, _distribute therein to young and old all that God had given him_, 71.--2) _to divide, to separate_, with acc.: inf. sundur gedǣlan līf wið līce, _separate life from the body_, 2423; so pret. subj. þæt hē gedǣlde ... ānra gehwylces līf wið līce, 732.

denn (cf. denu, dene, vallis), st. n., _den, cave_: acc. sg. þæs wyrmes denn, 2761; gen. sg. (draca) gewāt dennes nīosian, 3046.

ge-defe, adj.: 1) (impersonal) _proper, appropriate_: nom. sg. swā hit gedēfe wæs (bið), _as was appropriate, proper_, 561, 1671, 3176.--2) _good, kind, friendly_; nom sg. bēo þū suna mīnum dǣdum gedēfe, _be friendly to my son by deeds_ (support my son in deed, namely, when he shall have attained to the government), 1228.--Comp. un-ge-dēfelīce.

dēman (see dōm), w. v.: 1) _to judge, to award justly_: pres. subj. mǣrðo dēme, 688.--2) _to judge favorably, to praise, to glorify_: pret. pl. his ellenweorc duguðum dēmdon, _praised his heroic deed with all their might_, 3176.

dēmend, _judge_: dǣda dēmend (of God), 181.

deal, adj., "superbus, clarus, fretus" (Grimm): nom. pl. þrȳðum dealle, 494.

dēad, adj., _dead_: nom. sg. 467, 1324, 2373; acc. sg. dēadne, 1310.

dēað, st. m., _death, dying_: nom. sg, dēað, 441, 447, etc.; acc. sg. dēað, 2169; dat. sg. dēaðe, 1389, 1590, (as instr.) 2844, 3046; gen. sg. dēaðes wylm, 2270; dēaðes nȳd, 2455.--Comp. gūð-, wæl-, wundor-dēað.

dēað-bed, st. n., _death-bed_: dat. sg. dēað-bedde fæst, 2902.

dēað-cwalu, st. f., _violent death_, _ruin and death_: dat. pl. tō dēað-cwalum, 1713.

dēað-cwealm, st. m., _violent death, murder_: nom. sg. 1671.

dēað-dæg, st. m., _death-day, dying day_: dat. sg. æfter dēað-dæge (_after his death_), 187, 886.

dēað-fǣge, adj., _given over to death_: nom. sg. (Grendel) dēað-fǣge dēog, _had hidden himself, being given over to death_ (mortally wounded), 851.

dēað-scūa, w. m., _death-shadow, ghostly being, demon of death_: nom. sg. deorc dēað-scūa (of Grendel), 160.

dēað-wērig, adj., _weakened by death_, i.e. dead: acc. sg. dēað-wērigne, 2126. See wērig.

dēað-wīc, st. n. _death's house, home of death_: acc. sg. gewāt dēaðwīc sēon (_had died_), 1276.

dēagan (O.H.G. pret. part. tougan, _hidden_), _to conceal one's self, to hide_: pret. (for pluperf.) dēog, 851.--Leo.

deorc, adj., _dark_: of the night, nom. sg. (nihthelm) deorc, 1791; dat. pl. deorcum nihtum, 275, 2212; of the terrible Grendel, nom. sg. deorc dēað-scūa, 160.

dēofol, st. m. n., _devil_: gen. sg. dēofles, 2089; gen. pl. dēofla, of Grendel and his troop, 757, 1681.

dēogol, dȳgol, adj., _concealed, hidden, inaccessible, beyond information, unknown_: nom. sg. dēogol dǣdhata (of Grendel), 275; acc. sg. dȳgel lond, _inaccessible land_, 1358.

dēop, st. n., _deep, abyss_: acc. sg., 2550.

dēop, adv. _deeply_: acc. sg. dēop wæter, 509, 1905.

dīope, adj., _deep_: hit oð dōmes dæg dīope benemdon þēodnas mǣre, _the illustrious rulers had charmed it deeply till the judgment-day, had laid a solemn spell upon it_, 3070.

dēor, st. n., _animal, wild animal_: in comp. mere-, sǣ-dēor.

dēor, adj.: 1) _wild, terrible_: nom. sg. dīor dǣd-fruma (of Grendel), 2091.--2) _bold, brave_: nom. nǣnig ... dēor, 1934.--Comp.: heaðu-, hilde-dēor.

dēore, dȳre, adj.: 1) _dear, costly_ (high in price): acc. sg. dȳre īren, 2051; drincfæt dȳre (dēore), 2307, 2255; instr. sg. dēoran sweorde, 561; dat. sg. dēorum māðme, 1529; nom. pl. dȳre swyrd, 3049; acc. pl. dēore (dȳre) māðmas, 2237, 3132.--2) _dear, beloved, worthy_: nom. sg. f., æðelum dīore, _worthy by reason of origin_, 1950; dat. sg. æfter dēorum men, 1880; gen. sg. dēorre duguðe, 488; superl. acc. sg. aldorþegn þone dēorestan, 1310.

dēor-līc, adj., _bold, brave_: acc. sg. dēorlīce dǣd, 585. See dēor.

disc, st. m., _disc, plate, flat dish_: nom. acc. pl. discas, 2776, 3049.

ge-dīgan. See ge-dȳgan.

dol-gilp, st. m., _mad boast, foolish pride, vain-glory, thoughtless audacity_: dat. sg. for dolgilpe, 509.

dol-līc, adj., _audacious_: gen. pl. mǣst ... dǣda dollīcra, 2647.

dol-sceaða, w. m., _bold enemy_: acc. sg. þone dol-scaðan (Grendel), 479.

dōgor, st. m. n., _day_; 1) day as a period of 24 hours: gen. sg. ymb āntīd ōðres dōgores, _at the same time of the next day_, 219; morgen-lēoht ōðres dōgores, _the morning-light of the second day_, 606.--2) day in the usual sense: acc. sg. n. þȳs dōgor, _during this day_, 1396; instr. þȳ dōgore, 1798; forman dōgore, 2574; gen. pl. dōgora gehwām, 88; dōgra gehwylce, 1091; dōgera dægrim, _the number of his days_ (the days of his life), 824.--3) _day_ in the wider sense of time: dat. pl. ufaran dōgrum, _in later days, times_, 2201, 2393.--Comp. ende-dōgor.

dōgor-gerīm, st. n., _series of days_: gen. sg. wæs eall sceacen dōgor-gerīmes, _the whole number of his days_ (his life) _was past_, 2729.

dōhtor, st. f., _daughter_: nom. acc. sg. dōhtor, 375, 1077, 1930, 1982, etc.

dōm, st. m.: I., _condition, state in general_; in comp. cyne-, wis-dōm.--II., having reference to justice, hence: 1) _judgment, judicial opinion_: instr. sg. weotena dōme, _according to the judgment of the Witan_, 1099. 2) _custom_: æfter dōme, _according to custom_, 1721. 3) _court, tribunal_: gen. sg. miclan dōmes, 979; oð dōmes dæg, 3070, both times of the last judgment.--III., _condition of freedom_ or _superiority_, hence: 4) _choice, free will_: acc. sg. on sīnne sylfes dōm, _according to his own choice_, 2148; instr. sg. selfes dōme, 896, 2777. 5) _might, power_: nom. sg. dōm godes, 2859; acc. sg. Eofores ānne dōm, 2965; dat. sg. drihtnes dōme, 441. 6) _glory, honor, renown_: nom. sg. [dōm], 955; dōm unlȳtel, _not a little glory_, 886; þæt wæs forma sīð dēorum māðme þæt his dōm ālæg, _it was the first time to the dear treasure_ (the sword Hrunting) _that its fame was not made good_, 1529; acc. sg. ic mē dōm gewyrce, _make renown for myself_, 1492; þæt þū ne ālǣte dōm gedrēosan, _that thou let not honor fall_, 2667; dat. instr. sg. þǣr hē dōme forlēas, _here he lost his reputation_, 1471; dōme gewurðad, _adorned with glory_, 1646; gen. sg. wyrce sē þe mōte dōmes, _let him make himself reputation, whoever is able_, 1389. 7) _splendor_ (in heaven): acc. sōð-fæstra dōm, _the glory of the saints_, 2821.

dōm-lēas, adj., _without reputation, inglorious_: acc. sg. f. dōmlēasan dǣd, 2891.

dōn, red. v., _to do, to make, to treat_: 1) absolutely: imp. dōð swā ic bidde, _do as I beg_, 1232.--2) w. acc.: inf. hēt hire selfre sunu on bǣl dōn, 1117; pret. þā hē him of dyde īsernbyrnan, _took off the iron corselet_, 672; (þonne) him Hūnlāfing, ... billa sēlest, on bearm dyde, _when he made a present to him of Hūnlāfing, the best of swords_, 1145; dyde him of healse hring gyldenne, _took off the gold ring from his neck_, 2810; nē him þæs wyrmes wīg for wiht dyde, eafoð and ellen, _nor did he reckon as anything the drake's fighting, power, and strength_, 2349; pl. hī on beorg dydon bēg and siglu, _placed in the (grave-) mound rings and ornaments_, 3165.--3) representing preceding verbs: inf. tō Gēatum sprec mildum wordum! swā sceal man dōn, _as one should do_, 1173; similarly, 1535, 2167; pres. metod eallum wēold, swā hē nū gīt dēð, _the creator ruled over all, as he still does_, 1059; similarly, 2471, 2860, and (sg. for pl.) 1135; pret. II. swā þū ǣr dydest, 1677; III. swā hē nū gȳt dyde, 957; similarly, 1382, 1892, 2522; pl. swā hīe oft ǣr dydon, 1239; similarly, 3071. With the case also which the preceding verb governs: wēn' ic þæt hē wille ... Gēatena lēode etan unforhte, swā hē oft dyde mægen Hrēðmanna, _I believe he will wish to devour the Gēat people, the fearless, as he often did_ (devoured) _the bloom of the Hrēðmen_, 444; gif ic þæt gefricge ... þæt þec ymbesittend egesan þȳwað, swā þec hetende hwīlum dydon, _that the neighbors distress thee as once the enemy did thee_ (i.e. distressed), 1829; gif ic ōwihte mæg þīnre mōd-lufan māran tilian þonne ic gȳt dyde, _if I can with anything obtain thy greater love than I have yet done_, 1825; similarly, pl. þonne þā dydon, 44.

ge-dōn, _to do, to make_, with the acc. and predicate adj.: prs. (god) gedēð him swā gewealdene worolde dǣlas, _makes the parts of the world_ (i.e. the whole world) _so subject that ..._, 1733; inf. nē hyne on medo-bence micles wyrðne drihten wereda gedōn wolde, _nor would the leader of the people much honor him at the mead-banquet_, 2187. With adv.: hē mec þǣr on innan ... gedōn wolde, _wished to place me in there_, 2091.

draca, w. m., _drake, dragon_: nom. sg., 893, 2212; acc. sg. dracan, 2403, 3132; gen. sg., 2089, 2291, 2550.--Comp.: eorð-, fȳr-, lēg-, līg-, nīð-draca.

on-drǣdan, st. v., w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the pers., _to fear, to be afraid of_: inf. þæt þū him on-drǣdan ne þearft ... aldorbealu, _needest not fear death for them_, 1675; pret. nō hē him þā sæcce ondrēd, _was not afraid of the combat_, 2348.

ge-dræg (from dragan, in the sense se gerere), st. n., _demeanor, actions_: acc. sg. sēcan dēofla gedræg, 757.

drepan, st. v., _to hit, to strike_: pret. sg. sweorde drep ferhð-genīðlan, 2881; pret. part. bið on hreðre ... drepen biteran strǣle, _struck in the breast with piercing arrow_, 1746; wæs in feorh dropen (_fatally hit_), 2982.

drepe, st. m., _blow, stroke_: acc. sg. drepe, 1590.

drēfan, ge-drēfan, w. v., _to move, to agitate, to stir up_: inf. gewāt ... drēfan dēop wæter (_to navigate_), 1905; pret. part. wæter under stōd drēorig and gedrēfed, 1418.

drēam, st. m., _rejoicing, joyous actions, joy_: nom. sg. hæleða drēam, 497; acc. sg. drēam hlūdne, 88; þū ... drēam healdende, _thou who livest in rejoicing_ (at the drinking-carouse), _who art joyous_, 1228: dat. instr. sg. drēame bedǣled, 1276; gen. pl. drēama lēas, 851; dat. pl. drēamum (here adverbial) lifdon, _lived in rejoicing, joyously_, 99; drēamum bedǣled, 722; the last may refer also to heavenly joys.--Comp. glēo-, gum-, man-, sele-drēam.

drēam-lēas, adj., _without rejoicing, joyless_: nom. sg. of King Heremōd, 1721.

drēogan, st. v.: 1) _to lead a life, to be in a certain condition_: pret. drēah æfter dōme, _lived in honor, honorably_, 2180; pret. pl. fyren-þearfe ongeat, þæt hīe ǣr drugon aldorlēase lange hwile, _(God) had seen the great distress, (had seen) that they had lived long without a ruler_ (?), 15.--2) _to experience, to live through, to do, to make, to enjoy_: imp. drēoh symbelwynne, _pass through the pleasure of the meal, to enjoy the meal_, 1783; inf. driht-scype drēogan (_do a heroic deed_), 1471; pret. sundnytte drēah (_had the occupation of swimming_, i.e. swam through the sea), 2361; pret. pl. hīe gewin drugon (_fought_), 799; hī sīð drugon, _made the way, went_, 1967.--3) _to experience, to bear, to suffer_: scealt werhðo drēogan, _shall suffer damnation_, 590; pret. þegn-sorge drēah, _bore sorrow for his heroes_, 131; nearoþearfe drēah, 422; pret. pl. inwidsorge þē hīe ǣr drugon, 832; similarly, 1859.

ā-drēogan, _to suffer, to endure_: inf. wrǣc ādrēogan, 3079.

ge-drēogan, _to live through, to enjoy_, pret. part. þæt hē ... gedrogen hæfde eorðan wynne, _that he had now enjoyed the pleasures of earth_ (i.e. that he was at his death), 2727.

drēor, st. m., _blood dropping or flowing from wounds_: instr. sg. drēore, 447.--Comp. heoru-, sāwul-, wæl-drēor.

drēor-fāh, adj., _colored with blood, spotted with blood_: nom. sg. 485.

drēorig, adj., _bloody, bleeding_: nom. sg. wæter stōd drēorig, 1418; acc. sg. dryhten sīnne drīorigne fand, 2790.--Comp. heoru-drēorig.

ge-drēosan, st. v., _to fall down, to sink_: pres. sg. III. līc-homa lǣne gedrēoseð, _the body, belonging to death, sinks down_, 1755; inf. þæt þū ne ālǣte dōm gedrēosan, _honor fall, sink_, 2667.

drincan, st. v., _to drink_ (with and without the acc.): pres. part. nom. pl. ealo drincende, 1946; pret. blōd ēdrum dranc, _drank the blood in streams_(?), 743; pret. pl. druncon wīn weras, _the men drank wine_, 1234; þǣr guman druncon, _where the men drank_, 1649. The pret. part., when it stands absolutely, has an active sense: nom. pl. druncne dryhtguman, _ye warriors who have drunk, are drinking_, 1232; acc. pl. nealles druncne slōg heorð-genēatas, _slew not his hearth-companions who had drunk with him_, i.e. at the banquet, 2180. With the instr. it means _drunken_: nom. sg. bēore (wīne) druncen, 531, 1468; nom. pl. bēore druncne, 480.

drīfan, st. v., _to drive_: pres. pl. þā þe brentingas ofer flōda genipu feorran drīfað, _who drive their ships thither from afar over the darkness of the sea_, 2809; inf. (w. acc.) þēah þe hē [ne] meahte on mere drīfan hringedstefnan, _although he could not drive the ship on the sea_, 1131.

to-drīfan, _to drive apart, to disperse_: pret. oð þæt unc flōd tōdrāf, 545.

drohtoð, st. m., _mode of living_ or _acting, calling, employment_: nom. sg. ne wæs his drohtoð þǣr swylce hē ǣr gemētte, _there was no employment for him_ (Grendel) _there such as he had found formerly_, 757.

drūsian, w. v. (cf. drēosan, properly, _to be ready to fall_; here of water), _to stagnate, to be putrid_. pret. lagu drūsade (through the blood of Grendel and his mother), 1631.

dryht, driht, st. f., _company, troop, band of warriors; noble band_: in comp. mago-driht.

ge-dryht, ge-driht, st. f., _troop, band of noble warriors_: nom. sg. mīnra eorla gedryht, 431; acc. sg. æðelinga gedriht, 118; mid his eorla (hæleða) gedriht (gedryht), 357, 663; similarly, 634, 1673.--Comp. sibbe-gedriht.

dryht-bearn, st. n., _youth from a noble warrior band, noble young man_: nom. sg. dryhtbearn Dena, 2036.

dryhten, drihten, st. m., _commander, lord_: a) _temporal lord_: nom. sg. dryhten, 1485, 2001, etc.; drihten, 1051; dat. dryhtne, 2483, etc.; dryhten, 1832.--b) _God_: nom. drihten, 108, etc.; dryhten, 687, etc.; dat. sg. dryhtne, 1693, etc.; drihtne, 1399, etc.; gen. sg. dryhtnes, 441; drihtnes, 941.--Comp.: frēa-, frēo-, gum-, man-, sige-, wine-dryhten.

dryht-guma, w. m., _one of a troop of warriors, noble warrior_: dat. sg. drihtguman, 1389; nom. pl. drihtguman, 99; dryhtguman, 1232; dat. pl. ofer dryhtgumum, 1791 (of Hrōðgār's warriors).

dryht-līc, adj., _(that which befits a noble troop of warriors), noble, excellent_: dryhtlīc īren, _excellent sword_, 893; acc. sg. f. (with an acc. sg. n.) drihtlīce wīf (of Hildeburh), 1159.

dryht-māðum, st. m., _excellent jewel, splendid treasure_: gen. pl. dryhtmāðma, 2844.

dryht-scipe, st. m., _(lord-ship) warlike virtue, bravery; heroic deed_: acc. sg. drihtscype drēogan, _to do a heroic deed_, 1471.

dryht-sele, st. m., _excellent, splendid hall_: nom. sg. driht-sele, 485; dryhtsele, 768; acc. sg. dryhtsele, 2321.

dryht-sib, st. f., _peace_ or _friendship between troops of noble warriors_: gen. sg. dryhtsibbe, 2069.

drync, st. m., _drink_: in comp. heoru-drync.

drync-fæt, st. n., _vessel for drink, to receive the drink_: acc. sg., 2255; drinc-fæt, 2307.

drysmian, w. v., _to become obscure, gloomy_ (through the falling rain): pres. sg. III. lyft drysmað, 1376.

drysne, adj. See on-drysne.

dugan, v., _to avail, to be capable, to be good_: pres. sg. III. hūru se aldor dēah, _especially is the prince capable_, 369; ðonne his ellen dēah, _if his strength avails, is good_, 573; þē him selfa dēah, _who is capable of himself, who can rely on himself_, 1840; pres. subj. þēah þīn wit duge, _though, indeed, your understanding be good, avail_, 590; similarly, 1661, 2032; pret. sg. þū ūs wēl dohtest, _you did us good, conducted yourself well towards us_, 1822; similarly, nū sēo hand ligeð sē þe ēow welhwylcra wilna dohte, _which was helpful to each one of your desires_, 1345; pret. subj. þēah þū heaðorǣsa gehwǣr dohte, _though thou wast everywhere strong in battle_, 526.

duguð (_state of being fit, capable_), st. f.: 1) _capability, strength_: dat. pl. for dugeðum, _in ability_(?), 2502; duguðum dēmdon, _praised with all their might_(?), 3176.--2) _men capable of bearing arms, band of warriors_, esp., _noble warriors_: nom. sg. duguð unlȳtel, 498; duguð, 1791, 2255; dat. sg. for duguðe, _before the heroes_, 2021; nalles frætwe geaf ealdor duguðe, _gave the band of heroes no treasure_ (more), 2921; lēoda duguðe on lāst, _upon the track of the heroes of the people_, i.e. after them, 2946; gen. sg. cūðe hē duguðe þēaw, _the custom of the noble warriors_, 359; dēorre duguðe, 488; similarly, 2239, 2659; acc. pl. duguða, 2036.--3) contrasted with geogoð, duguð designates the noted warriors of noble birth (as in the Middle Ages, knights in contrast with squires): so gen. sg. duguðe and geogoðe, 160; gehwylc ... duguðe and iogoðe, 1675; duguðe and geogoðe dǣl ǣghwylcne, 622.

durran, v. pret. and pres. _to dare_; prs. sg. II. þū dearst bīdan, _darest to await_, 527; III. hē gesēcean dear, 685; pres. subj. sēc gyf þū dyrre, _seek_ (Grendel's mother), _if thou dare_, 1380; pret. dorste, 1463, 1469, etc.; pl. dorston, 2849.

duru, st. f., _door, gate, wicket_: nom. sg., 722; acc. sg. [duru], 389.

ge-dūfan, st. v., _to dip in, to sink into_: pret. þæt sweord gedēaf (_the sword sank into the drake_, of a blow), 2701.

þurh-dūfan, _to dive through; to swim through, diving_: pret. wæter up þurh-dēaf, _swam through the water upwards_ (because he was before at the bottom), 1620.

dwellan, w. v., _to mislead, to hinder_: prs. III. nō hine wiht dweleð, ādl nē yldo, _him nothing misleads, neither sickness nor age_, 1736.

dyhtig, adj., _useful, good for_: nom. sg. n. sweord ... ecgum dyhtig, 1288.

dynnan, w. v., _to sound, to groan, to roar_: pret. dryhtsele (healwudu, hrūse) dynede, 768, 1318, 2559.

dyrne, adj.: 1) _concealed, secret, retired_: nom. sg. dyrne, 271; acc. sg. dryhtsele dyrnne (of the drake's cave-hall), 2321.--2) _secret, malicious, hidden by sorcery_: dat. instr. sg. dyrnan cræfte, _with secret magic art_, 2291; dyrnum cræfte, 2169; gen. pl. dyrnra gāsta, _of malicious spirits_ (of Grendel's kin), 1358.--Comp. un-dyrne.

dyrne, adv., _in secret, secretly_: him ...æfter dēorum men dyrne langað, _longs in secret for the dear man_, 1880.

dyrstig, adj., _bold, daring_: þēah þe hē dǣda gehwæs dyrstig wǣre, _although he had been courageous for every deed_, 2839.

ge-dȳgan, ge-dīgan, w. v., _to endure, to overcome_, with the acc. of the thing endured: pres. sg. II. gif þū þæt ellenweorc aldre gedīgest, _if thou survivest the heroic work with thy life_, 662; III. þæt þone hilderǣs hāl gedīgeð, _that he survives the battle in safety_, 300; similarly, inf. unfǣge gedīgan wēan and wræcsīð, 2293; hwæðer sēl mǣge wunde gedȳgan, _which of the two can stand the wounds better_ (come off with life), 2532; ne meahte unbyrnende dēop gedȳgan, _could not endure the deep without burning_ (could not hold out in the deep), 2550; pret. sg. I. III. ge-dīgde, 578, 1656, 2351, 2544.

dȳgol. See dēogol.

dȳre. See dēore.


ecg, st. f., _edge of the sword, point_: nom. sg. sweordes ecg, 1107; ecg, 1525, etc.; acc. sg. wið ord and wið ecge ingang forstōd, _defended the entrance against point and edge_ (i.e. against spear and sword), 1550; mēces ecge, 1813; nom. pl. ecge, 1146.--_Sword, battle-axe, any cutting weapon_: nom. sg. ne wæs ecg bona (_not the sword killed him_), 2507; sīo ecg brūn (Bēowulf's sword Nægling), 2578; hyne ecg fornam, _the sword snatched him away_, 2773, etc.; nom. pl. ecga, 2829; dat. pl. æscum and ecgum, 1773; dat. pl. (but denoting only one sword) ēacnum ecgum, 2141; gen. pl. ecga, 483, 806, 1169;--_blade_: ecg wæs īren, 1460.--Comp.: brūn-, heard-, stȳl-ecg, adj.

ecg-bana, w. m., _murderer by the sword_: dat. sg. Cain wearð tō ecg-banan āngan brēðer, 1263.

ecg-hete, st. m., _sword-hate, enmity which the sword carries out_: nom. sg., 84, 1739.

ecg-þracu, st. f., _sword-storm_ (of violent combat): acc. atole ecg-þræce, 597.

ed-hwyrft, st. m., _return_ (of a former condition): þā þǣr sōna wearð edhwyrft eorlum, siððan inne fealh Grendles mōdor (i.e. after Grendel's mother had penetrated into the hall, the former perilous condition, of the time of the visits of Grendel, returned to the men), 1282.

ed-wendan, w. v., _to turn back, to yield, to leave off_: inf. gyf him edwendan ǣfre scolde bealuwa bisigu, _if for him the affliction of evil should ever cease_, 280.

ed-wenden, st. f., _turning, change_: nom. sg. edwenden, 1775; ed-wenden torna gehwylces (_reparation for former neglect_), 2189.

edwīt-līf, st. n., _life in disgrace_: nom. sg., 2892.

efn, adj., _even, like_, with preceding on, and with depend. dat., _upon the same level, near_: him on efn ligeð ealdorgewinna, _lies near him_, 2904.

efnan (see æfnan) w. v., _to carry out, to perform, to accomplish_: pres. subj. eorlscype efne (_accomplish knightly deeds_), 2536; inf. eorlscipe efnan, 2623; sweorda gelāc efnan (_to battle_), 1042; gerund. tō efnanne, 1942; pret. eorlscipe efnde, 2134, 3008.

efne, adv., _even, exactly, precisely, just_, united with swā or swylc: efne swā swīðe swā, _just so much as_, 1093; efne swā sīde swā, 1224; wæs se gryre lǣssa efne swā micle swā, _by so much the less as ..._, 1284; lēoht inne stōd efne swā ... scīneð, _a gleam stood therein_ (in the sword) _just as when ... shines_, 1572; efne swā hwylc mægða swā þone magan cende (_a woman who has borne such a son_), 944; efne swā hwylcum manna swā him gemet þūhte, _to just such a man as seemed good to him_, 3058; efne swylce mǣla swylce ... þearf gesǣlde, _just at the times at which necessity commanded it_, 1250.

efstan, w. v., _to be in haste, to hasten_: inf. uton nū efstan, _let us hurry now_, 3102; pret. efste mid elne, _hastened with heroic strength_, 1494.

eft, adv.: l) _thereupon, afterwards_: 56, 1147, 2112, 3047, etc.; eft sōna bið, _then it happens immediately_, 1763; bōt eft cuman, _help come again_, 281.--2) _again, on the other side_: þæt hine on ylde eft gewunigen wilgesīðas, _that in old age again_ (also on their side) _willing companions should be attached to him_, 22;--_anew, again_: 135, 604, 693, 1557, etc.; eft swā ǣr, _again as formerly_, 643.--3) retro, rursus, _back_: 123, 296, 854, etc.; þæt hig æðelinges eft ne wēndon (_did not believe that he would come back_), 1597.

eft-cyme, st. m., _return_: gen. sg. eftcymes, 2897.

eft-sīð, st. m., _journey back, return_: acc. sg. 1892; gen. sg. eft-sīðes georn, 2784; acc. pl. eftsīðas tēah, _went the road back_, i.e. returned, 1333.

egesa, egsa (_state of terror_, active or passive): l) _frightfulness_: acc. sg. þurh egsan, 276; gen. egesan ne gȳmeð, _cares for nothing terrible, is not troubled about future terrors_(?), 1758.--2) _terror, horror, fear_: nom. sg. egesa, 785; instr. sg. egesan, 1828, 2737.--Comp.: glēd-, līg-, wæter-egesa.

eges-full, adj., _horrible (full of fear, fearful)_, 2930.

eges-līc, adj., _terrible, bringing terror_: of Grendel's head, 1650; of the beginning of the fight with the drake, 2310; of the drake, 2826.

egle, adj., _causing aversion, hideous_: nom. pl. neut., or, more probably, perhaps, adverbial, egle (MS. egl), 988.

egsian (denominative from egesa), w. v., _to have terror, distress_: pret. (as pluperf.) egsode eorl(?), 6.

ehtian, w. v., _to esteem, to make prominent with praise_: III. pl. pres. þæt þē ... weras ehtigað, _that thee men shall esteem, praise_, 1223.

elde (_those who generate_, cf. O.N. al-a, generare), st. m. only in the pl., _men_: dat. pl. eldum, 2215; mid eldum, _among men_, 2612.--See ylde.

eldo, st. f., _age_: instr. sg. eldo gebunden, 2112.

el-land, st. n., _foreign land, exile_: acc. sg. sceall ... elland tredan, (_shall be banished_), 3020.

ellen, st. n., _strength, heroic strength, bravery_: nom. sg. ellen, 573; eafoð and ellen, 903; Gēata ... eafoð and ellen, 603; acc. sg. eafoð and ellen, 2350; ellen cȳðan, _show bravery_, 2696; ellen fremedon, _exercised heroic strength, did heroic deeds_, 3; similarly, ic gefremman sceal eorlīc ellen, 638; ferh ellen wræc, _life drove out the strength_, i.e. with the departing life (of the dragon) his strength left him, 2707; dat. sg. on elne, 2507, 2817; as instr. þā wæs æt þām geongum grim andswaru ēðbegēte þām þe ǣr his elne forlēas, _then it was easy for_ (every one of) _those who before had lost his hero-courage, to obtain rough words from the young man_ (Wīglāf), 2862; mid elne, 1494, 2536; elne, alone, in adverbial sense, _strongly, zealously_, and with the nearly related meaning, _hurriedly, transiently_, 894, 1098, 1968, 2677, 2918; gen. sg. elnes læt, 1530; þā him wæs elnes þearf, 2877.--Comp. mægen-ellen.

ellen-dǣd, st. f., _heroic deed_: dat. pl. -dǣdum, 877, 901.

ellen-gǣst, st. m., _strength-spirit, demon with heroic strength_: nom. sg. of Grendel, 86.

ellen-līce, adv., _strongly, with heroic strength_, 2123.

ellen-mǣrðu, st. f., _renown of heroic strength_, dat. pl. -mǣrðum, 829, 1472.

ellen-rōf, adj., _renowned for strength_: nom. sg. 340, 358, 3064; dat. pl. -rōfum, 1788.

ellen-sēoc, adj., _infirm in strength_: acc. sg. þēoden ellensīocne (_the mortally wounded king, Bēowulf_), 2788.

ellen-weorc, st. n., (_strength-work_), _heroic deed, achievement in battle_: acc. sg. 662, 959, 1465, etc.; gen. pl. ellen-weorca, 2400.

elles, adv., _else, otherwise_: a (modal), _in another manner_, 2521.--b (local), elles hwǣr, _somewhere else_, 138; elles hwergen, 2591.

ellor, adv., _to some other place_, 55, 2255.

ellor-gāst, -gǣst, st. m., _spirit living elsewhere_ (standing outside of the community of mankind): nom. sg. se ellorgāst (Grendel), 808; (Grendel's mother), 1622; ellorgǣst (Grendel's mother), 1618; acc. pl. ellorgǣstas, 1350.

ellor-sīð, st. m., _departure, death_: nom. sg. 2452.

elra, adj. (comparative of a not existing form, ele, Goth. aljis, alius), _another_: dat. sg. on elran men, 753.

el-þēodig, adj., _of another people: foreign_: acc. pl. el-þēodige men, 336.

ende, st. m., _the extreme_: hence, 1) _end_: nom. sg. aldres (līfes) ende, 823, 2845; oð þæt ende becwōm (scil. unrihtes), 1255; acc. sg. ende līfgesceafta (līfes, lǣn-daga), 3064, 1387, 2343; hæfde eorðscrafa ende genyttod, _had used the end of the earth-caves_ (had made use of the caves for the last time), 3047; dat. sg. ealdres (līfes) æt ende, 2791, 2824; eoletes æt ende, 224.--2) _boundary_: acc. sg. sīde rīce þæt hē his selfa ne mæg ... ende geþencean, _the wide realm, so that he himself cannot comprehend its boundaries_, 1735.--3) _summit, head_: dat. sg. eorlum on ende, _to the nobles at the end_ (the highest courtiers), 2022.--Comp. woruld-ende.

ende-dæg, st. m., _last day, day of death_: nom. sg. 3036; acc. sg. 638.

ende-dōgor, st. m., _last day, day of death_: gen. sg. bēga on wēnum endedōgores and eftcymes lēotes monnes (_hesitating between the belief in the death and in the return of the dear man_), 2897.

ende-lāf, st. f., _last remnant_: nom. sg. þū eart ende-lāf ūsses cynnes, _art the last of our race_, 2814.

ende-lēan, st. n., _final reparation_: acc. sg. 1693.

ende-sǣta, w. m., _he who sits on the border, boundary-guard_: nom. sg. (here of the strand-watchman), 241.

ende-stæf, st. m. (elementum finis), _end_: acc. sg. hit on endestæf eft gelimpeð, _then it draws near to the end_, 1754.

ge-endian, w. v., _to end_: pret. part. ge-endod, 2312.

enge, adj., _narrow_: acc. pl. enge ānpaðas, _narrow paths_, 1411.

ent, st. m., _giant_: gen. pl. enta ǣr-geweorc (the sword-hilt out of the dwelling-place of Grendel), 1680; enta geweorc (the dragon's cave), 2718; eald-enta ǣr-geweorc (the costly things in the dragon's cave), 2775.

entisc, adj., _coming from giants_: acc. sg. entiscne helm, 2980.

etan, st. v., _to eat, to consume_: pres. sg. III. blōdig wæl ... eteð ān-genga, _he that goes alone_ (Grendel) _will devour the bloody corpse_, 448; inf. Gēatena lēode ... etan, 444.

þurh-etan, _to eat through_: pret. part. pl. nom. swyrd ... þurhetone, _swords eaten through_ (by rust), 3050.


ēc. See ēac.

ēce, adj., _everlasting_; nom. ēce drihten (God), 108; acc. sg. ēce eorðreced, _the everlasting earth-hall_ (the dragon's cave), 2720; gecēas ēcne rǣd, _chose the everlasting gain_ (died), 1202; dat. sg. ēcean dryhtne, 1693, 1780, 2331; acc. pl. gecēos ēce rǣdas, 1761.

ēdre. See ǣdre.

ēð-begēte, adj., _easy to obtain, ready_: nom. sg. þā wæs æt þām geongum grim andswaru ēð-begēte, _then from the young man_ (Wīglāf) _it was an easy thing to get a gruff answer_, 2862.

ēðe. See ēaðe.

ēðel, st. m., _hereditary possessions, hereditary estate_: acc. sg. swǣsne ēðel, 520; dat. sg. on ēðle, 1731.--In royal families the hereditary possession is the whole realm: hence, acc. sg. ēðel Scyldinga, _of the kingdom of the Scyldings_, 914; (Offa) wīsdōme hēold ēðel sīnne, _ruled with wisdom his inherited kingdom_, 1961.

ēðel-riht, st. n., _hereditary privileges_ (rights that belong to a hereditary estate): nom. sg. eard ēðel-riht, _estate and inherited privileges_, 2199.

ēðel-stōl, st. m., _hereditary seat, inherited throne_: acc. pl. ēðel-stōlas, 2372.

ēðel-turf, st. f., _inherited ground, hereditary estate_: dat. sg. on mīnre ēðeltyrf, 410.

ēðel-weard, st. m., _lord of the hereditary estate_ (realm): nom. sg. ēðelweard (_king_), 1703, 2211; dat. sg. Ēast-Dena ēðel wearde (King Hrōðgār), 617.

ēðel-wyn, st. f., _joy in_, or _enjoyment of, hereditary possessions_: nom. sg. nū sceal ... eall ēðelwyn ēowrum cynne, lufen ālicgean, _now shall your race want all home-joy, and subsistence_(?) (your race shall be banished from its hereditary abode), 2886; acc. sg. hē mē lond forgeaf, eard ēðelwyn, _presented me with land, abode, and the enjoyment of home_, 2494.

ēð-gesȳne, ȳð-gesēne, adj., _easy to see, visible to all_: nom. sg. 1111, 1245.

ēg-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: acc. sg. ofer ēg-clif (ecg-clif, MS.), 2894.

ēg-strēam, st. m., _sea-stream, sea-flood_: dat. pl. on ēg-strēamum, _in the sea-floods_, 577. See ēagor-strēam.

ēhtan (M.H.G. ǣchten; cf. ǣht and ge-æhtla), w. v. w. gen., _to be a pursuer, to pursue_: pres. part. ǣglǣca ēhtende wæs duguðe and geogoðe, 159; pret. pl. ēhton āglǣcan, _they pursued the bringer of sorrow_ (Bēowulf)(?), 1513.

ēst, st. m. f., _favor, grace, kindness_: acc. sg. hē him ēst getēah mēara and māðma (_honored him with horses and jewels_), 2166; gearwor hæfde āgendes ēst ǣr gescēawod, _would rather have seen the grace of the Lord_ (of God) _sooner_, 3076.--dat. pl., adverbial, libenter: him on folce hēold, ēstum mid āre, 2379; ēstum geȳwan (_to present_), 2150; him wæs ... wunden gold ēstum geēawed (_presented_), 1195; wē þæt ellenweorc ēstum miclum fremedon, 959.

ēste, adj., _gracious_: w. gen. ēste bearn-gebyrdo, _gracious through the birth_ (of such a son as Bēowulf), 946.


eafoð, st. n., _power, strength_: nom, sg. eafoð and ellen, 603, 903; acc. sg. eafoð and ellen, 2350; wē frēcne genēðdon eafoð uncūðes, _we have boldly ventured against the strength of the enemy_ (Grendel) _have withstood him_, 961; gen. sg. eafoðes cræftig, 1467; þæt þec ādl oððe ecg eafoðes getwǣfed, _shall rob of strength_, 1764; dat. pl. hine mihtig god ... eafeðum stēpte, _made him great through strength_, 1718.

eafor, st. m., _boar_; here the image of the boar as banner: acc. sg. eafor, 2153.

eafora (_offspring_), w. m.: 1) _son_: nom. sg. eafera, 12, 898; eafora, 375; acc. sg. eaferan, 1548, 1848; gen. sg. eafera, 19; nom. pl. eaferan, 2476; dat. pl. eaferum, 1069, 2471; uncran eaferan, 1186.--2) in broader sense, _successor_: dat. pl. eaforum, 1711.

eahta, num., _eight_: acc. pl. eahta mēaras, 1036; ēode eahta sum, _went as one of eight, with seven others_, 3124.

eahtian, w. v.: 1) _to consider; to deliberate_: pret. pl. w. acc. rǣd eahtedon, _consulted about help_, 172; pret. sg. (for the plural) þone sēlestan þāra þe mid Hrōðgāre hām eahtode, _the best one of those who with Hrōðgār deliberated about their home_ (ruled), 1408.--2) _to speak with reflection of_ (along with the idea of praise): pret. pl. eahtodan eorlscipe, _spoke of his noble character_, 3175.

eal, eall, adj., _all, whole_: nom. sg. werod eall, 652; pl. eal bencþelu, 486; sg. eall ēðelwyn, 2886; eal worold, 1739, etc.; þæt hit wearð eal gearo, healærna mǣst, 77; þæt hit (wīgbil) eal gemealt, 1609. And with a following genitive: þǣr wæs eal geador Grendles grāpe, _there was all together Grendel's hand, the whole hand of Grendel_, 836; eall ... lissa, _all favor_, 2150; wæs eall sceacen dōgorgerīmes, 2728. With apposition: þūhte him eall tō rūm, wongas and wīcstede, 2462; acc. sg. bēot eal, 523; similarly, 2018, 2081; oncȳððe ealle, _all distress_, 831; heals ealne, 2692; hlǣw ... ealne ūtan-weardne, 2298; gif hē þæt eal gemon, 1186, 2428; þæt eall geondseh, recedes geatwa, 3089; ealne wīde-ferhð, _through the whole wide life, through all time_, 1223; instr. sg. ealle mægene, _with all strength_, 2668; dat. sg. eallum ... manna cynne, 914; gen. sg. ealles moncynnes, 1956. Subst. ic þæs ealles mæg ... gefēan habban, 2740; brūc ealles well, 2163; frēan ealles þanc secge, _give thanks to the Lord of all_, 2795; nom. pl. untȳdras ealle, 111; scēotend ... ealle, 706; wē ealle, 942; acc. pl. fēond ealle, 700; similarly, 1081, 1797, 2815; subst. ofer ealle, 650; ealle hīe dēað fornam, 2237; līg ealle forswealg þāra þe þǣr gūð fornam, _all of those whom the war had snatched away_, 1123; dat. pl. eallum ceaster-būendum, 768; similarly, 824, 907, 1418; subst. āna wið eallum, _one against all_, 145; with gen. eallum gumena cynnes, 1058; gen. pl. æðelinga bearn ealra twelfa, _the kinsmen of all twelve nobles_ (twelve nobles hold the highest positions of the court), 3172; subst. hē āh ealra geweald, _has power over all_, 1728.

Uninflected: bil eal þurhwōd flǣschoman, _the battle-axe cleft the body through and through_, 1568; hæfde ... eal gefeormod fēt and folma, _had devoured entirely feet and hands_, 745; sē þe eall geman gār-cwealm gumena, _who remembers thoroughly the death of the men by the spear_, 2043, etc.

Adverbial: þēah ic eal mǣge, _although I am entirely able_, 681; hī on beorg dydon bēg and siglu eall swylce hyrsta, _they placed in the grave-mound rings, and ornaments, all such adornments_, 3165.--The gen. sg. ealles, adverbial in the sense of _entirely_, 1001, 1130.

eald, adj., _old_: a) of the age of living beings: nom. sg. eald, 357, 1703, 2211, etc.; dat. sg. ealdum, 2973; gen. sg. ealdes ūhtflogan (_dragon_), 2761; dat. sg. ealdum, 1875; geongum and ealdum, 72.--b) of things and of institutions: nom. sg. helm monig eald and ōmig, 2764; acc. sg. ealde lāfe (_sword_), 796, 1489; ealde wīsan, 1866; eald sweord, 1559, 1664, etc.; eald gewin, _old_ (lasting years), _distress_, 1782; eald enta geweorc (_the precious things in the drake's cave_), 2775; acc. pl. ealde māðmas, 472; ofer ealde riht, _against the old laws_ (namely, the Ten Commandments; Bēowulf believes that God has sent him the drake as a punishment, because he has unconsciously, at some time, violated one of the commandments), 2331.

yldra, compar. _older_: mīn yldra mǣg, 468; yldra brōðor, 1325; oð þæt hē (Heardrēd) yldra wearð, 2379.

yldesta, superl. _oldest_, in the usual sense; dat. sg. þām yldestan, 2436; in a moral sense, _the most respected_: nom. sg. se yldesta, 258; acc. sg. þone yldestan, 363, both times of Bēowulf.

eald-fæder, st. m., _old-father, grandfather, ancestor_: nom. sg. 373.

eald-gesegen, st. f., _traditions from old times_: gen. pl. eal-fela eald-gesegena, _very many of the old traditions_, 870.

eald-gesīð, st. m., _companion ever since old times, courtier for many years_: nom. pl. eald-gesīðas, 854.

eald-gestrēon, st. n., _treasure out of the old times_: dat. pl. eald-gestrēonum, 1382; gen. pl. -gestrēona, 1459.

eald-gewinna, w. m., _old-enemy, enemy for many years_: nom. sg. of Grendel, 1777.

eald-gewyrht, st. n., _merit on account of services rendered during many years_: nom. pl. þæt nǣron eald-gewyrht, þæt hē āna scyle gnorn þrowian, _that has not been his desert ever since long ago, that he should bear the distress alone_, 2658.

eald-hlāford, st. m., _lord through many years_: gen. sg. bill eald-hlāfordes (of the old Bēowulf(?)), 2779.

eald-metod, st. m., _God ruling ever since ancient times_: nom. sg. 946.

ealdor, aldor, st. m., _lord, chief_ (king or powerful noble): nom. sg. ealdor, 1645, 1849, 2921; aldor, 56, 369, 392; acc. sg. aldor, 669; dat. sg. ealdre, 593; aldre, 346.

ealdor, aldor, st. n., _life_: acc. sg. aldor, 1372; dat. sg. aldre, 1448, 1525; ealdre, 2600; him on aldre stōd herestrǣl hearda (in vitalibus), 1435; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not troubled about his life_, 1443; of ealdre gewāt, _went out of life, died_, 2625; as instr. aldre, 662, 681, etc.; ealdre, 1656, 2134, etc.; gen. sg. aldres, 823; ealdres, 2791, 2444; aldres orwēna, _despairing of life_, 1003, 1566; ealdres scyldig, _having forfeited life_, 1339, 2062; dat. pl. aldrum nēðdon, 510, 538.--Phrases: on aldre (_in life_), _ever_, 1780; tō aldre (_for life_), _always_, 2006, 2499; āwa tō aldre, _for ever and ever_, 956.

ealdor-bealu, st. n., _life's evil_: acc. sg. þū ... ondrǣdan ne þearft ... aldorbealu eorlum, _thou needest not fear death for the courtiers_, 1677.

ealdor-cearu, st. f., _trouble that endangers life, great trouble_: dat. sg. hē his lēodum wearð ... tō aldor-ceare, 907.

ealdor-dagas, st. m. pl., _days of one's life_: dat. pl. nǣfre on aldor-dagum (_never in his life_), 719; on ealder-dagum ǣr (_in former days_), 758.

ealdor-gedāl, st. n., _severing of life, death, end_: nom. sg. aldor-gedāl, 806.

ealdor-gewinna, w. m., _life-enemy, one who strives to take his enemy's life_ (in N.H.G. the contrary conception, Tod-feind): nom. sg. ealdorgewinna (_the dragon_), 2904.

ealdor-lēas, adj., _without a ruler_(?): nom. pl. aldor-lēase, 15.

ealdor-lēas, adj., _lifeless, dead_: acc. sg. aldor-lēasne, 1588; ealdor-lēasne, 3004.

ealdor-þegn, st. m., _nobleman at the court, distinguished courtier_: acc. sg. aldor-þegn (Hrōðgār's confidential adviser, Æschere), 1309.

eal-fela, adj., _very much_: with following gen., eal-fela eald-gesegena, _very many old traditions_, 870; eal-fela eotena cynnes, 884.

ealgian, w. v., _to shield, to defend, to protect_: inf. w. acc. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; pret. siððan hē (Hygelāc) under segne sinc eal-gode, wælrēaf werede, _while under his banner he protected the treasures, defended the spoil of battle_ (i.e. while he was upon the Viking expeditions), 1205.

eal-gylden, adj., _all golden, entirely of gold_: nom. sg. swȳn ealgylden, 1112; acc. sg. segn eallgylden, 2768.

eal-īrenne, adj., _entirely of iron_: acc. sg. eall-īrenne wīgbord, _a wholly iron battle-shield_, 2339.

ealu, st. n., _ale, beer_: acc. sg. ealo drincende, 1946.

ealu-benc, st. f., _ale-bench, bench for those drinking ale_: dat. sg. in ealo-bence, 1030; on ealu-bence, 2868.

ealu-scerwen, st. f., _terror_, under the figure of a mishap at an ale-drinking, probably the sudden taking away of the ale: nom. sg. Denum eallum wearð ... ealuscerwen, 770.

ealu-wǣge, st. n., _ale-can, portable vessel out of which ale is poured into the cups_: acc. sg. 2022; hroden ealowǣge, 495; dat. sg. ofer ealowǣge (_at the ale-carouse_), 481.

eal-wealda, w. adj., _all ruling_ (God): nom. sg. fæder alwalda, 316; alwalda, 956, 1315; dat. sg. al-wealdan, 929.

eard, st. m., _cultivated ground, estate, hereditary estate_; in a broader sense, _ground in general, abode, place of sojourn_: nom. sg. him wæs bām ... lond gecynde, eard ēðel-riht, _the land was bequeathed to them both, the land and the privileges attached to it._ 2199; acc. sg. fīfel-cynnes eard, _the ground of the giant race, place of sojourn_, 104; similarly, ælwihta eard, 1501; eard gemunde, _thought of his native ground, his home_, 1130; eard gīt ne const, _thou knowest not yet the place of sojourn._ 1378; eard and eorlscipe, _prǣdium et nobilitatem_, 1728; eard ēðelwyn, _land and the enjoyment of home_, 2494; dat. sg. ellor hwearf of earde, _went elsewhere from his place of abode_, i.e. died, 56; þæt wē rondas beren eft tō earde, _that we go again to our homes_, 2655; on earde, 2737; nom. pl. ēacne eardas, _the broad expanses_ (in the fen-sea where Grendel's home was), 1622.

eardian, w. v.: 1) _to have a dwelling-place, to live; to rest_: pret. pl. dȳre swyrd swā hīe wið eorðan fæðm þǣr eardodon, _costly swords, as they had rested in the earth's bosom_, 3051.--2) also transitively, _to inhabit_: pret. sg. Heorot eardode, 166; inf. wīc eardian elles hwergen, _inhabit a place elsewhere_ (i.e. die), 2590.

eard-lufa, w. m., _the living upon one's land, home-life_: acc. sg. eard-lufan, 693.

earfoð, st. n., _trouble, difficulty, struggle_: acc. pl. earfeðo, 534.

earfoð-līce, adv., _with trouble, with difficulty_, 1637, 1658; _with vexation, angrily_, 86; _sorrowfully_, 2823; _with difficulty, scarcely_, 2304, 2935.

earfoð-þrāg, st. f., _time full of troubles, sorrowful time_: acc. sg. -þrāge, 283.

earh, adj., _cowardly_: gen. sg. ne bið swylc earges sīð (_no coward undertaken that_), 2542.

earm, st. m., _arm_: acc. sg. earm, 836, 973; wið earm gesæt, _supported himself with his arm_, 750; dat. pl. earmum, 513.

earm, adj., _poor, miserable, unhappy_: nom. sg. earm, 2369; earme ides, _the unhappy woman_, 1118; dat. sg. earmre teohhe, _the unhappy band_, 2939.--Comp. acc. sg. earmran mannan, _a more wretched, more forsaken man_, 577.

earm-bēag, st. m., _arm-ring, bracelet_: gen. pl. earm-bēaga fela searwum gesǣled, _many arm-rings interlaced_, 2764.

earm-hrēad, st. f., _arm-ornament_. nom. pl. earm-hrēade twā, 1195 (Grein's conjecture, MS. earm reade).

earm-līc, adj., _wretched, miserable_: nom. sg. sceolde his ealdor-gedāl earmlīc wurðan, _his end should be wretched_, 808.

earm-sceapen, pret. part. as adj. (_properly, wretched by the decree of fate_), _wretched_: nom. sg. 1352.

earn, st. m., _eagle_: dat. sg. earne, 3027.

eatol. See atol.

eaxl, st. f., _shoulder_: acc. sg. eaxle, 836, 973; dat. sg. on eaxle, 817, 1548; be eaxle, 1538; on eaxle ides gnornode, _the woman sobbed on the shoulder_ (of her son, who has fallen and is being burnt), 1118; dat. pl. sæt frēan eaxlum nēah, _sat near the shoulders of his lord_ (Bēowulf lies lifeless upon the earth, and Wīglāf sits by his side, near his shoulder, so as to sprinkle the face of his dead lord), 2854; hē for eaxlum gestōd Deniga frēan, _he stood before the shoulders of the lord of the Danes_ (i.e. not directly before him, but somewhat to the side, as etiquette demanded), 358.

eaxl-gestealla, w. m., _he who has his position at the shoulder_ (sc. of his lord), _trusty courtier, counsellor of a prince_: nom. sg. 1327; acc. pl. -gesteallan, 1715.


ēac, conj., _also_: 97, 388, 433, etc.; ēc, 3132.

ēacen (pret. part. of a not existing eacan, augere), adj., _wide-spread_, _large_: nom. pl. ēacne eardas, _broad plains_, 1622.--_great, heavy_: eald sweord ēacen, 1664; dat. pl. ēacnum ecgum, 2141, both times of the great sword in Grendel's habitation.--_great, mighty, powerful_: æðele and ēacen, of Bēowulf, 198.

ēacen-cræftig, adj., _immense_ (of riches), _enormously great_: acc. sg. hord-ærna sum ēacen-cræftig, _that enormous treasure-house_, 2281; nom. sg. þæt yrfe ēacen-cræftig, iūmonna gold, 3052.

ēadig, adj., _blessed with possessions, rich, happy by reason of property_: nom. sg. wes, þenden þū lifige, æðeling ēadig, _be, as long as thou livest, a prince blessed with riches_, 1226; ēadig mon, 2471.--Comp. sige-, sigor-, tīr-ēadig.

ēadig-līce, adv., _in abundance, in joyous plenty_: drēamum lifdon ēadiglīce, _lived in rejoicing and plenty_, 100.

ēaðe, ēðe, ȳðe, adj., _easy, pleasant_: nom. pl. gode þancedon þæs þe him ȳð-lāde ēaðe wurdon, _thanked God that the sea-ways_ (the navigation) _had become easy to them_, 228; ne wæs þæt ēðe sīð, _no pleasant way_, 2587; næs þæt ȳðe cēap, _no easy purchase_, 2416; nō þæt ȳðe byð tō beflēonne, _not easy_ (as milder expression for _in no way, not at all_), 1003.

ēaðe, ȳðe, adv., _easily_. ēaðe, 478, 2292, 2765.

ēað-fynde, adj., _easy to find_: nom. sg. 138.

ēage, w. n., _eye_: dat. pl. him of ēagum stōd lēoht unfǣger, _out of his eyes came a terrible gleam_, 727; þæt ic ... ēagum starige, _see with eyes, behold_, 1782; similarly, 1936; gen. pl. ēagena bearhtm, 1767.

ēagor-strēam, st. m., _sea-stream sea_: acc. sg. 513.

ēa-land, st. n., _land surrounded by water_ (of the land of the Gēatas): acc. sg. ēa-lond, 2335; _island_.

ēam, st. m., _uncle, mothers brother_: nom. sg. 882.

ēastan, adv., _from the east_, 569.

ēawan, w. v., _to disclose, to show, to prove_: pres. sg. III. ēaweð ... uncūðne nīð, _shows evil enmity_, 276. See ēowan, ȳwan.

ge-ēawan, _to show, to offer_: pret. part. him wæs ... wunden gold ēstum ge-ēawed, _was graciously presented_, 1195.


ēode. See gangan.

eodor, st. m., _fence, hedge, railing_. Among the old Germans, an estate was separated by a fence from the property of others. Inside of this fence the laws of peace and protection held good, as well as in the house itself. Hence eodor is sometimes used instead of _house_: acc. pl. heht eahta mēaras on flet tēon, in under eoderas, _gave orders to lead eight steeds into the hall, into the house_, 1038.--2) figuratively, _lord, prince_, as protector: nom. sg. eodor, 428, 1045; eodur, 664.

eofoð, st. n., _strength_: acc. pl. eofoðo, 2535. See eafoð.

eofer, st. m.: 1) _boar_, here of the metal boar-image upon the helmet: nom. sg. eofer īrenheard, 1113.--2) figuratively, _bold hero, brave fighter_ (O.N. iöfur): nom. pl. þonne ... eoferas cnysedan, _when the heroes rushed upon each other_, 1329, where eoferas and fēðan stand in the same relation to each other as cnysedan and hniton.

eofor-līc, st. n. _boar-image_ (on the helmet): nom. pl. eofor-līc scionon, 303.

eofor-sprēot, st. m., _boar-spear_: dat. pl. mid eofer-sprēotum hēoro-hōcyhtum, _with hunting-spears which were provided with sharp hooks_, 1438.

eoguð, ioguð. See geogoð.

eolet, st. m. n., _sea_(?): gen. sg. eoletes, 224.

eorclan-stān, st. m., _precious stone_: acc. pl. -stānas, 1209.

eorð-cyning, st. m., _king of the land_: gen. sg. eorð-cyninges (Finn), 1156.

eorð-draca, w. m., _earth-drake, dragon that lives in the earth_: nom. sg. 2713, 2826.

eorðe, w. f.: 1) _earth_ (in contrast with heaven), _world_: acc. sg. ælmihtiga eorðan worhte, 92; wīde geond eorðan, _far over the earth, through the wide world_, 266; dat. sg. ofer eorðan, 248, 803; on eorðan, 1823, 2856, 3139; gen. sg. eorðan, 753.--2) _earth, ground_: acc. sg. hē eorðan gefēoll, _fell to the ground_, 2835; forlēton eorla gestrēon eorðan healdan, _let the earth hold the nobles' treasure_, 3168; dat. sg. þæt hit on eorðan læg, 1533; under eorðan, 2416; gen. sg. wið eorðan fæðm (_in the bosom of the earth_), 3050.

eorð-reced, st. n., _hall in the earth, rock-hall_: acc. sg. 2720.

eorð-scræf, st. n., _earth-cavern, cave_: dat. sg. eorð-[scræfe], 2233; gen. pl. eorð-scræfe, 3047.

eorð-sele, st. m., _hall in the earth, cave_: acc. sg. eorð-sele, 2411; dat sg. of eorðsele, 2516.

eorð-weall, st. m., _earth-wall_: acc. sg. (Ongenþēow) bēah eft under eorðweall, _fled again under the earth-wall_ (into his fortified camp), 2958; þā mē wæs ... sīð ālȳfed inn under eorðweall, _then the way in, under the earth-wall was opened to me_ (into the dragon's cave), 3091.

eorð-weard, st. m., _land-property, estate_: acc. sg. 2335.

eorl, st. m., _noble born man, a man of the high nobility_: nom. sg. 762, 796, 1229, etc.; acc. sg. eorl, 573, 628, 2696; gen. sg. eorles, 690, 983, 1758, etc.; acc. pl. eorlas, 2817; dat. pl. eorlum, 770, 1282, 1650, etc.; gen. pl. eorla, 248, 357, 369, etc.--Since the king himself is from the stock of the eorlas, he is also called eorl, 6, 2952.

eorl-gestrēon, st. n., _wealth of the nobles_: gen. pl. eorl-gestrēona ... hardfyrdne dǣl, 2245.

eorl-gewǣde, st. n., _knightly dress, armor_: dat. pl. -gewǣdum, 1443.

eorlīc (i.e. eorl-līc), adj., _what it becomes a noble born man to do, chivalrous_: acc. sg. eorlīc ellen, 638.

eorl-scipe, st. m., _condition of being noble born, chivalrous nature, nobility_: acc. sg. eorl-scipe, 1728, 3175; eorl-scipe efnan, _to do chivalrous deeds_, 2134, 2536, 2623, 3008.

eorl-weorod, st. n., _followers of nobles_: nom. sg. 2894.

eormen-cyn, st. n., _very extensive race, mankind_: gen. sg. eormen-cynnes, 1958.

eormen-grund, st. m., _immensely wide plains, the whole broad earth_: acc. sg. ofer eormen-grund, 860.

eormen-lāf, st. f., _enormous legacy_: acc. sg. eormen-lāfe æðelan cynnes (_the treasures of the dragon's cave_) 2235.

eorre, adj., _angry, enraged_: gen. sg. eorres, 1448.

eoton, st. m.: 1) _giant_: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel), 762; dat. sg. uninflected, eoton (Grendel), 669; nom. pl. eotenas, 112.--2) Eotens, subjects of Finn, the N. Frisians: 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. pl. 1146. See List of Names, p. 114.

eotonisc, adj., _gigantic, coming from giants_: acc. sg. eald sweord eotenisc (eotonisc), 1559, 2980, (etonisc, MS.) 2617.


ēored-geatwe, st. f. pl., _warlike adornments_: acc. pl., 2867.

ēowan, w. v., _to show, to be seen_: pres. sg. III. ne gesacu ōhwǣr, ecghete ēoweð, _nowhere shows itself strife, sword-hate_, 1739. See ēawan, ȳwan.

ēower: 1) gen. pl. pers. pron., vestrum: ēower sum, _that one of you_ (namely, Bēowulf), 248; fǣhðe ēower lēode, _the enmity of the people of you_ (of your people), 597; nis þæt ēower sīð ... nefne mīn ānes, 2533.--2) poss. pron., _your_, 251, 257, 294, etc.


ge-fandian, -fondian, w. v., _to try, to search for, to find out, to experience_: w. gen. pret. part. þæt hæfde gumena sum goldes gefandod, _that a man had discovered the gold_, 2302; þonne se ān hafað þurh deāðes nȳd dǣda gefondad, _now the one_ (Herebeald) _has with death's pang experienced the deeds_ (the unhappy bow-shot of Hæðcyn), 2455.

fara, w. m., _farer, traveller_: in comp. mere-fara.

faran, st. v., _to move from one place to another, to go, to wander_: inf. tō hām faran, _to go home_, 124; lēton on geflīt faran fealwe mēaras, _let the fallow horses go in emulation_, 865; cwōm faran flotherge on Frēsna land, _had come to Friesland with a fleet_, 2916; cōm lēoda dugoðe on lāst faran, _came to go upon the track of the heroes of his people_, i.e. to follow them, 2946; gerund wǣron æðelingas eft tō lēodum fūse tō farenne, _the nobles were ready to go again to their people_, 1806; pret. sg. gegnum fōr [þā] ofer myrcan mōr, _there had_ (Grendel's mother) _gone away over the dark fen_, 1405; sǣgenga fōr, _the seafarer_ (the ship) _drove along_, 1909; (wyrm) mid bǣle fōr, (the dragon) _fled away with fire_, 2309; pret. pl. þæt ... scawan scīrhame tō scipe fōron, _that the visitors in glittering attire betook themselves to the ship_, 1896.

gefaran, _to proceed, to act_: inf. hū se mānsceaða under fǣrgripum gefaran wolde, _how he would act in his sudden attacks_, 739.

ūt faran, _to go out_: w. acc. lēt of brēostum ... word ūt faran, _let words go out of his breast, uttered words_, 2552.

faroð, st. m., _stream, flood of the sea, shore, strand, edge_: dat. sg. tō brimes faroðe, 28; æfter faroðe, _with the stream_, 580; æt faroðe, 1917.

faru, st. f., _way, passage, expedition_: in comp. ād-faru.

fācen-stæf (elementum nequitiae), st. m., _wickedness, treachery, deceit_. acc. pl. fācen-stafas, 1019.

fāh, fāg, adj., _many-colored, variegated, of varying color_ (especially said of the color of gold, of bronze, and of blood, in which the beams of light are refracted): nom. sg. fāh (_covered with blood_), 420; blōde fāh, 935; ātertānum fāh (sc. īren) [This is the MS reading; emmended to ātertēarum in text--KTH], 1460; sadol searwum fāh (_saddle artistically ornamented with gold_), 1039; sweord swāte fāh, 1287; brim blōde fāh, 1595; wældrēore fāg, 1632; (draca) fȳrwylmum fāh (_because he spewed flame_), 2672; sweord fāh and fǣted, 2702; blōde fāh, 2975; acc. sg. drēore fāhne, 447; goldsele fǣttum fāhne, 717; on fāgne flōr treddode, _trod the shining floor_ (of Heorot), 726; hrōf golde fāhne, _the roof shining with gold_, 928; nom. pl. eoforlīc ... fāh and fȳr-beard, 305; acc. pl. þā hilt since fāge, 1616; dat. pl. fāgum sweordum, 586.--Comp. bān-, blōd-, brūn-, drēor-, gold-, gryre-, searo-, sinc-, stān-, swāt-, wæl-, wyrm-fāh.

fāh, fāg, fā, adj.: 1) _hostile_: nom. sg. fāh fēond-scaða, 554; hē wæs fāg wið god (Grendel), 812; acc. sg. fāne (_the dragon_), 2656; gen. pl. fāra, 578, 1464.--2) _liable to pursuit, without peace, outlawed_: nom. sg. fāg, 1264; māne fāh, _outlawed through crime_, 979; fyren-dǣdum fāg, 1002.--Comp. nearo-fāh.

fāmig-heals, adj., _with foaming neck_: nom. sg. flota fāmig-heals, 218; (sǣgenga) fāmig-heals, 1910.

fæc, st. n., _period of time_: acc. sg. lȳtel fæc, _during a short time_, 2241.

fæder, st. m., _father_: nom. sg. fæder, 55, 262, 459, 2609; of God, 1610; fæder alwalda, 316; acc. sg. fæder, 1356; dat. sg. fæder, 2430; gen. sg. fæder, 21, 1480; of God, 188--Comp.: ǣr, eald-fæder.

fædera, w. m., _father's brother_ in comp. suhter-gefæderan.

fæder-æðelo, st. n. pl., _paternus principatus_ (?): dat. pl. fæder-æðelum, 912.

fæderen-mǣg, st. m., _kinsman descended from the same father, co-descendant_: dat. sg. fæderen-mǣge, 1264.

fæðm, st. m.: 1) _the outspread, encircling arms_: instr. pl. fēondes fæð[mum], 2129.--2) _embrace, encircling_: nom. sg. līges fæðm, 782; acc. sg. in fȳres fæðm, 185.--3) _bosom, lap_: acc. sg. on foldan fæðm, 1394; wið eorðan fæðm, 3050; dat. pl. tō fæder (God's) fæðmum, 188.--4) _power, property_: acc. in Francna fæðm, 1211.--Cf. sīd-fæðmed, sīð-fæðme.

fæðmian, w. v., _to embrace, to take up into itself_: pres. subj. þæt minne līchaman ... glēd fæðmie, 2653; inf. lēton flōd fæðmian frætwa hyrde, 3134.

ge-fæg, adj., _agreeable, desirable_ (Old Eng., fawe, _willingly_): comp. ge-fægra, 916.

fægen, adj., _glad, joyous_: nom. pl. ferhðum fægne, _the glad at heart_, 1634.

fæger, fǣger, adj., _beautiful, lovely_: nom. sg. fǣger fold-bold, 774; fæger foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. freoðoburh fægere, 522; nom. pl. þǣr him fold-wegas fægere þūhton, 867.--Comp. un-fǣger.

fægere, fægre, adv., _beautifully, well, becomingly, according to etiquette_: fægere geþǣgon medoful manig, 1015; þā wæs flet-sittendum fægere gereorded, _becomingly the repast was served_, 1789; Higelāc ongan ... fægre fricgean, 1986; similarly, 2990.

fær, st. n., _craft, ship_: nom. sg., 33.

fæst, adj., _bound, fast_: nom. sg. bið se slǣp tō fæst, 1743; acc. sg. frēondscipe fæstne, 2070; fæste frioðuwǣre, 1097.--The prep. on stands to denote the where or wherein: wæs tō fæst on þām (sc. on fǣhðe and fyrene), 137; on ancre fæst, 303. Or, oftener, the dative: fēond-grāpum fæst, _(held) fast in his antagonist's clutch_, 637; fȳrbendum fæst, _fast in the forged hinges_, 723; handa fæst, 1291, etc.; hygebendum fæst (beorn him langað), _fast (shut) in the bonds of his bosom, the man longs for_ (i.e. in secret), 1879.--Comp: ār-, blǣd-, gin-, sōð-, tīr-, wīs-fæst.

fæste, adv., _fæst_ 554, 761, 774, 789, 1296.--Comp. fæstor, 143.

be-fæstan, w. v., _to give over_: inf. hēt Hildeburh hire selfre sunu sweoloðe befæstan, _to give over to the flames her own son_, 1116.

fæsten, st. n., _fortified place, or place difficult of access_: acc. sg. lēoda fæsten, _the fastness of the Gēatas_ (with ref. to 2327, 2334; fæsten (Ongenþēow's castle or fort), 2951; fæsten (Grendel's house in the fen-sea), 104.

fæst-rǣd, adj., _firmly resolved_: acc. sg. fæst-rǣdne geþōht, _firm determination_, 611.

fæt, st. m., _way, journey_: in comp. sīð-fæt.

fæt, st. n., _vessel; vase, cup_: acc. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, _the (drinking-) vessels of men of old times_, 2762.--Comp.: bān-, drync-, māððum-, sinc-, wundor-fæt.

fǣge, adj.: 1) _forfeited to death, allotted to death by fate_: nom. sg. fǣge, 1756, 2142, 2976; fǣge and ge-flȳmed, 847; fūs and fǣge, 1242; acc. sg. fǣgne flǣsc-homan, 1569; dat. sg. fǣgum, 2078; gen. sg. fǣges, 1528.--2) _dead_: dat. pl. ofer fǣgum (_over the warriors fallen in the battle_), 3026.--Comp.: dēað-, un-fǣge.

fǣhð (_state of hostility_, see fāh), st. f., _hostile act, feud, battle_: nom. sg. fǣhð, 2404, 3062; acc. sg. fǣhðe, 153, 459, 470, 596, 1334, etc.; also of the unhappy bowshot of the Hrēðling, Hæðcyn, by which he killed his brother, 2466; dat. sg. fore fǣhðe and fyrene, 137; nalas for fǣhðe mearn (_did not recoil from the combat_), 1538; gen. sg, ne gefeah hē þǣre fǣhðe, 109; gen. pl. fǣhða gemyndig, 2690.--Comp. wæl-fǣhð.

fǣhðo, st. f., same as above: nom. sg. sīo fǣhðo, 3000; acc. fǣhðo, 2490.

fǣlsian, w. v., _to bring into a good condition, to cleanse_: inf. þæt ic mōte ... Heorot fǣlsian (from the plague of Grendel), 432; pret. Hrōðgāres ... sele fǣlsode, 2353.

ge-fǣlsian, w. v., same as above: pret. part. hæfde gefǣlsod ... sele Hrōðgāres, 826; Heorot is gefǣlsod, 1177; wǣron ȳð-gebland eal gefǣlsod, 1621.

fǣmne, w. f., _virgin, recens nupta_: dat. sg. fǣmnan, 2035; gen. sg. fǣmnan, 2060, both times of Hrōðgār's daughter Frēaware.

fǣr, st. m., _sudden, unexpected attack_: nom. sg. (attack upon Hnæf's band by Finn's), 1069, 2231.

fǣr-gripe, st. m., _sudden, treacherous gripe, attack_: nom. sg. fǣr-gripe flōdes, 1517; dat. pl. under fǣrgripum, 739.

fǣr-gryre, st. m., _fright caused by a sudden attack_: dat. pl. wið fǣr-gryrum (against the inroads of Grendel into Heorot), 174.

fǣringa, adv., _suddenly, unexpectedly_, 1415, 1989.

fǣr-nīð, st. m., _hostility with sudden attacks_: gen. pl. hwæt mē Grendel hafað ... fǣrnīða gefremed, 476.

fǣt, st. n. (?), _plate, sheet of metal_, especially _gold plate_ (Dietrich Hpt. Ztschr. XI. 420): dat. pl. gold sele ... fǣttum fāhne, _shining with gold plates_ (the walls and the inner part of the roof were partly covered with gold), 717; sceal se hearda helm hyrsted golde fǣtum befeallen (sc. wesan), _the gold ornaments shall fall away from it_, 2257.

fǣted, fǣtt, part., _ornamented with gold beaten into plate-form_: gen. sg. fǣttan goldes, 1094, 2247; instr. sg. fǣttan golde, 2103. Elsewhere, _covered, ornamented with gold plate_: nom. sg. sweord ... fǣted, 2702; acc. sg. fǣted wǣge, 2254, 2283; acc. pl. fǣtte scyldas, 333; fǣtte bēagas, 1751.

fǣted-hlēor, adj., phaleratus gena (Dietr.): acc. pl. eahta mēaras fǣted-hlēore (_eight horses with bridles covered with plates of gold_), 1037.

fǣt-gold, st. n., _gold in sheets_ or _plates_: acc. sg., 1922.

feðer-gearwe, st. f. pl. _(feather-equipment), the feathers of the shaft of the arrow_: dat. (instr.) pl. sceft feðer-gearwum fūs, 3120.

fel, st. n., _skin, hide_: dat. pl. glōf ... gegyrwed dracan fellum, _made of the skins of dragons_, 2089.

fela, I., adj. indecl., _much, many_: as subst.: acc. sg. fela fricgende, 2107. With worn placed before: hwæt þū worn fela ... ymb Brecan sprǣce, _how very much you spoke about Breca_, 530.--With gen. sg.: acc. sg. fela fyrene, 810; wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426; worna fela sorge, 2004; tō fela micles ... Denigea lēode, _too much of the race of the Danes_, 695; uncūðes fela, 877; fela lāðes, 930; fela lēofes and lāðes, 1061.--With gen. pl.: nom. sg. fela mādma, 36; fela þǣra wera and wīfa, 993, etc.; acc. sg. fela missēra, 153; fela fyrena, 164; ofer landa fela, 311; māððum-sigla fela (falo, MS.), 2758; nē mē swōr fela āða on unriht, _swore no false oaths_, 2739, etc.; worn fela māðma, 1784; worna fela gūða, 2543.--Comp. eal-fela.

II., adverbial, _very_, 1386, 2103, 2951.

fela-hrōr, adj., valde agitatus, _very active against the enemy, very warlike_, 27.

fela-mōdig, adj., _very courageous_: gen. pl. -mōdigra, 1638, 1889.

fela-synnig, adj., _very criminal, very guilty_: acc. sg. fela-sinnigne secg (in MS., on account of the alliteration, changed to simple sinnigne), 1380.

fēolan, st. v., _to betake one's self into a place, to conceal one's self_: pret. siððan inne fealh Grendles mōdor (in Heorot), 1282; þǣr inne fealh secg syn-bysig (in the dragon's cave), 2227.--_to fall into, undergo, endure_: searonīðas fealh, 1201.

æt-fēolan, w. dat., insistere, adhǣrere: pret. nō ic him þæs georne ætfealh _(held him not fast enough_, 969.

fen, st. n., _fen, moor_: acc. sg. fen, 104; dat. sg. tō fenne, 1296; fenne, 2010.

fen-freoðo, st. f., _refuge in the fen_: dat. sg. in fen-freoðo, 852.

feng, st. m., _gripe, embrace_: nom. sg. fȳres feng, 1765; acc. sg. fāra feng (of the hostile sea-monsters), 578.--Comp. inwit-feng.

fengel (probably _he who takes possession_, cf. tō fōn, 1756, and fōn tō rīce, _to enter upon the government_), st. m., _lord, prince, king_: nom. sg. wīsa fengel, 1401; snottra fengel, 1476, 2157; hringa fengel, 2346.

fen-ge-lād, st. n., _fen-paths, fen with paths_: acc. pl. frēcne fengelād (_fens difficult of access_), 1360.

fen-hlið, st. n., _marshy precipice_: acc. pl. under fen-hleoðu, 821.

fen-hop, st. n., _refuge in the fen_: acc. pl. on fen-hopu, 765.

ferh, st. m. n., _life_; see feorh.

ferh, st. m., _hog, boar_, here of the boar-image on the helmet: nom. sg., 305.

ferhð, st. m., _heart, soul_: dat. sg. on ferhðe, 755, 949, 1719; gehwylc hiora his ferhðe trēowde, þæt ..., _each of them trusted to his_ (Hunferð's) _heart, that_ ..., 1167; gen. sg. ferhðes fore-þanc, 1061; dat. pl. (adverbial) ferhðum fægne, _happy at heart_, 1634; þæt mon ... ferhðum frēoge, _that one ... heartily love_, 3178.--Comp.: collen-, sarig-, swift-, wide-ferhð.

ferhð-frec, adj., _having good courage, bold, brave_: acc. sg. ferhð-frecan Fin, 1147.

ferhð-genīðla, w. m., _mortal enemy_: acc. sg. ferhð-genīðlan, of the drake, 2882.

ferian, w. v. w. acc., _to bear, to bring, to conduct_: pres. II. pl. hwanon ferigeað fǣtte scyldas, 333; pret. pl. tō scypum feredon eal ingesteald eorðcyninges, 1155; similarly, feredon, 1159, 3114.

æt-ferian, _to carry away, to bear off_: pret. ic þæt hilt þanan fēondum ætferede, 1669.

ge-ferian, _bear, to bring, to lead_: pres. subj. I. pl. þonne (wē) geferian frēan ūserne, 3108; inf. geferian ... Grendles hēafod, 1639; pret. þæt hī ūt geferedon dȳre māðmas, 3131; pret. part. hēr syndon geferede feorran cumene ... Gēata lēode, _men of the Gēatas, come from afar, have been brought hither_ (by ship), 361.

oð-ferian, _to tear away, to take away_: pret. sg. I. unsōfte þonan feorh oð-ferede, 2142.

of-ferian, _to carry off, to take away, to tear away_: pret. ōðer swylc ūt offerede, _took away another such_ (sc. fifteen), 1584.

fetel-hilt, st. n., _sword-hilt_, with the gold chains fastened to it: acc. (sg. or pl.?), 1564. (See "Leitfaden f. nord. Altertumskunde," pp.45, 46.)

fetian, w. v., _to bring near, bring_: pres. subj. nāh hwā ... fe[tige] fǣted wǣge, _bring the gold-chased tankard_, 2254; pret. part. hraðe wæs tō būre Bēowulf fetod, 1311.

ge-fetian, _to bring_: inf. hēt þā eorla hlēo in gefetian Hrēðles lāfe, _caused Hrēðel's sword to be brought_, 2191.

ā-fēdan, w. v., _to nourish, to bring up_: pret. part. þǣr hē āfēded wæs, 694.

fēða (O.H.G. fendo), w. m.: 1) _foot-soldiers_: nom. pl. fēðan, 1328, 2545.--2) collective in sing., _band of foot-soldiers, troop of warriors_: nom. fēða eal gesæt, 1425; dat. on fēðan, 2498, 2920.--Comp. gum-fēða.

fēðe, st. n., _gait, going, pace_: dat. sg. wæs tō foremihtig fēond on fēðe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (i.e. could flee too fast), 971.

fēðe-cempa, w. m., _foot-soldier_: nom. sg., 1545, 2854.

fēðe-gæst, st. m., _guest coming on foot_: dat. pl. fēðe-gestum, 1977.

fēðe-lāst, st. m., _signs of going, footprint_: dat. pl. fērdon forð þonon fēðe-lāstum, _went forth from there upon their trail_, i.e. by the same way that they had gone, 1633.

fēðe-wīg, st. m., _battle on foot_: gen. sg. nealles Hetware hrēmge þorfton (sc. wesan) fēðe-wīges, 2365.

fēl (= fēol), st. f. _file_: gen. pl. fēla lāfe, _what the files have left behind_ (that is, the swords), 1033.

fēran, w. v., iter (A.S. fōr) facere, _to come, to go, to travel_: pres. subj. II. pl. ǣr gē ... on land Dena furður fēran, _ere you go farther into the land of the Danes_, 254; inf. fēran on frēan wǣre (_to die_), 27; gewiton him þā fēran (_set out upon their way_), 301; mǣl is mē tō fēran, 316; fēran ... gang scēawigan, _go, so as to see the footprints_, 1391; wīde fēran, 2262; pret. fērdon folctogan ... wundor scēawian, _the princes came to see the wonder_, 840; fērdon forð, 1633.

ge-fēran: 1) adire, _to arrive at_: pres. subj. þonne eorl ende gefēre līfgesceafta, _reach the end of life_, 3064; pret. part. hæfde ǣghwæðer ende gefēred lǣnan līfes, _frail life's end had both reached_, 2845.--2) _to reach, to accomplish, to bring about_: pret. hafast þū gefēred þæt ..., 1222, 1856.--3) _to behave one's self, to conduct one's self_: pret. frēcne gefērdon, _had shown themselves daring_, 1692.

feal, st. m., _fall_: in comp. wæl-feal.

feallan, st. v., _to fall, to fall headlong_: inf. feallan, 1071; pret. sg. þæt hē on hrūsan ne fēol, _that it_ (the hall) _did not fall to the ground_, 773; similarly, fēoll on foldan, 2976; fēoll on fēðan (dat. sg.), _fell in the band_ (of his warriors), 2920; pret. pl. þonne walu fēollon, 1043.

be-feallen, pret. part. w. dat. or instr., _deprived of, robbed_: frēondum befeallen, _robbed of friends_, 1127; sceal se hearda helm ... fǣtum befeallen (sc. wesan), _be robbed of its gold mountings_ (the gold mounting will fall away from it moldering), 2257.

ge-feallan, _to fall, to sink down_: pres. sg. III. þæt se līc-homa ... fǣge gefealleð, _that the body doomed to die sinks down_, 1756.--Also, with the acc. of the place whither: pret. meregrund gefēoll, 2101; hē eorðan gefēoll, 2835.

fealu, adj., _fallow, dun-colored, tawny_: acc. sg. ofer fealone flōd (_over the sea_), 1951; fealwe strǣte (with reference to 320, 917; acc. pl. lēton on geflīt faran fealwe mēaras, 866.--Comp. æppel-fealo.

feax, st. n., _hair, hair of the head_: dat. sg. wæs be feaxe on flet boren Grendles hēafod, _was carried by the hair into the hall_, 1648; him ... swāt ... sprong forð under fexe, _the blood sprang out under the hair of his head_, 2968.--Comp.: blonden-, gamol-, wunden-feax.

ge-fēa, w. m., _joy_: acc. sg. þǣre fylle gefēan, _joy at the abundant repast_, 562; ic þæs ealles mæg ... gefēan habban (_can rejoice at all this_), 2741.

fēa, adj., _few_ dat. pl. nemne fēaum ānum, _except some few_, 1082; gen. pl. fēara sum, _as one of a few, with a few_, 1413; fēara sumne, _one of a few (some few)_, 3062. With gen. following: acc. pl. fēa worda cwæð, _spoke few words_, 2663, 2247.

fēa-sceaft, adj., _miserable, unhappy, helpless_: nom. sg. syððan ǣrest wearð fēasceaft funden, 7; fēasceaft guma (Grendel), 974; dat. sg. fēasceaftum men, 2286; Ēadgilse ... fēasceaftum, 2394; nom. pl. fēasceafte (the Gēatas robbed of their king, Hygelāc), 2374.

feoh, fēo, st. n., (_properly cattle, herd_) here, _possessions, property, treasure_: instr. sg. ne wolde ... feorh-bealo fēo þingian, _would not allay life's evil for treasure_ (tribute), 156; similarly, þā fǣhðe fēo þingode, 470; ic þē þā fǣhðe fēo lēanige, 1381.

ge-feohan, ge-fēon, st. v. w. gen. and instr., _to enjoy one's self, to rejoice at something_: a) w. gen.: pret. sg. ne gefeah hē þǣre fǣhðe, 109; hilde gefeh, beado-weorces, 2299; pl. fylle gefǣgon, _enjoyed themselves at the bounteous repast_, 1015; þēodnes gefēgon, _rejoiced at_ (the return of) _the ruler_, 1628.--b) w. instr.: niht-weorce gefeh, ellen-mǣrðum, 828; secg weorce gefeh, 1570; sǣlāce gefeah, mægen-byrðenne þāra þe hē him mid hæfde, _rejoiced at the gift of the sea, and at the great burden of that_ (Grendel's head and the sword-hilt) _which he had with him_, 1625.

feoh-gift, -gyft, st. f., _bestowing of gifts_ or _treasures_: gen. sg. þǣre feoh-gyfte, 1026; dat. pl. æt feohgyftum, 1090; fromum feohgiftum, _with rich gifts_, 21.

feoh-lēas, adj., _that cannot be atoned for through gifts_: nom. sg. þæt wæs feoh-lēas gefeoht, _a deed of arms that cannot be expiated_ (the killing of his brother by Hæðcyn), 2442.

ge-feoht, st. n., _combat; warlike deed_: nom. sg. (the killing of his brother by Hæðcyn), 2442; dat. sg. mēce þone þīn fader tō gefeohte bær, _the sword which thy father bore to the combat_, 2049.

ge-feohtan, st. v., _to fight_: inf. w. acc. ne mehte ... wīg Hengeste wiht gefeohtan (_could by no means offer Hengest battle_), 1084.

feohte, w. f., _combat_: acc. sg. feohtan, 576, 960. See were-fyhte.

feor, adj., _far, remote_: nom. sg. nis þæt feor heonon, 1362; næs him feor þanon tō gesēcanne sinces bryttan, 1922; acc. sg. feor eal (_all that is far, past_), 1702.

feor, adv., _far, far away_: a) of space, 42, 109, 809, 1806, 1917; feor and (oððe) nēah, _far and (or) near_, 1222, 2871; feorr, 2267.--b) of time: gē feor hafað fǣhðe gestǣled (_has placed us under her enmity henceforth_), 1341.

Comparative, fyr, feorr, and feor: fyr and fæstor, 143; fyr, 252; feorr, 1989; feor, 542.

feor-būend, pt., _dwelling far away_: nom. pl. gē feor-būend, 254.

feor-cȳð, st. f., _home of those living far away, distant land_: nom, pl. feor-cȳððe bēoð sēlran gesōhte þǣm þe him selfa dēah, _foreign lands are better sought by him who trusts to his own ability_, 1839.

feorh, ferh (Goth. fairhvu-s, _world_), st. m. and n., _life, principle of life, soul_: nom. sg. feorh, 2124; nō þon lange wæs feorh æðelinges flǣsce bewunden, _not for much longer was the soul of the prince enveloped in the body_ (he was near death), 2425; ferh ellen wræc, _life expelled the strength_ (i.e. with the departing life the strength disappeared also), 2707; acc. sg. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; feorh gehealdan, _preserve his life_, 2857; feorh ālegde, _gave up his life_, 852; similarly, ǣr hē feorh seleð, 1371; feorh oðferede, _tore away her life_, 2142; oð þæt hīe forlǣddan tō þām lindplegan swǣse gesīðas ond hyra sylfra feorh, _till in an evil hour they carried into battle their dear companions and their lives_ (i.e. led them to their death), 2041; gif þū þīn feorh hafast, 1850; ymb feorh sacan (_to fight for life_), 439; wæs in feorh dropen, _was wounded into his life_, i.e. mortally, 2982; wīdan feorh, as temporal acc., _through a wide life_, i.e. always, 2015; dat. sg. fēore, 1294, 1549; tō wīdan feore, _for a wide life_, i.e. at all times, 934; on swā geongum feore (_at a so youthful age_), 1844; as instr., 578, 3014; gen. sg. fēores, 1434, 1943; dat. pl. būton ... feorum gumena, 73; frēonda fēorum, 1307.--Also, _body, corpse_: þā wæs heal hroden fēonda fēorum (_the hall was covered with the slain of the enemy_), 1153; gehwearf þā in Francna fæðm feorh cyninges, _then the body of the king_ (Hygelāc) _fell into the power of the Franks_, 1211. --Comp. geogoð-feorh.

feorh-bana, w. m., _(life-slayer), man-slayer, murderer_: dat. sg. feorh-bonan, 2466.

feorh-ben, st. f., _wound that takes away life, mortal wound_: dat. (instr.) pl. feorh-bennum sēoc, 2741.

feorh-bealu, st. n., _evil destroying life, violent death_: nom. sg., 2078, 2251, 2538; acc. sg., 156.

feorh-cyn, st. n., _race of the living, mankind_: gen. pl. fela feorh-cynna, 2267.

feorh-genīðla, w. m., _he who seeks life, life's enemy_ (N.H.G. Tod-feind), _mortal enemy_: acc. sg. -genīðlan, 1541; dat. sg. -genīðlan, 970; acc. sg. brǣgd feorh-genīðlan, 1541; acc. pl. folgode feorh-genīðlan, (Ongenþēow) _pursued his mortal enemies_, 2934.

feorh-lagu, st. f., _the life allotted to anyone, life determined by fate_: acc. sg. on māðma hord mine (mīnne, MS.) bebohte frōde feorh-lege, _for the treasure-hoard I sold my old life_, 2801.

feorh-lāst, st. m., _trace of (vanishing) life, sign of death _: acc. pl. feorh-lāstas bær, 847.

feorh-sēoc, adj., _mortally wounded_: nom. sg., 821.

feorh-sweng, st. m., _(stroke robbing of life), fatal blow_: acc. sg., 2490.

feorh-wund, st. f., _mortal wound, fatal injury_: acc. sg. feorh-wunde hlēat, 2386.

feorm, st. f., _subsistence, entertainment_: acc. sg. nō þū ymb mīnes ne þearft līces feorme leng sorgian, _thou needest no longer have care for the sustenance of my body_, 451.--2) _banquet_: dat. on feorme (or feorme, MS.), 2386.

feormend-lēas, adj., _wanting the. cleanser_: acc. pl. geseah ... fyrn-manna fatu feormend-lēase, 2762.

feormian, w. v., _to clean, to cleanse, to polish_: pres. part. nom pl. feormiend swefað (feormynd, MS.), 2257.

ge-feormian, w. v., _to feast, to eat_; pret. part. sōna hæfde unlyfigendes eal gefeormod fēt and folma, 745.

feorran, w. v., w. acc., _to remove_: inf. sibbe ne wolde wið manna hwone mægenes Deniga feorh-bealo feorran, fēo þingian, (Grendel) _would not from friendship free any one of the men of the Danes of life's evil, nor allay it for tribute_, 156.

feorran, adv., _from afar_: a) of space, 361, 430, 826, 1371, 1820, etc.; siððan æðelingas feorran gefricgean flēam ēowerne, _when noble men afar learn of your flight_ (when the news of your flight reaches distant lands), 2890; fērdon folctogan feorran and nēan, _from far and from near_, 840; similarly, nēan and feorran þū nū [friðu] hafast, 1175; wæs þæs wyrmes wīg wīde gesȳne ... nēan and feorran, _visible from afar, far and near_, 2318.--b) temporal: sē þe cūðe frumsceaft fīra feorran reccan (_since remote antiquity_), 91; similarly, feorran rehte, 2107.

feorran-cund, adj., _foreign-born_: dat. sg. feorran-cundum, 1796.

feor-weg, st. m., _far way_: dat. pl. mādma fela of feorwegum, _many precious things from distant paths_ (from foreign lands), 37.

ge-fēon. See feohan.

fēond, st. m., _enemy_: nom. sg., 164, 726, 749; fēond on helle (Grendel), 101; acc. sg., 279, 1865, 2707; dat. sg. fēonde, 143, 439; gen. sg. fēondes, 985, 2129, 2290; acc, pl. fēond, 699; dat. pl. fēondum, 420, 1670; gen. pl. feonda 294, 809, 904.

fēond-grāp, st. f., _foe's clutch_: dat. (instr.) pl. fēond-grāpum fæst, 637.

fēond-sceaða, w. m., _one who is an enemy and a robber_: nom. sg. fāh fēond-scaða (_a hostile sea-monster_), 554.

fēond-scipe, st. m., _hostility_: nom. sg., 3000.

fēower, num., _four_: nom. fēower bearn, 59; fēower mēaras, 2164; fēower, as substantive, 1638; acc. fēower māðmas, 1028.

fēower-tȳne, num., _fourteen_: nom. with following gen. pl. fēowertȳne Gēata, 1642.

findan, st. v., _to find, to invent, to attain_: a) with simple object in acc.: inf. þāra þe hē cēnoste findan mihte, 207; swylce hīe at Finnes-hām findan meahton sigla searo-gimma, 1157; similarly, 2871; mæg þǣr fela frēonda findan, 1839; wolde guman findan, 2295; swā hyt weorðlīcost fore-snotre men findan mihton, _so splendidly as only very wise men could devise it_, 3164; pret. sg. healþegnas fand, 720; word ōðer fand, _found other words_, i.e. went on to another narrative, 871; grimne gryrelīcne grund-hyrde fond, 2137; þæt ic gōdne funde bēaga bryttan, 1487; pret. part. syððan ǣrest wearð fēasceaft funden (_discovered_), 7.--b) with acc. and pred. adj.: pret. sg. dryhten sīnne drīorigne fand, 2790.--c) with acc. and inf.: pret. fand þā þǣr inne æðelinga gedriht swefan, 118; fand wæccendne wer wīges bīdan, 1268; hord-wynne fond opene standan, 2271; oð þæt hē fyrgen-bēamas ... hleonian funde, 1416; pret. pl. fundon þā sāwullēasne hlim-bed healdan, 3034.--d) with dependent clause: inf. nō þȳ ǣr fēasceafte findan meahton æt þām æðelinge þæt hē Heardrēde hlāford wǣre (_could by no means obtain it from the prince_), 2374.

on-findan, _to be sensible of, to perceive, to notice_: a) w. acc.: pret. sg. landweard onfand eftsīð eorla, _the coast-guard observed the return of the earls_, 1892; pret. part. þā hēo onfunden wæs (_was discovered_), 1294.--b) w. depend, clause: pret. sg. þā se gist onfand þæt se beado-lēoma bītan nolde, _the stranger_ (Bēowulf) _perceived that the sword would not cut_, 1523; sōna þæt onfunde, þæt ..., _immediately perceived that_..., 751; similarly, 810, 1498.

finger, st. m., _finger_: nom. pl. fingras, 761; acc. pl. fingras, 985; dat. (instr.) pl. fingrum, 1506; gen. pl. fingra, 765.

fīras, fȳras (O.H.G. firahī, i.e. _the living_; cf. feorh), st. m., only in pl., _men_: gen. pl. fīra, 91, 2742; monegum fīra, 2002; fȳra gehwylcne lēoda mīnra, 2251; fīra fyrngeweorc, 2287.

firen, fyren, st. f., _cunning waylaying, insidious hostility, malice, outrage_: nom. sg. fyren, 916; acc. sg. fyrene and fǣhðe, 153; fǣhðe and fyrene, 880, 2481; firen' ondrysne, 1933; dat. sg. fore fǣhðe and fyrene, 137; gen. pl. fyrena, 164, 629; and fyrene, 812; fyrena hyrde (of Grendel), 751. The dat. pl., fyrenum, is used adverbially in the sense of _maliciously_, 1745, or _fallaciously_, with reference to Hæðcyn's killing Herebeald, which was done unintentionally, 2442.

firen-dǣd, st. f., _wicked deed_: acc. pl. fyren-dǣda, 1670; instr. pl. fyren-dǣdum, 1002; both times of Grendel and his mother, with reference to their nocturnal inroads.

firen-þearf, st. f., _misery through the malignity of enemies_: acc. sg. fyren-þearfe, 14.

firgen-bēam, st. m., _tree of a mountain-forest_: acc. pl. fyrgen-bēamas, 1415.

firgen-holt, st. m., _mountain-wood, mountain-forest_: acc. sg. on fyrgen-holt, 1394.

firgen-strēam, st. m., _mountain-stream_: nom. sg. fyrgen-strēam, 1360; acc. sg. under fyrgen-strēam (marks the place where the mountain-stream, according to 1360, empties into Grendel's sea), 2129.

fisc, st. m., _fish_: in comp. hron-, mere-fisc.

fīf, num., _five_: uninflect. gen. fīf nihta fyrst, 545; acc. fīfe (?), 420.

fīfel-cyn (O.N. fīfl, stultus and gigas), st. n., _giant-race_: gen. sg. fīfelcynnes eard, 104.

fīf-tȳne, num., _fifteen_: acc. fȳftȳne, 1583; gen. fīftȳna sum, 207.

fīf-tig, num., _fifty_: 1) as substantive with gen. following; acc. fīftig wintra, 2734; gen. sē wæs fīftiges fōt-gemearces lang, 3043.--2) as adjective: acc. fīftig wintru, 2210.

flān, st. m., _arrow_: dat. sg. flāne, 3120; as instr., 2439.

flān-boga, w. m., _bow which shoots the flān, bow_: dat. sg. of flān-bogan, 1434, 1745.

flǣsc, st. n., _flesh, body in contrast with soul_: instr. sg. nō þon lange wæs feorh æðelinges flǣsce bewunden, _not much longer was the son of the prince contained in his body_, 2425.

flǣsc-hama, w. m., _clothing of flesh_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. flǣsc-homan, 1569.

flet, st. n.: 1) _ground, floor of a hall_: acc. sg. hēo on flet gebēah, _fell to the ground_, 1541; similarly, 1569.--2) _hall, mansion_: nom. sg. 1977; acc. sg. flet, 1037, 1648, 1950, 2018, etc.; flett, 2035; þæt hīe him ōðer flet eal gerȳmdon, _that they should give up entirely to them another hall_, 1087; dat. sg. on flette, 1026.

flet-ræst, st. f., _resting-place in the hall_: acc. sg. flet-ræste gebēag, _reclined upon the couch in the hall_, 1242.

flet-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_: acc. pl -sittende, 2023; dat. pl. -sittendum, 1789.

flet-werod, st. n., _troop from the hall_: nom. sg., 476.

flēam, st. m., _flight_: acc. sg. on flēam gewand, _had turned to flight_, 1002; flēam ēowerne, 2890.

flēogan, st. v., _to fly_: prs. sg. III. flēogeð, 2274.

flēon, st. v., _to flee_: inf. on heolster flēon, 756; flēon on fenhopu, 765; flēon under fen-hleoðu, 821; pret. hete-swengeas flēah, 2226.

be-flēon, w. acc., _to avoid, to escape_: gerund nō þæt ȳðe byð tō beflēonne, _that is not easy_ (i.e. not at all) _to be avoided_, 1004.

ofer-flēon, w. acc., _to flee from one, to yield_: inf. nelle ic beorges weard oferflēon fōtes trem, _will not yield to the warder of the mountain_ (the drake) _a foot's breadth_, 2526.

flēotan, st. v., _to float upon the water, to swim_: inf. nō hē wiht fram mē flōd-ȳðum feor flēotan meahte. hraðor on helme, _no whit, could he swim from me farther on the waves_ (regarded as instrumental, so that the waves marked the distance), _more swiftly in the sea_, 542; pret. sǣgenga flēat fāmigheals forð ofer ȳðe, _floated away over the waves_, 1910.

fliht. See flyht.

flitme. See un-flitme.

flītan, st. v., _to exert one's self, to strive, to emulate_: pres. part. flītende fealwe strǣte mēarum mǣton (_rode a race_), 917; pret. sg. II. eart þū se Bēowulf, sē þe wið Brecan ... ymb sund flite, _art thou the Bēowulf who once contended with Breca for the prize in swimming?_ 507.

ofer-flītan, _to surpass one in a contest, to conquer, to overcome_: pret. w. acc. hē þē æt sunde oferflāt (_overcome thee in a swimming-wager_), 517.

ge-flīt, st. n., _emulation_: acc. sg. lēton on geflīt faran fealwe mēaras, _let the fallow horses go in emulation_, 866.

floga, w. m., _flyer_; in the compounds: gūð-, lyft-, ūht-, wid-floga.

flota (see flēotan), w. m., _float, ship, boat_: nom. sg., 210, 218, 301; acc. sg. flotan ēowerne, 294.--Comp. wǣg-flota.

flot-here, st. m., _fleet_: instr. sg. cwōm faran flotherge on Frēsna land, 2916.

flōd, st. m., _flood, stream, sea-current_: nom. sg., 545, 580, 1362, etc.; acc. sg. flōd, 3134; ofer fealone flōd, 1951; dat. sg. tō flōde, 1889; gen. pl. flōda begong, _the region of floods_, i.e. the sea, 1498, 1827; flōda genipu, 2809.

flōd-ȳð, st. f., _flood-wave_: instr. pl. flōd-ȳðum, 542.

flōr, st. m., _floor, stone-floor_: acc. sg. on fāgne flōr (the floor was probably a kind of mosaic, made of colored flags), 726; dat. sg. gang þā æfter flōre, _along the floor_ (i.e. along the hall), 1317.

flyht, fliht, st. m., _flight_: nom. sg. gāres fliht, _flight of the spear_, 1766.

ge-flȳman, w. v., _to put to flight_: pret. part. geflȳmed, 847, 1371.

folc, st. n., _troop, band of warriors; folk_, in the sense of the whole body of the fighting men of a nation: acc. sg. folc, 522, 694, 912; Sūðdene folc, 464; folc and rīce, 1180; dat. sg. folce, 14, 2596; folce Deninga, 465; as instr. folce gestepte ofer sǣ sīde, _went with a band of warriors over the wide sea_, 2394; gen. sg. folces, 1125; folces Denigea, 1583.--The king is called folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2645, 2982; frēawine folces, 2358; or folces weard, 2514. The queen, folces cwēn, 1933.--The pl., in the sense of _warriors, fighting men_: nom. pl. folc, 1423, 2949; dat. pl. folcum, 55, 262, 1856; gen. pl. frēo- (frēa-) wine folca, _of the king_, 430, 2430; friðu-sibb folca, _of the queen_, 2018.--Comp. sige-folc.

folc-āgend, pres. part., _leader of a band of warriors_: nom. pl. folc-āgende, 3114.

folc-beorn, st. m., _man of the multitude, a common man_: nom. sg. folc-beorn, 2222.

folc-cwēn, st. f., _queen of a warlike host_: nom. sg., of Wealhþēow, 642.

folc-cyning, st. m., _king of a warlike host_: nom. sg., 2734, 2874.

folc-rǣd, st. m, _what best serves a warlike host_: acc. sg., 3007.

folc-riht, st. n., _the rights of the fighting men of a nation_: gen. pl. him ǣr forgeaf ... folcrihta gehwylc, swā his fæder āhte, 2609.

folc-scearu, st. f., _part of a host of warriors, nation_: dat. sg. folc-scare, 73.

folc-stede, st. m., _position of a band of warriors, place where a band of warriors is quartered_: acc. sg. folcstede, of the hall, Heorot, 76; folcstede fāra (_the battle-field_), 1464.

folc-toga, w. m., _leader of a body of warriors, duke_: nom. pl., powerful liege-men of Hrōðgār are called folc-togan, 840.

fold-bold, st. n., _earth-house_ (i.e. a house on earth in contrast with a dwelling in heaven): nom. sg. fǣger fold-bold, of the hall, Heorot, 774.

fold-būend, pres. part. _dweller on earth, man_: nom. pl. fold-būend, 2275; fold-būende, 1356; dat. pl. fold-būendum, 309.

folde, w. f., _earth, ground_: acc. sg. under foldan, 1362; fēoll on foldan, 2976; gen. sg. foldan bearm, _the bosom of the earth_, 1138; foldan scēatas, 96; foldan fæðm, 1394.--Also, _earth, world_: dat. sg. on foldan, 1197.

fold-weg, st. m., _field-way, road through the country_: acc. sg. fold-weg, 1634; acc. pl. fold-wegas, 867.

folgian, w. v.: 1) _to perform vassal-duty, to serve, to follow_: pret. pl. þēah hīe hira bēaggyfan banan folgedon, _although they followed the murderer of their prince_, 1103.--2) _to pursue, to follow after_: folgode feorh-genīðlan (acc. pl.) 2934.

folm, st. f, _hand_: acc. sg. folme, 971, 1304; dat. sg. mid folme, 743; acc. pl. fēt and folma, _feet and hands_, 746; dat. pl. tō banan folmum, 158; folmum (instr.), 723, 993.--Comp.: beado-, gearo-folm.

for, prep. w. dat., instr., and acc.: 1) w. dat. local, _before_, ante: þæt hē for eaxlum gestōd Deniga frēan, 358; for hlāwe, 1121.--b) _before_, coram, in conspectu: no hē þǣre feohgyfte for scēotendum scamigan þorfte, _had no need to be ashamed of the gift before the warriors_, 1027; for þǣm werede, 1216; for eorlum, 1650; for duguðe, _before the noble band of warriors_, 2021.--Causal, a) to denote a subjective motive, _on account of, through, from_: for wlenco, _from bravery, through warlike courage_, 338, 1207; for wlence, 508; for his wonhȳdum, 434; for onmēdlan, 2927, etc.--b) objective, partly denoting a cause, _through, from, by reason of_: for metode, _for the creator, on account of the creator_, 169; for þrēanȳdum, 833; for þrēanēdlan, 2225; for dolgilpe, _on account of, in accordance with the promise of bold deeds_ (because you claimed bold deeds for yourself), 509; him for hrōfsele hrīnan ne mehte fǣr-gripe flōdes, _on account of the roofed hall the malicious grasp of the flood could not reach him_, 1516; līg-egesan wæg for horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the treasure_, 2782; for mundgripe mīnum, _on account of, through the gripe of my hand_, 966; for þæs hildfruman hondgeweorce, 2836; for swenge, _through the stroke_, 2967; ne meahte ... dēop gedȳgan for dracan lēge, _could not hold out in the deep on account of the heat of the drake_, 2550. Here may be added such passages as ic þǣm gōdan sceal for his mōdþræce māðmas bēodan, _will offer him treasures on account of his boldness of character, for his high courage_, 385; ful-oft for lǣssan lēan teohhode, _gave often reward for what was inferior_, 952; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not uneasy about his life_, 1443; similarly, 1538. Also denoting purpose: for ārstafum, _to the assistance_, 382, 458.--2) w. instr. causal, _because of, for_: hē hine feor forwræc for þȳ mane, 110.--3) w. acc., _for, as, instead of_: for sunu frēogan, _love as a son_, 948; for sunu habban, 1176; nē him þæs wyrmes wīg for wiht dyde, _held the drake's fighting as nothing_, 2349.

foran, adv., _before, among the first, forward_: siððan ... scēawedon fēondes fingras, foran ǣghwylc (_each before himself_), 985; þæt wæs ān foran ealdgestrēona, _that was one among the first of the old treasures_, i.e. a splendid old treasure, 1459; þē him foran ongēan linde bǣron, _bore their shields forward against him_ (went out to fight against him), 2365.

be-foran: 1) adv., local, _before_: hē ... beforan gengde, _went before_, 1413; temporal, _before, earlier_, 2498.--2) prep. w. acc. _before_, in conspectu: mǣre māððum-sweord manige gesāwon beforan beorn beran, 1025.

ford, st. m., _ford, water-way_: acc. sg. ymb brontne ford, 568.

forð: 1) local, _forth, hither, near_: forð near ætstōp, _approached nearer_, 746; þā cwōm Wealhþēo forð gān, 1163; similarly, 613; him seleþegn forð wīsade, _led him_ (Bēowulf) _forth_ (to the couch that had been prepared for him in Heorot), 1796; þæt him swāt sprong forð under fexe, _forth under the hair of his head_, 2968. _Forward, further_: gewītað forð beran wǣpen and gewǣdu, 291; hē tō forð gestōp, 2290; freoðo-wong þone forð oferēodon, 2960. _Away, forth_, 45, 904; fyrst forð gewāt, _the time_ (of the way to the ship) _was out_, i.e. they had arrived at the ship, 210; mē ... forð-gewitenum, _to me the departed_, 1480; fērdon forð, _went forth_ (from Grendel's sea), 1633; þonne hē forð scile, _when he must (go) forth_, i.e. die, 3178; hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men forð gefremede, _carried him forth, over all men_, 1719.--2) temporal, _forth, from now on_: heald forð tela nīwe sibbe, 949; ic sceal forð sprecan gēn ymbe Grendel, _shall from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2070. See furðum and furðor.

forð-gerīmed, pres. part., _in unbroken succession_, 59.

forð-gesceaft, st. f., _that which is determined for farther on, future destiny_: acc. sg. hē þā forð-gesceaft forgyteð and forgȳmeð, 1751.

forð-weg, st. m., _road that leads away, journey_: hē of ealdre gewāt frōd on forð-weg (_upon the way to the next world_), 2626.

fore, prep. w. dat., local, _before_, coram, in conspectu: hēo fore þǣm werede spræc, 1216. Causal, _through, for, because of_: nō mearn fore fǣhðe and fyrene, 136; fore fæder dǣdum, _because of the father's deeds_, 2060,--Allied to this is the meaning, _about_, de, super: þǣr wæs sang and swēg samod ætgædere fore Healfdenes hildewīsan, _song and music about Healfdene's general_ (the song of Hnæf), 1065.

fore-mǣre, adj., _renowned beyond (others)_, prǣclarus: superl. þæt wæs fore-mǣrost foldbūendum receda under roderum, 309.

fore-mihtig, adj., _able beyond (others)_, prǣpotens: nom. sg. wæs tō foremihtig fēond on fēðe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (could flee too rapidly), 970.

fore-snotor, adj., _wise beyond (others)_, sapientissimus: nom. pl. foresnotre men, 3164.

fore-þanc, st. m., _forethought, consideration, deliberation_: nom. sg., 1061.

forht, adj., _fearful, cowardly_: nom. sg. forht, 2968; hē on mōde wearð forht on ferhðe, 755.--Comp. unforht.

forma, adj., _foremost, first_: nom. sg. forma sīð (_the first time_), 717, 1464, 1528, 2626; instr. sg. forman sīðe, 741, 2287; forman dōgore, 2574.

fyrmest, adv. superl., _first of all, in the first place_: hē fyrmest læg, 2078.

forst, st. m., _frost, cold_: gen. sg. forstes bend, 1610.

for-þām, for-þan, for-þon, adv. and conj., _therefore, on that account, then_: forþām, 149; forþan, 418, 680, 1060; forþon þe, _because_, 503.

fōn, st. v., _to catch, to grasp, to take hold, to take_: prs. sg. III. fēhð ōðer tō, _another lays hold_ (takes possession), 1756; inf. ic mid grāpe sceal fōn wið fēonde, 439; pret. sg. him tōgēanes fēng, _caught at him, grasped at him_, 1543; w. dat. hē þām frætwum fēng, _received the rich adornments_ (Ongenþēow's equipment), 2990.

be-fōn, _to surround, to ensnare, to encompass, to embrace_: pret. part. hyne sār hafað ... nearwe befongen balwon bendum, 977; hēo æðelinga ānne hæfde fæste befangen (_had seized him firmly_), 1296; helm ... befongen frēawrāsnum (_encircled by an ornament like a diadem_), 1452; fenne bifongen, _surrounded by the fen_, 2010; (draca) fȳre befongen, _encircled by fire_, 2275, 2596; hæfde landwara līge befangen, _encompassed by fire_, 2322.

ge-fōn, w. acc., _to seize, to grasp_: pret. hē gefēng slǣpendne rinc, 741; gūðrinc gefēng atolan clommum, 1502; gefēng þā be eaxle ... Gūðgēata lēod Grendles mōdor, 1538; gefēng þā fetelhilt, 1564; hond rond gefēng, geolwe linde, 2610; ic on ofoste gefēng micle mid mundum mægen-byrðenne, _hastily I seized with my hands the enormous burden_, 3091.

on-fōn, w. dat., _to receive, to accept, to take_: pres. imp. sg. onfōh þissum fulle, _accept this cup_, 1170; inf. þæt þæt þēodnes bearn ... scolde fæder-æðelum onfōn, _receive the paternal rank_, 912; pret. sg. hwā þǣm hlæste onfēng, _who received the ship's lading_, 52; hlēor-bolster onfēng eorles andwlitan, _the pillow received the nobleman's face_, 689; similarly, 853, 1495; heal swēge onfēng, _the hall received the loud noise_, 1215; hē onfēng hraðe inwit-þancum, _he_ (Bēowulf) _at once clutched him_ (Grendel) _devising malice_, 749.

þurh-fōn, w. acc., _to break through with grasping, to destroy by grasping_: inf. þæt hēo þone fyrd-hom þurh-fōn ne mihte, 1505.

wið-fōn, w. dat., _(to grasp at), to seize, to lay hold of_: pret. sg. him fæste wið-fēng, 761.

ymbe-fōn, w. acc., _to encircle_: pret. heals ealne ymbefēng biteran bānum, _encircled his_ (Bēowulf's) _whole neck with sharp bones_ (teeth), 2692.

fōt, st. m., _foot_: gen. sg. fōtes trem (_the measure of a foot, a foot broad_), 2526; acc. pl. fēt, 746; dat. pl. æt fōtum, _at the feet_, 500, 1167.

fōt-gemearc, st. n., _measure, determining by feet, number of feet_: gen. sg. sē wæs fīftiges fōtgemearces lang (_fifty feet long_), 3043.

fōt-lāst, st. m., _foot-print_: acc. sg. (draca) onfand fēondes fōt-lāst, 2290.

fracod, adj., _objectionable, useless_. nom. sg. næs sēo ecg fracod hilde-rince, 1576.

fram, from, I. prep. w. dat. loc. _away from something_: þǣr fram sylle ābēag medubenc monig, 776, 1716; þanon eft gewiton ealdgesīðas ... fram mere, 856; cyning-balde men from þǣm holmclife hafelan bǣron, 1636; similarly, 541, 543, 2367. Standing after the dat.: hē hine feor forwræc ... mancynne fram, 110; similarly, 1716. Also, _hither from something_: þā ic cwōm ... from fēondum, 420; ǣghwæðrum wæs ... brōga fram ōðrum, 2566.--Causal with verbs of saying and hearing, _of, about, concerning_: sægdest from his sīðe, 532; nō ic wiht fram þē swylcra searo-nīða secgan hȳrde, 581; þæt hē fram Sigemunde secgan hyrde, 876. II adv., _away, thence_: nō þȳ ǣr fram meahte, 755; _forth, out_: from ǣrest cwōm oruð āglǣcean ūt of stāne, _the breath of the dragon came forth first from the rock_ 2557.

fram, from, adj.: 1) _directed forwards, striving forwards_; in comp. sīð-fram.--2) _excellent, splendid_, of a man with reference to his warlike qualities: nom. sg. ic eom on mōde from, 2528; nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate, 1642, 2477. Of things: instr. pl. fromum feoh-giftum, 21.--Comp. un-from; see freme, forma.

ge-frægen. See frignan.

frætwe, st. f. pl., _ornament, anything costly_, originally _carved objects_ (cf. Dietrich in Hpts. Ztschr. X. 216 ff.), afterwards of any costly and artistic work: acc. pl. frætwe, 2920; beorhte frætwe, 214; beorhte frætwa, 897; frætwe.. eorclan-stānas, 1208; frætwe,... brēost-weorðunge, 2504, both times of Hygelāc's collar; frætwe and fæt-gold, 1922; frætwe (Eanmund's sword and armor), 2621; dat. instr. pl. þām frætwum, 2164; on frætewum, 963; frætwum (Heaðobeard sword) hrēmig, 2055; frætwum, of the drake's treasures, 2785; frætwum (Ongenþēow's armor), 2990; gen. pl. fela ... frætwa, 37; þāra frætwa (drake's treasure), 2795; frætwa hyrde (drake), 3134.

frætwan, w. v., _to supply with ornaments, to adorn_: inf. folc-stede frætwan, 76.

ge-frætwian, w. v., _to adorn_: pret. sg. gefrætwade foldan scēatas leomum and lēafum, 96; pret. part. þā wæs hāten Heort innanweard folmum gefrætwod, 993.

ge-frǣge, adj., _known by reputation, renowned_: nom. sg. lēod-cyning ... folcum gefrǣge, 55; swā hyt gefrǣge wæs, 2481.

ge-frǣge, st. n., _information through hearsay_: instr. sg. mine gefrǣge (_as I learned through the narrative of others_), 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ge-frǣgnian, w. v., _to become known through hearsay_: pret. part. fylle gefrǣgnod (of Grendel's mother, who had become known through the carrying off of Æschere), 1334?

freca, w. m., properly _a wolf_, as one that breaks in, robs; here a designation of heroes: nom. sg. freca Scildinga, of Bēowulf, 1564.--Comp.: gūð-, hilde-, scyld-, sweord-, wīg-freca; ferð-frec (adj.).

fremde, adj., properly _distant, foreign_; then _estranged, hostile_: nom sg. þæt wæs fremde þēod ēcean dryhtne, of the giants, 1692.

freme, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. fem. fremu folces cwēn, of Þrȳðo, 1933(?).

fremman, w. v., _to press forward, to further_, hence: 1) in general, _to perform, to accomplish, to do, to make_: pres. subj. without an object, fremme sē þe wille, _let him do (it) whoever will_, 1004. With acc.: imp. pl. fremmað gē nū lēoda þearfe, 2801; inf. fyrene fremman, 101; sæcce fremman, 2500; fǣhðe ... mǣrðum fremman, 2515, etc.; pret. sg. folcrǣd fremede (_did what was best for his men_, i.e. ruled wisely), 3007; pl. hū þā æðelingas ellen fremedon, 3; feohtan fremedon, 960; nalles fācenstafas ... þenden fremedon, 1020; pret. subj. þæt ic ... mǣrðo fremede, 2135. --2) _to help on, to support_: inf. þæt hē mec fremman wile wordum and worcum (to an expedition), 1833.

ge-fremman, w. acc., _to do, to make, to render_: inf. gefremman eorlīc ellen, 637; helpan gefremman, _to give help_, 2450; æfter wēaspelle wyrpe gefremman, _to work a change after sorrow_ (to give joy after sorrow), 1316; gerund, tō gefremmanne, 174, 2645; pret. sg. gefremede, 135, 165, 551, 585, etc.; þēah þe hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men forð gefremede, _placed him away, above all men_, i.e. raised him, 1719; pret. pl. gefremedon, 1188, 2479; pret. subj. gefremede, 177; pret. part. gefremed, 476; fem, nū scealc hafað ... dǣd gefremede, 941; absolutely, þū þē self hafast dǣdum gefremed, þæt ..., _hast brought it about by thy deeds that_, 955.

fretan, st. v., _to devour, to consume_: inf. þā (the precious things) sceal brond fretan, 3015; nū sceal glēd fretan wigena strengel, 3115; pret. sg. (Grendel) slǣpende fræt folces Denigea fȳftȳne men, 1582.

frēcne, adj., _dangerous, bold_: nom. sg. frēcne fȳr-draca, 2690; feorh-bealo frēcne, 2251, 2538; acc. sg. frēcne dǣde, 890; frēcne fengelād, 1360; frēcne stōwe, 1379; instr. sg. frēcnan sprǣce (_through provoking words_), 1105.

frēcne, adv., _boldly, audaciously_, 960, 1033, 1692.

frēa, w. m., _ruler, lord_, of a temporal ruler: nom. sg. frēa, 2286; acc. sg. frēan, 351, 1320, 2538, 3003, 3108; gen. sg. frēan, 359, 500, 1167, 1681; dat. sg. frēan, 271, 291, 2663. Of a husband: dat. sg. ēode ... tō hire frēan sittan, 642. Of God: dat. sg. frēan ealles, _the Lord of all_, 2795; gen. sg. frēan, 27.-- Comp.: āgend-, līf-, sin-frēa.

frēa-dryhten, st. m., _lord, ruling lord_: gen. sg. frēa-drihtnes, 797.

frēa-wine, st. m., _lord and friend, friendly ruler_: nom. sg. frēa-wine folces (folca), 2358, 2430; acc. sg. his frēa-wine, 2439.

frēa-wrāsn, st. f., _encircling ornament like a diadem_: instr. pl. helm ... befongen frēawrāsnum, 1452; see wrāsn.

freoðu, friðu, f., _protection, asylum, peace_: acc. sg. wēl bið þǣm þe mōt ... tō fæder fæðmum freoðo wilnian, _who may obtain an asylum in God's arms_, 188; nēan and feorran þū nū [friðu] hafast, 1175.--Comp. fen-freoðo.

freoðo-burh, st. f., _castle, city affording protection_: acc. sg. freoðoburh fægere, 522.

freoðo-wong, st. m., _field of peace, field of protection_: acc. sg., 2960; seems to have been the proper name of a field.

freoðo-wǣr, st. f., _peace-alliance, security of peace_: acc. sg. þā hīe getruwedon on twā healfa fæste frioðu-wǣre, 1097; gen. sg. frioðowǣre bæd hlāford sīnne, _entreated his lord for the protection of peace_ (i.e. full pardon for his delinquency), 2283.

freoðo-webbe, w. f., _peace-weaver_, designation of the royal consort (often one given in marriage as a confirmation of a peace between two nations): nom. sg., 1943.

frēo-burh, st. f., = frēa-burg (?), _ruler's castle_ (?) (according to Grein, arx ingenua): acc. sg. frēoburh, 694.

frēod, st. f., _friendship_: acc. sg. frēode ne woldon ofer heafo healdan, 2477; gen. sg. næs þǣr māra fyrst frēode tō friclan, _was no longer time to seek for friendship_, 2557; --_favor, acknowledgement_: acc. sg. ic þē sceal mīne gelǣstan frēode (_will show myself grateful_, with reference to 1381 ff.), 1708.

frēo-dryhten (= frēa-dryhten), st. m., _lord, ruler_; according to Grein, dominus ingenuus vel nobilis: nom. sg. as voc. frēo-drihten min! 1170; dat. sg. mid his frēo-dryhtne, 2628.

frēogan, w. v., _to love; to think of lovingly_: pres. subj. þæt mon his wine-dryhten ... ferhðum frēoge, 3178; inf. nū ic þec ... mē for sunu wylle frēogan on ferhðe, 949.

frēo-līc, adj., _free, free-born_ (here of the lawful wife in contrast with the bond concubine): nom. sg. frēolīc wīf, 616; frēolīcu folc-cwēn, 642.

frēond, st. m., _friend_: acc. sg. frēond, 1386, 1865; dat. pl. frēondum, 916, 1019, 1127; gen. pl. frēonda, 1307, 1839.

frēond-laðu, st. f., _friendly invitation_: nom. sg. him wæs ful boren and frēond-laðu (_friendly invitation to drink_) wordum bewægned, 1193.

frēond-lār, st. f., _friendly counsel_: dat. (instr.) pl. frēond-lārum, 2378.

frēond-līce, adv., _in a friendly manner, kindly_: compar. frēond-līcor, 1028.

frēond-scipe, st. m., _friendship_: acc. sg. frēond-scipe fæstne, 2070.

frēo-wine, st. m. (see frēawine), _lord and friend, friendly ruler_; according to Grein, amicus nobilis, princeps amicus: nom. sg. as voc. frēo-wine folca! 430.

fricgean, w. v., _to ask, to inquire into_: inf. ongan sīnne geseldan fægre fricgean hwylce Sǣ-Gēata sīðas wǣron, 1986; pres. part, gomela Scilding fela fricgende feorran rehte, _the old Scilding, asking many questions_ (having many things related to him), _told of old times_ (the conversation was alternate), 2107.

ge-fricgean, _to learn, to learn by inquiry_: pres. pl. syððan hīe ge-fricgeað frēan ūserne ealdorlēasne, _when they learn that our lord is dead_, 3003; pres. subj. gif ic þæt gefricge, þæt..., 1827; pl. syððan æðelingas feorran gefricgean flēam ēowerne, 2890.

friclan (see freca), w. v. w. gen., _to seek, to desire, to strive for_: inf. næs þǣr māra fyrst frēode tō friclan, 2557.

friðo-sib, st. f., _kin for the confirming of peace_, designation of the queen (see freoðo--webbe), _peace-bringer_: nom. sg. friðu-sibb folca, 2018.

frignan, fringan, frīnan, st. v., _to ask, to inquire_: imp. ne frīn þū æfter sǣlum, _ask not after the well-being!_ 1323; inf. ic þæs wine Deniga frīnan wille ... ymb þīnne sīð, 351; pret. sg. frægn, 236, 332; frægn gif ..., _asked whether_ ..., 1320.

ge-frignan, ge-fringan, ge-frīnan, _to find out by inquiry, to learn by narration._ pret. sg. (w. acc.) þæt fram hām gefrægn Higelāces þegn Grendles dǣda, 194; nō ic gefrægn heardran feohtan, 575; (w. acc. and inf.) þā ic wīde gefrægn weorc gebannan, 74; similarly, 2485, 2753, 2774; ne gefrægen ic þā mǣgðe māran weorode ymb hyra sincgyfan sēl gebǣran, _I never heard that any people, richer in warriors, conducted itself better about its chief_, 1012; similarly, 1028; pret. pl. (w. acc.) wē þēodcyninga þrym gefrūnon, 2; (w. acc. and inf.) geongne gūðcyning gōdne gefrūnon hringas dǣlan, 1970; (parenthetical) swā guman gefrungon, 667, (after þonne) medo-ærn micel (_greater_) ... þone yldo bearn ǣfre gefrūnon, 70; pret. part. hæfde Higelāces hilde gefrūnen, 2953; hæfdon gefrūnen þæt..., _had learned that_ ..., 695; hæfde gefrūnen hwanan sīo fǣhð ārās, 2404; healsbēaga mǣst þāra þe ic on foldan gefrægen hæbbe, 1197.

from, See fram.

frōd, adj.: 1) ǣtate provectus, _old, gray_: nom. sg. frōd, 2626, 2951; frōd cyning, 1307, 2210; frōd folces weard, 2514; wintrum frōd, 1725, 2115, 2278; se frōda, 2929; ac. sg. frōde feorhlege (_the laying down of my old life_), 2801; dat. sg. frōdan fyrnwitan (may also, from its meaning, belong under No. 2), 2124.--2) mente excellentior, _intelligent, experienced, wise_: nom. sg. frōd, 1367; frōd and gōd, 279; on mōde frōd, 1845.--Comp.: in-, un-frōd.

frōfor, st. f., _consolation, compensation, help_: nom. sg. frōfor, 2942; acc. sg. frōfre, 7, 974; fyrena frōfre, 629; frōfre and fultum, 1274; frōfor and fultum, 699; dat. sg. tō frōfre, 14, 1708; gen. sg. frōfre, 185.

fruma (see forma), w. m., _the foremost_, hence: l) _beginning_: nom. sg. wæs se fruma egeslīc lēodum on lande, swā hyt lungre wearð on hyra sincgifan sāre geendod (_the beginning of the dragon-combat was terrible, its end distressing through the death of Bēowulf_), 2310.--2) _he who stands first, prince_; in comp. dǣd-, hild-, land-, lēod-, ord-, wīg-fruma.

frum-cyn, st. n., (genus primitivum), _descent, origin_: acc. sg. nū ic ēower sceal frumcyn witan, 252.

frum-gār, st. m., primipilus, _duke, prince_: dat. sg. frumgāre (of Bēowulf), 2857.

frum-sceaft, st. f., prima creatio, _beginning_: acc. sg. sē þe cūðe frumsceaft fīra feorran reccan, _who could tell of the beginning of mankind in old times_, 91; dat. sg. frum-sceafte, _in the beginning_, i.e at his birth, 45.

fugol, st. m., _bird_: dat. sg. fugle gelīcost, 218; dat. pl. [fuglum] tō gamene, 2942.

ful, adj., _full, filled_: nom. sg. w. gen. pl. sē wæs innan full wrǣtta and wīra, 2413.--Comp.: eges-, sorh-, weorð-ful.

ful, adv., plene, _very_: ful oft, 480; ful-oft, 952.

ful, st. n., _cup, beaker_: nom. sg., 1193; acc. sg. ful, 616, 629, 1026; ofer ȳða ful, _over the cup of the waves_ (the basin of the sea filled with waves), 1209; dat. sg. onfōh þissum fulle, 1170.--Comp.: medo-, sele-full.

fullǣstian, w. v. w. dat, _to give help_: pres. sg. ic þē fullǣstu, 2669.

fultum, st. m., _help, support, protection_: acc. sg. frōfor (frōfre) and fultum, 699, 1274; mægenes fultum, 1836; on fultum, 2663.--Comp. mægen-fultum.

fundian, w. v., _to strive, to have in view_: pres. pl. wē fundiað Higelāc sēcan, 1820; pret. sg. fundode of geardum, 1138.

furðum, adv., primo, _just, exactly; then first_: þā ic furðum wēold folce Deninga, _then first governed the people of the Danes_ (had just assumed the government), 465; þā hīe tō sele furðum ... gangan cwōmon, 323; ic þǣr furðum cwōm tō þām hringsele, 2010;--_before, previously_: ic þē sceal mīne gelǣstan frēode, swā wit furðum sprǣcon, 1708.

furður, adv., _further, forward, more distant_, 254, 762, 3007.

fūs, adj., _inclined to, favorable, ready_: nom. sg. nū ic eom sīðes fūs, 1476; lēofra manna fūs, _prepared for the dear men_, i.e. expecting them, 1917; sigel sūðan fūs, _the sun inclined from the south_ (midday sun), 1967; se wonna hrefn fūs ofer fǣgum, _eager over the slain_, 3026; sceft ... feðer-gearwum fūs, 3120; nom. pl. wǣron ... eft to lēodum fūse tō farenne, 1806.--Sometimes fūs means _ready for death_, moribundus: fūs and fǣge, 1242.--Comp.: hin-, ūt-fūs.

fūs-līc, adj., _prepared, ready_: acc. sg. fūs-līc f[yrd]-lēoð, 1425; fyrd-searo fūs-līc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fūs-līcu, 232.

fyl, st. m., _fall_: nom. sg. fyll cyninges, _the fall of the king_ (in the dragon-fight), 2913; dat. sg. þæt hē on fylle wearð, _that he came to a fall, fell_, 1545.--Comp. hrā-fyl.

fylce (collective form from folc), st. n., _troop, band of warriors_: in comp. æl-fylce.

ge-fyllan (see feal), w. v., _to fell, to slay in battle_: inf. fāne gefyllan, _to slay the enemy_, 2656; pret. pl. fēond gefyldan, _they had slain the enemy_, 2707.

ā-fyllan (see ful), w. v., _to fill_: pret. part. Heorot innan wæs frēondum āfylled (_was filled with trusted men_), 1019.

fyllo, st. f. (_plenty, abundant meal_: dat. (instr.) sg. fylle gefrǣgnod, 1334; gen. sg. næs hīe þǣre fylle gefēan hæfdon, 562; fylle gefǣgon, 1015.--Comp.: wæl-, wist-fyllo.

fyl-wērig, adj., _weary enough to fall, faint to death_, moribundus: acc. sg. fyl-wērigne, 963.

fyr. See feor.

fyrian, w. v. w. acc. (= ferian) _to bear, to bring, carry_: pret. pl. þā þe gif-sceattas Gēata fyredon þyder tō þance, 378.

fȳras. See fīras.

fyren. See firen.

fyrde, adj., _movable, that can be moved_.--Comp. hard-fyrde.--Leo.

fyrd-gestealla, w. m., _comrade on an expedition, companion in battle_: dat. pl. fyrd-gesteallum, 2874

fyrd-ham, st. m., _war-dress, coat of mail_: acc. sg. þone fyrd-hom, 1505.

fyrd-hrægl, st. n., _coat of mail, war-dress_: acc. sg. fyrd-hrægl, 1528.

fyrd-hwæt, adj., _sharp, good in war, warlike_: nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate, 1642, 2477.

fyrd-lēoð, st. n., _war-song, warlike music_: acc. sg. horn stundum song fūslīc f[yrd]leoð, 1425.

fyrd-searu, st. n., _equipment for an expedition_: acc. sg. fyrd-searu fūslīc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fūslīcu, 232.

fyrd-wyrðe, adj., _of worth in war, excellent in battle_: nom. sg. fyrd-wyrðe man (Bēowulf), 1317.

ge-fyrðran (see forð), w. v., _to bring forward, to further_: pret. part. ār wæs on ofoste, eftsīðes georn, frætwum gefyrðred, _he was hurried forward by the treasure_ (i.e. after he had gathered up the treasure, he hasted to return, so as to be able to show it to the mortally-wounded Bēowulf), 2785.

fyrmest. See forma.

fyrn-dagas, st. m. pl., _by-gone days_: dat. pl. fyrndagum (_in old times_), 1452.

fyrn-geweorc, st. n., _work, something done in old times_: acc. sg. fīra fyrn-geweorc (the drinking-cup mentioned in 2283, 2287.

fyrn-gewin, st. n., _combat in ancient times_: gen. sg. ōr fyrn-gewinnes (_the origin of the battles of the giants_), 1690.

fyrn-man, st. m., _man of ancient times_: gen. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, 2762.

fyrn-wita, w. m., _counsellor ever since ancient times, adviser for many years_: dat. sg. frōdan fyrnwitan, of Æschere, 2124.

fyrst, st. m., _portion of time, definite time, time_: nom. sg. næs hit lengra fyrst, ac ymb āne niht ..., 134; fyrst forð gewāt, _the time_ (of going to the harbor) _was past_, 210; næs þǣr māra fyrst frēode tō friclan, 2556; acc. sg. niht-longne fyrst, 528; fīf nihta fyrst, 545; instr. sg. þȳ fyrste, 2574; dat. sg. him on fyrste gelomp ..., _within the fixed time_, 76.

fyr-wit, -wet, -wyt, st. n., _prying spirit, curiosity_: nom. sg. fyrwyt, 232; fyrwet, 1986, 2785.

ge-fȳsan (fūs), w. v., _to make ready, to prepare_: part. winde gefȳsed flota, _the ship provided with wind_ (for the voyage), 217; (wyrm) fȳre gefȳsed, _provided with fire_, 2310; þā wæs hringbogan (of the drake) heorte gefȳsed sæcce tō sēceanne, 2562; with gen., in answer to the question, for what? gūðe gefȳsed, _ready for battle, determined to fight_, 631.

fȳr, st. n., _fire_: nom. sg., 1367, 2702, 2882; dat. sg. fȳre, 2220; as instr. fȳre, 2275, 2596; gen. sg. fȳres fæðm, 185; fȳres feng, 1765.-- Comp.: ād-, bǣl-, heaðu-, wæl-fȳr.

fȳr-bend, st. m., _band forged in fire_: dat. pl. duru ... fȳr-bendum fæst, 723.

fȳr-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, fire-spewing dragon_: nom. sg., 2690.

fȳr-heard, adj., _hard through fire, hardened in fire_: nom. pl. (eoforlīc) fāh and fȳr-heard, 305.

fȳr-lēoht, st. n., _fire-light_: acc. sg., 1517.

fȳr-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire, flame-wave_: dat. pl. wyrm ... fȳrwylmum fāh, 2672.


galan, st. v., _to sing, to sound_: pres. sg. sorh-lēoð gæleð, 2461; inf. gryre-lēoð galan, 787; bearhtm ongeāton, gūðhorn galan, _heard the clang, the battle-trumpet sound_, 1433.

ā-galan, _to sing, to sound_: pret. sg. þæt hire on hafelan hringmǣl āgōl grǣdig gūðlēoð, _that the sword caused a greedy battle-song to sound upon her head_, 1522.

gamban, or, according to Bout., gambe, w. f., _tribute, interest_: acc. sg. gomban gyldan, 11.

gamen, st. n., _social pleasure, rejoicing, joyous doings_: nom. sg. gamen, 1161; gomen, 2460; gomen glēobēames, _the pleasure of the harp_, 2264; acc. sg. gamen and glēodrēam, 3022; dat. sg. gamene, 2942; gomene, 1776.--Comp. heal-gamen.

gamen-wāð, st. f., _way offering social enjoyment, journey in joyous society_: dat. sg. of gomen-wāðe, 855.

gamen-wudu, st. m., _wood of social enjoyment_, i.e. harp: nom. sg. þǣr wæs ... gomenwudu grēted, 1066; acc. sg. gomenwudu grētte, 2109.

gamol, gomol, gomel, adj., _old_; of persons, _having lived many years, gray_: gamol, 58, 265; gomol, 3096; gomel, 2113, 2794; se gomela, 1398; gamela (gomela) Scylding, 1793, 2106; gomela, 2932; acc. sg. þone gomelan, 2422; dat. sg. gamelum rince, 1678; gomelum ceorle, 2445; þām gomelan, 2818; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe gomele, 1596.--Also, _late, belonging to former time_: gen. pl. gomelra lāfe (_legacy_), 2037.--Of things, _old, from old times_: nom. sg. sweord ... gomol, 2683; acc. sg. gomele lāfe, 2564; gomel swyrd, 2611; gamol is a more respectful word than eald.

gamol-feax, adj., _with gray hair_: nom. sg., 609.

gang, st. m.: 1) _gait, way_: dat. sg. on gange, 1885; gen. sg. ic hine ne mihte ... ganges ge-twǣman, _could not keep him from going_, 969.--2) _step, foot-step_: nom. sg. gang (the foot-print of the mother of Grendel), 1405; acc. sg. uton hraðe fēran Grendles māgan gang scēawigan, 1392.--Comp. in-gang.

be-gang, bi-gang, st. m., (_so far as something goes_), _extent_: acc. sg. ofer geofenes begang, _over the extent of the sea_, 362; ofer flōda begang, 1827; under swegles begong, 861, 1774; flōda begong, 1498; sioleða bigong, 2368.

gangan. See under gān.

ganot, st. m., _diver_, fulica marina: gen. sg. ofer ganotes bæð (i.e. the sea), 1862.

gād, st. n., _lack_: nom. sg. ne bið þē wilna gād (_thou shalt have no lack of desirable_ [valuable] _things_), 661; similarly, 950.

gān, _expanded_ = gangan, st. v., _to go_: pres. sg. III. gǣð ā Wyrd swā hīo scel, 455; gǣð eft ... tō medo, 605; þonne hē ... on flett gǣð, 2035; similarly, 2055; pres. subj. III. sg. gā þǣr hē wille, _let him go whither he will_, 1395; imp. sg. II. gā nū tō setle, 1783; nū þū lungre geong, hord scēawian, under hārne stān, 2744; inf. in gān, _to go in_, 386, 1645 'forð gān, _to go forth, to go thither_, 1164; þat hīe him tō mihton gegnum gangan, _to go towards, to go to_, 314; tō sele ... gangan cwōmon, 324; in a similar construction, gongan, 1643; nū gē mōton gangan ... Hrōðgār gesēon, 395; þā cōm of mōre ... Grendel gongan, _there came Grendel (going) from the fen_, 712; ongēan gramum gangan, _to go to meet the enemy, to go to the war_, 1035; cwōm ... tō hofe gongan, 1975; wutun gangan tō, _let us go thither_, 2649.--As preterite, serve, 1) gēong or gīong: hē tō healle gēong, 926; similarly, 2019; sē þe on orde gēong, _who went at the head, went in front, _3126; on innan gīong, _went in_, 2215; hē ... gīong tō þæs þe hē eorðsele ānne wisse, _went thither, where he knew of that earth-hall, _2410; þā se æðeling, gīong, þæt hē bī wealle gesæt, _then went the prince_ (Bēowulf) _that he might sit down by the wall_, 2716.--2) gang: tō healle gang Healfdenes sunu, 1010; similarly, 1296; gang þā æfter flōre, _went along the floor, along the hall_, 1317.--3) gengde (Goth. gaggida): hē ... beforan gengde ..., wong scēawian, _went in front to inspect the fields_, 1413; gengde, also of riding, 1402.--4) from another stem, ēode (Goth. iddja): ēode ellenrōf, þæt hē for eaxlum gestōd Deniga frēan, 358; similarly, 403; [wið duru healle Wulfgār ēode], _went towards the door of the hall_, 390; ēode Wealhþēow forð, _went forth_, 613; ēode tō hire frēan sittan, 641; ēode yrremōd, _went with angry feeling_, 727; ēode ... tō sele, 919; similarly, 1233; ēode ... þǣr se snottra bād, 1313; ēode weorð Denum æðeling tō yppan, _the prince_ (Bēowulf), _honored by the Danes, went to the high seat_, 1815; ēode ... under inwit-hrōf, 3124; pl. þǣr swīðferhðe sittan ēodon, 493; ēodon him þā tōgēanes, _went to meet him_, 1627; ēodon under Earna næs, 3032.

ā-gangan, _to go out, to go forth, to befall_: pret. part. swā bit āgangen wearð eorla manegum (_as it befell many a one of the earls_), 1235.

full-gangan, _to emulate, to follow after_: pret. sg. þonne ... sceft nytte hēold, feðer-gearwum fūs flāne full-ēode, _when the shaft had employment, furnished with feathers it followed the arrow, did as the arrow_, 3120.

ge-gān, ge-gangan: 1) _to go, to approach_: inf. (w. acc.) his mōdor ... gegān wolde sorhfulne sīð, 1278; sē þe gryre-sīðas gegān dorste, _who dared to go the ways of terror_ (to go into the combat), 1463; pret. sg. se maga geonga under his mǣges scyld elne geēode, _went quickly under his kinsman's shield_, 2677; pl. elne geēodon tō þæs þe ..., _went quickly thither where_ ..., 1968; pret. part. syððan hīe tō-gædre gegān hæfdon, _when they_ (Wīglāf and the drake) _had come together_, 2631; þæt his aldres wæs ende gegongen, _that the end of his life had come_, 823; þā wæs endedæg gōdum gegongen, þæt se gūðcyning ... swealt, 3037.--2) _to obtain, to reach_: inf. (w. acc.) þonne hē æt gūðe gegān þenceð longsumne lof, 1536; ic mid elne sceall gold gegangan, 2537; gerund, næs þæt ȳðe cēap tō gegangenne gumena ǣnigum, 2417; pret. pl. elne geēodon ... þæt se byrnwīga būgan sceolde, 2918; pret. part. hæfde ... gegongen þæt, _had attained it, that_ ..., 894; hord ys gescēawod, grimme gegongen, 3086.--3) _to occur, to happen_: pres. sg. III. gif þæt gegangeð þæt ..., _if that happen, that_ ..., 1847; pret. sg. þæt geīode ufaran dōgrum hilde-hlæmmum, _it happened in later times to the warriors_ (the Gēatas), 2201; pret. part. þā wæs gegongen guman unfrōdum earfoðlīce þæt, _then it had happened to the young man in sorrowful wise that_ ..., 2822.

oð-gangan, _to-go thither_: pret. pl. oð þæt hī oðēodon ... in Hrefnesholt, 2935.

ofer-gangan, w. acc., _to go over_: pret. sg. oferēode þā æðelinga bearn stēap stān-hliðo, _went over steep, rocky precipices_, 1409; pl. freoðo-wong þone forð oferēodon, 2960.

ymb-gangan, w. acc., _to go around_: pret. ymb-ēode þā ides Helminga duguðe and geogoðe dǣl ǣghwylcne, _went around in every part, among the superior and the inferior warriors_, 621.

gār, st. m., _spear, javelin, missile_: nom. sg., 1847, 3022; instr. sg. gāre, 1076; blōdigan gāre, 2441; gen. sg. gāres fliht, 1766; nom. pl. gāras, 328; gen. pl., 161(?).--Comp.: bon-, frum-gār.

gār-cēne, adj., _spear-bold_: nom. sg., 1959.

gār-cwealm, st. m., _murder, death by the spear_: acc. sg. gār-cwealm gumena, 2044.

gār-holt, st. n., _forest of spears_, i.e. crowd of spears: acc. sg., 1835.

gār-secg, st. m. (cf. Grimm, in Haupt l. 578), _sea, ocean_: acc. sg. on gār-secg, 49, 537; ofer gār-secg, 515.

gār-wiga, w. m., _one who fights with the spear_: dat. sg. geongum gār-wigan, of Wīglāf, 2675, 2812.

gār-wīgend, pres. part., _fighting with spear, spear-fighter_: acc. pl. gār-wīgend, 2642.

gāst, gǣst, st. m., _ghost, demon_: acc. sg. helle gāst (Grendel), 1275; gen. sg. wergan gāstes (of Grendel), 133; (of the tempter), 1748; gen. pl. dyrnra gāsta (Grendel's race), 1358; gǣsta gīfrost (_flames consuming corpses_), 1124.--Comp.: ellor-, geō-sceaft-gāst; ellen-, wæl-gǣst.

gāst-bana, w. m., _slayer of the spirit_, i.e. the devil: nom. sg. gāst-bona, 177.

gædeling, st. m., _he who is connected with another, relation, companion_: gen. sg. gædelinges, 2618; dat. pl. mid his gædelingum, 2950.

æt-gædere, adv., _together, united_: 321, 1165, 1191; samod ætgædere, 329, 387, 730, 1064.

tō-gadere, adv., _together_, 2631.

gæst, gist, gyst, st. m., _stranger, guest_: nom. sg. gæst, 1801; se gæst (the drake), 2313; se grimma gæst (Grendel), 102; gist, 1139, 1523; acc. sg. gryre-līcne gist (the nixy slain by Bēowulf), 1442; dat. sg. gyste, 2229; nom. pl. gistas, 1603; acc. pl. gæs[tas], 1894.--Comp.: fēðe-, gryre-, inwit-, nīð-, sele-gæst (-gyst).

gæst-sele, st. m., _hall in which the guests spend their time, guest-hall_: acc. sg., 995.

gē, conj., _and_, 1341; gē ... gē ..., _as well ... as ..._, 1865; gē ... gē ..., gē ..., 1249; gē swylce, _and likewise, and moreover_, 2259.

gē, pron., _ye, you_, plur. of þū, 237, 245, etc.

gegn-cwide, st. m., _reply_: gen. pl. þīnra gegn-cwida, 367.

gegnum, adv., _thither, towards, away_, with the prep, tō, ofer, giving the direction: þæt hīe him tō mihton gegnum gangan (_that they might go thither_), 314; gegnum fōr [þā] ofer myrcan mōr, _away over the dark moor_, 1405.

gehðu, geohðu, st. f., _sorrow, care_: instr. sg. giohðo mǣnde, 2268; dat. sg. on gehðo, 3096; on giohðe, 2794.

gēn (from gegn), adv., _yet, again_. ne wæs hit lenge þā gēn, þæt ..., _it was not then long before_ ..., 83; ic sceal forð sprecan gēn ymb Grendel, _shall from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2071; nō þȳ ǣr ūt þā gēn ... gongan wolde (_still he would not yet go out_), 2082; gēn is eall æt þē lissa gelong (_yet all my favor belongs to thee_), 2150; þā gēn, _then again_, 2678, 2703; swā hē nū gēn dēð, _as he still does_, 2860; furður gēn, _further still, besides_, 3007; nū gēn, _now again_, 3169; ne gēn, _no more, no farther_: ne wæs þæt wyrd þā gēn, _that was no more fate_ (fate no longer willed that), 735.

gēna, _still_: cwico wæs þā gēna, _was still living_, 3094.

genga, w. m., _goer_; in comp. in-, sǣ-, sceadu-genga.

gengde. See gān(3).

genge. See ūð-genge.

gēnunga (from gegnunga), adv., _precisely, completely_, 2872.

gerwan, gyrwan, w. v.: 1) _to prepare, to make ready, to put in condition_: pret. pl. gestsele gyredon, 995.--2) _to equip, to arm for battle_: pret. sg. gyrede hine Bēowulf eorl-gewǣdum (_dressed himself in the armor_), 1442.

ge-gyrwan: 1) _to make, to prepare_: pret. pl. him þā gegiredan Gēata lēode ād ... unwāclīcne, 3138; pret. part. glōf ... eall gegyrwed dēofles cræftum and dracan fellum, 2088.--2) _to fit out, to make ready_: inf. cēol gegyrwan hilde-wǣpnum and heaðowǣdum, 38; hēt him ȳðlidan gōdne gegyrwan, _had (his) good ship fitted up for him_, 199. Also, _to provide warlike equipment_: pret. part. syððan hē hine tō gūðe gegyred hæfde, 1473.--3) _to endow, to provide, to adorn_: pret. part. nom. sg. beado-hrægl ... golde gegyrwed, 553; acc. sg. lāfe ... golde gegyrede, 2193; acc. pl. mādmas ... golde gegyrede, 1029.

gētan, w. v., _to injure, to slay_: inf., 2941.

be-gēte, adj., _attainable_; in comp. ēð-begēte.

geador, adv., _unitedly, together, jointly_, 836; geador ætsomne, 491.

on-geador, adv., _unitedly, together_, 1596.

gealdor, st. n.: 1) _sound_: acc. sg. bȳman gealdor, 2944.--2) _magic song, incantation, spell_: instr. sg. þonne wæs þæt yrfe ... galdre bewunden (_placed under a spell_), 3053.

gealga, w. m., _gallows_: dat. sg. þæt his byre rīde giong on galgan, 2447.

gealg-mōd, adj., _gloomy_: nom. sg. gīfre and galgmōd, 1278.

gealg-trēow, st. n., _gallows_: dat. pl. on galg-trēowu[m], 2941.

geard, st. m., _residence_; in Bēowulf corresponding to the house-complex of a prince's residence, used only in the plur.: acc. in geardas (_in Finn's castle_), 1135; dat. in geardum, 13, 2460; of geardum, 1139; ǣr hē on weg hwurfe ... of geardum, _before he went away from his dwelling-place_, i.e. died, 265.--Comp. middan-geard.

gearo, adj., properly, _made, prepared_; hence, _ready, finished, equipped_: nom. sg. þæt hit wearð eal gearo, heal-ærna mǣst, 77; wiht unhǣlo ... gearo sōna wæs, _the demon of destruction was quickly ready, did not delay long_, 121; Here-Scyldinga betst beadorinca wæs on bǣl gearu, _was ready for the funeral-pile_ (for the solemn burning), 1110; þēod (is) eal gearo, _the warriors are altogether ready, always prepared_, 1231; hraðe wæs æt holme hȳð-weard gearo (geara, MS.), 1915; gearo gūð-freca, 2415; sīe sīo bǣr gearo ǣdre geæfned, _let the bier be made ready at once_, 3106. With gen.: gearo gyrnwræce, _ready for revenge for harm done_, 2119, acc. sg. gearwe stōwe, 1007; nom. pl. beornas gearwe, 211; similarly, 1814.

gearwe, gearo, geare, adv., _completely, entirely_: nē gē ... gearwe ne wisson, _you do not know at all_ ..., 246; similarly, 879; hine gearwe geman witena welhwyle (_remembers him very well_), 265; wisse hē gearwe þæt ..., _he knew very well that_ ..., 2340, 2726; þæt ic ... gearo scēawige swegle searogimmas (_that I may see the treasures altogether, as many as they are_), 2749; ic wāt geare þæt ..., 2657.--Comp. gearwor, _more readily, rather_, 3077.--Superl. gearwost, 716.

gearo-folm, adj., _with ready hand_, 2086.

gearwe, st. f., _equipment, dress_; in comp. feðer-gearwe.

geat, st. n., _opening, door_; in comp. ben-, hilde-geat.

geato-līc, adj., _well prepared, handsome, splendid_: of sword and armor, 215, 1563, 2155; of Heorot, 308. Adv.: wīsa fengel geatolīc gengde, _passed on in a stately manner_, 1402.

geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment, adornment_: acc. recedes geatwa, _the ornaments of the dragon's cave_ (its treasures), 3089.--Comp.: ēored-, gryre-, gūð-, hilde-, wīg-geatwe.

gēan (from gegn), adv. in

on-gēan, adv. and prep., _against, towards_: þæt hē mē ongēan slēa, 682; rǣhte ongēan fēond mid folme, 748; foran ongēan, _forward towards_, 2365. With dat.: ongēan gramum, _against the enemy_, 1035.

tō-gēanes, tō-genes, prep, _against, towards_: Grendle tōgēanes, _towards Grendel, against Grendel_, 667; grāp þā tōgēanes, _she grasped at_ (Bēowulf), 1502; similarly, him tōgēanes fēng, 1543; ēodon him þā tōgēanes, _went towards him_, 1627; hēt þā gebēodan ... þæt hīe bǣl-wudu feorran feredon gōdum tōgēnes, _had it ordered that they should bring the wood from far for the funeral-pyre towards the good man_ (i.e. to the place where the dead Bēowulf lay), 3115.

gēap, adj., _roomy, extensive, wide_: nom. sg. reced ... gēap, _the roomy hall_, 1801; acc. sg. under gēapne hrōf, 837.--Comp.: horn-, sǣ-gēap.

geār, st. n., _year_: nom. sg., 1135; gen. pl. geāra, in adverbial sense, olim, _in former times_, 2665. See un-geāra.

geār-dagas, st. m. pl., _former days_: dat. pl. in (on) geār-dagum, 1, 1355.

geofe. See gifu.

geofon, gifen, gyfen (see Kuhn Zeitschr. I. 137), st. n., _sea, flood_: nom. sg. geofon, 515; gifen gēotende, _the streaming flood_, 1691; gen. sg. geofenes begang, 362; gyfenes, 1395.

geogoð, st. f.: 1) _youth, time of youth_: dat. sg. on geogoðe, 409, 466, 2513; on giogoðe, 2427; gen. gioguðe, 2113.--2) contrasted with duguð, _the younger warriors of lower rank_ (about as in the Middle Ages, the squires with the knights): nom. sg. geogoð, 66; giogoð, 1191; acc. sg. geogoðe, 1182; gen. duguðe and geogoðe, 160; duguðe and iogoðe (geogoðe), 1675, 622.

geoguð-feorh, st. n., _age of youth_, i.e. age in which one still belongs in the ranks of the geogoð: on geogoð- (geoguð-) fēore, 537, 2665.

geohðo. See gehðo.

geolo, adj., _yellow_: acc. sg. geolwe linde (_the shield of yellow linden bark_), 2611.

geolo-rand, st. m., _yellow shield_ (shield with a covering of interlaced yellow linden bark): acc. sg., 438.

geond, prep. w. acc., _through, throughout, along, over_: geond þisne middangeard, _through the earth, over the earth_, 75; wide geond eorðan, 266, 3100; fērdon folctogan ... geond wīd-wegas, _went along the ways coming from afar_, 841; similarly, 1705; geond þæt sæld, _through the hall, through the extent of the hall_, 1281; similarly, 1982, 2265.

geong, adj., _young, youthful_: nom. sg., 13, 20, 855, etc.; giong, 2447; w. m. se maga geonga, 2676; acc. sg. geongne gūðcyning, 1970; dat. sg. geongum, 1949, 2045, 2675, etc.; on swā geongum feore, _at a so youthful age_, 1844; geongan cempan, 2627; acc. pl. geonge, 2019; dat. pl. geongum and ealdum, 72.--Superl. gingest, _the last_: nom. sg. w. f. gingeste word, 2818.

georn, adj., _striving, eager_, w. gen. of the thing striven for: eft sīðes georn, 2784.--Comp. lof-georn.

georne, adv., _readily, willingly_: þæt him wine-māgas georne hȳrdon, 66; georne truwode, 670.--_zealously, eagerly_: sōhte georne æfter grunde, _eagerly searched over the ground_, 2295.--_carefully, industriously_: nō ic him þæs georne ætfealh (_held him not fast enough_), 969.--_completely, exactly_: comp. wiste þē geornor, 822.

geō, iū, adv., _once, formerly, earlier_, 1477; giō, 2522; iū, 2460.

gēoc, st. f., _help, support_: acc. sg. gēoce gefremman, 2675; þæt him gāst-bona gēoce gefremede wið þēod-þrēaum, 177; gēoce gelȳfde, _believed in the help_ (of Bēowulf), 609; dat. sg. tō gēoce, 1835.

gēocor, adj., _ill, bad_: nom. sg., 766.--See Haupt's Zeitschrift 8, p. 7.

geō-man, iū-man, st. m., _man of former times_: gen. pl. iū-manna, 3053.

geō-meowle, w. f., (_formerly a virgin), wife_: acc. sg. īo-meowlan, 2932.

geōmor, adj., _with depressed feelings, sad, troubled_: nom. sg. him wæs geōmor sefa, 49, 2420, 2633, 2951; mōdes geōmor, 2101; fem. þæt wæs geōmuru ides, 1076.

geōmore, adv., _sadly_, 151.

geōmor-gid, st. n., _dirge_: acc. sg. giōmor-gyd, 3151.

geōmor-līc, adj., _sad, painful_: swā bið geōmorlīc gomelum ceorle tō gebīdanne þæt..., _it is painful to an old man to experience it, that ..._, 2445.

geōmor-mōd, adj., _sad, sorrowful_: nom. sg., 2045, 3019; giōmor-mōd, 2268.

geōmrian, w. v., _to complain, to lament_: pret. sg. geōmrode giddum, 1119.

geō-sceaft, st. f., (_fixed in past times), fate_: acc. sg. geōsceaft grimme, 1235.

geōsceaft-gāst, st. m., _demon sent by fate_: gen. pl. fela geōsceaft-gāsta, of Grendel and his race, 1267.

gēotan, st. v. intrans., _to pour, to flow, to stream_: pres. part. gifen gēotende, 1691.

gicel, st. m., _icicle_: in comp. hilde-gicel.

gid, gyd, st. n., _speech, solemn alliterative song_: nom. sg. þǣr wæs ... gid oft wrecen, 1066; lēoð wæs āsungen, glēomannes gyd, _the song was sung, the gleeman's lay_, 1161; þǣr wæs gidd and glēo, 2106; acc. sg. ic þis gid āwræc, 1724; gyd āwræc, 2109; gyd æfter wræc, 2155; þonne hē gyd wrece, 2447; dat. pl. giddum, 151, 1119; gen. pl. gidda gemyndig, 869.--Comp.: geōmor-, word-gid.

giddian, w. v., _to speak, to speak in alliteration_: pret. gyddode, 631.

gif, conj.: 1) _if_, w. ind., 442, 447, 527, 662, etc.; gyf, 945, etc. With subj., 452, 594, 1482, etc.; gyf, 280, 1105, etc.--2) _whether_, w. ind., 272; w. subj., 1141, 1320.

gifa, geofa, w. m., _giver_; in comp. gold-, sinc-, wil-gifa (-geofa).

gifan, st. v., _to give_: inf. giofan, 2973; pret. sg. nallas bēagas geaf Denum, 1720; hē mē [māðmas] geaf, 2147; and similarly, 2174, 2432, 2624, etc.; pret. pl. gēafon (hyne) on gārsecg, 49; pret. part. þā wæs Hrōðgāre here-spēd gyfen, 64; þā wæs gylden hilt gamelum rince ... on hand gyfen, 1679; syððan ǣrest wearð gyfen ... geongum cempan (_given in marriage_), 1949.

ā-gifan, _to give, to impart_: inf. andsware ... āgifan, _to give an answer_, 355; pret. sg. sōna him se frōda fæder Ōhtheres ... ondslyht āgeaf (_gave him a counter-blow_), (_hand-blow_?), 2930.

for-gyfan, _to give, to grant_: pret. sg. him þæs līf-frēa ... worold-āre forgeaf, 17; þǣm tō hām forgeaf Hrēðel Gēata āngan dōhtor (_gave in marriage_), 374; similarly, 2998; hē mē lond forgeaf, _granted me land_, 2493; similarly, 697, 1021, 2607, 2617; mægen-rǣs forgeaf hilde-bille, _he gave with his battle-sword a mighty blow_, i.e. he struck with full force, 1520.

of-gifan, (_to give up_), _to leave_: inf. þæt se mǣra maga Ecgþēowes grund-wong þone ofgyfan wolde (_was fated to leave the earth-plain_), 2589; pret. sg. þās worold ofgeaf gromheort guma, 1682; similarly, gumdrēam ofgeaf, 2470; Dena land ofgeaf, 1905; pret. pl. næs ofgēafon hwate Scyldingas, _left the promontory_, 1601; þæt þā hildlatan holt ofgēfan, _that the cowards left the wood_ (into which they had fled), 2847; sg. pret. for pl. þāra þe þis [līf] ofgeaf, 2252.

gifeðe, adj., _given, granted_: Gūðfremmendra swylcum gifeðe bið þæt..., _to such a warrior is it granted that_..., 299; similarly, 2682; swā mē gifeðe wæs, 2492; þǣr mē gifeðe swā ǣnig yrfeweard æfter wurde, _if an heir_, (living) _after me, had been given me_, 2731.--Neut. as subst.: wæs þæt gifeðe tō swīð, þē þone [þēoden] þyder ontyhte, _the fate was too harsh that has drawn hither the king_, 3086; gyfeðe, 555, 820.--Comp. un-gifeðe.

gif-heal, st. f., _hall in which fiefs were bestowed, throne-hall_: acc. sg. ymb þā gifhealle, 839.

gif-sceat, st. m., _gift of value_: acc. pl. gif-sceattas, 378.

gif-stōl, st. m., _seat from which fiefs are granted, throne_: nom. sg., 2328; acc. sg., 168.

gift, st. f., _gift, present_: in comp. feoh-gift.

gifu, geofu, st. f., _gift, present, grant; fief_: nom. sg. gifu, 1885 acc. sg. gimfæste gife þē him god sealde, _the great gift that God had granted him_ (i.e. the enormous strength), 1272; ginfæstan gife þē him god sealde, 2183; dat. pl. (as instr.) geofum, 1959; gen. pl. gifa, 1931; geofena, 1174.--Comp.: māððum-, sinc-gifu.

gīgant, st. m., _giant_: nom. pl. gīgantas, 113; gen. pl. gīganta, 1563, 1691.

gild, gyld, st. n., _reparation_: in comp. wiðer-gyld(?).

gildan, gyldan, st. v., _to do something in return, to repay, to reward, to pay_: inf. gomban gyldan, _pay tribute_, 11; hē mid gōde gyldan wille uncran eaferan, 1185; wē him þā gūðgeatwa gyldan woldon, 2637; pret. sg. heaðorǣsas geald mēarum and māðmum, _repaid the battles with horses and treasures_, 1048; similarly, 2492; geald þone gūðrǣs ... Jofore and Wulfe mid ofermāðmum, _repaid Eofor and Wulf the battle with exceedingly great treasures_, 2992.

an-gildan, _to pay for_: pret. sg. sum sāre angeald ǣfenræste, _one_ (Æschere) _paid for the evening-rest with death's pain_, 1252.

ā-gildan, _to offer one's self_: pret. sg. þā mē sǣl āgeald, _when the favorable opportunity offered itself_, 1666; similarly, þā him rūm āgeald, 2691.

for-gildan, _to repay, to do something in return, to reward_: pres. subj. sg. III. alwalda þec gōde forgylde, _may the ruler of all reward thee with good_, 957; inf. þone ǣnne heht golde forgyldan, _he ordered that the one_ (killed by Grendel) _be paid for_ (atoned for) _with gold_, 1055; hē ... wolde Grendle for-gyldan gūðrǣsa fela, _wished to pay Grendel for many attacks_, 1578; wolde se lāða līge forgyldan drinc-fæt dȳre, _the enemy wished to repay with fire the costly drinking vessel_ (the theft of it), 2306; pret. sg. hē him þæs lēan forgeald, _he gave them the reward therefore_, 114; similarly, 1542, 1585, 2095; forgeald hraðe wyrsan wrixle wælhlem þone, _repaid the murderous blow with a worse exchange_, 2969.

gilp, gylp, st. m., _speech in which one promises great things for himself in a coming combat, defiant speech, boasting speech_: acc. sg. hæfde ... Gēat-mecga lēod gilp gelǣsted (_had fulfilled what he had claimed for himself before the battle_), 830; nallas on gylp seleð fǣtte bēagas, _gives no chased gold rings for a boastful speech_, 1750; þæt ic wið þone gūðflogan gylp ofersitte, _restrain myself from the speech of defiance_, 2529; dat. sg. gylpe wiðgrīpan (_fulfil my promise of battle_), 2522.--Comp. dol-gilp.

gilpan, gylpan, st. v. w. gen., acc., and dat., _to make a defiant speech, to boast, to exult insolently_: pres. sg. I. nō ic þæs gilpe (after a break in the text), 587; sg. III. morðres gylpeð, _boasts of the murder_, 2056; inf. swā ne gylpan þearf Grendles maga ǣnig ... ūhthlem þone, 2007; nealles folc-cyning fyrdgesteallum gylpan þorfte, _had no need to boast of his fellow-warrior_, 2875; pret. sg. hrēðsigora ne gealp goldwine Gēata, _did not exult at the glorious victory_ (could not gain the victory over the drake), 2584.

gilp-cwide, st. m., _speech in which a man promises much for himself for a coming combat, speech of defiance_: nom. sg., 641.

gilp-hlæden, pret. part., _laden with boasts of defiance_ (i.e. he who has made many such boasts, and consequently has been victorious in many combats), _covered with glory_: nom. sg. guma gilp-hlæden, 869.

gilp-sprǣc, same as gilp-cwide, _speech of defiance, boastful speech_: dat. sg. on gylp-sprǣce, 982.

gilp-word, st. n., _defiant word before the coming combat, vaunting word_: gen. pl. gespræc ... gylp-worda sum, 676.

gim, st. m., _gem, precious stone, jewel_: nom. sg. heofones gim, _heaven's jewel_, i.e. the sun, 2073. Comp. searo-gim.

gimme-rīce, adj., _rich in jewels_: acc. sg. gimme-rīce hord-burh hæleða, 466.

gin (according to Bout., ginne), adj., properly _gaping_, hence, _wide, extended_: acc. sg. gynne grund (_the bottom of the sea_), 1552.

gin-fæst, adj., _extensive, rich_: acc. sg. gim-fæste gife (gim-, on account of the following _f_), 1272; in weak form, gin-fæstan gife, 2183.

ginnan, st. v., original meaning, _to be open, ready_; in

on-ginnan, _to begin, to undertake_: pret. oð þæt ān ongan fyrene fremman fēond on helle, 100; secg eft ongan sīð Bēowulfes snyttrum styrian, 872; þā þæt sweord ongan ... wanian, _the sword began to diminish_, 1606; Higelāc ongan sīnne geseldan ... fægre fricgean, _began with propriety to question his companion_, 1984, etc.; ongon, 2791; pret. pl. nō hēr cūðlīcor cuman ongunnon lindhæbbende, _no shield-bearing men e'er undertook more openly to come hither_, 244; pret. part. hæbbe ic mǣrða fela ongunnen on geogoðe, _have in my youth undertaken many deeds of renown_, 409.

gist. See gæst.

gistran, adv., _yesterday_: gystran niht, _yesterday night_, 1335.

git, pron., _ye two_, dual of þū, 508, 512, 513, etc.

gīt, gȳt, adv., _yet; then still_, 536, 1128, 1165, 2142; _hitherto_, 957; nǣfre gīt, _never yet_, 583; _still_, 945, 1059, 1135; _once more_, 2513; _moreover_, 47, 1051, 1867.

gitan (original meaning, _to take hold of, to seize, to attain_), in

be-gitan, w. acc., _to grasp, to seize, to reach_: pret. sg. begeat, 1147, 2231; þā hine wīg beget, _when war seized him, came upon him_, 2873; similarly, begeat, 1069; pret. pl. hit ǣr on þē gōde be-geāton, _good men received it formerly from thee_, 2250; subj. sg. for pl. þæt wæs Hrōðgāre hrēowa tornost þāra þe lēodfruman lange begeāte, _the bitterest of the troubles that for a long time had befallen the people's chief_, 2131.

for-gitan, w. acc., _to forget_: pres. sg. III. hē þā forðgesceaft forgyteð and forgȳmeð, 1752.

an-gitan, on-gitan, w. acc.: 1) _to take hold of, to grasp_: imp. sg. gumcyste ongit, _lay hold of manly virtue, of what becomes the man_, 1724; pret. sg. þē hine se brōga angeat, _whom terror seized_, 1292.--2) _to grasp intellectually, to comprehend, to perceive, to distinguish, to behold_: pres. subj. I. þæt ic ǣrwelan ... ongite, _that I may behold the ancient wealth_ (the treasures of the drake's cave), 2749; inf. sæl timbred ... ongytan, 308, 1497; Gēata clifu ongitan, 1912; pret. sg. fyren-þearfe ongeat, _had perceived their distress from hostile snares_, 14; ongeat ... grund-wyrgenne, _beheld the she-wolf of the bottom_, 1519; pret. pl. bearhtm ongeāton, gūðhorn galan, _perceived the noise_, (heard) _the battle-trumpet sound_, 1432; syððan hīe Hygelāces horn and bȳman gealdor ongeāton, 2945.

gīfre, adj., _greedy, eager_: nom. sg. gīfre and galgmōd, of Grendel's mother, 1278.--Superl.: līg..., gǣsta gīfrost, 1124.--Comp. heoro-gīfre.

gītsian, w. v., _to be greedy_: pres. sg. III. gȳtsað, 1750.

gio-, giō-. see geo-, geō-.

gladian, w. v., _to gleam, to shimmer_: pres. pl. III. on him gladiað gomelra lāfe, _upon him gleams the legacy of the men of ancient times_ (armor), 2037.

glæd, adj., _gracious, friendly_ (as a form of address for princes): nom. sg. bēo wið Gēatas glæd, 1174; acc. sg. glædne Hrōðgār, 864; glædne Hrōðulf, 1182; dat. sg. gladum suna Frōdan, 2026.

glæde, adv., _in a gracious, friendly way_, 58.

glædnian, w. v., _to rejoice_: inf. w. gen., 367.

glæd-mōd, adj., _joyous, glad_, 1786.

glēd, st. f., _fire, flame_: nom. sg., 2653, 3115; dat. (instr.) pl. glēdum, 2313, 2336, 2678, 3042.

glēd-egesa, w. m., _terror on account of fire, fire-terror_: nom. sg. glēd-egesa grim (_the fire-spewing of the drake_), 2651.

glēaw (Goth, glaggwu-s), adj., _considerate, well-bred_, of social conduct; in comp. un-glēaw.

glēo, st. n., _social entertainment_, (especially by music, play, and jest): nom. sg. þǣr wæs gidd and glēo, 2106.

glēo-bēam, st. m., _(tree of social entertainment, of music), harp._ gen. sg. glēo-bēames, 2264.

glēo-drēam, st. _m., joyous carrying-on in social entertainment, mirth, social gaiety_: acc. sg. gamen and glēo-drēam, 3022.

glēo-man, m., _(gleeman, who enlivens the social entertainment, especially with music), harper_: gen. sg. glēomannes gyd, 1161.

glitinian (O.H.G. glizinōn), w. v., _to gleam, to light, to glitter_: inf. geseah þā ... gold glitinian, 2759.

glīdan, st. v., _to glide_: pret. sg. syððan heofones gim glād ofer grundas, _after heaven's gem had glided over the fields_ (after the sun had set), 2074; pret. pl. glidon ofer gārsecg, _you glided over the ocean_ (swimming), 515.

tō-glīdan _(to glide asunder), to separate, to fall asunder_: pret. gūð-helm tō-glād (Ongenþēow's helmet was split asunder by the blow of Eofor), 2488.

glōf, st. f., _glove_: nom. sg. glōf hangode, (on Grendel) _a glove hung_, 2086.

gnēað, adj., _niggardly_: nom. sg. f. næs hīo ... tō gnēað gifa Gēata lēodum, _was not too niggardly with gifts to the people of the Gēatas_, 1931.

gnorn, st. m., _sorrow, sadness_: acc. sg. gnorn þrowian, 2659.

gnornian, w. v., _to be sad, to complain_: pret. sg. earme ... ides gnornode, 1118.

be-gnornian, w. acc., _to bemoan, to mourn for_: pret. pl. begnornodon ... hlāfordes [hry]re, _bemoaned their lord's fall_, 3180.

god, st. m., _god_: nom. sg., 13, 72, 478, etc.; hālig god, 381, 1554; wītig god, 686; mihtig god, 702; acc. sg. god, 812; ne wiston hīe drihten god, _did not know the Lord God_, 181; dat. sg. gode, 113, 227, 626, etc.; gen. sg. godes, 570, 712, 787, etc.

gold, st. n., _gold_: nom. sg., 3013, 3053; icge gold, 1108; wunden gold, _wound gold, gold in ring-form_, 1194, 3136; acc. sg. gold, 2537, 2759, 2794, 3169; hǣðen gold, _heathen gold_ (that from the drake's cave), 2277; brād gold, _massive gold_, 3106; dat. instr. sg. golde, 1055, 2932, 3019; fǣttan golde, _with chased gold, with gold in plate-form_, 2103; gehroden golde, _covered with gold, gilded_, 304; golde gegyrwed (gegyrede), _provided with, ornamented with gold_, 553, 1029, 2193; golde geregnad, _adorned with gold_, 778; golde fāhne (hrōf), _the roof shining with gold_, 928; bunden golde, _bound with gold_ (see under bindan), 1901; hyrsted golde (helm), _the helmet ornamented with, mounted with gold_, 2256; gen. sg. goldes, 2302; fǣttan goldes, 1094, 2247; scīran goldes, _of pure gold_, 1695. --Comp. fæt-gold.

gold-ǣht, st. f., _possessions in gold, treasure_: acc. sg., 2749.

gold-fāh, adj., _variegated with gold, shining with gold_: nom. sg. reced ... gold-fāh, 1801; acc. sg. gold-fāhne helm, 2812; nom. pl. gold-fāg scinon web æfter wāgum, _variegated with gold, the tapestry gleamed along the walls_, 995.

gold-gifa, w. m., _gold-giver_, designation of the prince: acc. sg. mid mīnne goldgyfan, 2653.

gold-hroden, pret. part., _(covered with gold), ornamented with gold_: nom. sg., 615, 641, 1949, 2026; epithet of women of princely rank.

gold-hwæt, adj., _striving after gold, greedy for gold_: næs hē goldhwæt, _he_ (Bēowulf) _was not greedy for gold_ (he did not fight against the drake for his treasure, cf. 3067 ff.) 3075.

gold-māðm, st. m., _jewel of gold_: acc. pl. gold-māðmas (the treasures of the drake's cave), 2415.

gold-sele, st. m., _gold-hall_, i.e. the hall in which the gold was distributed, ruler's hall: acc. sg., 716, 1254; dat. sg. gold-sele, 1640, 2084.

gold-weard, st. m., _gold-ward, defender of the gold_: acc. sg. (of the drake), 3082.

gold-wine, st. m., _friend who distributes gold_, i.e. ruler, prince: nom. sg. (partly as voc.) goldwine gumena, 1172, 1477, 1603; goldwine Gēata, 2420, 2585.

gold-wlanc, adj., _proud of gold_: nom. sg. gūðrinc goldwlanc (Bēowulf rewarded with gold by Hrōðgār on account of his victory), 1882.

gomban, gomel, gomen. See gamban, gamal, gamen.

gong, gongan. See gang, gangan.

gōd, adj., _good, fit_, of persons and things: nom. sg., 11, 195, 864, 2264, 2391, etc.; frōd and gōd, 279; w. dat. cyning æðelum gōd, _the king noble in birth_, 1871; gumcystum gōd, 2544; w. gen. wes þū ūs lārena gōd, _be good to us with teaching_ (help us thereto through thy instruction), 269; in weak form, se gōda, 205, 355, 676, 1191, etc.; acc. sg. gōdne, 199, 347, 1596, 1970, etc.; gumcystum gōdne, 1487; neut. gōd, 1563; dat. sg. gōdum, 3037, 3115; þǣm gōdan, 384, 2328; nom. pl. gōde, 2250; þā gōdan, 1164; acc. pl. gōde, 2642; dat. pl. gōdum dǣdum, 2179; gen. pl. gōdra gūðrinca, 2649.--Comp. ǣr-gōd.

gōd, st. n.: 1) _good that is done, benefit, gift_: instr. sg. gōde, 20, 957, 1185; gōde mǣre, _renowned on account of her gifts_ (Þrȳðo), 1953; instr. pl. gōdum, 1862.--2) _ability_, especially in fight: gen. pl. nāt hē þāra gōda, 682.

gram, adj., _hostile_: gen. sg. on grames grāpum, _in the gripe of the enemy_ (Bēowulf), 766; nom. pl. þā graman, 778; dat. pl. gramum, 424, 1035.

gram-heort, adj., _of a hostile heart, hostile_: nom. sg. grom-heort guma, 1683.

gram-hȳdig, adj., _with hostile feeling, maliciously inclined_: nom. sg. gromhȳdig, 1750.

grāp, st. f., _the hand ready to grasp, hand, claw_: dat. sg. mid grāpe, 438; on grāpe, 555; gen. sg. eal ... Grendles grāpe, _all of Grendel's claw, the whole claw_, 837; dat. pl. on grames grāpum, 766; (as instr.) grimman grāpum, _with grim claws_, 1543.--Comp.: fēond-, hilde-grāp.

grāpian, w. v., _to grasp, to lay hold of, to seize_: pret. sg. þæt hire wið halse heard grāpode, _that_ (the sword) _griped hard at her neck_, 1567; hē ... grāpode gearofolm, _he took hold with ready hand_, 2086.

græs-molde, w. f., _grass-plot_: acc. sg. græsmoldan træd, _went over the grass-plot_, 1882.

grǣdig, adj., _greedy, hungry, voracious_: nom. sg. grim and grǣdig, 121, 1500; acc. sg. grǣdig gūðlēoð, 1523.

grǣg, adj., _gray_: nom. pl. æsc-holt ufan grǣg, _the ashen wood, gray above_ (the spears with iron points) 330; acc. pl. grǣge syrcan, _gray_ (i.e. iron) _shirts of mail_, 334.

grǣg-mǣl, adj., _having a gray color_, here = _iron_: nom. sg. sweord Bēowulfes gomol and grǣgmǣl, 2683.

grǣpe. See æt-grǣpe.

grētan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute_: inf. hine swā gōdne grētan, 347; Hrōðgār grētan, 1647, 2011; ēowic grētan hēt (_bade me bring you his last greeting_), 3096; pret. sg. grētte Gēata lēod, 626; grētte þā guma ōðerne, 653; Hrōðgār grētte, 1817.-- 2) _to come on, to come near, to seek out; to touch; to take hold of_: inf. gifstōl grētan, _take possession of the throne, mount it as ruler_, 168; næs se folccyning ǣnig ... þē mec gūðwinum grētan dorste (_attack with swords_), 2736; Wyrd ... sē þone gomelan grētan sceolde, 2422; þæt þone sin-scaðan gūðbilla nān grētan nolde, _that no sword would take hold upon the irreconcilable enemy_, 804; pret. sg. grētte goldhroden guman on healle, _the gold-adorned_ (queen) _greeted the men in the hall_, 615; nō hē mid hearme ... gæstas grētte, _did not approach the strangers with insults_, 1894; gomenwudu grētte, _touched the wood of joy, played the harp_, 2109; pret. subj. II. sg. þæt þū þone wælgǣst wihte ne grētte, _that thou shouldst by no means seek out the murderous spirit_ (Grendel), 1996; similarly, sg. III. þæt hē ne grētte goldweard þone, 3082; pret. part. þǣr wæs ... gomenwudu grēted, 1066.

ge-grētan, w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute, to address_: pret. sg. holdne gegrētte mēaglum wordum, _greeted the dear man with formal words_, 1981; gegrētte þā gumena gehwylcne ... hindeman siðe, _spoke then the last time to each of the men_, 2517.--2) _to approach, to come near, to seek out_: inf. sceal ... manig ōðerne gōdum gegrētan ofer ganotes bæð, _many a one will seek another across the sea with gifts_, 1862.

grēot, st. m., _grit, sand, earth_: dat. sg. on grēote, 3169.

grēotan, st. v., _to weep, to mourn, to lament_: pres. sg. III. sē þe æfter sincgyfan on sefan grēoteð, _who laments in his heart for the treasure-giver_, 1343.

grim, adj., _grim, angry, wild, hostile_: nom. sg., 121, 555, 1500, etc.; weak form, se grimma gæst, 102; acc. sg. m. grimne, 1149, 2137; fem, grimme, 1235; gen. sg. grimre gūðe, 527; instr. pl. grimman grāpum, 1543.--Comp.: beado-, heaðo-, heoro-, searo-grim.

grimme, adv., _grimly, in a hostile manner, bitterly_, 3013, 3086.

grim-līc, adj., _grim, terrible_: nom. sg. grimlīc gry[re-gæst], 3042.

grimman, st. v., (properly _to snort_), _to go forward hastily, to hasten_: pret. pl. grummon, 306.

grindan, st. v., _to grind_, in

for-grindan, _to destroy, to ruin_: pret. sg. w. dat. forgrand gramum, _destroyed the enemy, killed them_ (?), 424; pret. part. w. acc. hæfde līgdraca lēoda fæsten ... glēdum forgrunden, _had with flames destroyed the people's feasts_, 2336; þā his āgen (scyld) wæs glēdum forgrunden, _since his own (shield) had been destroyed by the fire_, 2678.

gripe, st. m., _gripe, attack_: nom. sg. gripe mēces, 1766; acc. sg. grimne gripe, 1149.--Comp.: fǣr-, mund-, nīð-gripe.

grīma, w. m., _mask, visor_: in comp. beado-, here-grīma.

grīm-helm, st. m., _mask-helmet, helmet with visor_: acc. pl. grīm-helmas, 334.

grīpan, st. v., _to gripe, to seize, to grasp_: pret. sg. grāp þā tōgēanes, _then she caught at_, 1502.

for-grīpan _(to gripe vehemently), to gripe so as to kill, to kill by the grasp_, w. dat.: pret. sg. æt gūðe forgrāp Grendeles mǣgum, 2354. wið-grīpan, w. dat., _(to seize at), to maintain, to hold erect_: inf. hū wið þām āglǣcean elles meahte gylpe wið-grīpan, _how else I might maintain my boast of battle against the monster_, 2522.

grōwan, st. v., _to grow, to sprout_: pret. sg. him on ferhðe grēow brēosthord blōdrēow, 1719.

grund, st. m.: 1) _ground, plain, fields_ in contrast with highlands; _earth_ in contrast with heaven: dat. sg. sōhte ... æfter grunde, _sought along the ground_, 2295; acc. pl. ofer grundas, 1405, 2074.--2) _bottom, the lowest part_: acc. sg. grund (of the sea of Grendel), 1368; on gyfenes grund, 1395; under gynne grund (_bottom of the sea_) 1552; dat. sg. tō grunde (of the sea), 553; grunde (of the drake's cave) getenge, 2759; so, on grunde, 2766.--Comp.: eormen-, mere-, sǣ-grund.

grund-būend, pres. part., _inhabitant of the earth_: gen. pl. grund-būendra, 1007.

grund-hyrde, st. m., _warder of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg. (of Grendel's mother), 2137.

grund-sele, st. m., _hall at the bottom_ (of the sea): dat sg. in þām [grund]sele, 2140.

grund-wang, st. m., _ground surface, lowest surface_: acc. sg. þone grund-wong (_bottom of the sea_), 1497; (bottom of the drake's cave), 2772, 2589.

grund-wyrgen, st. f., _she-wolf of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg. grund-wyrgenne (Grendel's mother), 1519.

gryn (cf. Gloss. Aldh. "retinaculum, rete grin," Hpts. Ztschr. IX. 429), st. n., _net, noose, snare_: gen. pl. fela ... grynna, 931. See gyrn.

gryre, st. m., _horror, terror, anything causing terror_: nom. sg., 1283; acc. sg. wið Grendles gryre, 384; hīe Wyrd forswēop on Grendles gryre, _snatched them away into the horror of Grendel, to the horrible Grendel_, 478; dat. pl. mid gryrum ecga, 483; gen. pl. swā fela gryra, 592.--Comp.: fǣr-, wīg-gryre.

gryre-brōga, w. m., _terror and horror, amazement_: nom. sg. [gryre-]br[ō]g[a], 2229.

gryre-fāh, adj., _gleaming terribly_: acc. sg. gryre-fāhne (_the fire-spewing drake_, cf. also [draca] fȳrwylmum fāh, 2672, 2577.

gryre-gæst, st. m., _terror-guest, stranger causing terror_: nom. sg. grimlīc gry[regæst], 3042; dat. sg. wið þām gryregieste (the dragon), 2561.

gryre-geatwe, st. f. pl., _terror-armor, warlike equipment_: dat. pl. in hyra gryre-geatwum, 324.

gryre-lēoð, st. n., _terror-song, fearful song_: acc. sg. gehȳrdon gryrelēoð galan godes and-sacan (_heard Grendel's cry of agony_), 787.

gryre-līc, adj., _terrible, horrible_: acc. sg. gryre-līcne, 1442, 2137.

gryre-sīð, st. m., _way of terror, way causing terror_, i.e. warlike expedition: acc. pl. sē þe gryre-sīðas gegān dorste, 1463.

guma, w. m., _man, human being_: nom. sg., 653, 869, etc.; acc. sg. guman, 1844, 2295; dat. sg. guman (gumum, MS.), 2822; nom pl. guman, 215, 306, 667, etc.; acc. pl. guman, 615; dat. pl. gumum, 127, 321; gen. pl. gumena, 73, 328, 474, 716, etc.--Comp.: driht-, seld-guma.

gum-cyn, st. n., _race of men, people, nation_: gen. sg. wē synt gumcynnes Gēata lēode, _people from the nation of the Gēatas_, 260; dat. pl. æfter gum-cynnum, _along the nations, among the nations_, 945.

gum-cyst, st. f., _man's excellence, man's virtue_: acc. sg. (or pl.) gumcyste, 1724; dat. pl. as adv., _excellently, preeminently_: gumcystum gōdne bēaga bryttan, 1487; gumcystum gōd ... hilde-hlemma (Bēowulf), 2544.

gum-drēam, st. m., _joyous doings of men_: acc. sg. gum-drēam ofgeaf (died), 2470.

gum-dryhten, st. m., _lord of men_: nom. sg. 1643.

gum-fēða, w. m., _troop of men going on foot_: nom. sg., 1402.

gum-man, st. m., _man_: gen. pl. gum-manna fela, 1029.

gum-stōl, st. m., _man's seat, κατ' ἐζωχήν, ruler's seat, throne_: dat. sg. in gumstōle, 1953.

gūð, st. f., _combat, battle_: nom. sg., 1124, 1659, 2484, 2537; acc. sg. gūðe, 604; instr. sg. gūðe, 1998; dat. sg. tō (æt) gūðe, 438, 1473. 1536, 2354, etc.; gen. sg. gūðe, 483, 527, 631, etc.; dat. pl. gūðum, 1959, 2179; gen. pl. gūða, 2513, 2544.

gūð-beorn, st. m., _warrior_: gen. pl. gūð-beorna sum (_the strand-guard on the Danish coast_), 314.

gūð-bil, st. n., _battle-bill_: nom. sg. gūðbill, 2585; gen. pl. gūð-billa nān, 804.

gūð-byrne, w. f., _battle-corselet_: nom. sg., 321.

gūð-cearu, st. f., _sorrow which the combat brings_: dat. sg. æfter gūð-ceare, 1259.

gūð-cræft, st. m., _warlike strength, power in battle_: nom. sg. Grendles gūð-cræft, 127.

gūð-cyning, st. m., _king in battle, king directing a battle_: nom. sg., 199, 1970, 2336, etc.

gūð-dēað, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 2250.

gūð-floga, w. m., _flying warrior_: acc. sg. wið þone gūðflogan (the drake), 2529.

gūð-freca, w. m., _hero in battle, warrior_ (see freca): nom. sg. gearo gūð-freca, of the drake, 2415.

gūð-fremmend, pres. part., _fighting a battle, warrior_: gen. pl. gūð-fremmendra, 246; gūð- (gōd-, MS.) fremmendra swylcum, _such a warrior_ (meaning Bēowulf), 299.

gūð-gewǣde, st. n., _battle-dress, armor_: nom. pl. gūð-gewǣdo, 227; acc. pl. -gewǣdu, 2618, 2631(?), 2852, 2872; gen. pl. -gewǣda, 2624.

gūð-geweorc, st. n., _battle-work warlike deed_: gen. pl., -geweorca, 679, 982, 1826.

gūð-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for combat_: acc. þā gūð-geatwa (-getawa, MS.), 2637; dat. in ēowrum gūð-geatawum, 395.

gūð-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet_: nom. sg., 2488.

gūð-horn, st. n., _battle-horn_: acc. sg., 1433.

gūð-hrēð, st. f., _battle-fame_: nom. sg., 820.

gūð-lēoð, st. n., _battle-song_: acc., sg., 1523.

gūð-mōd, adj., _disposed to battle, having an inclination to battle_. nom. pl. gūð-mōde, 306.

gūð-rǣs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack_: acc. sg., 2992; gen. pl. gūð-rǣsa, 1578, 2427.

gūð-rēow, adj., _fierce in battle_: nom. sg., 58.

gūð-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 839, 1119, 1882; acc. sg., 1502; gen. pl. gūð-rinca, 2649.

gūð-rōf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 609.

gūð-sceaða, w. m., _battle-foe, enemy in combat_: nom. sg., of the drake, 2319.

gūð-scearu, st. f., _decision of the battle_: dat. sg. æfter gūð-sceare, 1214.

gūð-sele, st. m., _battle-hall, hall in which a battle takes place_: dat sg. in þǣm gūðsele (in Heorot), 443.

gūð-searo, st. n. pl., _battle-equipment, armor_; acc., 215, 328.

gūð-sweord, st. n., _battle-sword_: acc. sg., 2155.

gūð-wērig, adj., _wearied by battle dead_: acc. sg. gūð-wērigne Grendel, 1587.

gūð-wine, st. m., _battle-friend, comrade in battle_ designation of the sword: acc. sg., 1811; instr. pl. þē mec gūð-winum grētan dorste, _who dared to attack me with his war-friends_, 2736.

gūð-wiga, w. m., _fighter of battles, warrior_: nom. sg., 2112.

gyd. See gid.

gyfan. See gifan.

gyldan. See gildan.

gylden, adj., _golden_: nom. sg. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. segen gyldenne, 47, 1022; bring gyldenne, 2810; dat. sg. under gyldnum bēage, 1164.--Comp. eal-gylden.

gylp. See gilp.

gyrdan, w. v., _to gird, to lace_: pret. part. gyrded cempa, _the (sword-) girt warrior_, 2079.

gyrn, st. n., _sorrow, harm_: nom. sg., 1776.

gyrn-wracu, st. f., _revenge for harm_: dat. sg. tō gyrn-wræce, 1139; gen. sg. þā wæs eft hraðe gearo gyrn-wræce Grendeles mōdor, _then was Grendel's mother in turn immediately ready for revenge for the injury_, 2119.

gyrwan. See gerwan.

gystran. See gistran.

gȳman, w. v. w. gen., _to take care of, to be careful about_: pres. III. gȳmeð, 1758, 2452; imp. sg. oferhȳda ne gȳm! _do not study arrogance_ (despise it), 1761.

for-gȳman, w. acc., _to neglect, to slight_: pres. sg. III. hē þā forð-gesceaft forgyteð and forgȳmeð, 1752.

gȳtsian. See gītsian.

gȳt. See gīt.


habban, w. v., _to have_: 1) w. acc.: pres. sg. I. þæs ic wēn hæbbe (_as I hope_), 383; þē ic geweald hæbbe, 951; ic mē on hafu bord and byrnan, _have on me shield and coat of mail_, 2525; hafo, 3001; sg. II. þū nū [friðu] hafast, 1175; pl. I. habbað wē ... micel ǣrende, 270; pres. subj. sg. III. þæt hē þrīttiges manna mægencræft on his mundgripe hæbbe, 381. Blended with the negative: pl. III. þæt be Sǣ-Gēatas sēlran næbben tō gecēosenne cyning ǣnigne, _that the Sea-Gēatas will have no better king than you to choose_, 1851; imp. hafa nū and geheald hūsa sēlest, 659; inf. habban, 446, 462, 3018; pret. sg. hæfde, 79, 518, 554; pl. hæfdon, 539.--2) used as an auxiliary with the pret. part.: pres. sg. I. hæbbe ic ... ongunnen, 408; hæbbe ic ... geāhsod, 433; II. hafast, 954, 1856; III. hafað, 474, 596; pret. sg. hæfde, 106, 220, 666, 2322, 2334, 2953, etc.; pl. hæfdon, 117, 695, 884, 2382, etc. Pret. part. inflected: nū scealc hafað dǣd gefremede, 940; hæfde se gōda ... cempan gecorone, 205. With the pres. part. are formed the compounds: bord-, rond-hæbbend.

for-habban, _to hold back, to keep one's self_: inf. ne meahte wǣfre mōd forhabban in hreðre, _the expiring life could not hold itself back in the breast_, 1152; ne mihte þā for-habban, _could not restrain himself_, 2610.

wið-habban, _to resist, to offer resistance_: pret. þæt se wīnsele wið-hæfde heaðo-dēorum, _that the hall resisted them furious in fight_, 773.

hafela, heafola, w. m., _head_: acc. sg. hafelan, 1373, 1422, 1615, 1636, 1781; nā þū mīnne þearft hafalan hȳdan, 446; þonne wē on orlege hafelan weredon, _protected our heads, defended ourselves_, 1328; se hwīta helm hafelan werede, 1449; dat. sg. hafelan, 673, 1522; heafolan, 2680; gen. sg. heafolan, 2698; nom. pl. hafelan, 1121.--Comp. wīg-heafola.

hafenian, w. v., _to raise, to uplift_: pret. sg. wǣpen hafenade heard be hiltum, _raised the weapon, the strong man, by the hilt_, 1574.

hafoc, st. m., _hawk_: nom. sg., 2264.

haga, w. m., _enclosed piece of ground, hedge, farm-enclosure_: dat. sg. tō hagan, 2893, 2961.

haga, w. m. See ān-haga.

hama, homa, w. m., _dress_: in the comp. flǣsc-, fyrd-, līc-hama, scīr-ham (adj.).

hamer, st. m., _hammer_: instr. sg. hamere, 1286; gen. pl. homera lāfe (swords), 2830.

hand, hond, st. f., _hand_: nom. sg. 2138; sīo swīðre ... hand, _the right hand_, 2100; hond, 1521, 2489, 2510; acc. sg. hand, 558, 984; hond, 657, 687, 835, 928, etc.; dat. sg. on handa, 495, 540; mid handa, 747, 2721; be honda, 815; dat. pl. (as instr.) hondum, 1444, 2841.

hand-bana, w. m., _murderer with the hand_, or _in hand-to-hand combat_: dat. sg. tō hand-bonan (-banan), 460, 1331.

hand-gemōt, st. n., _hand-to-hand conflict, battle_: gen. pl. (ecg) þolode ǣr fela hand-gemōta, 1527; nō þæt lǣsest wæs hond-gemōta, 2356.

hand-gesella, w. m., _hand-companion, man of the retinue_: dat. pl. hond-gesellum, 1482.

hand-gestealla, w. m., _(one whose position is near at hand), comrade, companion, attendant_: dat. sg. hond-gesteallan, 2170; nom. pl. hand-gesteallan, 2597.

hand-geweorc, st. n., _work done with the hands_, i.e. achievement in battle: dat. sg. for þæs hild-fruman hondgeweorce, 2836.

hand-gewriðen, pret. part. _hand-wreathed, bound with the hand._ acc. pl. wælbende ... hand-gewriðene, 1938.

hand-locen, pret. part., _joined, united by hand_: nom. sg. (gūð-byrne, līc-syrce) hondlocen (because the shirts of mail consisted of interlaced rings), 322, 551.

hand-rǣs, st. m., _hand-battle_, i.e. combat with the hands: nom. sg. hond-rǣs, 2073.

hand-scalu, st. f., _hand-attendance, retinue_: dat. sg. mid his hand-scale (hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

hand-sporu, st. f., _finger_ (on Grendel's hand), under the figure of a spear: nom. pl. hand-sporu, 987.

hand-wundor, st. n., _wonder done by the hand, wonderful handwork_: gen. pl. hond-wundra mǣst, 2769.

hangan. See hōn.

hangian, w. v., _to hang_: pres. sg. III. þonne his sunu hangað hrefne to hrōðre, _when his son hangs, a joy to the ravens_, 2448; pl. III. ofer þǣm (mere) hongiað hrīmge bearwas, _over which frosty forests hang_, 1364; inf. hangian, 1663; pret. hangode, _hung down_, 2086.

hatian, w. v. w. acc., _to hate, to be an enemy to, to hurt_: inf. hē þone heaðo-rinc hatian ne meahte lāðum dǣdum (_could not do him any harm_), 2467; pret. sg. hū se gūð-sceaða Gēata lēode hatode and hȳnde, 2320.

hād, st. m., _form, condition, position, manner_: acc. sg. þurh hǣstne hād, _in a powerful manner_, 1336; on gesīðes hād, _in the position of follower, as follower_, 1298; on sweordes hād, _in the form of a sword_, 2194. See under on.

hādor, st. m., _clearness, brightness_: acc. sg. under heofenes hādor, 414.

hādor, adj., _clear, fresh, loud_: nom. sg. scop hwīlum sang hādor on Heorote, 497.

hādre, adv., _clearly, brightly_, 1572.

hāl, adj., _hale, whole, sound, unhurt_: nom. sg. hāl, 300. With gen. heaðo-lāces hāl, _safe from battle_, 1975. As form of salutation, wes ... hāl, 407; dat. sg. hālan līce, 1504.

hālig, adj., _holy_: nom. sg. hālig god, 381, 1554; hālig dryhten, 687.

hām, st. m., _home, residence, estate, land_: acc. sg. hām, 1408; Hrōðgāres hām, 718. Usually in adverbial sense: gewāt him hām, _betook himself home_, 1602; tō hām, 124, 374, 2993; fram hām, _at home_, 194; æt hām, _at home_, 1249, 1924, 1157; gen. sg. hāmes, 2367; acc. pl. hāmas, 1128.--Comp. Finnes-hām, 1157.

hām-weorðung, st. f., _honor_ or _ornament of home_: acc. sg. hām-weorðunge (designation of the daughter of Hygelāc, given in marriage to Eofor), 2999.

hār, adj., _gray_: nom. sg. hār hilde-rinc, 1308, 3137; acc. sg. under (ofer) hārne stān, 888, 1416, 2554; hāre byrnan (i.e. iron shirt of mail), 2154; dat. sg. hārum hildfruman, 1679; f. on hēare hǣðe (on heaw ... h ... ðe, MS.), 2213; gen. sg. hāres, _of the old man_, 2989.--Comp. un-hār.

hāt, adj., _hot, glowing, flaming_ nom sg., 1617, 2297, 2548, 2559, etc.; wyrm hāt gemealt, _the drake hot_ (of his own heat) _melted_, 898; acc. sg., 2282(?); inst. sg. hātan heolfre, 850, 1424; g. sg. heaðu-fȳres hātes, 2523; acc. pl. hāte heaðo-wylmas, 2820.--Sup.: hātost heaðo-swāta, 1669.

hāt, st. n., _heat, fire_: acc. sg. geseah his mondryhten ... hāt þrowian, _saw his lord endure the_ (drake's) _heat_, 2606.

hata, w. m., _persecutor_; in comp. dǣd-hata.

hātan, st. v.: 1) _to bid, to order, to direct_, with acc. and inf., and acc. of the person: pres. sg. I. ic maguþegnas mīne hāte ... flotan ēowerne ārum healdan, _I bid my thanes take good care of your craft_, 293; imp. sg. II. hāt in gān ... sibbegedriht, 386; pl. II. hātað heaðo-mǣre hlǣw gewyrcean, 2803; inf. þæt healreced hātan wolde ... men gewyrcean, _that he wished to command men to build a hall-edifice_, 68. Pret. sg. heht: heht ... eahta mēaras ... on flet tēon, _gave command to bring eight horses into the hall_, 1036; þonne ǣnne heht golde forgyldan, _commanded to make good that one with gold_, 1054; heht þā þæt heaðo-weorc tō hagan bīodan, _ordered the combat to be announced at the hedge_(?), 2893; swā se snottra heht, _as the wise_ (Hrōðgār) _directed_, 1787; so, 1808, 1809. hēt: hēt him ȳðlidan gōdne gegyrwan, _ordered a good vessel to be prepared for him_, 198; so, hēt, 391, 1115, 3111. As the form of a wish: hēt hine wēl brūcan, 1064; so, 2813; pret. part. þā wæs hāten hraðe Heort innan-weard folmum gefrætwod, _forthwith was ordered Heorot, adorned by hand on the inside_ (i.e. that the edifice should be adorned by hand on the inside), 992.--2) _to name, to call_: pres. subj. III. pl. þæt hit sǣlīðend ... hātan Bīowulfes biorh, _that mariners may call it Bēowulf's grave-mound_, 2807; pret. part. wæs se grimma gæst Grendel hāten, 102; so, 263, 373, 2603.

ge-hātan, _to promise, to give one's word, to vow, to threaten_: pres. sg. I. ic hit þē gehāte, 1393; so, 1672; pret. sg. hē mē mēde gehēt, _promised me reward_, 2135; him fægre gehēt lēana (gen. pl.), _promised them proper reward_, 2990; wēan oft gehēt earmre teohhe, _with woe often threatened the unhappy band_, 2938; pret. pl. gehēton æt hærgtrafum wīg-weorðunga, _vowed offerings at the shrines of the gods_, 175; þonne wē gehēton ūssum hlāforde þæt ..., _when we promised our lord that_..., 2635; pret. part. sīo gehāten [wæs] ... gladum suna Frōdan, _betrothed to the glad son of Froda_, 2025.

hātor, st. m. n., _heat_: in comp. and-hātor.

hæft, adj., _held, bound, fettered_: nom. sg., 2409; acc. sg. helle hæftan, _him fettered by hell_ (Grendel), 789.

hæft-mēce, st. m., _sword with fetters_ or _chains_ (cf. fetel-hilt): dat. sg. þǣm hæft-mēce, 1458. See Note.

hæg-steald, st. m., _man, liegeman, youth_: gen. pl. hæg-stealdra, 1890.

hæle, st. m., _man_: nom. sg., 1647, 1817, 3112; acc. sg. hæle, 720; dat. pl. hǣlum (hǣnum, MS.), 1984.

hæleð, st. m., _hero, fighter, warrior, man_: nom. sg., 190, 331, 1070; nom. pl. hæleð, 52, 2248, 2459, 3143; dat. pl. hæleðum 1710, 1962, etc.; gen. pl. hæleða, 467, 497, 612, 663, etc.

hærg. See hearg.

hǣð, st. f., _heath_: dat. sg. hǣðe, 2213.

hǣðen, adj., _heathenish_; acc. sg. hǣðene sāwle, 853; dat. sg. hǣðnum horde, 2217; gen. sg. hǣðenes, _of the heathen_ (Grendel), 987; gen. pl. hǣðenra, 179.

hǣð-stapa, w. m., _that which goes about on the heath_ (stag): nom. sg., 1369

hǣl, st. f.: 1) _health, welfare, luck_: acc. sg. him hǣl ābēad, 654; mid hǣle, 1218.--2) _favorable sign, favorable omen_: hǣl scēawedon, _observed favorable signs_ (for Bēowulf's undertaking), 204.

hǣlo, st. f., _health, welfare, luck_: acc. sg. hǣlo ābēad heorð-genēatum, 2419.--Comp. un-hǣlo.

hǣst (O.H.G. haisterā hantī, manu violenta; heist, ira; heistigo, iracunde), adj., _violent, vehement_: acc. sg. þurh hǣstne hād, 1336.

hē, fem. hēo, neut. hit, pers. pron., _he, she, it_; in the oblique cases also reflexive, _himself, herself, itself_: acc. sg. hine, hī, hit; dat. sg. him, hire, him; gen. sg. his, hire, his; plur. acc. nom. hī, hig, hīe; dat. him; gen. hira, heora, hiera, hiora.--he omitted before the verb, 68, 300, 2309, 2345.

hebban, st. v., _to raise, to lift_, w. acc.: inf. siððan ic hond and rond hebban mihte, 657; pret. part. hafen, 1291; hæfen, 3024.

ā-hebban, _raise, to lift from, to take away_: wæs ... icge gold āhafen of horde, _taken up from the hoard_, 1109; þā wæs ... wōp up āhafen, _a cry of distress raised_, 128

ge-hegan [ge-hēgan], w. v., _to enclose, to fence_: þing gehegan, _to mark off the court, hold court_. Here figurative: inf. sceal ... āna gehegan þing wið þyrse (_shall alone decide the matter with Grendel_), 425.

hel, st. f., _hell_: nom. sg., 853; acc. sg. helle, 179; dat. sg. helle, 101, 589; (as instr.), 789; gen. sg. helle, 1275.

hel-bend, st. m. f. _bond of hell_: instr. pl. hell-bendum fæst, 3073.

hel-rūna, w. m., _sorcerer_: nom. pl. helrūnan, 163.

be-helan, st. v., _to conceal, to hide_: pret. part. be-holen, 414.

helm, st. m.: 1) _protection in general, defence, covering that protects_: acc. sg. on helm, 1393; under helm, 1746.--2) _helmet_: nom. sg., 1630; acc. sg. helm, 673, 1023, 1527, 2988; (helo, MS.), 2724; brūn-fāgne, gold-fāhne helm, 2616, 2812; dat. sg. under helme, 342, 404; gen. sg. helmes, 1031; acc. pl. helmas, 240, 2639.--3) _defence, protector_, designation of the king: nom. sg. helm Scyldinga (Hrōðgār), 371, 456, 1322; acc. sg. heofena helm _(the defender of the heavens_ = God), 182; helm Scylfinga, 2382.--Comp.: grīm-, gūð-, heaðo-, niht-helm.

ofer-helmian, w. v. w. acc., _to cover over, to overhang_: pres. sg. III. ofer-helmað, 1365.

helm-berend, pres. part., _helm-wearing_ (warrior): acc. pl. helmberend, 2518, 2643.

helpan, st. v., _to help_: inf. þæt him holt-wudu helpan ne meahte, lind wið līge, _that a wooden shield could not help him, a linden shield against flame_, 2341; þæt him īrenna ecge mihton helpan æt hilde, 2685; wutun gangan to, helpan hildfruman, _let us go thitherto help the battle-chief_, 2650; w. gen. ongan ... mǣges helpan, _began to help my kinsman_, 2880; so, pret. sg. þǣr hē his mǣges (MS. mægenes) healp, 2699.

help, m. and f., _help, support, maintenance_: acc. sg. helpe, 551, 1553; dat. sg. tō helpe, 1831; acc. sg. helpe, 2449.

hende, _-handed_: in comp. īdel-hende.

hēr, adv., _here_, 397, 1062, 1229, 1655, 1821, 2054, 2797, etc.; _hither_, 244, 361, 376.

here (Goth, harji-s), st. m., _army, troops_: dat. sg. on herge, _in the army, on a warlike expedition, 1249; in the army, among the fighting men_, 2639; as instr. herge, 2348.--Comp.: flot-, scip-, sin-here.

here-brōga, w. m., _terror of the army, fear of war_: dat. sg. for here-brōgan, 462.

here-byrne, w. f., _battle-mail, coat of mail_: nom. sg., 1444.

here-grīma, w. m., _battle-mask_, i.e. helmet (with visor): dat. sg. -grīman, 396, 2050, 2606.

here-net, st. n., _battle-net_, i.e. coat of mail (of interlaced rings): nom. sg., 1554.

here-nīð, st. m., _battle-enmity, battle of armies_: nom. sg., 2475.

here-pād, st. f., _army-dress_, i.e. coat of mail, armor: nom. sg., 2259.

here-rinc, st. m., _army-hero, hero in battle, warrior_: acc. sg. here-rinc (MS. here ric), 1177.

here-sceaft, st. m., _battle-shaft_, i.e. spear: gen. pl. here-sceafta hēap, 335.

here-spēd, st. f., _(war-speed), luck in war_: nom. sg., 64.

here-strǣl, st. m., _war-arrow, missile_: nom. sg., 1436.

here-syrce, w. f., _battle-shirt, shirt of mail_: acc. sg. here-syrcan, 1512.

here-wǣd, st. f., _army-dress, coat of mail, armor_: dat. pl. (as instr.) here-wǣdum, 1898.

here-wǣsma, w. m., _war-might, fierce strength in battle_: dat. pl. an here-wǣsmum, 678.--Leo.

here-wīsa, w. m., _leader of the army_, i.e. ruler, king: nom. sg., 3021.

herg, hearg, st. m., _image of a god, grove where a god was worshipped_, hence to the Christian a wicked place(?): dat. pl. hergum geheaðerod, _confined in wicked places_ (parallel with hell-bendum fæst), 3073.

herigean, w. v. w. dat. of pers., _to provide with an army, to support with an army_: pres. sg. I. ic þē wēl herige, 1834.--Leo.

hete, st. m., _hate, enmity_: nom. sg. 142, 2555.--Comp.: ecg-, morðor-, wīg-hete.

hete-līc, adj., _hated_: nom. sg., 1268.

hetend, hettend, (pres. part. of hetan, see hatian), _enemy_, hostis: nom. pl. hetende, 1829; dat. pl. wið hettendum, 3005.

hete-nīð, st. m., _enmity full of hate_: acc. pl. hete-nīðas, 152.

hete-sweng, st. m., _a blow from hate_: acc. pl. hete-swengeas, 2226.

hete-þanc, st. m., _hate-thought, a hostile design_: dat. pl. mid his hete-þancum, 475.

hēdan, ge-hēdan, w. v. w. gen.: 1) _to protect_: pret. sg. ne hēdde hē þæs heafolan, _did not protect his head_, 2698.--2) _to obtain_: subj. pret. sg. III. gehēdde, 505.

herian, w. v. w. acc., _to praise, to commend_: with reference to God, _to adore_: inf. heofena helm herian ne cūðon, _could not worship the defence of the heavens_ (God), 182; nē hūru Hildeburh herian þorfte Eotena trēowe, _had no need to praise the fidelity of the Eotens_, 1072; pres. subj. þæt mon his wine-dryhten wordum herge, 3177.

ge-heaðerian, w. v., _to force, to press in_: pret. part. ge-heaðerod, 3073.

heaðo-byrne, w. f., _battle-mail, shirt of mail_: nom. sg., 1553.

heaðo-dēor, adj., _bold in battle, brave_: nom. sg., 689; dat. pl. heaðo-dēorum, 773.

heaðo-fyr, st. n., _battle-fire, hostile fire_: gen. sg. heaðu-fȳres, 2523; instr. pl. heaðo-fȳrum, 2548, of the drake's fire-spewing.

heaðo-grim, adj., _grim in battle_, 548.

heaðo-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet, war-helmet_: nom. sg., 3157(?).

heaðo-lāc, st. n., _battle-play, battle_: dat. sg. æt heaðo-lāce, 584; gen. sg. heaðo-lāces hāl, 1975.

heaðo-mǣre, adj., _renowned in battle_: acc. pl. -mǣre, 2803.

heaðo-rǣs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack in battle, entrance by force_: nom. sg., 557; acc. pl. -rǣsas, 1048; gen. pl. -rǣsa, 526.

heaðo-rēaf, st. n., _battle-dress, equipment for battle_: acc. sg. heaðo-rēaf hēoldon (_kept the equipments_), 401.

heaðo-rinc, st. m., _battle-hero, warrior_: acc. sg. þone heaðo-rinc (Hrēðel's son, Hæðcyn), 2467; dat. pl. þǣm heaðo-rincum, 370.

heaðo-rōf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 381; nom. pl. heaðo-rōfe, 865.

heaðo-scearp, adj., _sharp in battle, bold_: n. m. pl. (-scearde, MS.), 2830.

heaðo-sēoc, adj., _battle-sick_: dat. sg. -sīocum, 2755.

heaðo-stēap, adj., _high in battle, excelling in battle_: nom. sg. in weak form, heaðo-stēapa, 1246; acc. sg. heaðo-stēapne, 2154, both times of the helmet.

heaðo-swāt, st. m., _blood of battle_: dat. sg. heaðo-swāte, 1607; as instr., 1461; gen. pl. hātost heaðo-swāta, 1669.

heaðo-sweng, st. m., _battle-stroke_ (blow of the sword): dat. sg. æfter heaðu-swenge, 2582.

heaðo-torht, adj., _loud, clear in battle_: nom. sg. stefn ... heaðo-torht, _the voice clear in battle_, 2554.

heaðo-wǣd, st. f., _battle-dress, coat of mail, armor_: instr. pl. heaðo-wǣdum, 39.

heaðo-weorc, st. n., _battle-work, battle_: acc. sg., 2893.

heaðo-wylm, st. m., _hostile (flame-) wave_: acc. pl. hāte heaðo-wylmas, 2820; gen. pl. heaðo-wylma, 82.

heaf, st. n., _sea_: acc. pl. ofer heafo, 2478. See Note.

heafola. See hafela.

heal, st. f., _hall, main apartment, large building_ (consisting of an assembly-hall and a banqueting-hall): nom. sg. heal, 1152, 1215; heall, 487; acc. sg. healle, 1088; dat. sg. healle, 89, 615, 643, 664, 926, 1010, 1927, etc.; gen. sg. [healle], 389.--Comp.: gif-, meodo-heal.

heal-ærn, st. n., _hall-building, hall-house_: gen. sg. heal-ærna, 78.

heal-gamen, st. n., _social enjoyment in the hall, hall-joy_: nom. sg., 1067.

heal-reced, st. n., _hall-building_: acc. sg., 68.

heal-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_ (at the banquet): dat. pl. heal-sittendum, 2869; gen. pl. heal-sittendra, 2016.

heal-þegn, st. m., _hall-thane_, i.e. a warrior who holds the hall: gen. sg. heal-þegnes, of Grendel, 142; acc. pl. heal-þegnas, of Bēowulfs band, 720.

heal-wudu, _hall-wood_, i.e. hall built of wood: nom. sg., 1318.

healdan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to hold, to hold fast; to support_: pret. pl. hū þā stānbogan ... ēce eorðreced innan hēoldon (MS. healde), _how the arches of rock within held the everlasting earth-house_, 2720. Pret. sg., with a person as object: hēold hine to fæste, _held him too fast_, 789; w. the dat. hē him frēondlārum hēold, _supported him with friendly advice_, 2378.--2) _to hold, to watch, to preserve, to keep_; reflexive, _to maintain one's self, to keep one's self_: pres. sg. II. eal þū hit geþyldum healdest, mægen mid mōdes snyttrum, _all that preservest thou continuously, strength and wisdom of mind_, 1706; III. healdeð hige-mēðum hēafod-wearde, _holds for the dead the head-watch_, 2910; imp. sg. II. heald forð tela nīwe sibbe, _keep well, from now on, the new relationship_, 949; heald (heold, MS.) þū nū hrūse ... eorla ǣhte, _preserve thou now, Earth, the noble men's possessions_, 2248; inf. sē þe holmclifu healdan scolde, _watch the sea-cliffs_, 230; so, 705; nacan ... ārum healdan, _to keep well your vessel_, 296; wearde healdan, 319; forlēton eorla gestrēon eorðan healdan, 3168; pres. part. drēam healdende, _holding rejoicing_ (i.e. thou who art rejoicing), 1228; pret. sg. hēold hine syððan fyr and fæstor, _kept himself afterwards afar and more secure_, 142; ǣgwearde hēold, _I have (hitherto) kept watch on the sea_, 241; so, 305; hīold hēah-lufan wið hæleða brego, _preserved high love_, 1955; ginfæstan gife ... hēold, 2184; gold-māðmas hēold, _took care of the treasures of gold_, 2415; hēold mīn tela, _protected well mine own_, 2738; þonne ... sceft ... nytte hēold, _had employment, was employed_, 3119; hēold mec, _protected_, i.e. brought me up, 2431; pret. pl. heaðo-rēaf hēoldon, _watched over the armor_, 401; sg. for pl. hēafodbeorge ... walan ūtan hēold, _outwards, bosses kept guard over the head_, 1032.--Related to the preceding meaning are the two following: 3) _to rule and protect the fatherland_: inf. gif þū healdan wylt maga rice, 1853; pret. hēold, 57, 2738.--4) _to hold, to have, to possess, to inhabit_: inf. lēt þone brego-stōl Bēowulf healdan, 2390; gerund. tō healdanne hlēoburh wera, 1732; pret. sg. hēold, 103, 161, 466, 1749, 2752; lyftwynne hēold nihtes hwīlum, _at night-time had the enjoyment of the air_, 3044; pret. pl. Gēata lēode hreāwic hēoldon, _the Gēatas held the place of corpses_ (lay dead upon it), 1215; pret. sg. þǣr hēo ǣr mǣste hēold worolde wynne, _in which she formerly possessed the highest earthly joy_, 1080.--5) _to win, to receive_: pret. pl. I. heoldon hēah gesceap, _we received a heavy fate, heavy fate befell us_, 3085.

be-healdan, w. acc.: 1) _to take care of, to attend to_: pret. sg. þegn nytte behēold, _a thane discharged the office_, 494; so, 668.--2) _to hold_: pret. sg. sē þe flōda begong ... behēold, 1499.--3) _to look at, to behold_: þrȳðswȳð behēold mǣg Higelāces hū ..., _great woe saw H.'s kinsman, how ..._, 737.

for-healdan, w. acc., _(to hold badly), to fall away from, to rebel_: pret. part. hæfdon hȳ forhealden helm Scylfinga, _had rebelled against the defender of the Scylfings_, 2382.

ge-healdan: 1) _to hold, to receive, to hold fast_: pres. sg. III. sē þe waldendes hyldo gehealdeð, _who receives the Lord's grace_, 2294; pres. subj. fæder alwalda ... ēowic gehealde sīða gesunde, _keep you sound on your journey_, 317; inf. ne meahte hē ... on þām frum-gāre feorh gehealdan, _could not hold back the life in his lord_, 2857.--2) _to take care, to preserve, to watch over; to stop_: imp. sg. hafa nū and geheald hūsa sēlest, 659; inf. gehealdan hēt hilde-geatwe, 675; pret. sg. hē frætwe gehēold fela missēra, 2621; þone þe ǣr gehēold wið hettendum hord and rīce, _him who before preserved treasure and realm_, 3004.--3) _to rule_: inf. folc gehealdan, 912; pret. sg. gehēold tela (brāde rīce), 2209.

healf, st. f., _half, side, part_: acc. sg. on þā healfe, _towards this side_, 1676; dat. sg. hæleðum be healfe, _at the heroes' side_, 2263; acc. pl. on twā healfa, _upon two sides, mutually_, 1096; on bā healfa (healfe), _on both sides_ (to Grendel and his mother), 1306; _on two sides, on both sides_, 2064; gen. pl. on healfa gehwone, _in half, through the middle_, 801.

healf, adj., _half_: gen. sg. healfre, 1088.

heals, st. m., _neck_: acc. sg. heals, 2692; dat. sg. wið halse, 1567; be healse, 1873.--Comp.: the adjectives fāmig-, wunden-heals.

heals-bēah, st. m., _neck-ring, collar_: acc. sg. þone heals-bēah, 2173; gen. pl. heals-bēaga, 1196.

heals-gebedde, w. f., _beloved bedfellow, wife_: nom. sg. healsgebedde (MS. healsgebedda), 63.

healsian, w. v. w. acc., _to entreat earnestly, to implore_: pret. sg. þā se þēoden mec ... healsode hrēoh-mōd þæt..., _entreated me sorrowful, that_..., 2133.

heard, adj.: 1) of persons, _able, efficient in war, strong, brave_: nom. sg. heard, 342, 376, 404, 1575, 2540, etc.; in weak form, se hearda, 401, 1964; se hearda þegn, 2978; þes hearda hēap, 432; nom. pl. hearde hilde-frecan, 2206; gen. pl. heardra, 989. Comparative: acc. sg. heardran hæle, 720. With accompanying gen.: wīges heard, _strong in battle_, 887; dat. sg. nīða heardum, 2171.--2) of the implements of war, _good, firm, sharp, hard_: nom. sg. (gūð-byrne, līc-syrce) heard, 322, 551. In weak form: masc. here-strǣl hearda, 1436; se hearda helm, 2256; neutr. here-net hearde, 1554; acc. sg. (swurd, wǣpen), heard, 540, 2688, 2988; nom. pl. hearde ... homera lāfe, 2830; heard and hring-mǣl Heaðobeardna gestrēon, 2038; acc. pl. heard sweord, 2639. Of other things, _hard, rough, harsh, hard to bear_: acc. sg. hreðer-bealo hearde, 1344; nom. sg. wrōht ... heard, 2915; here-nīð hearda, 2475; acc. sg. heoro-sweng heardne, 1591; instr. sg. heardan cēape, 2483; instr. pl. heardan, heardum clammum, 964, 1336; gen. pl. heardra hȳnða, 166. Compar.: acc. sg. heardran feohtan, 576.--Comp.: fȳr-, īren-, nīð-, regn-, scūr-heard.

hearde, adv., _hard, very_, 1439.

heard-ecg, adj., _sharp-edged, hard, good in battle_: nom. sg., 1289.

heard-fyrde, adj., _hard to take away, heavy_: acc. sg. hard-fyrdne, 2246.--Leo.

heard-hycgend, pres. part. _of a warlike disposition, brave_: nom. pl. -hicgende, 394, 800.

hearg-træf, st. n., _tent of the gods, temple_: dat. pl. æt hærg-trafum (MS. hrǣrg trafum), 175.

hearm, st. m., _harm, injury, insult_: dat. sg. mid hearme, 1893.

hearm-sceaða, w. m., _enemy causing injury_ or _grief_: nom. sg. hearm-scaða, 767.

hearpe, w. f., _harp_: gen. sg. hearpan swēg, 89, 3024; hearpan wynne (wyn), 2108, 2263.

hēaðu, st. f., _sea, waves_: acc. sg. hēaðu, 1863?

hēaðu-līðend, pres. part., _sea-farer, sailor_: nom. pl. -līðende, 1799; dat. pl. -līðendum (designation of the Gēatas), 2956.

hēafod, st. n., _head_: acc. sg., 48, 1640; dat. sg. hēafde, 1591, 2291, 2974; dat. pl. hēafdum, 1243.

hēafod-beorh, st. f., _head-defence, protection for the head_: acc. sg. hēafod-beorge, 1031.

hēafod-mǣg, st. m., _head-kinsman, near blood-relative_: dat. pl. hēafod-mǣgum (_brothers_), 589; gen. pl. hēafod-māga, 2152.

hēafod-segn, st. n., _head-sign, banner_: acc. sg., 2153.

hēafod-weard, st. f., _head-watch_ acc. sg. healdeð ... hēafod-wearde lēofes and lāðes, _for the friend and the foe_ (Bēowulf and the drake, who lie dead near each other), 2910.

hēah, hēa, adj., _high, noble_ (in composition, also primus): nom. sg. hēah Healfdene, 57; hēa (Higelāc), 1927; hēah (sele), 82; hēah hlǣw, 2806, 3159; acc. sg. hēah (segn), 48, 2769; hēahne (MS. hēanne) hrōf, 984; dat. sg. in (tō) sele þām hēan, 714, 920; gen. sg. hēan hūses, 116.--_high, heavy_: acc. hēah gesceap (_an unusual, heavy fate_), 3085.

hēa-burh, st. f., _high city, first city of a country_: acc. sg., 1128.

hēah-cyning, st. m., _high king, mightiest of the kings_: gen. sg. -cyninges (of Hrōðgār), 1040.

hēah-gestrēon, st. n., _splendid treasure_: gen. pl. -gestrēona, 2303.

hēah-lufe, w. f., _high love_: acc. sg. hēah-lufan, 1955.

hēah-sele, st. m., _high hall, first hall in the land, hall of the ruler_: dat. sg. hēah-sele, 648.

hēah-setl, st. n., _high seat, throne_: acc. sg., 1088.

hēah-stede, st. m., _high place, ruler's place_: dat. sg. on hēah-stede, 285.

hēan, adj., _depressed, low, despised, miserable_: nom. sg., 1275, 2100, 2184, 2409.

hēap, st. m., _heap, crowd, troop_: nom. sg. þegna hēap, 400; þes hearda hēap, _this brave band_, 432; acc. sg. here-sceafta hēap, _the crowd of spears_, 335; mago-rinca hēap, 731; dat. sg. on hēape, _in a compact body_, as many as there were of them, 2597.--Comp. wīg-hēap.

hēawan, st. v., _to hew, to cleave_: inf., 801.

ge-hēawan, _cleave_: pres. subj. ge-hēawe, 683.

heoðu, st. f., _the interior of a building_: dat. sg. þæt hē on heoðe gestōd, _in the interior_ (of the hall, Heorot), 404.

heofon, st. m., _heaven_: nom. sg., 3157; dat. sg. hefene, 1572; gen. sg. heofenes, 414, 576, 1802, etc.; gen. pl. heofena, 182; dat. pl. under heofenum, 52, 505.

heolfor, st. n., _gore, fresh_ or _crude blood_: dat. instr. sg. hātan heolfre, 850, 1424; heolfre, 2139; under heolfre, 1303.

heolster, st. n., _haunt, hiding-place_: acc. sg. on heolster, 756.

heonan, adv., _hence, from here_: heonan, 252; heonon, 1362.

heor, st. m., _door-hinge_: nom. pl. heorras, 1000.

heorde, adj. See wunden-heorde.

heorð-genēat, st. m., _hearth-companion_, i.e. a vassal of the king, in whose castle he receives his livelihood: nom. pl. heorð-genēatas, 261, 3181; acc. pl. heorð-genēatas, 1581, 2181; dat. pl. heorð-genēatum, 2419.

heorot, st. m., _stag_: nom. sg., 1370.

heorte, w. f., _heart_: nom. sg., 2562; dat. sg. æt heortan, 2271; gen. sg. heortan, 2464, 2508.--Comp.: the adjectives blīð-, grom-, rūm-, stearc-heort.

heoru, st. m., _sword_: nom. sg. heoru bunden (cf. under bīndan), 1286. In some of the following compounds heoro- seems to be confounded with here- (see here).

heoro-blāc, adj., _pale through the sword, fatally wounded_: nom. sg. [heoro-]blāc, 2489.

heoru-drēor, st. m., _sword-blood_: instr. sg. heoru-drēore, 487; heoro-drēore, 850.

heoro-drēorig, adj., _bloody through the sword_: nom. sg., 936; acc. sg. heoro-drēorigne, 1781, 2721.

heoro-drync, st. m., _sword-drink_, i.e. blood shed by the sword: instr. pl. hioro-dryncum swealt, _died through sword-drink_, i.e. struck by the sword, 2359.

heoro-gīfre, adj., _eager for hostile inroads_: nom. sg., 1499.

heoro-grim, adj., _sword-grim, fierce in battle_: nom. sg. m., 1565; fem. -grimme, 1848.

heoro-hōcihte, adj., _provided with barbs, sharp like swords _: instr. pl. mid eofer-sprēotum heoro-hōcyhtum, 1439.

heoro-serce, w. f., _shirt of mail_: acc. sg. hioro-sercean, 2540.

heoro-sweng, st. m., _sword-stroke_: acc. sg. 1591.

heoro-weallende, pres. part., _rolling around fighting_, of the drake, 2782. See weallian.

heoro-wearh, st. m. _he who is sword-cursed, who is destined to die by the sword_: nom. sg., 1268.

hēofan, w. v., _to lament, to moan_: part. nom. pl. hīofende, 3143.

ā-hēoran, _to free_ (?): w. acc. pret. sg. brȳd āhēorde, 2931.

hēore, adj., _pleasant, not haunted, secure_: nom. sg. fem, nis þæt hēoru stōw, _that is no secure place_, 1373.--Comp. un-hēore (-hȳre).

hider, adv., _hither_, 240, 370, 394, 3093, etc.

ofer-hīgian, w. v. (according to the connection, probably), _to exceed_, 2767. (O.H.G. ubar-hugjan, _to be arrogant_.)

hild, st. f., _battle, combat_: nom. sg., 452, 902, 1482, 2077; hild heoru-grimme, 1848; acc. sg. hilde, 648; instr. sg. hilde, _through combat_, 2917; dat. sg. æt hilde, 1461.

hilde-bil, st. n., _battle-sword_: nom. sg., 1667; instr. dat. sg. hilde-bille, 557, 1521.

hilde-bord, st. n., _battle-shield_: acc. pl. hilde-bord, 397; instr. pl. -bordum, 3140.

hilde-cyst, st. f., _excellence in battle, bravery in battle_: instr. pl. -cystum, 2599.

hilde-dēor, adj., _bold in battle, brave in battle_: nom. sg., 312, 835, 1647, 1817; hilde-dīor, 3112; nom. pl. hilde-dēore, 3171.

hilde-freca, w. m., _hero in battle_: nom. pl. hilde-frecan, 2206; dat. sg. hild-frecan, 2367.

hilde-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for battle, adornment for combat_: acc. hilde-geatwe, 675; gen. -geatwa, 2363.

hilde-gicel, st. m., _battle-icicle_, i.e. the blood which hangs upon the sword-blades like icicles: instr. pl. hilde-gicelum, 1607.

hilde-grāp, st. f., _battle-gripe_: nom. sg., 1447, 2508.

hilde-hlemma, w. m., _one raging in battle, warrior, fighter_: nom. sg., 2352, 2545; dat. pl. eft þæt ge-īode ... hilde-hlæmmum, _it happened to the warriors_ (the Gēatas), 2202.

hilde-lēoma, w. m., _battle-light, gleam of battle_, hence: 1) the fire-spewing of the drake in the fight: nom. pl. -lēoman, 2584.--2) _the gleaming sword_: acc. sg. -lēoman, 1144.

hilde-mecg, st. m., _man of battle, warrior_: nom. pl. hilde-mecgas, 800.

hilde-mēce, st. m., _battle-sword_: nom. pl. -mēceas, 2203.

hilde-rand, st. m., _battle-shield_: acc. pl. -randas, 1243.

hllde-rǣs, st. m., _storm of battle_: acc. sg., 300.

hilde-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, warrior, hero_: nom. sg., 1308, 3125, 3137; dat. sg. hilde-rince, 1496; gen. sg. hilde-rinces, 987.

hilde-sæd, adj., _satiated with battle, not wishing to fight any more_: acc. sg. hilde-sædne, 2724.

hilde-sceorp, st. n., _battle-dress, armor, coat of mail_: acc. sg., 2156.

hilde-setl, st. n., _battle-seat_ (saddle): nom. sg., 1040.

hilde-strengo, st. f., _battle-strength, bravery in battle_: acc., 2114.

hilde-swāt, st. m., _battle-sweat_: nom. sg. hāt hilde-swāt (the hot, damp breath of the drake as he rushes on), 2559.

hilde-tūx, st. m., _battle-tooth_: instr. pl. hilde-tūxum, 1512.

hilde-wǣpen, st. m., _battle-weapon_: instr. pl. -wǣpnum, 39.

hilde-wīsa, w. m., _leader in battle, general_: dat. sg. fore Healfdenes hildewīsan, _Healfdene's general_ (Hnæf), 1065.

hild-freca. See hilde-freca

hild-fruma, st. m., _battle-chief_: dat. sg. -fruma, 1679, 2650; gen. sg. þæs hild-fruman, 2836.

hlld-lata, w. m., _he who is late in battle, coward_: nom. pl. þā hild-latan, 2847.

hilt, st. n., _sword-hilt_: nom. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. þæt hilt, 1669; hylt, 1668. Also used in the plural; acc. þā hilt, 1615; dat. pl, be hiltum, 1575.--Comp.: fetel-, wreoðen-hilt.

hilte-cumbor, st. n., _banner with a staff_: acc. sg., 1023.

hilted, pret. part., _provided with a hilt_ or _handle_: acc. sg. heard swyrd hiked, _sword with a_ (rich) _hilt_, 2988.

hin-fūs, adj., _ready to die_: nom. sg. hyge wæs him hinfūs (i.e. he felt that he should not survive), 756.

hindema, adj. superl., _hindmost, last_: instr. sg. hindeman sīðe, _the last time, for the last time_, 2050, 2518.

hirde, hyrde, st. m., (_herd_) _keeper, guardian, possessor_: nom. sg. folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2982; rīces hyrde, 2028; fyrena hyrde, _the guardian of mischief, wicked one_, 751, 2220; wuldres hyrde, _the king of glory, God_, 932; hringa hyrde, _the keeper of the rings_, 2246; cumbles hyrde, _the possessor of the banner, the bearer of the banner_, 2506; folces hyrde, 1850; frætwa hyrde, 3134; rīces hyrde, 3081; acc. pl. hūses hyrdas, 1667.--Comp.: grund-hyrde.

hit (O.N. hita), st. f. (?), _heat_: nom. sg. þenden hyt sȳ, 2650.

hladan, st. v.: 1) _to load, to lay_: inf. on bǣl hladan lēofne mannan, _lay the dear man on the funeral-pile_, 2127; him on bearm hladan bunan and discas, _laid cups and plates upon his bosom, loaded himself with them_, 2776; pret. part. þǣr wæs wunden gold on wǣn hladen, _laid upon the wain_, 3135.--2) _to load, to burden_: pret. part. þā wæs ... sǣgēap naca hladen herewǣdum, _loaded with armor_, 1898.--Comp. gilp-hlæden.

ge-hladan, w. acc., _to load, to burden_: pret. sg. sǣbāt gehlōd (MS gehleod), 896.

hlāford, st. m., _lord, ruler_: nom. sg., 2376; acc. sg., 267; dat. sg. hlāforde, 2635; gen. sg. hlāfordes, 3181.--Comp. eald-hlāford.

hlāford-lēas; adj., _without a lord_: nom. pl. hlāford-lēase, 2936.

hlāw, hlǣw, st. m., _grave-hill_: acc. sg. hlǣw, 2803, 3159, 3171; dat. sg. for hlāwe, 1121. Also, _grave-chamber_ (the interior of the grave-hill), _cave_: acc. sg. hlāw [under] hrūsan, 2277; hlǣw under hrūsan, 2412; dat. sg. on hlǣwe, 2774. The drake dwells in the rocky cavern which the former owner of his treasure had chosen as his burial-place, 2242-2271.

hlæst, st. n., _burden, load_: dat. sg. hlæste, 52.

hlem, st. m., _noise, din of battle, noisy attack_: in the compounds, ūht-, wæl-hlem.

hlemma, w. m., _one raging, one who calls_; see hilde-hlemma.

ā-hlehhan, st. v., _to laugh aloud, to shout, to exult_: pret. sg. his mōd āhlōg, _his mood exulted_, 731.

hleahtor, st. m., _laughter_: nom. sg., 612; acc. sg., 3021.

hlēapan, st. v., _to run, to trot, to spring_: inf. hlēapan lēton ... fealwe mēaras, 865.

ā-hleapan, _to spring up_: pret. āhlēop, 1398.

hleoðu. See hlið.

hleonian, w. v., _to incline, to hang over_: inf. oð þæt hē ... fyrgen-bēamas ofer hārne stān hleonian funde, _till he found mountain-trees hanging over the gray rocks_, 1416.

hlēo, st. m., _shady, protected place; defence, shelter_; figurative designation of the king, or of powerful nobles: wīgendra hlēo, of Hrōðgār, 429; of Sigemund, 900; of Bēowulf, 1973, 2338; eorla hlēo, of Hrōðgār, 1036, 1867; of Bēowulf, 792; of Hygelāc, 2191.

hlēo-burh, st. f., _ruler's castle_ or _city_: acc. sg., 913, 1732.

hlēoðor-cwyde, st. m., _speech of solemn sound, ceremonious words_, 1980.

hlēor, st. n., _cheek, jaw_: in comp. fǣted-hlēor (adj.).

hlēor-bera, w. m., _cheek-bearer_, the part of the helmet that reaches down over the cheek and protects it: acc. pl. ofer hlēor-beran (_visor_?), 304.

hlēor-bolster, st. m., _cheek-bolster, pillow_: nom. sg., 689.

hlēotan, st. v. w. acc., _to obtain by lot, to attain, to get_: pret. sg. feorh-wunde hlēat, 2386.

hlīfian, w. v., _to rise, to be prominent_: inf. hlīfian, 2806; pret. hlīfade, 81, 1800, 1899.

hlið, st. n., _cliff, precipice of a mountain_: dat. sg. on hlīðe, 3159; gen. sg. hlīðes, 1893; pl. hliðo in composition, stān-hliðo; hleoðu in the compounds fen-, mist-, næs-, wulf-hleoðu.

hlin-bed (Frisian hlen-bed, Richthofen 206^28, for which another text has cronk-bed), st. n., κλινίδιον, _bed for reclining, sick-bed_: acc. sg. hlim-bed, 3035.

tō-hlīdan, st. v., _to spring apart, to burst_: pret. part. nom. pl. tō-hlidene, 1000.

hlūd, adj., _loud_: acc. sg. drēam ... hlūdne, 89.

hlyn, st. m., _din, noise, clatter_: nom. sg., 612.

hlynnan, hlynian, w. v., _to sound, to resound_: inf. hlynnan (of the voice), 2554; of fire, _to crackle_: pret. sg. hlynode, 1121.

hlynsian, w. v., _to resound, to crash_: pret. sg. reced hlynsode, 771.

hlytm, st. m., _lot_: dat. sg. næs þā on hlytme, hwā þæt hord strude, _it did not depend upon lot who should plunder the hoard_, i.e. its possession was decided, 3127.

hnāh, adj.: 1) _low, inferior_: comp. acc. sg. hnāgran, 678; dat. sg. hnāhran rince, _an inferior hero, one less brave_, 953.--2) _familiarly intimate_: nom. sg. næs hīo hnāh swā þēah, _was nevertheless not familiarly intimate_ (with the Gēatas, i.e. preserved her royal dignity towards them), (_niggardly_?), 1930.

hnǣgan, w. v. w. acc., (for nǣgan), _to speak to, to greet_: pret. sg. þæt hē þone wīsan wordum hnǣgde frēan Ingwina, 1319.

ge-hnǣgan, w. acc., _to bend, to humiliate, to strike down, to fell_: pret. sg. ge-hnǣgde helle gāst, 1275; þǣr hyne Hetware hilde gehnǣgdon, 2917.

hnitan, st. v., _to dash against, to encounter_, here of the collision of hostile bands: pret. pl. þonne hniton (hnitan) fēðan, 1328, 2545.

hoðma, w. m., _place of concealment, cave_, hence, _the grave_: dat. sg. in hoðman, 2459.

hof, st. n., _enclosed space, court-yard, estate, manor-house_: acc. sg. hof (Hrōðgār's residence), 312; dat. sg. tō hofe sīnum (Grendel's home in the sea), 1508; tō hofe (Hygelāc's residence), 1975; acc. pl. beorht hofu, 2314; dat. pl. tō hofum Gēata, 1837.

hogode. See hycgan.

hold, adj., _inclined to, attached to, gracious, dear, true_: nom. sg. w. dat. of the person, hold weorod frēan Scyldinga, _a band well disposed to the lord of the Scyldings_, 290; mandrihtne hold, 1230; Hygelāce wæs ... nefa swȳðe hold, _to H. was his nephew_ (Bēowulf) _very much attached_, 2171; acc. sg. þurh holdne hige, _from a kindly feeling, with honorable mind_, 267; holdne wine, 376; holdne, 1980; gen. pl. holdra, 487.

hold. See healdan.

holm, st. m., _deep sea_: nom. sg., 519, 1132, 2139; acc. sg., 48, 633; dat. sg. holme, 543, 1436, 1915; acc. pl. holmas, 240.--Comp. wǣg-holm.

holm-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: dat. sg. on þām holm-clife, 1422; from þǣm holmclife, 1636; acc. pl. holm-clifu, 230.

holm-wylm, st. m., _the waves of the sea_: dat. sg. holm-wylme, 2412.

holt, st. n., _wood, thicket, forest._ acc. sg. on holt, 2599; holt, 2847.--Comp.: æsc-, fyrgen-, gār-, Hrefnes-holt.

holt-wudu, st. m., _forest-wood_: 1) of the material: nom. sg., 2341.--2) = _forest_: acc. sg., 1370.

hop, st. n., _protected place, place of refuge, place of concealment_, in the compounds fen-, mōr-hop.

hord, st. m. and n., _hoard, treasure_: nom. sg., 2284, 3085; bēaga hord, 2285; māðma hord, 3012; acc. sg. hord, 913, 2213, 2320, 2510, 2745, 2774, 2956, 3057; sāwle hord, 2423; þæt hord, 3127; dat. sg. of horde, 1109; for horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the hoard_, 2782; hǣðnum horde, 2217; gen. sg. hordes, 888.--Comp.: bēah-, brēost-, word-, wyrm-hord.

hord-ærn, st. n., _place in which a treasure is kept, treasure-room_: dat. hord-ærne, 2832; gen. pl. hord-ærna, 2280.

hord-burh, st. f., _city in which is the treasure_ (of the king's), _ruler's castle_: acc. sg., 467.

hord-gestrēon, st. n., _hoard-treasure, precious treasure_: dat. pl. hord-gestrēonum, 1900; gen. pl. mægen-byrðenne hord-gestrēona, _the great burden of rich treasures_, 3093.

hord-māððum, st. m., _treasure-jewel, precious jewel_: acc. sg. (-madmum, MS.), 1199.

hord-wela, w. m., _treasure-riches, abundance of treasures_: acc. sg. hord-welan, 2345.

hord-weard, st. m., _warder of the treasure, hoard-warden_: 1) of the king: nom. sg., 1048; acc. sg., 1853.--2) of the drake: nom. sg., 2294, 2303, 2555, 2594.

hord-weorðung, st. f., _ornament out of the treasure, rich ornament_: acc. sg.--weorðunge, 953.

hord-wyn, st. f., _treasure-joy, joy-giving treasure_: acc. sg. hord-wynne, 2271.

horn, st. m., _horn_: 1) upon an animal: instr. pl. heorot hornum trum, 1370.--2) wind-instrument: nom. sg., 1424; acc. sg., 2944.--Comp. gūð-horn.

horn-boga, w. m., _bow made of horn_: dat. sg. of horn-bogan, 2438.

horn-gēap, adj., of great extent between the (stag-)horns adorning the gables(?): nom. sg. sele ... hēah and horn-gēap, 82.

horn-reced, st. n., building whose two gables are crowned by the halves of a stag's antler(?): acc. sg., 705. Cf. Heyne's Treatise on the Hall, Heorot, p. 44.

hors, st. n., _horse_: nom. sg., 1400.

hōciht, adj., _provided with hooks, hooked_: in comp. heoro-hōciht.

be-hōfian, w. v. w. gen., _to need, to want_: pres. sg. III. nū is se dæg cumen þat ūre man-dryhten mægenes behōfað gōdra gūðrinca, _now is the day come when our lord needs the might of strong warriors_, 2648.

on-hōhsnian, w. v., _to hinder_: pret. sg. þæt onhōhsnode Heminges mǣg (on hohsnod, MS.), 1945.

hōlinga, adv., _in vain, without reason_, 1077.

be-hōn, st. v., _to hang with_: pret. part. helmum behongen, 3140.

hōs (Goth, hansa), st. f., _accompanying troop, escort_: instr. sg. mægða hōse, _with an accompanying train of servingwomen_, 925.

hræðe, adv., _hastily, quickly, immediately_, 224, 741, 749, 1391, etc.; hraðe, 1438; hreðe, 992; compar. hraðor, 543.

hran-fix, st. m., _whale_: acc. pl. hron-fixas, 540.

hran-rād, st. f., _whale-road_, i.e. sea: dat. sg. ofer hron-rāde, 10.

hrā, st. n., _corpse_: nom. sg., 1589.

hrā-fyl, st. m., _fall of corpses, killing, slaughter_: acc. sg., 277.

hrædlīce, adv., _hastily, immediately_, 356, 964.

hræfn, hrefn, st. m., _raven_: nom. sg. hrefn blaca, _black raven_, 1802; se wonna hrefn, _the dark raven_, 3025; dat. sg. hrefne, 2449.

hrægl, st. n., _dress, garment, armor_: nom. sg., 1196; gen. sg., hrægles, 1218; gen. pl. hrægla, 454--Comp.: beado-, fyrd-, mere-hrægl.

hreðe. See hraðe.

hreðer, st. m., _breast, bosom_ nom. sg. hreðer inne wēoll _(it surged in his breast_), 2114; hreðer ǣðme wēoll, 2594; dat. sg. in hreðre, 1152; of hreðre, 2820.--_Breast_ as the seat of feeling, _heart_: dat. sg. þæt wæs ... hreðre hygemēðe, _that was depressing to the heart_ (of the slayer, Hæðcyn), 2443; on hreðre, 1879, 2329; gen. pl. þurh hreðra gehygd, 2046.--_Breast_ as seat of life: instr. sg. hreðre, parallel with aldre, 1447.

hreðer-bealo, st. n., _evil that takes hold on the heart, evil severely felt_: acc. sg., 1344.

hrefn. See hræfn.

hrēð, st. f., _glory_; in composition, gūð-hrēð; _renown, assurance of victory_, in sige-hrēð.

hrēðe, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg. hrēð (on account of the following æt, final _e_ is elided, as wēnic for wēne ic, 442; frōfor and fultum for frōfre and fultum, 699; firen ondrysne for firene ondr., 1933, 2576.

hrēð-sigor, st. m., _glorious victory_: dat. sg. hrēð-sigora, 2584.

hrēmig, adj., _boasting, exulting_: with instr. and gen. hūðe hrēmig, 124; since hrēmig, 1883; frætwum hrēmig, 2055; nom. pl. nealles Hetware hrēmge þorfton (sc. wesan) fēðe-wīges, 2365.

on-hrēran, w. v., _to excite, to stir up_: pret. part. on-hrēred, 549, 2555.

hreā-wīc, st. n., _place of corpses_: acc. sg. Gēata lēode hreā-wīc hēoldon, _held the place of corpses_, 1215.

hrēad, st. f., _ornament_(?), in comp. earm-hrēad. See hrēoðan.

hrēam, st. m., _noise, alarm_:: nom. sg., 1303.

hrēoða, w. m., _cover_, in the compound bord-hrēoða.

hrēoðan, ge-hrēoðan, st. v., _to cover, to clothe_; only in the pret. part. hroden, gehroden, _dressed, adorned_: hroden, 495, 1023; þā wæs heal hroden fēonda fēorum, _then was the hall covered with the corpses of the enemy_, 1152; ge-hroden golde, _adorned with gold_, 304.--Comp.: bēag-, gold-hroden.

hrēoh, hrēow, hrēo, adj., _excited, stormy, wild, angry, raging; sad, troubled_: nom. sg. (Bēowulf) hrēoh and heoro-grim, 1565; þæt þām gōdan wæs hrēow on hreðre, (_that came with violence upon him, pained his heart_), 2329; hrēo wǣron ȳða, _the waves were angry, the sea stormy_, 548; næs him hrēoh sefa, _his mind was not cruel_, 2181; dat. sg. on hrēon mōde, _of sad heart_, 1308; on hrēoum mōde, _angry at heart_, 2582.

hrēoh-mōd, adj., _of sad heart_, 2133; _angry at heart_, 2297.

hrēosan, st. v., _to fall, to sink, to rush_: pret. hrēas, 2489, 2832; pret. pl. hruron, 1075; hīe on weg hruron, _they rushed away_, 1431; hruron him tēaras, _tears burst from him_, 1873.

be-hrēosan, _to fall from, to be divested of_: pret. part. acc. pl. fyrn-manna fatu ... hyrstum behrorene, _divested of ornaments_ (from which the ornaments had fallen away), 2760.

hrēow, st. f., _distress, sorrow_: gen. pl. þæt wæs Hrōðgāre hrēowa tornost, _that was to Hrōðgār the bitterest of his sorrows_, 2130.

hring, st. m.: 1) _ring_: acc. sg. þone hring, 1203; hring gyldenne, 2810; acc. pl. hringas, 1196, 1971, 3035; gen. pl. hringa, 1508, 2246.--2) _shirt of mail_ (of interlaced rings): nom. sg. hring, 1504; byrnan hring, 2261.--Comp. bān-hring.

hringan, w. v., _to give forth a sound, to ring, to rattle_: pret. pl. byrnan hringdon, 327.

hring-boga, w. m., _one who bends himself into a ring_: gen. sg. hring-bogan (of the drake, bending himself into a circle), 2562.

hringed, pret. part., _made of rings_: nom. sg. hringed byrne, 1246; acc. sg. hringde byrnan, 2616.

hringed-stefna, w. m., _ship whose stem is provided with iron rings_ (cramp-irons), especially of sea-going ships (cf. Frið-þiofs saga, I: þorsteinn ātti skip þat er Ellidi hēt, ... borðit war spengt iarni): nom. sg., 32, 1898; acc. sg. hringed-stefnan, 1132.

hring-īren, st. n., _ring-iron, ring-mail_: nom. sg., 322.

hring-mǣl, adj., _marked with rings_, i.e. ornamented with rings, or marked with characters of ring-form: nom. acc. sg., of the sword, 1522, 1562(?); nom. pl. heard and hring-mǣl Heaðobeardna gestrēon (_rich armor_), 2038.

hring-naca, w. m., _ship with iron rings, sea-going ship_: nom. sg., 1863.

hring-net, st. n., _ring-net_, i.e. a shirt of interlaced rings: acc. sg., 2755; acc. pl. hring-net, 1890.

hring-sele, st. m., _ring-hall_, i.e. hall in which are rings, or in which rings are bestowed: acc. sg., 2841; dat. sg., 2011, 3054.

hring-weorðung, st. f., _ring-ornament_: acc. sg. -weorðunge, 3018.

hrīnan, st. v. w. dat.: 1) _to touch, lay hold of_: inf. þæt him heardra nān hrīnan wolde īren ǣrgōd (_that no good sword of valiant men would make an impression on him_), 989; him for hrōf-sele hrīnan ne mehte fǣrgripe flōdes (_the sudden grip of the flood might not touch him owing to the hall-roof_), 1516; þæt þām hring-sele hrīnan ne mōste gumena ǣnig _(so that none might touch the ringed-hall), _3054; pret. sg. siððan hē hire folmum [hr]ān (_as soon as he touched it with his hands_), 723; oð þæt dēaðes wylm hrān æt heortan (_seized his heart_), 2271. Pret. subj. þēah þe him wund hrīne (_although he was wounded_), 2977.--2) (O.N. hrīna, _sonare, clamare), to resound, rustle_: pres. part. nom. pl. hrīnde bearwas (for hrīnende) 1364; but see Note.

hroden. See hrēoðan.

hron-fix. See hran-fix.

hrōðor, st. m., _joy, beneficium_: dat sg. hrefne tō hrōðre, 2449; gen. pl. hrōðra, 2172.

hrōf, st. m., _roof, ceiling of a house_: nom. sg., 1000; acc. sg. under Heorotes hrōf, 403; under gēapne hrōf, 838; geseah stēapne hrōf (here _inner roof, ceiling_), 927; so, ofer hēahne hrōf, 984; ymb þæs helmes hrōf, 1031; under beorges hrōf, 2756.--Comp. inwit-hrōf.

hrōf-sele, st. m., _covered hall_: dat. sg. hrōf-sele, 1516.

hrōr, adj., _stirring, wide-awake, valorous_: dat. sg. of þǣm hrōran, 1630.--Comp. fela-hrōr.

hruron. See hrēosan.

hrūse, w. f., _earth, soil_: nom. sg., 2248, 2559; acc. sg. on hrūsan, 773, 2832; dat. sg. under hrūsan, 2412.

hrycg, st. m., _back_: acc. sg. ofer wæteres hrycg (_over the water's back, surface_), 471.

hryre, st. m., _fall, destruction, ruin_: acc. sg., 3181; dat. sg., 1681, 3006.--Comp.: lēod-, wīg-hryre.

hrysian, w. v., _to shake, be shaken, clatter_: pret. pl. syrcan hrysedon (_corselets rattled_, of men in motion), 226.

hund, st. m., _dog_: instr. pl. hundum, 1369.

hund, num., _hundred_: þrēo hund, 2279; w. gen. pl. hund missēra, 1499; hund þūsenda landes and locenra bēaga, 2995.

hū, adv., _how, quomodo_, 3, 116, 279, 738, 845, 2319, 2520, 2719, etc.

huð, st. f., _booty, plunder_: dat. (instr.) sg. hūðe, 124.

hūru, adv., _above all, certainly_, 369; _indeed, truly_, 182, 670, 1072, 1466, 1945, 2837; _yet, nevertheless_, 863; _now_, 3121.

hūs, st. n., _house_: gen. sg. hūses, 116; gen. pl. hūsa sēlest (Heorot), 146, 285, 659, 936.

hwan, adv., _whither_: tō hwan syððan wearð hondrǣs hæleða (_what issue the hand-to-hand fight of the heroes had_), 2072.

hwanan, hwanon, adv., _whence_: hwanan, 257, 2404; hwanon, 333.

hwā, interrog. and indef. pron., _who_: nom. sg. m. hwā, 52, 2253, 3127; neut. hwæt, 173; ānes hwæt (_a part only_), 3011; hwæt þā men wǣron (_who the men were_), 233, etc.; hwæt syndon gē searo-hæbbendra (_what armed men are ye?_), 237; acc. sg. m. wið manna hwone (_from (?) any man_), 155; neut. þurh hwæt, 3069; hwæt wit geō sprǣcon, 1477; hwæt ... hȳnðo (gen.), fǣr-nīða (_what shame and sudden woes_), 474; so, hwæt þū worn fela (_how very much thou_), 530; swylces hwæt, 881; hwæt ... ārna, 1187; dat. m. hwām, 1697.--Comp. ǣg-hwā.

hwæt, interj., _what! lo! indeed!_ 1, 943, 2249.

ge-hwā, w. part, gen., _each, each one_: acc. sg. m. wið fēonda gehwone, 294; nīða gehwane, 2398; mēca gehwane, 2686; gum-cynnes gehwone, 2766; fem, on healfa gehwone, 801; dat. sg. m. dōgora gehwām, 88; æt nīða gehwām, 883; þegna gehwām, 2034; eorla gehwǣm, 1421; fem. in mǣgða ge-hwǣre, 25; nihta gehwǣm, 1366; gen. sing. m. manna gehwæs, 2528; fem. dǣda gehwæs, 2839.

hwār. See hwǣr.

hwæder. See hwider.

hwæðer, pron., _which of two_: nom. sg. hwæðer ... uncer twēga, 2531; swā hwæðer, _utercunque_: acc. sg. on swā hwæðere hond swā him gemet þince, 687.--Comp. ǣg-hwæðer.

ge-hwæðer, _each of two, either-other_: nom. sg. m. wæs gehwæðer ōðrum lifigende lāð, 815; wæs ... gehwæðer ōðrum hrōðra gemyndig, 2172; nē gehwæðer incer (_nor either of you two_), 584; nom. sg. neut. gehwæðer þāra (_either of them_, i.e. ready for war or peace), 1249; dat. sg. hiora gehwæðrum, 2995; gen. sg. bēga gehwæðres, 1044.

hwæðer, hwæðere, hwæðre, 1) adv., _yet, nevertheless_: hwæðre, 555, 891, 1271, 2099, 2299, 2378, etc.; hwæðre swā þēah, _however, notwithstanding_, 2443; hwæðere, 574, 578, 971, 1719--2) conj., = _utrum, whether_: hwæðre, 1315; hwæðer, 1357, 2786.

hwæt, adj., _sharp, bold, valiant_: nom. sg. se secg hwata, 3029; dat. sg. hwatum, 2162; nom. pl. hwate, 1602, 2053; acc. pl. hwate, 2643, 3006.--Comp.: fyrd-, gold-hwæt.

hwæt. See hwā.

hwǣr, adv., _where_: elles hwǣr, _elsewhere_, 138; hwǣr, _somewhere_, 2030. In elliptical question: wundur hwār þonne..., _is it a wonder when...?_ 3063.--Comp. ō-hwǣr.

ge-hwǣr, _everywhere_: þēah þū heaðo-rǣsa gehwǣr dohte (_everywhere good in battle_), 526.

hwele. See hwyle.

hwergen, adv., _anywhere_: elles hwergen, _elsewhere_, 2591.

hwettan, w. v., _to encourage, urge_: pres. subj. swā þin sefa hwette (_as thy mind urges, as thou likest_), 490; pret. pl. hwetton higerōfne (_they whetted the brave one_), 204.

hwēne, adv., _a little, paululum_, 2700.

hwealf, st. f., _vault_: acc. sg. under heofones hwealf, 576, 2016.

hweorfan, st. v., _to stride deliberately, turn, depart, move, die_: pres. pl. þāra þe cwice hwyrfað, 98; inf. hwīlum hē on lufan lǣteð hworfan monnes mōd-geþonc (_sometimes on love_ (?) _possessions_ (?) _permits the thoughts of man to turn_), 1729; londrihtes mōt ... monna ǣghwylc īdel hweorfan (_of rights of land each one of men must be deprived_), 2889; pret. sg. fæder ellor hwearf ... of earde (_died_), 55; hwearf þā hrædlīce þǣr Hrōðgār sæt, 356; hwearf þā bī bence (_turned then to the bench_), 1189; so, hwearf þā be wealle, 1574; hwearf geond þæt reced, 1982; hlǣw oft ymbe hwearf (_went oft round the cave_), 2297; nalles æfter lyfte lācende hwearf (_not at all through the air did he go springing_), 2833; subj. pret. sg, ǣr hē on weg hwurfe ... of geardum (_died_), 264.

and-hweorfan, _to move against_: pret. sg. oð þæt ... norðan wind heaðo-grim and-hwearf (_till the fierce north wind blew in our faces_), 548.

æt-hweorfan, _to go to_: pret. sg. hwīlum hē on beorh æt-hwearf (_at times returned to the mountain_), 2300.

ge-hweorfan, _to go, come_: pret. sg. gehwearf þā in Francna fæðm feorh cyninges, 1211; hit on ǣht gehwearf ... Denigea frēan, 1680; so, 1685, 2209.

geond-hweorfan, _to go through from end to end_: pres. sg. flet eall geond-hwearf, 2018.

hwider, adv., _whither_: hwyder, 163; hwæder (hwæðer, MS.), 1332.

hwīl, st. f., _time, space of time_: nom. sg. wæs sēo hwīl micel (_it was a long time_), 146; þā wæs hwīl dæges (_the space of a day_), 1496; acc. sg. hwīle, _for a time_, 2138; _a while_, 105, 152; lange (longe) hwīle, _a long while_, 16, 2781; āne hwīle, _a while_, 1763; lȳtle hwīle, _brief space_, 2031, 2098; ǣnige hwīle, _any while_, 2549; lǣssan hwīle, _a lesser while_, 2572; dat. sg. ǣr dæges hwīle, _before daybreak_, 2321; dat. pl. nihtes hwīlum, _sometimes at night_, 3045. Adv., _sometimes, often_: hwīlum, 175, 496, 917, 1729, 1829, 2017, 2112, etc.; hwīlum ... hwīlum, 2108-9-10.--Comp.: dæg-, gescæp-, orleg-, sige-hwīl.

hwīt, adj., _brilliant, flashing_: nom. sg. se hwīta helm, 1449.

hworfan. See hweorfan.

hwōpan, st. v., _to cry, cry out mourn_: pret. sg. hwēop, 2269.

hwyder. See hwider.

hwylc, pron., _which, what, any_: 1) adj.: nom. sg. m. sceaða ic nāt hwylc, 274; fem, hwylc orleghwīl, 2003; nom. pl. hwylce Sǣgēata sīðas wǣron, 1987.--2) subst., w. gen. pl. nom. m.: Frisna hwylc, 1105; fem, efne swā hwylc mægða swā þone magan cende (_whatever woman brought forth this son_), 944; neut. þonne his bearna hwylc (_than any one of his sons_), 2434; dat. sg. efne swā hwylcum manna swā him gemet þūhte, 3058.--Comp.: ǣg-, nāt-, wēl-hwylc.

ge-hwylc, ge-hwilc, ge-hwelc, w. gen. pl., _each_: nom. sg. m. gehwylc, 986, 1167, 1674; acc. sg. m. gehwylcne, 937, 2251, 2517; gehwelcne, 148; fem, gehwylce, 1706; neut. gehwylc, 2609; instr. sg. dōgra gehwylce, 1091; so, 2058, 2451; dat. sg. m. gehwylcum, 412, 769, 785, etc.; fem, ecga gehwylcre, 806; neut. cynna gehwylcum, 98; gen. sg. m. and neut. gehwylces, 733, 1397, 2095.

hwyrft, st. m., _circling movement, turn_: dat. pl. adv. hwyrftum scrīðað (_wander to and fro_), 163.--Comp. ed-hwyrft.

hycgan, w. v., _to think, resolve upon_: pret. sg. ic þæt hogode þæt ... (_my intention was that ..._), 633.--Comp. w. pres. part.: bealo-, heard-, swīð-, þanc-, wīs-hycgend.

for-hycgan, _to despise, scorn, reject with contempt_: pres. sg. I. ic þæt þonne for-hicge þæt ..., _reject with scorn the proposition that ..._, 435.

ge-hycgan, _to think, determine upon_: pret. sg. þā þū ... feorr gehogodest sæcce sēcean, 1989.

ofer-hycgan, _to scorn_: pret. sg. ofer-hogode þā hringa fengel þæt hē þone wīdflogan weorode gesōhte (_scorned to seek the wide-flier with a host_), 2346.

hȳdig (for hygdig), adj., _thinking, of a certain mind_: comp. ān-, bealo-, grom-, nīð-, þrīst-hȳdig.

ge-hygd, st. n., _thought, sentiment_: acc. sg. þurh hreðra gehygd, 2046.--Comp.: brēost-, mōd-gehygd, won-hyd.

hyge, hige, st. m., _mind, heart, thought_: nom. sg. hyge, 756; hige, 594; acc. sg. þurh holdne hige, 267; gen. sg. higes, 2046; dat. pl. higum, 3149.

hyge-bend, st. m. f., _mind-fetter, heart-band_: instr. pl. hyge-bendum fæst, _fast in his mind's fetters, secretly_, 1879.

hyge-geōmor, adj., _sad in mind_: nom. sg. hyge-giōmor, 2409.

hyge-mēðe, adj.: 1) _sorrowful, soul-crushing_: nom. sg., 2443.--2) _life-weary, dead_: dat. pl. hyge-mēðum (-mǣðum, MS.), 2910.

hyge-rōf, adj., _brave, valiant, vigorous-minded_: nom. sg. [hygerōf], 403; acc. sg. hige-rōfne, 204.

hyge-sorh, st. f., _heart-sorrow_: gen. pl. -sorga, 2329.

hyge-þȳhtig, adj., _doughty, courageous_: acc. sg. hige-þihtigne (of Bēowulf), 747. See þȳhtig.

hyge-þrym, st. m., _animi majestas, high-mindedness_: dat. pl. for hige-þrymmum, 339.

hyht, st. m., _thought, pleasant thought, hope_ (Dietrich): nom. sg., 179.

ge-hyld (see healdan), st. n., _support, protection_: nom. sg., 3057.--Leo.

hyldan, w. v., _to incline one's self, lie down to sleep_: pret. sg. hylde hine, _inclined himself, lay down_, 689.

hyldo, st. f., _inclination, friendliness, grace_: acc. sg. hyldo, 2068, 2294; gen. sg. hyldo, 671, 2999.

ā-hyrdan, w. v., _harden_: pret. part. ā-hyrded, 1461.

hyrde. See hirde.

hyrst, st. f., _accoutrements, ornament, armor_: acc. sg. hyrste (Ongenþēow's _equipments and arms_), 2989; acc. pl. hyrsta, 3166; instr. pl. hyrstum, 2763.

hyrstan, w. v., _to deck, adorn_: pret. part. hyrsted sweord, 673; helm [hyr]sted golde, 2256.

hyrtan, w. v., _to take heart, be emboldened_: pret. sg. hyrte hyne hord-weard (_the drake took heart_; see 2566, 2568, 2570), 2594.

hyse, st. m., _youth, young man_: nom. sg. as voc., 1218.

hyt. See hit.

hȳdan, w. v., _to hide, conceal, protect, preserve_: pres. subj. hȳde [hine, _himself_] sē þe wylle, 2767; inf. w. acc. nō þū mīnne þearft hafalan hȳdan, 446; ǣr hē in wille hafelan [hȳdan] (_ere in it he_ [the stag] _will hide his head_), 1373.

ge-hȳdan, w. acc., _to conceal, preserve_: pret. sg. gehȳdde, 2236, 3060.

hȳð, st. f., _haven_: dat. sg. æt hȳðe, 32.

hȳð-weard, st. m., _haven-warden_: nom. sg., 1915.

hȳnan (see hēan), w. v. w. acc., _to crush, afflict, injure_: pret. sg. hȳnde, 2320.

hȳnðu, st. f., _oppression, affliction, injury_: acc. sg. hȳnðu, 277; gen. sg. hwæt ... hȳnðo, 475; fela ... hȳnðo, 594; gen. pl. heardra hȳnða, 166.

hȳran, w. v.: 1) _to hear, perceive, learn_: a) w. inf. or acc. with inf.: I. pret. sg. hȳrde ic, 38, 582, 1347, 1843, 2024; III. sg. þæt hē fram Sigemunde secgan hȳrde, 876; I. pl. swā wē sōðlīce secgan hȳrdon, 273. b) w. acc.: nǣnigne ic ... sēlran hȳrde hordmāððum (_I heard of no better hoard-jewel_), 1198. c) w. dependent clause: I. sg. pret. hȳrde ic þæt ..., 62, 2164, 2173.--2) w. dat. of person, _to obey_: inf. oð þæt him ǣghwylc þāra ymbsittendra hȳran scolde, 10; hȳran heaðo-sīocum, 2755; Pret. pl. þæt him winemāgas georne hȳrdon, 66.

ge-hȳran, _to hear, learn_: a) w. acc.: II. pers. sg. pres. mīnne gehȳrað ānfealdne geþōht, 255; III. sg. pret. gehȳrde on Bēowulfe fæstrǣdne geþōht, 610. b) w. acc. and inf.: III. pl. pret. gehȳrdon, 786. c) w. depend. clause: I. pres. sg. ic þæt gehȳre þæt ..., 290.


ic, pers. pron. _I_: acc. mec, dat. mē, gen. mīn; dual nom. wit, acc. uncit, unc, dat. unc, gen. uncer; pl. nom. wē, acc. ūsic, ūs, dat. ūs, gen. ūser. ic omitted before the verb, 470.

icge, _gold_ (perhaps related to Sanskrit īç, = dominare, imperare, O.H.G. ēht, _wealth_, opes), _treasure?, sword_ (edge)?, 1108.--Körner.

ides, st. f., _woman, lady, queen_: nom. sg., 621, 1076, 1118, 1169; dat. sg. idese, 1650, 1942. Also of Grendel's mother: nom. sg., 1260; gen. sg. idese, 1352.

in. See inn.

in: I. prep. w. dat. and acc.: 1) w. dat. (local, indicating rest), _in_: in geardum, 13, 2460; in þǣm gūðsele, 443; in bēorsele, 2636; so, 89, 482, 589, 696, 729, 2140, 2233, etc.; in mǣgða gehwǣre, 25; in þȳstrum, 87; in Caines cynne, 107; in hyra gryregeatwum (_in their accoutrements of terror, war-weeds_), 324; so, 395; in campe (_in battle_), 2506; hiora in ānum (_in one of them_), 2600. Prep. postpositive: Scedelandum in, 19. Also, _on, upon_, like on: in ealo-bence, 1030; in gumstōle, 1953; in þām wongstede (_on the grassy plain, the battle-field_), 2787; in bǣlstede, 3098. Temporal: in geār-dagum, 1.--2) w. acc. (local, indicating motion), _in, into_: in woruld, 60; in fȳres fæðm, 185; so, 1211; in Hrefnesholt, 2936. Temporal, _in, at, about, toward_: in þā tīde (in watide, MS.), 2228.

II. adv., _in_ (here or there), 386, 1038, 1372, 1503, 1645, 2153, 2191, 2228; inn, 3091.

incge, adj. (perhaps related to icge), instr. sg. incge lāfe (_with the costly sword_ ? or _with mighty sword_?), 2578.--[_Edge_: incge lāfe, _edge of the sword_.--K. Körner?]

in-frōd, adj., _very aged_: nom. sg., 2450; dat. sg. in-frōdum, 1875.

in-gang, st. m., _entrance, access to_: acc. sg., 1550.

in-genga, w. m., _in-goer, visitor_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 1777.

in-gesteald, st. m., _house-property, possessions in the house_: acc. sg., 1156.

inn, st. n., _apartment, house_: nom. sg. in, 1301.

innan, adv., _within, inside_, 775, 1018, 2413, 2720; on innan (_in the interior_), _within_, 1741, 2716; þǣr on innan (_in there_), 71; burgum on innan (_within his city_), 1969. Also, _therein_: þǣr on innan, 2090, 2215, 2245.

innan-weard, adv., _inwards, inside, within_, 992, 1977; inne-weard, 999.

inne, adv.: 1) _inside, within_, 643, 1282, 1571, 2114, 3060; word inne ābēad (_called, sent word, in_, i.e. standing in the hall door), 390; _in it_ (i.e. the battle), 1142; þǣr inne (_therein_), 118, 1618, 2116, 2227, 3088.--2) = _insuper, still further, besides_, 1867.

inwit, st. n., _evil, mischief, spite, cunning hostility_, as in

inwit-feng, st. m., _malicious grasp, grasp of a cunning foe_: nom. sg., 1448.

inwit-gæst, st. m., _evil guest, hostile stranger_: nom. sg., 2671.

inwit-hrōf, st. m., _hostile roof, hiding-place of a cunning foe_: acc. sg. under inwit-hrōf, 3124.

inwit-net, st. n., _mischief-net, cunning snare_: acc. sg., 2168.

inwit-nīð, st. n., _cunning hostility, hostile contest_: nom. pl. inwit-nīðas (_hostility through secret attack_), 1859; gen. pl. inwit-nīða, 1948.

inwit-scear, st. m., _massacre through cunning, murderous attack_: acc. sg. eatolne inwit-scear, 2479.

inwit-searo, st. n., _cunning, artful intrigue_: acc. sg. þurh inwit-searo, 1102. See searo.

inwit-sorh, st. f., _grief, remorse, mourning springing from hostile cunning_: nom. sg., 1737; acc. sg. inwid-sorge, 832.

inwit-þanc, adj., _ill-disposed, malicious_: dat. sg. hē onfēng hraðe inwit-þancum (_he quickly grasped the cunning-in-mind_ [Grendel]), 749.

irnan (for rinnan), st. v., _to run_: so be-irnan, _to run up to, occur_: pret. sg him on mōd be-arn (_came into his mind_), 67.

on-irnan, _to open_: pret. sg. duru sōna onarn, 722.

irre-mōd, adj. See yrre-mōd.


īdel, adj., _empty, bare; deprived of_: nom. sg., 145, 413; w. gen. lond-rihtes þǣre mǣgburge īdel (_deprived of his land-possessions among the people_ [of the Gēatas]), 2889.

īdel-hende, adj., _empty-handed_, 2082.

īren, st. n., _iron, sword_: nom. sg. dryhtlīc īren (_the doughty, lordly sword_), 893; īren ǣr-gōd, 990; acc. sg. lēoflīc īren, 1810; gen. pl. īrena cyst (_choicest of swords_), 674; īrenna cyst, 803; īrenna ecge (_edges of swords_), 2684.

īren, adj., _of iron_: nom. sg. ecg wæs īren, 1460.

īren-bend, st. f., _iron band, bond, rivet_: instr. pl. īren-bendum fæst (bold), 775, 999.

īren-byrne, w. f., _iron corselet_: acc. sg. īren-byrnan, 2987. See īsern-byrne.

īren-heard, adj., _hard as iron_: nom. sg., 1113.

īrenne, adj., _of iron_: in comp. eall-īrenne.

īren-þrēat, st. m., _iron troop, armored band_: nom. sg., 330.

īs, st. n., _ice_: dat. sg. īse, 1609.

īsern-byrne, w. f., _iron corselet_: acc. sg. īsern-byrnan, 672. See īren-byrne.

īsern-scūr, st. f., _iron shower, shower of arrows_: gen. sg. þone þe oft gebād īsern-scūre, 3117.

īs-gebind, st. n., _fetters of ice_: instr. sg. īs-gebinde, 1134.

īsig, adj., _shining, brilliant_ (like brass): nom. sg. īsig (said of a vessel covered with plates(?) of metal), 33.--Leo.


iū. See geō.

iū-man. See geō-man.

īo-mēowle. See geō-mēowle.


laðu, st. f., _invitation_.--Comp.: frēond-, nēod-laðu.

ge-lafian, w. v. w. acc. pers. and instr. of the thing, _to refresh, lave_: pret. sg. wine-dryhten his wætere gelafede, 2723.

lagu, st. m., _lake, sea_: nom. sg., 1631.

lagu-cræftig, adj., _acquainted with the sea_: nom. sg. lagu-cræftig mon (_pilot_), 209.

lagu-strǣt, st. f., _path over the sea_: acc. sg. ofer lagu-strǣte, 239.

lagu-strēam, st. m., _sea-current, flood_: acc. pl. ofer lagu-strēamas, 297.

land, st. n., _land_: nom. sg. lond, 2198; acc. sg. land, 221, 2063; lond, 2472, 2493; land Dena, 242, 253; lond Brondinga, 521; Finna land, 580; dat. sg. on lande (_in the land_), 2311, 2837; _at near, land, shore_, 1914; tō lande (_to the land, ashore_), 1624; gen. sg. landes, 2996; gen. pl. ofer landa fela (_over much country, space; afar_), 311.--Comp.: el-, ēa-land.

land-būend, part, pres., terricola, _inhabitant of the land_: nom. pl. lond-būend, 1346; dat. pl. land-būendum, 95.

land-fruma, w. m., _ruler, prince of the country_: nom. sg., 31.

land-gemyrcu, st. n. pl., _frontier, land-mark_: acc. pl., 209.

land-geweorc, st. n., _land-work, fortified place_: acc. sg. lēoda land-geweorc, 939. See weorc, geweorc.

land-riht, st. n., _prerogatives based upon land-possessions, right to possess land_, hence _real estate_ itself: gen. sg. lond-rihtes īdel, 2887.

land-waru, st. f., _inhabitants, population_: acc. pl. land-wara, 2322.

land-weard, st. m., _guard, guardian of the frontier_: nom. sg., 1891.

lang, long, adj., _long_: 1) temporal: nom. sg. tō lang, 2094; næs þā long (lang) tō þon (_not long after_), 2592, 2846; acc. sg. lange hwīle (_for a long time_), 16, 2160, 2781; longe (lange) þrāge, 54, 114, 1258; lange tīd, 1916. Compar. nom. sg. lengra fyrst, 134.--2) local, nom. sg. sē wæs fīftiges fōtgemearces lang, 3044.--Comp.: and-, morgen-, niht-, up-lang.

lange, longe, adv., _long_: lange, 31, 1995, 2131, 2345, 2424; longe, 1062, 2752, 3109; tō lange (_too long, excessively long_), 906, 1337, 1749. Compar. leng, 451, 1855, 2802, 3065; nō þȳ leng (_none the longer_), 975. Superl. lengest (_longest_), 2009, 2239.

ge-lang, adj., _extending, reaching to something_ or _somebody_, hence _ready, prepared_: nū is rǣd gelang eft æt þē ānum (_now is help [counsel] at hand in thee alone_), 1377; gēn is eall æt þē lissa gelong (_all of favor is still on thee dependent, is thine_), 2151. See ge-lenge.

lang-ge-strēon, st. n., _long-lasting treasure_: gen. pl. long-gestrēona, 2241.--Leo.

langian, w. v., reflex, w. dat, _to long, yearn_: pres. sg. III. him ...æfter dēorum men dyrne langað beorn (_the hero longeth secretly after the dear man_), 1880.

lang-sum, adj., _long-lasting, continuing_: nom. sg. longsum, 134, 192, 1723; acc. sg. long-sumne, 1537.

lang-twidig, adj., _long-granted, assured_: nom. sg., 1709.

lata, w. m., _a lazy, cowardly one_; in comp. hild-lata.

lā, interj., _yes! indeed!_ 1701, 2865.

lāc, st. n.: 1) _measured movement, play_: in comp. beadu-, heaðo-lāc.--2) _gift, offering_: acc. pl. lāc, 1864; lāðlīcu lāc (_loathly offering, prey_), 1585; dat. pl. lācum, 43, 1869.--Comp. sǣ-lāc.

ge-lāc, st. n., _sport, play_: acc. pl. sweorda gelāc (_battle_), 1041; dat. pl. æt ecga gelācum, 1169.

lācan, st. v., _to move in measured time, dancing, playing, fighting, flying_, etc.: inf. dareðum lācan (_fight_), 2849; part. pres. æfter lyfte lācende (_flying through the air_), 2833.

for-lācan, _to deceive, betray_: part, pret. hē wearð on fēonda geweald forð forlācen (_deceitfully betrayed into the enemy's hands_), 904.

lād, st. f., _street, way, journey_: dat. sg. on lāde, 1988; gen. sg. lāde, 569.--Comp.: brim-, sǣ-lād.

ge-lād, st. n., _way, path, road_: acc. sg. uncūð gelād, 1411.

lāð, adj., _loathly, evil, hateful, hostile_: nom. sg. lāð, 816; lāð lyft-floga, 2316; lāð (_enemy_), 440; nē lēof nē lāð, 511; neut. lāð, 134, 192; in weak form, se lāða (of the dragon), 2306; acc. sg. lāðne (wyrm), 3041; dat. sg. lāðum, 440, 1258; gen. sg. lāðes (of the enemy), 842; fela lāðes (_much evil_), 930; so, 1062; lāðan līges, 83; lāðan cynnes, 2009, 2355; þæs lāðan (of the enemy), 132; acc. pl. neut. lāð gewidru (_hateful storms_), 1376; dat. instr. pl. wið lāðum, 550; lāðum scuccum and scinnum, 939; lāðum dǣdum (_with evil deeds_), 2468; lāðan fingrum, 1506; gen. pl. lāðra manna, spella, 2673, 3030; lāðra (_the enemy_), 242. Compar. nom. sg. lāðra ... beorn, 2433.

lāð-bite, st. m., _hostile bite_: dat. sg. lāð-bite līces (_the body's hostile bite_ = the wound), 1123.

lāð-getēona, w. m., _evil-doer, injurer_: nom. sg., 975; nom. pl. lāð-getēonan, 559.

lāð-līc, adj., _loathly, hostile_: acc. pl. lāð-līcu, 1585.

lāf, st. f.: 1) _what is left, relic; inheritance, heritage, legacy_: nom. sg. Hrēðlan lāf (Bēowulf's corselet), 454; nom. pl. fēla lāfe (_the leavings of files_ = swords, Grein), 1033; so, homera lāfe, 2830; on him gladiað gomelra lāfe, heard and hringmǣl Heaðobeardna gestrēon (_on him gleams the forefather's bequest, hard and ring-decked, the Heaðobeardas' treasure_, i.e. the equipments taken from the slain king of the Heaðobeardas), 2037; acc. sg. sweorda lāfe (_leavings of the sword_, i.e. those spared by the sword), 2937.--2) _the sword as a specially precious heir-loom_: nom. sg., 2629; acc. sg. lāfe, 796, 1489, 1689, 2192, 2564; instr. sg. incge lāfe, 2578.--Comp.: ende-, eormen-, wēa-, yrfe-, ȳð-lāf.

lār, st. f., _lore, instruction, prescription_: dat. sg. be fæder lāre, 1951; gen. pl. lāra, 1221; lārena, 269.--Comp. frēond-lār.

lāst, st. m., _footstep, track_: acc. sg. lāst, 132, 972, 2165; on lāst (_on the traces of, behind_), 2946; nom. pl. lāstas, 1403; acc. pl. lāstas, 842.--Comp.: fēðe-, feorh-, fōt-, wræc-lāst.

læger. See leger.

lāger-bed, st. n., _bed to lie on_ : instr. sg. leger-bedde, 1008.

lǣs, adj., _less_, 1947; þȳ lǣs (_the less_), 487; conjunct, _that not, lest_, 1919.

lǣssa, adj., _less, fewer_: nom. sg. lǣssa, 1283; acc. sg. m. lǣssan, 43; fem, lǣssan hwīle, 2572; dat. sg. for lǣssan (_for less, smaller_), 952. Superl. nom. sg. nō þæt lǣsest wæs hond-gemōt[a], 2355.

læt, adj., _negligent, neglectful_; w. gen.: nom. sg. elnes læt, 1530.

lǣdan, w. v. w. acc.: _to lead, guide, bring_: inf. lǣdan, 239; pret. pl. lǣddon, 1160.

for-1ǣdan, _to mislead_: pret. pl. for-lǣddan, 2440 (?).

ge-lǣdan, _lead, bring_: part. pret. ge-lǣded, 37.

lǣfan, w. v.: 1), _to bequeathe, leave_: imper. sg. þīnum magum lǣf folc and rīce, 1179; pret. sg. eaferum lǣfde ... lond and lēodbyrig, 2471.--2) _spare, leave behind_: āht cwices lǣfan (_to spare aught living_), 2316.

lǣn-dagas, st. m. pl., _loan-days, transitory days_ (of earthly existence as contrasted with the heavenly, unending): acc. pl. lǣn-dagas, 2592; gen. pl. lǣn-daga, 2342.

lǣne, adj., _inconstant, perishable, evanescent, given over to death or destruction_: nom. sg., 1755, 3179; acc. sg. of rust-eaten treasures, 3130; þās lǣnan gesceaft (_this fleeting life_), 1623; gen. sg. lǣnan līfes, 2846.

lǣran, w. v., _to teach, instruct_: imper. sg. þū þē lǣr be þon (_learn this, take this to heart_), 1723.

ge-lǣran, _to teach, instruct, give instruction_: inf. ic þæs Hrōðgār mæg ... rǣd gelǣran (_I can give H. good advice about this_), 278; so, 3080; pret. pl. þā mē þæt ge-lǣrdon lēode mīne (_gave me the advice_), 415.

lǣstan, w. v.: 1) _to follow, to sustain, serve_: inf. þæt him se līc-homa lǣstan nolde (_that his body would not sustain him_), 813.--2) _perform_: imper. lǣst eall tela (_do all well_), 2664.

ge-lǣstan: 1) _to follow, serve_: pret. sg. (sweord) þæt mec ǣr and oft gelǣste, 2501.--2) _to fulfil, grant_: subj. pres. pl. þæt ... wilgesīðas, þonne wīg cume, lēode gelǣstan (_render war service_), 24; inf. ic þē sceal mīne gelǣstan frēode (_shall grant thee my friendship, be grateful_), 1707; pret. sg. bēot ... gelǣste (_fulfilled his boast_), 524; gelǣste swā (_kept his word_), 2991; pres. part. hæfde Ēast-Denum ... gilp gelǣsted (_had fulfilled for the East Danes his boast_), 830.

lǣtan, st. v., _to let, allow_, w. acc. and inf.: pres. sg. III. lǣteð, 1729; imper. pl. II. lǣtað, 397; sg. II. lǣt, 1489; pret. sg. lēt, 2390, 2551, 2978, 3151(?); pret. pl. lēton, 48, 865, 3133; subj. pret. sg. II. lēte, 1997; sg. III. lēte, 3083.

ā-lǣtan: 1) _to let, allow_: subj. pres. sg. II. þæt þū ne ālǣte ... dōm ge-drēosan, 2666.--2) _to leave, lay aside_: inf. ālǣtan lǣn-dagas (_die_) 2592; so, ālǣtan līf and lēodscipe, 2751.

for-lǣtan: 1) _to let, permit_, w. acc. and inf.: pret. sg. for-lēt, 971; pret. pl. for-lēton, 3168. Also with inf. omitted: inf. nolde eorla hlēo ... þone cwealmcuman cwicne (i.e. wesan) forlǣtan (_would not let the murderous spirit go alive_), 793.--2) _to leave behind, leave_: pret. sg. in þām wong-stede ... þǣr hē hine ǣr forlēt (_where he had previously left him_), 2788.

of-lǣtan, _to leave, lay aside_: pres. sg. II. gyf þū ǣr þonne hē worold oflǣtest (_leavest the world, diest_), 1184; so pret. sg. oflēt līf-dagas and þās lǣnan gesceaft, 1623.

on-lǣtan, _to release, liberate_: pres. sg. III. þonne forstes bend fæder on-lǣteð (_as soon as the Father looseth the frost's fetters_), 1610.

ā-lecgan, w. v.: 1) _to lay, lay down_: pret. sg. syððan hilde-dēor hond ā-legde ... under gēapne hrōf, 835; þæt hē on Bēowulfes bearm ā-legde (_this_ [the sword] _he laid in B.'s bosom, presented to him_), 2195; pret. pl. ā-ledon þā lēofne þēoden ... on bearm scipes, 34; ā-legdon þā tō middes mǣrne þēoden _(laid the mighty prince in the midst_ [of the pyre]), 3142.--2) _to lay aside, give up_: siððan ... in fen-freoðo feorh ā-legde (_laid down his life, died_), 852; nū se here-wīsa hleahtor ā-legde, gamen and glēo-drēam _(now the war-chief has left laughter_, etc.), 3021.

leger, st. n., _couch, bed, lair_: dat. sg. on legere, 3044.

lemian, w. v., _to lame, hinder, oppress_: pret. sg. (for pl.) hine sorh-wylmas lemede tō lange, 906. MS.

leng. See lang.

lenge, adj., _extending along_ or _to, near_ (of time): nom. sg. neut. ne wæs hit lenge þā gēn (_nor was it yet long_), 83.

ge-lenge, adj., _extending, reaching to, belonging_: nom. sg. yrfe-weard ... līce gelenge (_an heir belonging to one's body_), 2733.

let, st. m., _place of rest, sojourn?_ in comp. eo-let (_voyage?_).

lettan, w. v., _to hinder_: pret. pl. (acc. pers. and gen. thing), þæt syððan nā ... brim-līðende lāde ne letton (_might no longer hinder seafarers from journeying_), 569.

ā-lēdon. See ā-lecgan.

lēg, st. m., _flame, fire_: nom. sg. wonna lēg (_the lurid flame_), 3116; swōgende lēg, 3146; dat. sg. for dracan lēge, 2550. See līg.

lēg-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, flaming dragon_: nom. sg., 3041.

leahtre. See or-leahtre.

lēaf, st. n., _leaf, foliage_: instr. pl. lēafum, 97.

lēafnes-word, st. n., _permission, leave_: acc. pl., 245.

lēan, st. v. w. acc. _to scold, blame_: pres. sg. III. lyhð, 1049; pret. sg. lōg, 1812; pret. pl. lōgon, 203, 863.

be-lēan, _to dissuade, prevent_: inf. nē inc ǣnig mon ... belēan mihte sorhfullne sīð (_no one might dissuade you twain from your difficult journey_), 511.

lēan, st. n., _reward, compensation_: acc. sg., 114, 952, 1221, 1585, 2392; dat. sg. lēane, 1022. Often in the pl.: acc. þā lēan, 2996; dat. þām lēanum, 2146; gen. lēana, 2991.--Comp.: and-, ende-lēan.

leān (for lǣn, O.H.G. lēhan), st. n, _loan_, 1810.

lēanian, w. v., _to reward, compensate_: pres. sg. I. ic þē þā fǣhðe fēo lēanige (_repay thee for the contest with old-time treasures_), 1381; pret. sg. mē þone wæl-rǣs wine Scyldinga fǣttan golde fela lēanode (_the friend of the Scyldings rewarded me richly for the combat with plated gold_), 2103.

lēas, adj., _false_: nom. pl. lēase, 253.

lēas, adj., _deprived of, free from_, w. gen.: nom. sg. drēama lēas, 851; dat. sg. winigea lēasum, 1665.--Comp.: dōm-, drēam-, ealdor-, feoh-, feormend-, hlāford-, sāwol-, sige-, sorh-, tīr-, þēoden-, wine-, wyn-lēas.

lēasig, adj., _concealing one's self_; in comp. sin-lēasig(?).

leoðo-cræft, st. m., _the art of weaving_ or _working in meshes, wire_, etc.: instr. pl. segn eall-gylden ... gelocen leoðo-cræftum (_a banner all hand-wrought of interlaced gold_), 2770.

leoðo-syrce, w. f., _shirt of mail (limb-sark)_: acc. sg. locene leoðo-syrcan (_locked linked sark_), 1506; acc. pl. locene leoðo-syrcan, 1891.

leomum. See lim.

leornian, w. v., _to learn, devise, plan_: pret. him þæs gūð-cyning ... wræce leornode (_the war-king planned vengeance therefor_), 2337.

lēod, st. m., _prince_: nom. sg., 341, 348, 670, 830, 1433, 1493, 1613, 1654, etc.; acc. lēod, 626.

lēod, st. f., _people_: gen. sg. lēode, 597, 600, 697. In pl. indicates _individuals, people, kinsmen_: nom. pl. lēode, 362, 415, 1214, 2126, etc.; gum-cynnes Gēata lēode (_people of the race of the Gēatas_), 260; acc. pl. lēode, 192, 443, 1337, 1346, etc.; dat. pl. lēodum, 389, 521, 619, 698, 906, 1160, etc.; gen. pl. lēoda, 205, 635, 794, 1674, 2034, etc.

lēod-bealo, st. n., (_mischief, misfortune affecting an entire people_), _great, unheard-of calamity_: acc. sg., 1723; gen. pl. lēod-bealewa, 1947.

lēod-burh, st. f., _princely castle, stronghold of a ruler, chief city_: acc. pl. -byrig, 2472.

lēod-cyning, st. m., _king of the people_: nom. sg., 54.

lēod-fruma, w. m., _prince of the people, ruler_: acc. sg. lēod-fruman, 2131.

lēod-gebyrgea, w. m., _protector of the people, prince_: acc. sg. -gebyrgean, 269.

lēod-hryre, st. m., _fall, overthrow, of the prince, ruler_: dat. sg. æfter lēod-hryre (_after the fall of the king of the Heaðobeardas_, Frōda, cf. 2051, 2031; gen. sg. þæs lēod-hryres (of the fall of Heardred, cf. 2389, 2392.

lēod-sceaða, w. m., _injurer of the people_: dat. sg. þām lēod-sceaðan, 2094.

lēod-scipe, st. m., _the whole nation, people_: acc. sg., 2752; dat. sg. on þām lēod-scipe, 2198.

lēoð, st. n., _song, lay_: nom. sg., 1160.--Comp.: fyrd-, gryre-, gūð-, sorh-lēoð.

lēof, adj., _lief, dear_: nom. sg., 31, 54, 203, 511, 521, 1877, 2468; weak form m., lēofa, 1217, 1484, 1855, 2664; acc. sg. m. lēofne, 34, 297, 619, 1944, 2128, 3109, 3143; gen. sg. lēofes (m.), 1995, 2081, 2898; (neut.), 1062, 2911; dat. pl. lēofum, 1074; gen. pl. lēofra, 1916. Compar. nom. sg. neut. lēofre, 2652. Superl. nom. sg. m. lēofost, 1297; acc. sg. þone lēofestan, 2824.

lēoflīc, _dear, precious, valued_: nom. sg. m. lēoflīc lind-wiga, 2604; acc. sg. neut. lēoflīc īren, 1810.

lēogan, st. v., _to lie, belie, deceive_. subj. pres. næfne him his wlite lēoge (_unless his looks belie him_), 250; pret. sg. hē ne lēag fela wyrda nē worda, 3030.

ā-lēogan, _to deceive, leave unfulfilled_: pret. sg. hē bēot ne ā-lēh (_he left not his promise unfulfilled_), 80.

ge-lēogan, _to deceive, betray_: pret. sg. him sēo wēn gelēah (_hope deceived him_), 2324.

lēoht, st. n., _light, brilliance_: nom. sg., 569, 728, 1751 (?); acc. sg. sunnan lēoht, 649; godes lēoht gecēas (_chose God's light, died_), 2470; dat. sg. tō lēohte, 95.--Comp.: ǣfen-, fȳr-, morgen-lēoht.

lēoht, adj., _luminous, bright_: instr. sg. lēohtan sweorde, 2493.

lēoma, w. m.: 1) _light, splendor_: nom. sg., 311, 2770; acc. sg. lēoman, 1518; sunnan and mōnan lēoman (_light of sun and moon_), 95.--2) (as beadu- and hilde-lēoma), _the glittering sword_: nom. sg. līxte se lēoma (_the blade-gleam flashed_), 1571.

lēosan, st. v., = amitti, in

be-lēosan, _to deprive, be deprived of_: pres. part. (hēo) wearð beloren lēofum bearnum and brōðrum (_was deprived of her dear children and brethren_), 1074.

for-lēosan, with dat. instr., _to lose something_: pret. sg. þǣr hē dōme for-lēas, ellen-mǣrðum (_there lost he the glory, the repute, of his heroic deeds_), 1471; pret. sg. for pl. þām þe ǣr his elne for-lēas (_to him who, before, had lost his valor_), 2862; part. pret. nealles ic þām lēanum for-loren hæfde (_not at all had I lost the rewards_), 2146.

libban, w. v., _to live, be, exist_: pres. sing. III. lifað, 3169; lyfað, 945; leofað, 975, 1367, 2009; subj. pres. sg. II. lifige, 1225; pres. part. lifigende, 816, 1954, 1974, 2063; dat. sg. be þē lifigendum (_in thy lifetime_), 2666; pret. sg. lifde, 57, 1258; lyfde, 2145; pret. pl. lifdon, 99. See unlifigende.

licgan, st. v.: 1) _to lie, lie down_ or _low_: pres. sg. nū sēo hand ligeð (_now the hand lies low_), 1344; nū se wyrm ligeð, 2746, so 2904; inf. licgan, 3130; licgean, 967, 3083; pret. sg. læg, 40, 552, 2078; syððan Heardrēd læg (_after Heardrēd had fallen_), 2389; pret. pl. lāgon, 3049; lǣgon, 566.--2) _to lie prostrate, rest, fail_: pret. sg. nǣfre on ōre læg wīd-cūðes wīg (_never failed the far-famed one's valor at the front_), 1042; syððan wiðer-gyld læg (_after vengeance failed_, or, _when Withergyld lay dead_, if _W._ is a proper name), 2052.

ā-licgan, _to succumb, fail, yield_: inf. 2887; pret. sg. þæt his dōm ā-læg (_that its power failed it_), 1529.

ge-licgan, _to rest, lie still_: pret. sg. wind-blond gelæg, 3147.

lida, w. m., _boat, ship_ (as in motion); in comp.: sund-, ȳð-lida.

lid-man, st. m., _seafarer, sailor_: gen. pl. lid-manna, 1624.

lim, st. n., _limb, branch_: instr. pl. leomum, 97.

limpan, st. v., _to happen, befall_ (well or ill); impers. w. dat. pret. sg. hū lomp ēow on lāde (_how went it with you on the journey?_), 1988.

ā-limpan, _to come about, offer itself_: pret. sg. oð þæt sǣl ā-lamp (_till the opportunity presented itself_), 623; pret. part, þā him ā-lumpen wæs wistfylle wēn (_since a hope of a full meal had befallen him_), 734.

be-limpan, _to happen to, befall_: pret. sg. him sīo sār belamp, 2469.

ge-limpan, _to happen, occur, turn out_: pres. sg. III. hit eft gelimpeð þæt..., 1754; subj. pres. þisse ansȳne alwealdan þanc lungre gelimpe (_thanks to the Almighty forthwith for this sight!_), 930; pret. sg. him on fyrste gelamp þæt..., 76; swā him ful-oft gelamp (_as often happened to them_), 1253; þæs þe hire se willa gelamp þæt ... (_because her wish had been fulfilled_), 627; frōfor eft gelamp sārig-mōdum, 2942; subj. pret. gif him þyslīcu þearf gelumpe, 2638; pret. part. Denum eallum wearð ... willa gelumpen, 825.

lind, st. f. (properly _linden_; here, a a wooden shield covered with linden-bark or pith): nom. sg., 2342; acc. sg. geolwe linde, 2611; acc. pl. linde, 2366.

lind-gestealla, w. m., _shield-comrade, war-comrade_: nom. sg., 1974.

lind-hæbbend, pres. part., _provided with a shield_, i.e. warrior: nom. pl. -hæbbende, 245; gen. pl. hæbbendra, 1403.

lind-plega, w. m., _shield-play_, i.e. battle: dat. sg. lind-plegan, 1074, 2040.

lind-wiga, w. m., _shield-fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 2604.

linnan, st. v., _to depart, be deprived of_: inf. aldre linnan (_depart from life_), 1479; ealdres linnan, 2444.

lis, st. f., _favor, affection_: gen. pl. eall ... lissa, 2151.

list, st. m., _art, skill, cleverness, cunning_: dat. pl. adverbial, listum (_cunningly_), 782.

līxan, w. v., _to shine, flash_: pret. sg. līxte, 311, 485, 1571.

līc, st. n.: 1) _body, corpse_: nom. sg., 967; acc. sg. līc, 2081; þæt līc (_the body, corpse_), 2128; dat. sg. līce, 734, 1504, 2424, 2572, 2733, 2744; gen. sg. līces, 451, 1123.-- 2) _form, figure_: in comp. eofor-, swīn-līc.

ge-līc, adj., _like, similar_: nom. pl. m. ge-līce, 2165. Superl. ge-līcost, 218, 728, 986, 1609.

līc-hama, -homa, w. m. _(body-home, garment), body_: nom. sg. līc-homa, 813, 1008, 1755; acc. sg. līc-haman, 2652; dat. sg. līc-haman, 3179.

līcian, w. v., _to please, like_ (impers.): pres. sg. III. mē þīn mōd-sefa līcað leng swā wēl, 1855; pret. pl. þām wīfe þā word wēl līcodon, 640.

līcnes. See on-līcnes.

līc-sār, st. n., _bodily pain_: acc. sg. līc-sār, 816.

līc-syrce, w. f., _body-sark, shirt of mail covering the body_: nom. sg., 550.

1īðan, st. v., _to move, go_: pres. part. nom. pl. þā līðende (_navigantes, sailors_), 221; þā wæs sund liden (_the water was then traversed_), 223.--Comp.: hēaðu-, mere-, wǣg-līðend.

līðe (O.H.G. lindi), adj., _gentle, mild, friendly_: nom. sg. w. instr. gen. lāra līðe, 1221. Superl. nom. sg. līðost, 3184.

lið-wǣge, st. n., _can in which līð_ (a wine-like, foaming drink) _is contained_: acc. sg., 1983.

līf, st. n., _life_: acc. sg. līf, 97, 734, 1537, 2424, 2744, 2752; dat. sg. līfe, 2572; tō līfe (_in one's life, ever_) 2433; gen. sg. līfes, 197, 791, 807, 2824, 2846; worolde līfes (_of the earthly life_), 1388, 2344.--Comp. edwīt-līf.

līf-bysig, adj. _(striving for life or death), weary of life, in torment of death_: nom. sg., 967.

līf-dagas, st. m. pl., _lifetime_: acc.-dagas, 794, 1623.

līf-frēa, w. m., _lord of life, God_: nom. sg., 16.

līf-gedāl, st. n., _separation from life_: nom. sg., 842.

līf-gesceaft, st. f., _fate, destiny_: gen. pl.-gesceafta, 1954, 3065.

līf-wraðu, st. f., _protection for one's life, safety_: acc. sg. līf-wraðe, 2878; dat. sg. tō līf-wraðe, 972.

līf-wyn, st. f., _pleasure, enjoyment, joy_ (of life): gen. pl. līf-wynna, 2098.

līg, st. m. n., _flame, fire_: nom. sg., 1123; dat. instr. sg. līge, 728, 2306, 2322, 2342; gen. sg. līges, 83, 782. See lēg.

līg-draca, w. m., _ fire-drake, flaming dragon_; nom. pl., 2334. See lēg-draca.

līg-egesa, w. m., _horror arising through fire, flaming terror_: acc. sg., 2781.

līge-torn, st. m., _false, pretended insult_ or _injury, fierce anger_(?): dat. sg. æfter līge-torne (_on account of a pretended insult?_ or _fierce anger?_ cf. Bugge in Zacher's Zeits. 4, 208), 1944.

līg-ȳð, st. m., _wave of fire_: instr. pl. līg-ȳðum, 2673.

lēon, st. v., _to lend_: pret. sg. þæt him on þearfe lāh þyle Hrōðgāres (_which H.'s spokesman lent him in need_), 1457.

on-lēoon, _to lend, grant as a loan_, with gen. of thing and dat. pers.: pret. sg. þā hē þæs wǣpnes on-lāh sēlran sweord-frecan, 1468.

loca, w. m., _bolt, lock_: in comp. bān-, burh-loca.

locen. See lūcan.

lond, long. See land, lang.

lof, st. m. n., _praise, repute_: acc. sg. lof, 1537.

lof-dǣd, st. f., _deed of praise_: instr. pl. lof-dǣdum, 24.

lof-georn, adj., _eager for praise, ambitious_: superl. nom. sg. lof-geornost, 3184.

loga, w. m., _liar_; in comp. trēow-loga.

losian, w. v., _to escape, flee_: pres. sg. III. losað, 1393, 2063; pret. sg. hē on weg losade (_fled away_), 2097.

lōcian, w. v., _to see, look at_: pres. sg. II. sǣ-lāc ... þē þū hēr tō lōcast (_booty of the sea that thou lookest on_), 1655.

ge-lōme, adv., _often, frequently_, 559.

lufe, w. f., _love_: in comp. hēah-, mōd-, wīf-lufe.

lufa (cf. and-leofa, big-leofa, _nourishment_), w. m., _food, subsistence; property, real estate_: acc. sg. on lufan (_on possessions_), 1729.--Comp. eard-lufa.

lufen, st. f. (cf. lufa), _subsistence, food; real estate, (enjoyment?)_: nom. sg. lufen (parallel with ēðel-wyn), 2887.

luf-tācen, st. n., _love-token_: acc. pl. luf-tācen, 1864.

lufian, w. v., _to love, serve affectionately_: pret. sg. III. lufode þā lēode (_was on affectionate terms with the people_), 1983.

lungre, adv.: 1) _hastily, quickly, forthwith_, 930, 1631, 2311, 2744.--2) _quite, very, fully_: fēower mēaras lungre gelīce (_four horses quite alike_), 2165.

lust, st. m., _pleasure, joy_: dat. pl. adv. lustum (_joyfully_), 1654; so, on lust, 619, cf. 600.

lūcan, st. v., _to twist, wind, lock, interweave_: pret. part. acc. sg. and pl. locene leoðo-syrcan (_shirt of mail wrought of meshes or rings interlocked_), 1506, 1891; gen. pl. locenra bēaga (_rings wrought of gold wire_), 2996.

be-lūcan: 1) _to shut, close in or around_: pret. sg. winter ȳðe be-lēac īs-gebinde (_winter locked the waves with icy bond_), 1133.-- 2) _to shut in, off, preserve, protect_: pret. sg. I. hig wīge belēac manegum mǣgða (_I shut them in, protected them, from war arising from many a tribe_), 1771. Cf. mē wīge belūc wrāðum fēondum (_protect me against mine enemies_), Ps. 34, 3.

ge-lūcan, _to unite, link together, make_: pret. part. gelocen, 2770.

on-lūcan, _to unlock, open_: pret. sg. word-hord on-lēac (_opened the word-hoard, treasure of speech_), 259.

tō-lucan, _(to twist, wrench, in two) to destroy_: inf., 782.

lyft, st. f. (m. n.?), _air_: nom. sg., 1376; dat. sg. æfter lyfte (_along, through, the air_), 2833.

lyft-floga, w. m., _air-flier_: nom. sg. (of the dragon), 2316.

lyft-geswenced, pret. part., _urged, hastened on, by the wind_, 1914.

lyft-wyn, st. f., _enjoyment of the air_: acc. sg. lyft-wynne, 3044.

lyhð. See leahan.

lystan, w. v., _to lust after, long for_: pret. sg. Gēat ungemetes wēl ... restan lyste(_the Gēat_ [Bēowulf] _longed sorely to rest_), 1794.

lȳt, adj. neut. (= parum), _little, very little, few_: lȳt eft becwōm ... hāmes nīosan (_few escaped homeward_), 2366; lȳt ǣnig (_none at all_), 3130; usually with gen.: wintra lȳt, 1928; lȳt ... hēafod-māga, 2151; wergendra tō lȳt (_too few defenders_), 2883; lȳt swīgode nīwra spella (_he kept to himself little, none at all, of the new tidings_), 2898; dat. sg. lȳt manna (_too few of men_), 2837.

lȳtel, adj., _small, little_: nom. sg. neut. tō lȳtel, 1749; acc. sg. f. lȳtle hwīle (_a little while_), 2031, 2098; lif-wraðe lȳtle (_little protection for his life_), 2878.--Comp. un-lȳtel.

lȳt-hwōn, adv., _little = not at all_: lȳt-hwōn lōgon, 204.

lȳfe, st. n., _leave, permission, (life?)_: instr. sg. þīne lȳfe (life, MS.), 2132.--Leo. Cf. O.N. leyfi, n., _leave, permission_, in Möbius' Glossary, p. 266.

lȳfan, w. v., (fundamental meaning _to believe, trust_) in

ā-lȳfan, _to allow, grant, entrust_: pret. sg. nǣfre ic ǣnegum men ǣr ālȳfde ... þrȳð-ærn Dena (_never before to any man have I entrusted the palace of the Danes_), 656; pret. part. (þā mē wæs) sīð ... ālȳfed inn under eorð-weall (_the way in under the wall of earth was allowed me_), 3090.

ge-lȳfan, w. v., _to believe, trust_: 1) w. dat.: inf. þǣr gelȳfan sceal dryhtnes dōme sē þe hine dēað nimeð (_whomever death carrieth away, shall believe it to be the judgment of God_, i.e. in the contest between Bēowulf and Grendel), 440.--2) w. acc.: pret. sg. gēoce gelȳfde brego Beorht-Dena (_believed in, expected, help_, etc.), 609; þæt hēo on ǣnigne eorl gelȳfde fyrena frōfre (_that she at last should expect from any earl comfort, help, out of these troubles_), 628; sē þe him bealwa tō bōte gelȳfde (_who trusted in him as a help out of evils_), 910; him tō anwaldan āre gelȳfde (_relied for himself on the help of God_), 1273.

ā-lȳsan, w. v., _to loose, liberate_: pret. part. þā wæs of þǣm hrōran helm and byrne lungre ā-lȳsed (_helm and corselet were straightway loosed from him_), 1631.


maðelian, w. v. (sermocinari), _to speak, talk_: pret. sg. maðelode, 286, 348, 360, 371, 405, 456, 499, etc.; maðelade, 2426.

maga, w. m., _son, male descendant, young man_: nom. sg. maga Healfdenes (Hrōðgār), 189, 1475, 2144; maga Ecgþēowes (Bēowulf), 2588: maga (Grendel), 979; se maga geonga (Wīglāf), 2676; Grendeles maga (_a relative of Grendel_), 2007; acc. sg. þone magan, 944.

magan, v. with pret.-pres. form, _to be able_: pres. sg. I. III. mæg, 277, 478, 931, 943, 1485, 1734, etc.; II. meaht þū, 2048; subj. pres. mǣge, 2531, 2750; þēah ic eal mǣge (_even though I could_), 681; subj. pl. wē mǣgen, 2655; pret. sg. meahte, 542, 755, 1131, 1660, 2465, etc.; mihte, 190, 207, 462, 511, 571, 657, 1509, 2092, 2610; mehte, 1083, 1497, 1516, 1878; pl. meahton, 649, 942, 1455, 1912, 2374, 3080; mihton, 308, 313, 2684, 3164; subj. pret. sg. meahte, 243, 763, 2521; pres. sg. mæg, sometimes = licet, _may, can, will_ (fut.), 1366, 1701, 1838, 2865.

mago (Goth. magu-s), st. m., _male, son_: nom. sg. mago Ecglāfes (Hunferð), 1466; mago Healfdenes (Hrōðgār), 1868, 2012.

mago-dryht, st. f., _troop of young men, band of men_: nom. sg. mago-driht, 67.

mago-rinc, st. m., _hero, man_ (preeminently): gen. pl. mago-rinca, hēap, 731.

magu-þegn, mago-þegn, st. m., _vassal, war-thane_: nom. sg. 408, 2758; dat. sg. magu-þegne, 2080; acc. pl. magu-þegnas, 293; dat. pl. mago-þegnum, 1481; gen. pl. mago-þegna ... þone sēlestan (_the best of vassals_), 1406.

man, mon, st. m.: 1) _man, human being_: nom. sg. man, 25, 503, 534, 1049, 1354, 1399, 1535, 1877, etc.; mon, 209, 510, 1561, 1646, 2282, etc.; acc. sg. w. mannan, 297, 577, 1944, 2128, 2775; wīd-cūðne man, 1490; dat. sg. men, 656, 753, 1880; menn, 2190; gen. sg. mannes, 1195 (?), 2081, 2534, 2542; monnes, 1730; nom. pl. men, 50, 162, 233, 1635, 3167; acc. pl. men, 69, 337, 1583, 1718; dat. pl. mannum, 3183; gen. pl. manna, 155, 201, 380, 702, 713, 736, etc.; monna, 1414, 2888.--2) indef. pron. = _one, they, people_ (Germ. _man_): man, 1173, 1176; mon, 2356, 3177.--Comp.: fyrn-, glēo-, gum-, iū-, lid-, sǣ-, wǣpned-man.

man. See munan.

man-cyn, st. n., _mankind_: dat. sg. man-cynne, 110; gen. sg. man-cynnes, 164, 2182; mon-cynnes, 196, 1956.

man-drēam, st. m., _human joy, mundi voluptas_: acc. sg. man-drēam, 1265; dat. pl. mon-drēamum, 1716.

man-dryhten, st. m. (_lord of men_), _ruler of the people, prince, king_: nom. sg. man-dryhten, 1979, 2648; mon-drihten, 436; mon-dryhten, 2866; acc. sg. mon-dryhten, 2605; dat. sg. man-drihtne, 1230; man-dryhtne, 1250, 2282; gen. sg. man-dryhtnes, 2850; mon-dryhtnes, 3150.

ge-mang, st. m., _troop, company_: dat. sg. on gemonge (_in the troop_ [of the fourteen Gēatas that returned from the sea]), 1644.

manian, w. v., _to warn, admonish_: pres. sg. III. manað swā and myndgað ... sārum wordum (_so warneth and remindeth he with bitter words_), 2058.

manig, monig, adj., _many, many a, much_: 1) adjectively: nom. sg. rinc manig, 399; geong manig (_many a young man_), 855; monig snellīc sǣ-rinc, 690; medu-benc monig, 777; so 839, 909, 919, 1511, 2763, 3023, etc.; acc. sg. medo-ful manig, 1016; dat. sg. m. þegne monegum, 1342, 1420; dat. sg. f. manigre mǣgðe, 75; acc. pl. manige men, 337; dat. pl. manegum māðmum, 2104; monegum mǣgðum, 5; gen. pl. manigra mēda, 1179.--2) substantively: nom. sg. manig, 1861; monig, 858; dat. sg. manegum, 349, 1888; nom. pl. manige, 1024; monige, 2983; acc. pl. monige, 1599; gen. pl. manigra, 2092.--3) with depend. gen. pl.: dat. manegum mǣgða, 1772; monegum fīra, 2002; hæleða monegum bold-āgendra, 3112; acc. pl. rinca manige, 729; (māðm)-ǣhta monige, 1614.

manig-oft, adv., _very often, frequently_, 171 [if manig and oft are to be connected].

man-līce, adv., _man-like, manly_, 1047.

man-þwǣre, adj., _kind, gentle toward men, philanthropic_: nom. sg. superl. mon-þwǣrust, 3183.

mā, contracted compar., _more_: with partitive gen., 504, 736, 1056.

māðum, māððum, st. m., _gift, jewel, object of value_: acc. sg. māððum, 169, 1053, 2056, 3017; dat. instr. sg. māðme, 1529, 1903; nom. pl. māðmas, 1861; acc. pl. mādmas, 385, 472, 1028, 1483, 1757, 1868, etc.; dat. instr. pl. māðmum, mādmum, 1049, 1899, 2104, 2789; gen. pl. māðma, 1785, 2144, 2167, etc.; mādma, 36, 41.--Comp.: dryht-, gold-, hord-, ofer-, sinc-, wundor-māðum.

māðm-ǣht, st. f., _treasure in jewels, costly objects_: gen. pl. māðm-ǣhta, 1614, 2834.

māððum-fæt, st. n., _treasure-casket_ or _cup, costly vessel_: nom. sg., 2406.

māðm-gestrēon, st. n., _precious jewel_: gen. pl. māðm-gestrēona, 1932.

māðum-gifu, st. f., _gift of valuable objects, largess of treasure_: dat. sg. æfter māððum-gife, 1302.

māðum-sigl, st. n., _costly, sun-shaped ornament, valuable decoration_: gen. pl. māððum-sigla, 2758.

māðum-sweord, st. n., _costly sword_ (inlaid with gold and jewels): acc. sg., 1024.

māðum-wela, w. m., _wealth of jewels, valuables_:: dat. sg. æfter-māððum-welan (_after the sight of the wealth of jewels_), 2751.

māgas. See mǣg.

māge, w. f., _female relative_: gen. sg. Grendles māgan (_mother_), 1392.

mān, st. n., _crime, misdeed_: instr. sg. māne, 110, 979; adv., _criminally_, 1056.

mān-for-dǣdla, w. m., _evil-doer, criminal_: nom. pl. mān-for-dǣdlan, 563.

mān-scaða, w. m., _mischievous, hurtful foe, hostis nefastus_: nom. sg. 713, 738, 1340; mān-sceaða, 2515.

māra (comp. of micel), adj., _greater, stronger, mightier_: nom. sg. m. māra, 1354, 2556; neut. māre, 1561; acc. sg. m. māran, 2017; mund-gripe māran (_a mightier hand-grip_), 754; with following gen. pl. māran ... eorla (_a more powerful earl_), 247; fem. māran, 533, 1012; neut. māre, 518; with gen. pl. morð-beala māre _(more, greater, deeds of murder_), 136; gen. sg. f. māran, 1824.

mǣst (superl. of micel, māra), _greatest, strongest_: nom. sg. neut. (with partitive gen.), mǣst, 78, 193; fem. mǣst, 2329; acc. sg. fem. fǣhðe mǣste, 459; mǣste ... worolde wynne (_the highest earthly pleasure_), 1080; neut. n. (with partitive gen.) mǣst mǣrða, 2646; hond-wundra mǣst, 2769; bǣl-fȳra mǣst, 3144; instr. sg. m. mǣste cræfte, 2182.

mæcg. See mecg.

mægð, st. f., _wife, maid, woman_: nom. sg., 3017; gen. pl. mægða hōse (_accompanied by her maids of honor_), 925; mægða, 944, 1284.

mægen, st. n.: 1) _might, bodily strength, heroic power_: acc. sg. mægen, 518, 1707; instr. sg. mægene, 780(?), 2668; gen. sg. mægenes, 418, 1271, 1535, 1717, etc.; mægnes, 671, 1762; mægenes strang, strengest (_great in strength_), 1845, 196; mægenes rōf (id.), 2085.--2) _prime, flower_ (of a nation), _forces available in war_: acc. sg. swā hē oft (i.e. etan) dyde mægen Hrēðmanna (_the best of the Hreðmen_), 445; gen. sg. wið manna hwone mægenes Deniga (_from(?) any of the men of the Danes_), 155.--Comp. ofer-mægen.

mægen-āgend, pres. part., _having great strength, valiant_: gen. pl. -āgendra, 2838.

mægen-byrðen, st. f., _huge burthen_: acc. sg. mægen-byrðenne, 3092; dat. (instr.) sg., 1626.

mægen-cræft, st. m., _great, hero-like, strength_: acc. sg., 380.

mægen-ellen, st. n. (the same), acc. sg., 660.

mægen-fultum, st. m., _material aid_: gen. pl. næs þæt þonne mǣtost mægen-fultuma (_that was not the least of strong helps_, i.e. the sword Hrunting), 1456.

mægen-rǣs, st. m., _mighty attack, onslaught_: acc. sg., 1520.

mægen-strengo, st. f., _main strength, heroic power_: acc. sg., 2679.

mægen-wudu, st. m., _might-wood_, i.e. the spear, lance: acc. sg., 236.

mæst, st. m., _mast_: nom. sg., 1899; dat. sg. be mæste (_beside the mast_), 36; _to the mast_, 1906.

mǣðum. See māðum, hyge-mǣðum.

mǣg, st. m., _kinsman by blood_: nom. sg. mǣg, 408, 738, 759, 814, 915, 1531, 1945, etc; (_brother_), 468, 2605? acc. sg. mǣg (_son_), 1340; (_brother_), 2440, 2485, 2983; dat. sg. mǣge, 1979; gen. sg. mǣges, 2629, 2676, 2699, 2880; nom. pl. māgas, 1016; acc. pl. māgas, 2816; dat. pl. māgum, 1179, 2615, 3066; (_to brothers_), 1168; mǣgum, 2354; gen. pl. māga, 247, 1080, 1854, 2007, 2743.--Comp.: fæderen-, hēafod-, wine-mǣg.

mǣg-burh, st. f., _borough of blood-kinsmen, entire population united by ties of blood_; (in wider sense) _race, people, nation_: gen. sg. lond-rihtes ... þǣre mǣg-burge (_of land possessions among the people_, i.e. of the Gēatas), 2888.

mǣgð, st. f., _race, people_: acc. sg. mǣgðe, 1012; dat. sg. mǣgðe, 75; dat. pl. mǣgðum, 5; gen. pl. mǣgða, 25, 1772.

mǣg-wine, st. m., _blood kinsman, friend_, 2480 (nom. pl.).

mǣl, st. n.: l) _time, point of time_: nom. sg. 316; þā wæs sǣl and mǣl (_there was_ [appropriate] _chance and time_), 1009; acc. sg. mǣl, 2634; instr. pl. ǣrran mǣlum, 908, 2238, 3036; gen. pl. mǣla, 1250; sǣla and mǣla, 1612; mǣla gehwylce (_each time, without intermission_), 2058.--2) _sword, weapon_: nom. sg. brōden (brogden) mǣl (_the drawn sword_), 1617, 1668 (cf. Grimm, Andreas and Elene, p. 156).--3) _mole, spot, mark_.--Comp.: grǣg-, hring-, sceaðen-, wunden-mǣl.

mǣl-cearu, st. f., _long-continued sorrow, grief_: acc. sg. mǣl-ceare, 189.

mǣl-gesceaft, st. f., _fate, appointed time_: acc. pl. ie on earde bād mǣl-gesceafta (_awaited the time allotted for me by fate_), 2738.

mǣnan, w. v., with acc. in the sense of (1) _to remember, mention, proclaim_: inf. mǣnan, 1068; pret. part. þǣr wæs Bēowulfes mǣrðo mǣned, 858.--2) _to mention sorrowfully, mourn_: inf. 3173; pret. sg. giohðo mǣnde (_mourned sorrowfully_), 2268; pret. pl. mǣndon, 1150, 3150.

ge-mǣnan (see mān), w. v. with acc., _to injure maliciously, break_: subj. pret. pl. ge-mǣnden, 1102.

ge-mǣne, adj., _common, in common_: nom. sg. gemǣne, 2474; þǣr unc hwīle wæs hand gemǣne (i.e. in battle), 2138; sceal ūrum þæt sweord and helm bām gemǣne (i.e. wesan), 2661; nom. pl. gemǣne, 1861; dat. pl. þæt þām folcum sceal ... sib gemǣnum (attraction for gemǣne, i.e. wesan), 1858; gen. pl. unc sceal (i.e. wesan) fela māðma gemǣnra (_we two shall share many treasures together_), 1785.

mǣrðu, st. f.: 1) _glory, a heroes fame_: nom. sg. 858; acc. sg. mǣrðo, 660, 688; acc. pl. mǣrða, 2997; instr. pl. mǣrðum (_gloriously_), 2515: gen. pl. mǣrða, 504, 1531.--2) _deed of glory, heroism_: acc. sg. mǣrðo, 2135; gen. pl. mǣrða, 408, 2646.--Comp. ellen-mǣrðu.

mǣre, adj., _memorable; celebrated, noble; well known, notorious_: nom. sg. m. mǣre, 103, 129, 1716, 1762; se mǣra, 763, 2012, 2588; also as vocative m. se mǣra, 1475; nom. fem. mǣru, 2017; mǣre, 1953; neut. mǣre, 2406; acc. sg. m. mǣrne, 36, 201, 353, 1599, 2385, 2722, 2789, 3099; neut. mǣre, 1024; dat. sg. mǣrum, 345, 1302, 1993, 2080, 2573; tō þǣm mǣran, 270; gen. sg. mǣres, 798; mǣran, 1730; nom. pl. mǣre, 3071; superl. mǣrost, 899,--Comp.: fore-, heaðo-mǣre.

mǣst. See māra.

mǣte, adj., _moderate, small_: superl. nom. sg. mǣtost, 1456.

mecg, mæcg, st. m., _son, youth, man_. in comp. hilde-, ōret-mecg, wræc-mæcg.

medla. See on-medla.

medu, st. m., _mead_: acc. sg. medu, 2634; dat. sg. tō medo, 605.

medo-ærn, st. n., _mead-hall_: acc. sg. medo-ærn (Heorot), 69.

medu-benc, st. f., _mead-bench, bench in the mead-hall_: nom. sg. medu-benc, 777; dat. sg. medu-bence, 1053; medo-bence, 1068, 2186; meodu-bence, 1903.

medu-drēam, st. m., _mead-joy, joyous carousing during mead-drinking_: acc. sg. 2017.

medo-ful, st. n., _mead-cup_: acc. sg. 625, 1016.

medo-heal, st. f., _mead-hall_: nom. sg., 484; dat. sg. meodu-healle, 639.

medu-scenc, st. m., _mead-can, vessel_: instr. pl. meodu-scencum, 1981.

medu-seld, st. n., _mead-seat, mead-house_: acc. sg., 3066.

medo-setl, st. n., _mead-seat upon which one sits mead-drinking_: gen. pl. meodo-setla, 5.

medo-stīg, st. f., _mead-road, road to the mead-hall_: acc. sg. medo-stīg, 925.

medo-wang, st. m., _mead-field_ (where the mead-hall stood): acc. pl. medo-wongas, 1644.

meðel, st. n., _assembly, council_: dat. sg. on meðle, 1877.

meðel-stede, st. m., (properly _place of speech, judgment-seat_), here _meeting-place, battle-field_ (so, also 425, the battle is conceived under the figure of a parliament or convention): dat. sg. on þǣm meðel-stede, 1083.

meðel-word, st. n., _words called forth at a discussion; address_: instr. pl. meðel-wordum, 236.

melda, w. m., _finder, informer, betrayer_: gen. sg. þæs meldan, 2406.

meltan, st. v. intrans., _to consume by fire, melt or waste away_: inf., 3012; pret. sg. mealt, 2327; pl. multon, 1121.

ge-meltan, the same: pret. sg. gemealt, 898, 1609, 1616; ne gemealt him se mōd-sefa (_his courage did not desert him_), 2629.

men. See man.

mene, st. m., _neck ornament, necklace, collar_: acc. sg., 1200.

mengan, w. v., _to mingle, unite, with_, w. acc. of thing: inf. sē þe mere-grundas mengan scolde, 1450.

ge-mengan, _to mix with, commingle_: pret. part. 849, 1594.

menigu, st. f., _multitude, many_: nom. and acc. sg. māðma menigeo (_multitude of treasures, presents_), 2144; so, mænigo, 41.

mercels, st. m., _mark, aim_: gen. sg. mercelses, 2440.

mere, st. m., _sea, ocean_: nom. sg. se mere, 1363; acc. sg. on mere, 1131, 1604; on nicera mere, 846; dat. sg. fram mere, 856.

mere-dēor, st. n., _sea-beast_: acc. sg., 558.

mere-fara, w. m., _seafarer_: gen. sg. mere-faran, 502.

mere-fix, st. m., _sea-fish_: gen. pl. mere-fixa (_the whale_, cf. 540, 549.

mere-grund, st. m., _sea-bottom_: acc. sg., 2101; acc. pl. mere-grundas, 1450.

mere-hrægl, st. n., _-sea-garment_, i.e., sail: gen. pl. mere-hrægla sum, 1906.

mere-līðend, pres. part., _moving on the sea, sailor_: nom. pl. mere-līðende, 255.

mere-strǣt, st. f., _sea-street, way over the sea_: acc. pl. mere-strǣta 514.

mere-strengo, st. f., _sea-power, strength in the sea_: acc. sg., 533.

mere-wīf, st. n., _sea-woman, mer-woman_: acc. sg. (of Grendel's mother), 1520.

mergen. See morgen.

met, st. n., _thought, intention_ (cf. metian = meditari): acc. pl. onsǣl meoto, 489 (meaning doubtful; see Bugge, Journal 8, 292; Dietrich, Haupt's Zeits. 11, 411; Körner, Eng. Stud. 2, 251).

ge-met, st. n., _an apportioned share; might, power, ability _: nom. sg. nis þæt ... gemet mannes nefne mīn ānes (_nobody, myself excepted, can do that_), 2534; acc. sg. ofer mīn gemet (_beyond my power_), 2880; dat. sg. mid gemete, 780.

ge-met, adj., _well-measured, meet, good_: nom. sg. swā him gemet þince (þūhte), (_as seemed meet to him_), 688, 3058. See un-gemete, adv.

metan, st. v., _to measure, pass over_ or _along_: pret. pl. fealwe strǣte mēarum mǣton (_measured the yellow road with their horses_), 918; so, 514, 1634.

ge-metan, the same: pret. sg. medu-stīg gemæt.(_measured, walked over, the road to the mead-hall_), 925.

metod, st. m. (the measuring, arranging) _Creator, God_: nom. sg., 110, 707, 968, 1058, 2528; scīr metod, 980; sōð metod, 1612; acc. sg. metod, 180; dat. sg. metode, 169, 1779; gen. sg. metodes, 671.--Comp. eald-metod.

metod-sceaft, st. f.: 1) _the Creator's determination, divine purpose, fate_: acc. sg. -sceaft, 1078.--2) _the Creators glory_: acc. sg. metod-sceaft sēon (i.e. die), 1181; dat. sg. tō metod-sceafte, 2816.

mēce, st. m., _sword_: nom. sg., 1939; acc. sg. mēce, 2048; brādne mēce, 2979; gen. sg. mēces, 1766, 1813, 2615, 2940; dat. pl. instr. mēcum, 565; gen. pl. mēca, 2686.--Comp.: beado-, hæft-, hilde-mēce.

mēd, st. f., _meed, reward_: acc. sg. mēde, 2135; dat. sg. mēde, 2147; gen. pl. mēda, 1179.

ge-mēde, st. n., _approval, permission_ (Grein): acc. pl. ge-mēdu, 247.

mēðe, adj., _tired, exhausted, dejected_: in comp. hyge-, sǣ-mēðe.

mētan, w. v., _to meet, find, fall in with_: with acc., pret. pl. syððan Æscheres ... hafelan mētton, 1422; subj. pret. sg. þæt hē ne mētte ... on elran man mundgripe māran (_that he never met, in any other man, with a mightier hand-grip_), 752.

ge-mētan, with acc., the same: pret. sg. gemētte, 758, 2786; pl. næs þā long tō þon, þæt þā āglǣcean hȳ eft gemētton (_it was not long after that the warriors again met each other_), 2593.

ge-mēting, st. f., _meeting, hostile coming together_: nom. sg., 2002.

mēagol, adj., _mighty, immense; formal, solemn_: instr. pl. mēaglum wordum, 1981.

mearc, st. f., _frontier, limit, end_: dat. sg. tō mearce (_the end of life_), 2385.--Comp. Weder-mearc, 298.

ge-mearc, st. n., _measure, distance_: comp. fōt-, mīl-ge-mearc.

mearcian, w. v., _to mark, stain_: pres. ind. sg. mearcað mōrhopu (_will stain, mark, the moor with the blood of the corpse_), 450.

ge-mearcian, the same: pret. part. (Cain) morðre gemearcod (_murder-marked_ [cf. 1 Book Mos. IV. 15]), 1265; swā wæs on þǣm scennum ... gemearcod ... hwām þæt sweord geworht wǣre (_engraved for whom the sword had been wrought_), 1696.

mearc-stapa, w. m., _march-strider, frontier-haunter_ (applied to Grendel and his mother): nom. sg., 103; acc. pl. mearc-stapan, 1349.

mearh, st. m., _horse, steed_: nom. pl. mēaras, 2164; acc. pl. mēaras, 866, 1036; dat. pl. inst. mēarum, 856, 918; mēarum and māðmum, 1049, 1899; gen. pl. mēara and māðma, 2167.

mearn. See murnan.

meodu. See medu.

meoto. See met.

meotud. See metod.

meowle, w. f., _maiden_: comp. geō-meowle.

micel, adj., _great, huge, long_ (of time): nom. sg. m., 129, 502; fem., 67, 146, 170; neut., 772; acc. sg. m. micelne, 3099; fem, micle, 1779, 3092; neut. micel, 270, 1168. The comp. māre must be supplied before þone in: medo-ærn micel ... (māre) þone yldo beam ǣfre ge-frūnon, 69; instr. sg. ge-trume micle, 923; micle (_by much, much_); micle lēofre (_far dearer_), 2652; efne swā micle (lǣssa), (_[less] even by so much_), 1284; oftor micle (_much oftener_), 1580; dat. sg, weak form miclan, 2850; gen. sg. miclan, 979. The gen. sg. micles is an adv. = _much, very_: micles wyrðne gedōn (_deem worthy of much_, i.e. honor very highly), 2186; tō fela micles (_far too much, many_), 695; acc. pl. micle, 1349. Compar., see māra.

mid, I. prep. w. dat., instr., and acc., signifying preëminently _union, community, with_, hence: 1) w. dat.: a) _with, in company, community, with_; mid Finne, 1129; mid Hrōðgāre, 1593; mid scip-herge, 243; mid gesīðum (_with his comrades_), 1314; so, 1318, 1964, 2950, etc.; mid his frēo-drihtne, 2628; mid þǣm lācum (_with the gifts_), 1869; so, 2789, 125; mid hǣle (_with good luck!_), 1218; mid bǣle fōr (_sped off amid fire_), 2309. The prep. postponed: him mid (_with him, in his company_), 41; _with him_, 1626; ne wæs him Fitela mid (_was not with him_), 890. b) _with, among_: mid Gēatum (_among the Gēatas_), 195, 2193, 2624; mid Scyldingum, 274; mid Eotenum, 903; mid yldum (eldum), 77, 2612; mid him (_with, among, one another_), 2949. In temporal sense: mid ǣr-dæge (_at dawn_), 126.--2) _with, with the help of, through_, w. dat.: mid ār-stafum (_through his grace_), 317; so, 2379; mid grāpe (_with the fist_), 438; so, 1462, 2721; mid his hete-þoncum (_through his hatred_), 475; mid sweorde, 574; so, 1660, 2877; mid gemete (_through, by, his power_), 780; so, 1220, 2536, 2918; mid gōde (_with benefits_), 1185; mid hearme (_with harm, insult_), 1893; mid þǣre sorge (_with [through?] this sorrow_), 2469; mid rihte (_by rights_), 2057. With instr.: mid þȳ wīfe (_through [marriage with] the woman_), 2029.--3) w. acc., _with, in community, company, with_: mid his eorla gedriht, 357; so, 634, 663, 1673; mid hine, 880; mid mīnne gold-gyfan, 2653.

II. adv., mid, _thereamong, in the company_, 1643; _at the same time, likewise_, 1650.

middan-geard, st. m., _globe, earth_: acc. sg., 75, 1772; dat. sg. on middan-gearde, 2997; gen. sg. middan-geardes, 504, 752.

midde, w. f., _middle = medius_: dat. sg. on middan (_through the middle, in two_), 2706; gen. sg. (adv.) tō-middes (_in the midst_), 3142.

middel-niht, st. f., _midnight_: dat. pl. middel-nihtum, 2783, 2834.

miht, st. f., _might, power, authority_: acc. sg. þurh drihtnes miht (_through the Lord's help, power_), 941; instr. pl. selfes mihtum, 701.

mihtig, adj.: 1) _physically strong, powerful_: acc. sg. mihtig mere-dēor, 558; mere-wīf mihtig, 1520.--2) _possessing authority, mighty_: nom. sg. mihtig god, 702, 1717, 1726; dat. sg. mihtigan drihtne, 1399.--Comp.: æl-, fore-mihtig.

milde, adj., _kind, gracious, generous_: nom. sg. mōdes milde (_kind-hearted_), 1230; instr. pl. mildum wordum (_graciously_), 1173. Superl. nom. sg. worold-cyning mannum mildust (_a king most liberal to men_), 3183.

milts, st. f., _kindness, benevolence_: nom. sg., 2922.

missan, w. v. with gen., _to miss, err in_: pret. sg. miste mercelses (_missed the mark_), 2440.

missēre, st. n., _space of a semester, half a year_: gen. pl. hund missēra (_fifty winters_), 2734, 2210; generally, _a long period of time, season_, 1499, 1770; fela missēra, 153, 2621.

mist-hlið, st. n., _misty cliff, cloud-capped slope_: dat. pl. under mist-hleoðum, 711.

mistig, adj., _misty_: acc. pl. mistige mōras, 162.

mīl-gemearc, st. n., _measure by miles_: gen. sg. mīl-gemearces, 1363.

mīn: 1) poss. pron., _my, mine_, 255, 345, etc.; Hygelāc mīn (_my lord_, or _king, H._), 2435.--2) gen. sg. of pers. pron. ic, _of me_, 2085, 2534, etc.

molde, w. f., _dust; earth, field_: in comp. græs-molde.

mon. See man.

ge-mong. See ge-mang.

morð-bealu, st. n., _murder, deadly hale_ or _deed of murder_: gen. pl. morð-beala, 136.

morðor, st. n., _deed of violence, murder_: dat. instr. sg. morðre, 893, 1265, 2783; gen. sg. morðres, 2056; morðres scyldig (_guilty of murder_), 1684.

morðor-bed, st. n., _bed of death, murder-bed_: acc. sg. wæs þām yldestan ... morðor-bed strēd (_a bed of death was spread for the eldest_, i.e. through murder his death-bed was prepared), 2437.

morðor-bealu, st. n., _death-bale, destruction by murder_: acc. sg. morðor-bealo, 1080, 2743.

morðor-hete, st. m., _murderous hate_: gen. sg. þæs morðor-hetes, 1106.

morgen, morn, mergen, st. m., _morning, forenoon_; also _morrow_: nom. sg. morgen, 1785, 2125; (_morrow_), 2104; acc. sg. on morgen (_in the morning_), 838; dat. sg. on morgne, 2485; on mergenne, 565, 2940; gen. pl. morna gehwylce (_every morning_), 2451.

morgen-ceald, adj., _morning-cold, dawn-cold_: nom. sg. gār morgen-ceald (_spear chilled by the early air of morn_), 3023.

morgen-lang, adj., _lasting through the morning_: acc. sg. morgen-longne dæg (_the whole forenoon_), 2895.

morgen-lēoht, st. n., _morning-light_: nom. sg., 605, 918.

morgen-swēg, st. m., _morning-cry, cry at morn_: nom. sg., 129.

morgen-tīd, st. f., _morning-tide_: acc. sg. on morgen-tīde, 484, 818(?)

morn. See morgen.

mōd, st. n.: 1) _heart, soul, spirit, mood, mind, manner of thinking_: nom. sg., 50, 731; wǣfre mōd (_the flicker ing spirit, the fading breath_), 1151; acc. sg. on mōd (_into his mind_), 67; dat. instr. sg. mōde geþungen (_of mature, lofty spirit_), 625; on mōde (_in heart, mind_), 754, 1845, 2282? 2528; on hrēoum mōde (_fierce of spirit_), 2582; gen. sg. modes, 171, 811, 1707; modes blīðe (_gracious-minded, kindly disposed_), 436; so, mōdes milde, 1230; mōdes sēoce (_depressed in mind_), 1604.--2) _boldness, courage_: nom. and acc. sg., 1058, 1168. 3) _passion, fierceness_: nom. sg., 549.--Comp. form adj.: galg-, geōmor-, glæd-, gūð-, hrēoh-, sārig-, stīð-, swīð-, wērig-, yrre-mōd.

mōd-cearu, st. f., _grief of heart_: acc. sg. mōd-ceare, 1993, 3150.

mōd-gehygd, st. f ., _thought of the heart; mind_: instr. pl. mōd-gehygdum, 233

mōd-ge-þanc, st. n., _mood-thought, meditation_: acc. sg. mōd-ge-þonc, 1730.

mōd-giōmor, adj., _grieved at heart, dejected_: nom. sg., 2895.

mōdig, adj., _courageous_: nom. sg., 605, 1644, 1813, 2758; hē þæs (þǣm, MS.) mōdig wæs (_had the courage for it_), 1509; se mōdega, 814; dat. sg. mid þām mōdigan, 3012; gen. sg. mōdges, 502; mōdiges, 2699; Gēata lēod georne truwode mōdgan mægnes (_trusted firmly in his bold strength_), 671; nom. pl. mōdge, 856; mōdige, 1877; gen. pl. mōdigra, 312, 1889.--Comp, fela-mōdig.

mōdig-līc, adj., _of bold appearance_: compar. acc. pl. mōdiglīcran, 337.

mōd-lufe, w. f., _hearts affection, love_: gen. sg. þīnre mōd-lufan, 1824.

mōd-sefa, w. m., _thought of the heart; brave, bold temper; courage_: nom. sg., 349, 1854, 2629; acc. sg. mōd-sefan, 2013; dat. sg. mōd-sefan, 180.

mōd-þracu, st. f., _boldness, courage, strength of mind_: dat. sg. for his mōd-þræce, 385.

mōdor, f., _mother_: nom. sg., 1259, 1277, 1283, 1684, 2119; acc. sg. mōdor, 1539, 2140, 2933.

mōna, w. m., _moon_: gen. sg. mōnan, 94.

mōr, st. m., _moor, morass, swamp_: acc. sg. ofer myrcan mōr, 1406; dat. sg. of mōre, 711; acc. pl. mōras, 103, 162, 1349.

mōr-hop, st. n., _place of refuge in the moor, hiding-place in the swamp_: acc. pl. mōr-hopu, 450.

ge-mōt, st. n., _meeting_: in comp. hand-, torn-ge-mōt.

mōtan, pret.-pres. v.: 1) _power_ or _permission to have something, to be permitted; may, can_: pres. sg. I., III. mōt, 186, 442, 604; II. mōst, 1672; pl. mōton, 347, 365, 395; pres. subj. ic mōte, 431; III. sē þe mōte, 1388; pret sg. mōste, 168, 707, 736, 895, 1488, 1999, 2242, 2505, etc.; pl. mōston, 1629, 1876, 2039, 2125, 2248; pres. subj. sg. II. þæt þū hine selfne gesēon mōste (_mightest see_), 962.--2) _shall, must, be obliged_: pres. sg. mōt, 2887; pret. sg. mōste, 1940; þǣr hē þȳ fyrste forman dōgore wealdan mōste, swā him Wyrd ne gescrāf, hrēð æt hilde (_if he must for the first time that day be victorious, as Fate had denied him victory_, cf. 2681, 2683 seqq.), 2575.

ge-munan, pret.-pres. v., _to have in mind, be mindful; remember, think of_, w. acc.: pres. sg. hine gearwe geman witena wēl-hwylc (_each of the knowing ones still remembers him well_), 265; ic þē þæs lēan geman (_I shall not forget thy reward for this_), 1221; ic þæt eall gemon (_I remember all that_), 2428; so, 1702, 2043; gif hē þæt eall gemon hwæt ... (_if he is mindful of all that which_ ...), 1186; ic þæt mǣl gemon hwǣr... (_I remember the time when_...), 2634; pret. sg. w. gemunde... ǣfen-sprǣce (_recalled his evening speech_), 759; so, 871, 1130, 1260, 1271, 1291, 2115, 2432, 2607, 2679; sē þæs lēod-hryres lēan ge-munde (_was mindful of reward for the fall of the ruler_), 2392; þæt hē Eotena bearn inne gemunde (_that he in this should remember, take vengeance on, the children of the Eotens_), 1142; so, hond gemunde fǣhðo genōge (_his hand remembered strife enough_), 2490; ne ge-munde mago Ecglāfes þæt ... (_remembered not that which_ ...), 1466; pret. pl. helle gemundon in mōd-sefan (_their thoughts_ [as heathens] _fixed themselves on, remembered, hell_), 179.

on-munan, w. acc. pers. and gen. of thing, _to admonish, exhort_: pret. sg. onmunde ūsic mǣrða (_exhorted us to deeds of glory_), 2641.

mund, st. f., _hand_: instr. pl. mundum, mid mundum, 236, 514, 1462, 3023, 3092.

mund-bora, w. m., _protector, guardian, preserver_: nom. sg., 1481, 2780.

mund-gripe, st. m., _hand-grip, seizure_: acc. sg. mund-gripe, 754; dat. sg. mund-gripe, 380, 1535; æfter mund-gripe (_after having seized the criminal_), 1939.

murnan, st. v., _to shrink from, be afraid of, avoid_: pret. sg. nō mearn fore fǣhðe and fyrene, 136; so, 1538; nalles for ealdre mearn (_was not apprehensive for his life_), 1443.--2) _to mourn, grieve_: pres. part. him wæs ... murnende mōd, 50; pres. subj., þonne hē fela murne (_than that he should mourn much_), 1386.

be-murnan, be-meornan, with acc., _to mourn over_: pret. be-mearn, 908, 1078.

murn-līce. See un-murn-līce.

mūð-bana, w. m., _mouth-destroyer_: dat. sg. tō mūð-bonan (of Grendel because he bit his victim to death), 2080.

mūða, w. m., _mouth, entrance_: acc. sg. recedes mūðan (_mouth of the house, door_), 725.

ge-mynd, st. f., _memory, memorial, remembrance_: dat. pl. tō gemyndum, 2805, 3017. See weorð-mynd.

myhdgian, w. v., _to call to mind, remember_: pres. sg. myndgað, 2058; pres. part. w. gen. gif þonne Frēsna hwylc ... þæs morðor-hetes myndgiend wǣre (_were to call to mind the bloody feud_), 1106.

ge-myndgian, w. v. w. acc., _to remember_: bið gemyndgad ... eaforan ellor-sīð (_is reminded of his son's decease_), 2451.

ge-myndig, adj., _mindful_: nom. sg. w. gen., 614, 869, 1174, 1531, 2083, etc.

myne, st. m.: 1) _mind, wish_: nom. sg., 2573.--2) _love_(?): nē his myne wisse (_whose_ [God's] _love he knew not_), 169.

ge-mynian, w. v. w. acc., _to be mindful of_: imper. sg. gemyne mǣrðo! 660.

myntan, w. v., _to intend, think of, resolve_: pret. sg. mynte ... manna cynnes sumne besyrwan (_meant to entrap all_(?) [see sum], _some one of (?), the men_), 713; mynte þæt hē gedǣlde ... (_thought to sever_), 732; mynte se mǣra, þǣr hē meahte swā, wīdre gewindan (_intended to flee_), 763.

myrce, adj., _murky, dark_: acc. sg. ofer myrcan mōr, 1406.

myrð, st. f., _joy, mirth_: dat. (instr.) sg. mōdes myrðe, 8n.


naca, w. m., _vessel, ship_: acc. sg. nacan, 295; gen. sg. nacan, 214.--Comp.: hring-, ȳð-naca.

nacod, adj., _naked_: nom. and acc. sg. swurd, gūð-bill nacod, 539, 2586; nacod nīð-draca, 2274.

nalas, nales, nallas. See nealles.

nama, w. m., _name_: nom. sg. Bēowulf is mīn nama, 343; wæs þǣm hæft-mēce Hrunting nama, 1458; acc. sg. scōp him Heort naman (_gave it the name Hart_), 78.

nā (from ne-ā), strength, negative, _never, not all_, 445, 567, 1537.

nāh, from ne-āh. See āgan.

nān (from ne-ān), indef. pron., _none, no_: with gen. pl. gūð-billa nān, 804; adjectively, nān ... īren ǣrgōd, 990.

nāt, from ne-wāt: _I know not=nescio_. See witan.

nāt-hwylc (nescio quis, ne-wāt-hwylc, _know not who, which_, etc.), indef. pron., _any, a certain one, some or other_: 1) w. partitive gen.: nom. sg. gumena nāt-hwylc, 2234;. gen. sg. nāt-hwylces (þāra banena), 2054; niða nāt-hwylces(?), 2216; nāt-hwylces hæleða bearna, 2225.--2) adjectively: dat. sg. in nið-sele nāt-hwylcum, 1514.

næbben, from ne-hæbben (subj. pres.). See habban.

næfne. See nefne.

nægel, st. m., _nail_: gen. pl. nægla (of the finger-nails), 986.

nægled, part., _nailed?, nail-like?, buckled?_: acc. sg. neut. nægled (MS. gled) sinc, 2024.

næs, st. m., _naze, rock projecting into the sea, cliff, promontory_: acc. sg. næs, 1440, 1601, 2899; dat. sg. næsse, 2244, 2418; acc. pl. windige næssas, 1412; gen. pl. næssa, 1361.

næs, from ne-wæs (_was not_). See wesan.

næs, neg. adv., _not, not at all_, 562, 2263.

næs-hlið, st. n., _declivity, slope of a promontory that sinks downward to the sea_: dat. pl. on næs-hleoðum, 1428.

nǣfre, adv., _never_, 247, 583, 592, 656, 719, 1042, 1049, etc.; also strengthened by ne: nǣfre ne, 1461.

ge-nǣgan, w. v. w. acc. pers. and gen. of thing, _to attack, press_; pret. pl. nīða genǣgdan nefan Hererīces (_in combats pressed hard upon H.'s nephew_), 2207; pret. part. wearð ... nīða genǣged, 1440.

nǣnig (from ne-ǣnig), pron., _not any, none, no_: 1) substantively w. gen. pl.: nom. sg., 157, 242, 692; dat. sg. nǣnegum, 599; gen. pl. nǣnigra, 950.--2) adjectively: nom. sg. ōðer nǣnig, 860; nǣnig wæter, 1515; nǣnig ... dēor, 1934; acc. sg. nǣnigne ... hord-māððum, 1199.

nǣre, from ne-wǣre (_were not, would not be_). See wesan.

ne, simple neg., _not_, 38, 50, 80, 83, 109, etc.; before imper. ne sorga! 1385; ne gȳm! 1761, etc. Doubled =_certainly not, not even that_: nē gē ... gearwe ne wisson (_ye certainly have not known_, etc.), 245; so, 863; ne ic ... wihte ne wēne (_nor do I at all in the least expect_), 2923; so, 182. Strengthened by other neg.: nōðer ... ne, 2125; swā hē ne mihte nō ... (_so that he absolutely could not_), 1509.

nē ... nē, _not ... and not, nor; neither ... nor_, 154-157, 511, 1083-1085, etc. Another neg. may supply the place of the first ne: so, nō ... ne, 575-577, 1026-1028, 1393-1395, etc.; nǣfre ... ne, 583-584; nalles ... nē, 3016-3017. The neg. may be omitted the first time: ǣr nē siððan (_neither before nor after, before nor since_), 719; sūð nē norð (_south nor north_), 859; ādl nē yldo (_neither illness nor old age_), 1737; wordum nē worcum (_neither by word nor deed_), 1101; wiston and ne wēndon (_knew not and weened not_), 1605.

nefa, w. m., _nephew, grandson_: nom. sg. nefa (_grandson_), 1204; so, 1963; (_nephew_), 2171; acc. sg. nefan (_nephew_), 2207; dat. sg. nefan (_nephew_), 882.

nefne, næfne, nemne (orig. from ne-gif-ne): 1) subj.: a) with depend. clause = _unless_: nefne him wītig god wyrd forstōde (_if fate, the wise God, had not prevented him_), 1057; nefne god sylfa ... sealde (_unless God himself_, etc.), 3055; næfne him his wlite lēoge (MS. nǣfre) (_unless his face belie him_), 250; næfne hē wæs māra (_except that he was huger_), 1354; nemne him heaðo-byrne helpe ge-fremede, 1553; so, 2655.--b) w. follow. substantive = _except, save, only_: nefne sin-frēa (_except the husband_), 1935; ic lȳt hafo hēafod-māga nefne Hygelāc þec (_have no near kin but thee_), 2152; nis þæt ēower (gen. pl.) sīð ... nefne mīn ānes, 2534.--2) Prep. with dat., _except_: nemne fēaum ānum, 1082.

ge-nehost. See ge-neahhe.

nelle, from ne-wille (_I will not_). See willan.

nemnan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to name, call_: pres. pl. þone yldestan ōret-mecgas Bēowulf nemnað (_the warriors call the most distinguished one Bēowulf_), 364; so inf. nemnan, 2024; pret. pl. nemdon, 1355.--2) _to address_, as in

be-nemnan, _to pronounce solemnly, put under a spell_: pret. sg. Fin Hengeste ... āðum be-nemde þæt (_asserted, promised under oath that_ ...), 1098; pret. pl. swā hit oð dōmes dæg dīope benemdon þēodnas mǣre (_put under a curse_), 3070.

nemne. See nefne.

nerian, ge-nerian, w. v., _to save, rescue, liberate_: pres. sg. Wyrd oft nereð unfǣgne eorl, 573; pret. part. hæfde ... sele Hrōðgāres ge-nered wið nīðe (_saved from hostility_), 828.

ge-nesan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to remain over, be preserved_: pret. sg. hrōf āna genæs ealles ansund (_the roof alone was quite sound_), 1000.--2) w. acc., _to endure successfully, survive, escape from_: pret. sg. sē þā sæcce ge-næs, 1978; fela ic ... gūð-rǣsa ge-næs, 2427; pret. part. swā hē nīða gehwane genesen hæfde, 2398.

net, st. n., _net_: in comp. brēost-, here-, hring-, inwit-, searo-net.

nēdla, w. m., _dire necessity, distress_: in comp. þrēa-nēdla.

nēðan (G. nanþjan), w. v., _to venture, undertake boldly_: pres. part. nearo nēðende (_encountering peril_), 2351; pret. pl. þǣr git ... on dēop water aldrum nēðdon (_where ye two risked your lives in the deep water_), 510; so, 538.

ge-nēðan, the same: inf. ne dorste under ȳða gewin aldre ge-nēðan, 1470. With depend. clause: nǣnig þæt dorste genēðan þæt (_none durst undertake to_ ...), 1934; pret. sg. hē under hārne stān āna genēðde frēcne dǣde (_he risked alone the bold deed, venturing under the grey rock_), 889; (ic) wigge under wætere weorc genēðde earfoð-līce (_I with difficulty stood the work under the water in battle_, i.e. could hardly win the victory), 1657; ic genēðde fela gūða (_ventured on, risked, many contests_), 2512; pres. pl. (of majesty) wē ... frēcne genēðdon eafoð uncūðes (_we have boldly risked, dared, the monster's power_), 961.

nēh. See nēah.

ge-neahhe, adv., _enough, sufficiently_, 784, 3153; superl. genehost brægd eorl Bēowulfes ealde lāfe (_many an earl of B.'s_), 795.

nealles (from ne-ealles), adv., _omnino non, not at all, by no means_: nealles, 2146, 2168, 2180, 2223, 2597, etc.; nallas, 1720, 1750; nalles, 338, 1019, 1077, 1443, 2504, etc.; nalas, 43, 1494, 1530, 1538; nales, 1812.

nearo, st. n., _strait, danger, distress_: acc. sg. nearo, 2351, 2595.

nearo, adj., _narrow_: acc. pl. f. nearwe, 1410.

nearwe, adv., _narrowly_, 977.

nearo-cræft, st. m., _art of rendering difficult of access?, inaccessibility_ (see 2214 seqq.): instr. pl. nearo-cræftum, 2244.

nearo-fāh, m., _foe that causes distress, war-foe_: gen. sg. nearo-fāges, 2318.

nearo-þearf, st. f., _dire need, distress_: acc. sg. nearo-þearfe, 422.

ge-nearwian, w. v., _to drive into a corner, press upon_: pret. part. genearwod, 1439.

nēah, nēh: 1) adj., _near, nigh_: nom. sg. nēah, 1744, 2729. In superl. also = _last_: instr. sg. nȳhstan sīðe (_for the last time_), 1204; nīehstan sīðe, 2512.

2) adv., _near_: feor and (oððe) nēah, 1222, 2871; 3) prep, sǣ-grunde nēah,

  564; so, 1925, 2243; holm-wylme nēh, 2412. Compar. nēar, 746.

nēan, adv., _near by, (from) close at hand_, 528; (neon, MS.), 3105; feorran and nēan, 840; nēan and feorran, 1175, 2318.

ge-nēat, st. m., _comrade, companion_: in comp. bēod-, heorð-genēat.

nioðor. See niðer.

neowol, adj., _steep, precipitous_: acc. pl. neowle, 1412.

nēod, st. f., _polite intercourse regulated by etiquette?, hall-joy?_: acc. sg. nīode, 2117; inst. (= _joy_), 2216.

nēod-laðu, st. f., _polite invitation; wish_: dat. sg. æfter nēod-laðu (_according to his wishes_), 1321.

nēosan, nēosian, w. v. w. gen., _to seek out, look for; to attack_: inf. nēosan, 125, 1787, 1792, 1807, 2075; nīosan, 2389, 2672; nēosian, 115, 1126; nīosian, 3046; pret. sg. nīosade, 2487.

nēotan, st. v., _to take, accept_, w. gen.; _to use, enjoy_: imper. sg. nēot, 1218.

be-nēotan, w. dat., _to rob, deprive of_: inf. hine aldre be-nēotan, 681; pret. sg. cyning ealdre bi-nēat (_deprived the king of life_), 2397.

nicor, st. m., _sea-horse, walrus, sea-monster_ (cf. Bugge in Zacher's Journal, 4, 197): acc. pl. niceras, 422, 575; nicras, 1428; gen. pl. nicera, 846.

nicor-hūs, st. n., _house_ or _den of sea-monsters_: gen. pl. nicor-hūsa, 1412.

nið st. m., _man, human being_: gen. pl. niðða, 1006; niða? (passage corrupt), 2216.

niðer, nyðer, neoðor, adv., _down, downward_: niðer, 1361; nioðor, 2700; nyðer, 3045.

nið-sele, st. m., _hall, room, in the deep_ (Grein): dat. sg. [in] nið-sele nāt-hwylcum, 1514.

nigen, num., _nine_: acc. nigene, 575.

niht, st. f. _night_: nom. sg., 115, 547. 650, 1321, 2117; acc. sg. niht, 135, 737, 2939; gystran niht (_yester-night_), 1335; dat. sg. on niht, 575, 684; on wanre niht, 703; gen. sg. nihtes hwīlum (_sometimes at night, in the hours of the night_), 3045; as adv. = _of a night, by night_, G. nachts, 422, 2274; dæges and nihtes, 2270; acc. pl. seofon niht (_se'nnight, seven days_, cf. Tac. Germ, 11), 517; dat. pl. sweartum nihtum, 167; deorcum nihtum, 275, 221; gen. pl. nihta, 545, 1366.--Comp.: middel-, sin-niht.

niht-bealu, st. n., _night-bale, destruction by night_: gen. pl. niht-bealwa, 193.

niht-helm, st. m., _veil_ or _canopy of night_: nom. sg., 1790.

niht-long, adj., _lasting through the night_: acc. sg. m. niht-longne fyrst (_space of a night_), 528.

niht-weorc, st. n., _night-work, deed done at night_: instr. sg. niht-weorce, 828.

niman, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to take, hold, seize, undertake_: pret. sg. nam þā mid handa hige-þīhtigne rinc, 747; pret. pl. wē . . . nīode nāman, 2117.--2) _to take, take away, deprive of_: pres. sg. sē þe hine dēað nimeð (_he whom death carrieth off_), 441; so, 447; nymeð, 1847; nymeð nȳd-bāde, 599; subj. pres. gif mec hild nime, 452, 1482; pret. sg. ind. nam on Ongenþīo īren-byrnan, 2987; ne nom hē ... māðm-ǣhta mā (_he took no more of the rich treasures_), 1613; pret. part. þā wæs ... sēo cwēn numen (_the queen carried off_), 1154.

be-niman, _to deprive of_: pret. sg. oð þæt hine yldo benam mægenes wynnum (_till age bereft him of joy in his strength_), 1887.

for-niman, _to carry off_: pres. sg. þē þā dēað for-nam (_whom death carried off_), 488; so, 557, 696, 1081, 1124, 1206, 1437, etc. Also, dat. for acc.: pret. pl. him īrenna ecge fornāmon, 2829.

ge-niman: 1) _to take, seize_: pret. sg. (hine) be healse ge-nam (_clasped him around the neck, embraced him_), 1873.--2) _to take, take away_: pret. on reste genam þrītig þegna, 122; hēo under heolfre genam cūðe folme, 1303; segn ēac genom, 2777; þā mec sinca baldor ... æt mīnum fæder genam (_took me at my father's hands, adopted me_), 2430; pret. part. genumen, 3167.

ge-nip, st. n., _darkness, mist, cloud_: acc. pl. under næssa genipu, 1361; ofer flōda genipu, 2809.

nis, from ne-is (_is not_): see wesan.

nīwe, nīowe, adj., _new, novel; unheard-of_: nom. sg. swēg up ā-stāg nīwe geneahhe (_a monstrous hubbub arose_), 784; beorh ... nīwe (_a newly-raised(?) grave-mound_), 2244; acc. sg. nīwe sibbe (_the new kinship_), 950; instr. sg. nīwan stefne (properly, novā voce; here = de novo, iterum, _again_), 2595; nīowan stefne (_again_), 1790; gen. pl. nīwra spella (_new tidings_), 2899.

ge-nīwian, w. v., _to renew_: pret. part. ge-nīwod, 1304, 1323; genīwad, 2288.

nīw-tyrwed, pret. part., _newly-tarred_: acc. sg. nīw-tyrwedne (-tyrwydne, MS.) nacan, 295.

nīð, st. m., properly only _zeal, endeavor_; then _hostile endeavor, hostility, battle, war_: nom. sg., 2318; acc. sg. nīð, 184, 276; Wedera nīð (_enmity against the W., the sorrows of the Weders_), 423; dat. sg. wið (æt) nīðe, 828, 2586; instr. nīðe, 2681; gen. pl. nīða, 883, 2351, 2398, etc.; also instr. = _by, in, battle_, 846, 1440, 1963, 2171, 2207.--Comp.: bealo-, fǣr-, here-, hete-, inwit-, searo-, wæl-nīð.

nīð-draca, w. m., _battle-dragon_: nom. sg., 2274.

nīð-gast, st. m., _hostile alien, fell demon_: acc. sg. þone nīð-gæst (_the dragon_), 2700.

nīð-geweorc, st. n., _work of enmity, deed of evil_: gen. pl. -geweorca, 684.

nīð-grim, adj., _furious in battle, savage_: nom. sg., 193.

nīð-heard, adj., _valiant in war_: nom. sg., 2418.

nīð-hȳdig, adj., _eager for battle, valorous_: nom. pl. nīð-hȳdige men, 3167.

ge-nīðla, w. m., _foe, persecutor, waylayer_: in comp. ferhð-, feorh-genīðla.

nīð-wundor, st. n., _hostile wonder, strange marvel of evil_: acc. sg., 1366.

nīpan, st. v., _to veil, cover over, obscure_; pres. part. nīpende niht, 547, 650.

nolde, from ne-wolde (_would not_); see willan.

norð, adv., _northward_, 859.

norðan, adv., _from the north_, 547.

nose, w. f., _projection, cliff, cape_: dat. sg. of hlīðes nosan, 1893; æt brimes nosan, 2804.

nō (strengthened neg.), _not, not at all, by no means_, 136, 244, 587, 755, 842, 969, 1736, etc.; strengthened by following ne, 459(?), 1509; nō ... nō (_neither ... nor_), 541-543; so, nō ... ne, 168. See ne.

nōðer (from nā-hwæðer), neg., _and not, nor_, 2125.

ge-nōh, adj., _sufficient, enough_: acc. sg. fǣhðo genōge, 2490; acc. pl. genōge ... bēagas, 3105.

nōn, st. f., [Eng. _noon_], _ninth hour of the day, three o'clock in the afternoon of our reckoning_ (the day was reckoned from six o'clock in the morning; cf. Bouterwek Scrēadunga, 24 _2_: wē hātað ǣnne dæg fram sunnan upgange oð ǣfen): nom. sg. nōn, 1601.

nū, adv.: l) _now, at present_, 251, 254, 375, 395, 424, 426, 489, etc.: nū gȳt (_up to now, hitherto_), 957; nū gēn (_now still, yet_), 2860; (_now yet, still_), 3169.--2) conj., _since, inasmuch as_: nū þū lungre geong ... nū se wyrm ligeð (_go now quickly, since the dragon lieth dead_), 2746; so, 2248; þæt þū mē ne forwyrne ... nū ic þus feorran cōm (_that do not thou refuse me, since I am come so far_), 430; so, 1476; nū ic on māðma hord mīne bebohte frōde feorh-lege, fremmað gē nū (_as I now..., so do ye_), 2800; so, 3021.

nymðe, conj. w. subj., _if not, unless_, 782; nymðe mec god scylde (_if God had not shielded me_), 1659.

nyt, st. f., _duty, service, office, employment_: acc. sg. þegn nytte behēold (_did his duty_), 494; so, 3119.--Comp.: sund-, sundor-nyt.

nyt, adj., _useful_: acc. pl. m. nytte, 795; comp. un-nyt.

ge-nyttian, w. v., _to make use of, enjoy_: pret. part. hæfde eorð-scrafa ende ge-nyttod (_had enjoyed, made use of_), 3047.

nȳd, st. f., _force, necessity, need, pain_: acc. sg. þurh dēaðes nȳd, 2455; instr. sg. nȳde, 1006. In comp. (like nȳd-maga, consanguineus, in AEthelred's Laws, VI. 12, Schmid, p. 228; nēd-maga, in Cnut's Laws, I. 7, ibid., p. 258); also, _tie of blood._--Comp. þrēa-nȳd.

ge-nȳdan, w. v.: 1) _to force, compel_: pret. part. nīðe ge-nȳded (_forced by hostile power_), 2681.--2) _to force upon_: pret. part. acc. sg. f. nȳde genȳdde ... gearwe stōwe (_the inevitable place prepared for each_, i.e. the bed of death), 1006.

nȳd-bād, st. f., _forced pledge, pledge demanded by force_: acc. pl. nȳd-bāde, 599.

nȳd-gestealla, w. m., _comrade in need_ or _united by ties of blood_: nom. pl. nȳd-gesteallan, 883.

nȳd-gripe, st. m., _compelling grip_: dat. sg. in nȳd-gripe (mid-gripe, MS.), 977.

nȳd-wracu, st. f., _distressful persecution, great distress_: nom. sg., 193.

nȳhst. See nēah.


oððe, conj.: 1) _or; otherwise_, 283, 437, 636, 638, 694, 1492, 1765, etc.--2) _and_(?), _till_(?), 650, 2476, 3007.

of, prep. w. dat., _from, off from_: 1) _from some point of view_: ge-seah of wealle (_from the wall_), 229; so, 786; of hefene scīneð (_shineth from heaven_), 1572; of hlīðes nosan gæstas grētte (_from the cliff's projection_), 1893; of þām lēoma stōd (_from which light streamed_), 2770; þǣr wæs māðma fela of feorwegum ... gelǣded (_from distant lands_), 37; þā cōm of mōre (_from the moor_), 711, 922.--2) _forth from, out of_: hwearf of earde (_wandered from his home, died_), 56; so, 265, 855, 2472; þā ic of searwum cōm (_when I had escaped from the persecutions of the foe_), 419; þā him Hrōðgār gewāt ... ūt of healle (_out of the hall_), 664; so, 2558, 2516; 1139, 2084, 2744; wudu-rēc ā-stāh sweart of (ofer) swioðole (_black wood-reek ascended from the smoking fire_), 3145; (icge gold) ā-hæfen of horde (_lifted from the hoard_), 1109; lēt þā of brēostum ... word ūt faran (_from his breast_), 2551; dyde ... helm of hafelan (_doffed his helmet_), 673; so, 1130; sealdon wīn of wunder-fatum (_presented wine from wondrous vessels_), 1163; siððan hyne Hæðcyn of horn-bogan ... flāne geswencte (_with an arrow shot from the horned bow_), 2438; so, 1434. Prep. postponed: þā hē him of dyde īsern-byrnan (_doffed his iron corselet_), 672.

ofer, prep. w. dat. and acc., _over, above_: 1) w. dat, _over_ (rest, locality): Wīglāf siteð ofer Bīowulfe, 2908; ofer æðelinge, 1245; ofer eorðan, 248, 803, 2008; ofer wer-þēode (_over the earth, among mankind_), 900; ofer ȳðum, 1908; ofer hron-rāde (_over the sea_), 10; so, 304, 1287, 1290, etc.; ofer ealowǣge (_over the beer-cup, drinking_), 481.--2) w. acc. of motion: a) _over_ (local): ofer ȳðe (_over the waves_), 46, 1910; ofer swan-rāde (_over the swan-road, the sea_), 200; ofer wǣgholm, 217; ofer geofenes be-gang, 362; so, 239, 240, 297, 393, 464, 471, etc.; ofer bolcan (_over the gangway_), 231; ofer landa fela (_over many lands_), 311; so, 1405, 1406; ofer hēahne hrōf (_along upon (under?) the high roof_), 984; ofer eormen-grund (_over the whole earth_), 860; ofer ealle (_over all, on all sides_), 2900, 650; so, 1718;--606, 900, 1706; ofer borda gebræc (_over, above, the crashing of shields_), 2260; ofer bord-(scild) weall, 2981, 3119. Temporal: ofer þā niht (_through the night, by night_), 737. b) w. verbs of saying, speaking, _about, of, concerning_: hē ofer benne spræc, 2725. c) _beyond, over_: ofer mīn ge-met (_beyond my power_), 2880;--hence, _against, contrary to_: hē ofer willan gīong (_went against his will_), 2410; ofer ealde riht (_against the ancient laws_, i.e. the ten commandments), 2331;--also, _without_: wīg ofer wǣpen (_war sans, dispensing with, weapons_), 686;--temporal = _after_: ofer eald-gewin (_after long, ancient, suffering_), 1782.

ofer-hygd, st. n., _arrogance, pride, conceit_: gen. pl. ofer-hygda, 1741; ofer-hȳda, 1761.

ofer-māðum, st. m., _very rich treasure_: dat. pl. ofer-māðmum, 2994.

ofer-mægen, st. n., _over-might, superior numbers_: dat. sg. mid ofer-mægene, 2918.

ofer-þearf, st. f., _dire distress, need_: dat. sg. [for ofer] þea[rfe], 2227.

oft, adv., _often_, 4, 165, 444, 572, 858, 908, 1066, 1239, etc.; oft [nō] seldan, 2030; oft nalles ǣne, 3020; so, 1248, 1888. Compar. oftor, 1580. Superl. oftost, 1664.

om-, on-. see am-, an-.

ombiht. See ambiht.

oncer. See ancer.

ond. See and.

onsȳn. See ansȳn.

on, prep. w. dat. and acc., signifying primarily _touching on, contact with_: I. local, w. dat.: a) _on, upon, in at_ (of exterior surface): on hēah-stede (_in the high place_), 285; on mīnre ēðel-tyrf (_in my native place_), 410; on þǣm meðel-stede, 1083; so, 2004; on þām holmclife, 1422; so, 1428; on foldan (_on earth_), 1197; so, 1533, 2997; on þǣre medu-bence (_on the mead-bench_), 1053; beornas on blancum (_the heroes on the dapple-greys_), 857, etc.; on ræste (_in bed_), 1299; on stapole (_at, near, the pillar_), 927; on wealle, 892; on wāge (_on the wall_), 1663; on þǣm wæl-stenge (_on the battle-lance_), 1639; on eaxle (_on his shoulder_), 817, 1548; on bearme, 40; on brēostum, 552; on hafelan, 1522; on handa (_in his hand_), 495, 540; so, 555, 766; on him byrne scān (_on him shone the corselet_), 405; on ōre (_at the front_), 1042; on corðre (_at the head of, among, his troop_), 1154; scip on ancre (_the ship at anchor_), 303; þæt hē on heoðe ge-stōd (_until he stood in the hall_), 404; on fæder stǣle (_in a father's place_), 1480; on ȳðum (_on the waves, in the water_), 210, 421, 534, 1438; on holme, 543; on ēg-strēamum, 577; on segl-rāde, 1438, etc.; on flōde, 1367. The prep. postponed: Frēslondum on, 2358.--b) _in, inside of_ (of inside surface): secg on searwum (_a champion in armor_), 249; so, 963; on wīg-geatwum, 368; (reced) on þǣm se rīca bād (_in which the mighty one abode_), 310; on Heorote (_in Heorot_), 475, 497, 594, 1303; on bēor-sele, 492, 1095; on healle, 615, 643; so, 639, 1017, 1026, etc.; on burgum (_in the cities, boroughs_), 53; on helle, 101; on sefan mīnum (_in my mind_), 473; on mōde, 754; so, 755, 949, 1343, 1719, etc.; on aldre (_in his vitals_), 1435; on middan (in medio), 2706.--c) _among, amid_: on searwum (_among the arms_), 1558; on gemonge (_among the troop_), 1644; on þām lēod-scipe (_among the people_), 2198; nymðe līges fæðm swulge on swaðule (_unless the embracing flame should swallow it in smoke_), 783;--_in, with, touched by, possessing something_: þā wæs on sālum sinces brytta (_then was the dispenser of treasure in joy_), 608; so, 644, 2015; wæs on hrēon mōde, 1308; on sweofote (_in sleep_), 1582, 2296; hēo wæs on ofste (_she was in haste_), 1293; so, 1736, 1870; þā wæs on blōde brim weallende (_there was the flood billowing in, with, blood_), 848; (hē) wæs on sunde (_was a-swimming_), 1619; wæs tō fore-mihtig fēond on fēðe (_too powerful in speed_), 971; þǣr wæs swīgra secg ... on gylpsprǣce (_there was the champion more silent in his boasting speech_), 982;--_in; full of, representing, something_: on weres wæstmum (_in man's form_), 1353.--d) _attaching to_, hence _proceeding from; from something_: ge-hȳrde on Bēowulfe fæst-rǣdne ge-þōht (_heard in, from, B. the fixed resolve_), 610; þæt hē ne mētte ... on elran men mund-gripe māran, 753;--hence, with verbs of taking: on ræste genam (_took from his bed_), 122; so, 748, 2987; hit ǣr on þē gōde be-geāton (_took it before from thee_), 2249.--e) _with_: swā hit lungre wearð on hyra sinc-gifan sāre ge-endod (_as it, too, soon painfully came to an end with the dispenser of treasure_), 2312.--f) _by_: mæg þonne on þǣm golde ongitan Gēata dryhten (_the lord of the Geatas may perceive by the gold_), 1485.--g) _to_, after weorðan: þæt hē on fylle wearð (_that he came to a fall_), 1545.

With acc.: a) w. verbs of moving, doing, giving, seeing, etc., _up to, on, upon, in_: ā-lēdon þā lēofne þēoden ... on bearm scipes, 35; on stefn (on wang) stigon, 212, 225; þā him mid scoldon on flōdes ǣht feor ge-wītan, 42; sē þe wið Brecan wunne on sīdne sǣ (_who strovest in a swimming-match with B. on the broad sea_), 507, cf. 516; þæt ic on holma ge-þring eorlscipe efnde (_that I should venture on the sea to do valiant deeds_), 2133; on fēonda geweald sīðian, 809; þāra þe on swylc starað, 997; so, 1781; on lufan lǣteð hworfan (_lets him turn his thoughts to love?, to possessions?_), 1729; him on mōd bearn (_came into his mind, occurred to him_), 67; rǣsde on þone rōfan (_rushed on the powerful one_), 2691; (cwōm) on worðig (_came into the palace_), 1973; so, 27, 242, 253, 512, 539, 580, 677, 726, etc.; on weg (_away_), 764, 845, 1383, 1431, 2097.--b) _towards, on_: gōde gewyrcean ... on fæder wine (pl.), 21.--c) aim or object, _to, for the object, for, as, in, on_: on þearfe (_in his need, in his strait_), 1457; so, on hyra man-dryhtnes miclan þearfe, 2850; wrāðum on andan (_as a terror to the foe_), 709; Hrōðgār maðelode him on andsware (_said to him in reply_), 1841; betst beado-rinca wæs on bǣl gearu (_on the pyre ready_), 1110; wīg-heafolan bær frēan on fultum (_for help_), 2663; wearð on bīd wrecen (_forced to wait_), 2963.--d) ground, reason, _according to, in conformity with_: rodera rǣdend hit on ryht gescēd (_decided it in accordance with right_), 1556; nē mē swōr fela āða on unriht (_swore no oaths unjustly, falsely_), 2740; on spēd (_skilfully_), 874; nallas on gylp seleð fǣtte bēagas (_giveth no gold-wrought rings as he promised_), 1750; on sīnne selfes dōm (_boastingly, at his own will_), 2148; him eal worold wendeð on willan (_according to his will_), 1740.--e) w. verbs of buying, _for, in exchange for_: mē ic on māðma hord mīne be-bohte frōde feorh-lege (_for the hoard of jewels_), 2800.--f) _of, as to_: ic on Higelāce wāt, Gēata dryhten (_I know with respect to, as to, of, H._), 1831; so, 2651; þæt hēo on ǣnigne eorl ge-lȳfde fyrena frōfre (_that she should rely on any earl for help out of trouble_), 628; þā hīe ge-truwedon on twā healfa (_on both sides, mutually_), 1096; so, 2064; þæt þū him ondrǣdan ne þearft ... on þā healfe (_from, on this side_), 1676.--g) after superlatives or virtual superlatives = _among_: næs ... sinc-māððum sēlra (= þæt wæs sinc-māðma sēlest) on sweordes hād (_there was no better jewel in sword's shape_, i.e. among all swords there was none better), 2194; sē wæs Hrōðgāre hæleða lēofost on ge-sīðes hād (_dearest of men as, in the character of, follower_, etc.), 1298.

II. Of time: a) w. dat., _in, inside of, during, at_: on fyrste (_in time, within the time appointed_), 76; on ūhtan (_at dawn_), 126; on mergenne (_at morn, on the morrow_), 565, 2940; on niht, 575; on wanre niht, 703; on tȳn dagum, 3161; so, 197, 719, 791, 1063, etc.; on geogoðe (_in youth_), 409, 466; on geogoð-fēore, 537; so, 1844; on orlege (_in, during, battle_), 1327; hū lomp ēow on lāde (_on the way_), 1988; on gange (_in going, en route_), 1885; on sweofote (_in sleep_), 1582.--b) w. acc., _towards, about_: on undern-mǣl (_in the morning, about midday_), 1429; on morgen-tīd, 484, 518; on morgen, 838; on ende-stæf (_toward the end, at last_), 1754; oftor micle þonne on ǣnne sīð (_far oftener than once_), 1580.

III. With particles: him on efn (_beside, alongside of, him_), 2904; on innan (_inside, within_), 71, 1741, 1969, 2453, 2716; þǣr on innan (_in there_), 2090, 2215, 2245. With the relative þē often separated from its case: þē ic hēr on starie (_that I here look on, at_), 2797; þē gē þǣr on standað (_that ye there stand in_), 2867.

on-cȳð (cf. Dietrich in Haupt's Zeits. XI., 412), st. f., _pain, suffering_: nom. sg., 1421; acc. sg. or pl. on-cȳððe, 831.

on-drysne, adj., _frightful, terrible_: acc. sg. firen on-drysne, 1933.

ōnettan (for anettan, from root an-, Goth. inf. anan, _to breathe, pant_), w. v., _to hasten_: pret. pl. ōnetton, 306, 1804.

on-līcnes, st. f., _likeness, form, figure_: nom. sg., 1352.

on-mēdla, w. m., _pride, arrogance_: dat. sg. for on-mēdlan, 2927. Cf. Bugge in Zacher's Zeits. 4, 218 seqq.

on-sǣge, adj., _tending to fall, fatal_: nom. sg. þā wæs Hondscīo (dat.) hild on-sǣge, 2077; Hæðcynne wearð ... gūð on-sǣge, 2484.

on-weald, st. m., _power, authority_: acc. sg. (him) bēga ge-hwæðres ... onweald ge-tēah (_gave him power over, possession of, both_), 1044.

open, adj., _open_: acc. sg. hord-wynne fond ... opene standan, 2272.

openian, w. v., _to open_, w. acc.: inf. openian, 3057.

orc (O.S. orc, Goth. aúrkei-s), st. m., _crock, vessel, can _: nom. pl. orcas, 3048; acc. pl. orcas, 2761.

orcnē, st. m., _sea-monster_: nom. pl. orcnēas, 112.

ord, st. n. _point_: nom. sg. oð þæt wordes ord brēost-hord þurh-bræc (_till the word-point broke through his breast-hoard, came to utterance_), 2792; acc. sg. ord (_sword-point_), 1550; dat. instr. orde (id.), 556; on orde (_at the head of, in front_ [of a troop]), 2499, 3126.

ord-fruma, w. m., _head lord, high prince_: nom. sg., 263.

ōret-mecg, st. m., _champion, warrior, military retainer_: nom. pl. ōret-mecgas, 363, 481; acc. pl. ōret-mecgas, 332.

ōretta, w. m., _champion, fighter, hero_: nom. sg., 1533, 2539.

or-leg, st. n., _war, battle_: dat. sg. on orlege, 1327; gen. sg. or-leges, 2408.

or-leg-hwīl, st. f., _time of battle, war-time_: nom. sg. [or-leg]-hwīl, 2003; gen. sg. orleg-hwīle, 2912; gen. pl orleg-hwīla, 2428.

or-leahtre, adj., _blameless_: nom. sg 1887.

or-þanc (cf. Gloss. Aldhelm. mid or-þance = argumento in Haupt XI., 436; orþancum = machinamentis, _ibid._ 477; or-þanc-scipe = mechanica, 479, st. m., _mechanical art, skill_: instr. pl. or-þoncum, 2088; smiðes or-þancum, 406.

or-wēna, adj. (weak form), _hopeless, despairing_, w. gen.: aldres or-wēna (_hopeless of life_), 1003, 1566.

or-wearde, adj., _unguarded, without watch_ or _guard_: adv., 3128.

oruð, st. n., _breath, snorting_: nom. sg., 2558; dat. oreðe, 2840.


oð (Goth. und, O.H.G. unt, unz): 1) prep. w. acc., _to, till, up to_, only temporal: oð þone ānne dæg, 2400; oð dōmes dæg, 3070; ō woruld-ende, 3084.--2) oð þæt, conj. w. depend, indicative clause, _till, until_, 9, 56, 66, 100, 145. 219, 296, 307, etc.

ōðer (Goth. anþar), num.: 1) _one or other of two, a second_, = alter: nom. sg. subs.: se ōðer, 2062; ōðer(_one_ i.e. of my blood-relations, Hæðcyn and Hygelāc), 2482; ōðer ... ōðer (_the one ... the other_), 1350-1352. Adj.: ōðer ... mihtig mān-sceaða (_the second mighty, fell foe_, referring to 1350, 1339; se ōðer ... hæle, 1816; fem. niht ōðer, 2118; neut. ōðer geār (_the next, second, year_), 1134; acc. sg. m. ōðerne, 653, 1861, 2441, 2485; þenden rēafode rinc ōðerne(_whilst one warrior robbed the other_, i.e. Eofor robbed Ongenþēow), 2986; neut. ōðer swylc(_another such, an equal number_), 1584; instr. sg. ōðre sīðe (_for the second time, again_), 2671, 3102; dat. sg. ōðrum, 815, 1030, 1166, 1229, 1472, 2168, 2172, etc.; gen. sg. m. ōðres dōgores, 219, 606; neut. ōðres, 1875.--2) _another, a different one_, = alius: nom. sg., subs. ōðer, 1756; ōðer nǣnig (_no other_), 860. Adj.: ǣnig ōðer man, 503, 534; so, 1561; ōðer in (_a different house_ or _room_), 1301; acc. sg. ōðer flet, 1087; gen. sg. ōðres ... yrfe-weardes, 2452; acc. pl. ealo drincende ōðer sǣdan (_ale drinkers said other things_), 1946; acc. pl. neut. word ōðer, 871.

ōfer, st. m., _shore_: dat. sg. on ōfre, 1372.

ofost, st. f., _haste_: nom. sg. ofost is sēlest tō gecȳðanne (_haste is best to make known, best to say at once_), 256; so, 3008; dat. sg. bēo þū on ofeste (ofoste) (_be in haste, hasten_), 386, 2748; on ofste, 1293; on ofoste, 2784, 3091.

ofost-līce, adv., _in haste, speedily_, 3131.

ō-hwǣr, adv., _anywhere_, 1738, 2871.

ōmig, adj., _rusty_: nom. sg., 2764; nom. pl. ōmige, 3050.

ōr, st. n., _beginning, origin; front_: nom. sg., 1689; acc. sg., 2408; dat. sg. on ōre, 1042.

ō-wiht, _anything, aught_: instr. sg. ō-wihte (_in any way_), 1823, 2433.


pād, st. f., _dress_; in comp. here-pād.

pæð, st. m., _path, road, way_; in comp. ān-pæð.

plega, w. m., _play, emulous contest_; lind-plega, 1074.


raðe, adv., _quickly, immediately_, 725, Cf. hrāðe.

rand, rond, st. m., _shield_: acc. sg, rand, 683; rond, 657, 2567, 2610; dat. ronde (rond, MS.), 2674; under rande, 1210; bī ronde, 2539; acc. pl. randas, 231; rondas, 326, 2654.--Comp.: bord-, hilde-, sīd-rand.

rand-hæbbend, pres. part., _shield-bearer_, i.e. _man at arms, warrior_: gen. pl. rond-hæbbendra, 862.

rand-wiga, w. m., _shield-warrior, shield-bearing warrior_: nom. sg., 1299; acc. sg. rand-wigan, 1794.

rād, st. f., _road, street_; in comp. hran-, segl-, swan-rād.

ge-rād, adj., _clever, skilful, ready_: acc. pl. neut. ge-rāde, 874.

rāp, st. m., _rope, bond, fetter_: in comp. wæl-rāp.

rāsian, w. v., _to find, discover_: pret. part. þā wæs hord rāsod, 2284.

ræst. See rest.

rǣcan, w. v., _to reach, reach after_: pret. sg. rǣhte ongēan fēond mid folme (_reached out his hand toward the foe_), 748.

ge-rǣcan, _to attain, strike, attack_: pret. sg. hyne ... wǣpne ge-rǣhte (_struck him with his sword_), 2966; so, 556.

rǣd, st. m.: 1) _advice, counsel, resolution; good counsel, help_: nom. sg. nū is rǣd gelong eft æt þē ānum (_now is help to be found with thee alone_), 1377; acc. sg. rǣd, 172, 278, 3081.--2) _advantage, gain, use_: acc. sg. þæt rǣd talað (_counts that a gain_), 2028; ēcne rǣd (_the eternal gain, everlasting life_), 1202; acc. pl. ēce rǣdas, 1761.--Comp.: folc-rǣd, and adj., ān-, fæst-rǣd.

rǣdan, st. v., _to rule; reign; to possess_: pres. part. rodera rǣdend (_the ruler of the heavens_), 1556; inf. þone þe þū mid rihte rǣdan sceoldest (_that thou shouldst possess by rights_), 2057; wolde dōm godes dǣdum rǣdan gumena gehwylcum (_God's doom would rule over, dispose of, every man in deeds_), 2859. See sele-rǣdend.

rǣd-bora, w. m. _counsellor, adviser_: nom. sg., 1326.

rǣden, st. f., _order, arrangement, law_: see Note on 1143; comp. worold-rǣden(?).

ā-rǣran, w. v.: 1) _to raise, lift up_: pret. pl. þā wǣron monige þē his mǣg ... ricone ā-rǣrdon (_there were many that lifted up his brother quickly_), 2984.--2) figuratively, _to spread, disseminate_: pret. part. blǣd is ā-rǣred (_thy renown is far-spread_), 1704.

rǣs, st. m., _on-rush, attack, storm_: acc. sg. gūðe rǣs (_the storm of battle, attack_), 2627; instr. pl. gūðe rǣsum, 2357.--Comp.: gūð-, hand-, heaðo-, mægen-, wæl-rǣs.

(ge-)rǣsan, w. v., _to rush (upon)_: pret. sg. rǣsde on þone rōfan, 2691, 2840.

rǣswa, w. m., _prince, ruler_: dat. sg. weoroda rǣswan, 60.

reccan, w. v., _to explicate, recount, narrate_: inf. frum-sceaft fīra feorran reccan (_recount the origin of man from ancient times_), 91; gerund, tō lang is tō reccenne, hū ic ... (_too long to tell how I_...), 2094; pret. sg. syllīc spell rehte (_told a wondrous tale_), 2111; so intrans. feorran rehte (_told of olden times_), 2107.

reced, st. n., _building, house; hall_ (complete in itself): nom. sg., 412, 771, 1800; acc. sg., 1238; dat. sg. recede, 721, 729, 1573; gen. sg. recedes, 326, 725, 3089; gen. pl. receda, 310.--Comp.: eorð-, heal-, horn-, win-reced.

regn-heard, adj., _immensely strong, firm_: acc. pl. rondas regn-hearde, 326.

regnian, rēnian, w. v., _to prepare, bring on_ or _about_: inf. dēað rēn[ian] hond-gesteallan (_prepare death for his comrade_), 2169.

ge-regnian, _to prepare, deck out, adorn_: pret. part. medu-benc monig ... golde ge-regnad, 778.

regn-, rēn-weard, st. m., _mighty guardian_: nom. pl. rēn-weardas (of Bēowulf and Grendel contending for the possession of the hall), 771.

rest, ræst, st. f.: 1) _bed, resting-place_: acc. sg. ræste, 139; dat. sg. on ræste (genam) (_from his resting-place_), 1299, 1586; tō ræste (_to bed_), 1238. Comp.: flet-ræst, sele-rest, wæl-rest.--2) _repose, rest_; in comp. ǣfen-ræst.

ge-reste (M.H.G. reste), f., _resting-place_: in comp. wind-gereste.

restan, w. v.: 1) _to rest_: inf. restan, 1794; pret. sg. reflex. reste hine þā rūm-heort, 1800.--2) _to rest, cease_: inf., 1858.

rēc (O.H.G. rouh), st. m., _reek, smoke_: instr. sg. rēce, 3157.--Comp.: wæl-, wudu-rēc.

rēcan (O.H.G. ruohjan), w. v. w. gen., _to reck, care about something, be anxious_: pres. sg. III. wǣpna ne rēceð (_recketh not for weapons, weapons cannot hurt him_), 434.

rēðe, adj., _wroth, furious_: nom. sg., 122, 1586; nom. pl. rēðe, 771. Also, of things, _wild, rough, fierce_: gen. sg. rēðes and-hāttres (_fierce, penetrating heat_), 2524.

rēaf, st. n., _booty, plunder in war; clothing, garments_ (as taken by the victor from the vanquished): in comp. heaðo-, wæl-rēaf.

rēafian, w. v., _to plunder, rob_, w. acc.: inf. hord rēafian, 2774; pret. sg. þenden rēafode rinc ōðerne, 2986; wæl rēafode, 3028; pret. pl. wæl rēafedon, 1213.

be-rēafian, w. instr., _to bereave, rob of_: pret. part. since be-rēafod, 2747; golde be-rēafod, 3019.

reord, st. f., _speech, language; tone of voice_: acc. sg. on-cnīow mannes reorde (_knew, heard, a human voice_), 2556.

reordian, w. v., _to speak, talk_: inf. fela reordian _(speak much_), 3026.

ge-reordian, _to entertain, to prepare for_: pret. part. þā wæs eft swā ǣr ... flet-sittendum fægere ge-reorded (_again, as before, the guests were hospitably entertained_), 1789

rēot, st. m.?, f.?, _noise, tumult_? (_grave_?): instr. sg. rēote, 2458. Bugge, in Zachers Zeits. 4, 215, takes rēote as dat. from rēot (_rest, repose_).

rēoc, adj., _savage, furious_: nom. sg., 122.

be-rēofan, st. v., _to rob of, bereave_: pret. part. w. instr. acc. sg. fem. golde berofene, 2932; instr. sg. rēote berofene, 2458.

rēon. See rōwan.

rēotan, st. v., _to weep_: pres. pl. oð þæt ... roderas rēotað, 1377.

rēow, adj., _excited, fierce, wild_: in comp. blōd-, gūð-, wæl-rēow. See hrēow.

ricone, _hastily, quickly, immediately_, 2984.

riht, st. n., _right_ or _privilege; the_ (abstract) _right_: acc. sg. on ryht (_according to right_), 1556; sōð and riht (_truth and right_), 1701; dat. sg. wið rihte, 144; æfter rihte (_in accordance with right_), 1050; syllīc spell rehte æfter rihte _(told a wondrous tale truthfully_), 2111; mid rihte, 2057; acc. pl. ealde riht (_the ten commandments_), 2331; --Comp. in ēðel-, folc-, land-, un-, word-riht.

riht, adj., _straight, right_: in comp. up-riht.

rihte, adv., _rightly, correctly_, 1696. See æt-rihte.

rinc, st. m., _man, warrior, hero_: nom. sg., 399, 2986; also of Grendel, 721; acc. sg. rinc, 742, 748; dat. sg. rince, 953; of Hrōðgār, 1678; gen. pl. rinca, 412, 729.--Comp. in beado-, gūð-, here-, heaðo-, hilde-, mago-, sǣ-rinc.

ge-risne, ge-rysne, adj., _appropriate, proper_: nom. sg. n. ge-rysne, 2654.

rīce, st. n.: 1) _realm, land ruled over_: nom. sg., 2200, 2208; acc. sg. rīce, 913, 1734, 1854, 3005; gen. sg. rīces, 862, 1391, 1860, 2028, 3081. Comp. Swīo-rīce.--2) _council of chiefs, the king with his chosen advisers_(?): nom. sg. oft gesæt rīce tō rūne, 172.

rīce, adj., _mighty, powerful_: nom. sg. (of Hrōðgār), 1238; (of Hygelāc), 1210; (of Æsc-here), 1299; weak form, se rīca (Hrōðgār), 310; (Bēowulf), 399; (Hygelāc), 1976.--Comp. gimme-rīce.

rīcsian, rīxian, w. v. intrans., _to rule, reign_: inf. rīcsian, 2212; pret. sg. rīxode, 144.

rīdan, st. v., _to ride_: subj. pres. þæt his byre rīde giong on galgan, 2446; pres. part. nom. pl. rīdend, 2458; inf. wicge rīdan, 234; mēarum rīdan, 856; pret. sg. sǣ-genga ... sē þe on ancre rād, 1884; him tō-gēanes rād (_rode to meet them_), 1894; pret. pl. ymbe hlǣw riodan (_rode round the grave-mound_), 3171.

ge-rīdan, w. acc., _to ride over_: pret. sg. sē þe næs ge-rād (_who rode over the promontory_), 2899.

rīm, st. n., _series, number_: in comp. dæg-, un-rīm.

ge-rīm, st. n., _series, number_: in comp. dōgor-ge-rim.

ge-rīman, w. v., _to count together, enumerate in all_: pret. part. in comp. forð-gerīmed.

ā-rīsan, st. v., _to arise, rise_: imper. sg. ā-rīs, 1391; pret. sg. ā-rās þā se rīca, 399; so, 652, 1791, 3031; ā-rās þā bī ronde (_arose by his shield_), 2539; hwanan sīo fǣhð ā-rās (_whence the feud arose_), 2404.

rodor, st. m., _ether, firmament, sky_ (from _radius_?, Bugge): gen. sg. rodores candel, 1573; nom. pl. roderas, 1377; dat. pl. under roderum, 310; gen. pl. rodera, 1556.

rōf, adj., _fierce, of fierce, heroic, strength, strong_: nom. sg., 2539; also with gen. mægenes rōf (_strong in might_), 2085; so, þēah þe hē rōf sīe nīð-geweorca, 683; acc. sg. rōfne, 1794; on þone rōfan, 2691.--Comp.: beadu-, brego-, ellen-, heaðo-, hyge-, sige-rōf.

rōt, adj., _glad, joyous_: in comp. un-rōt.

rōwan, st. v., _to row_ (with the arms), _swim_: pret. pl. rēon (for rēowon), 512, 539.

rūm, st. m., _space, room_: nom. sg., 2691.

rūm, adj.: 1) _roomy, spacious_: nom. sg. þūhte him eall tō rūm, wongas and wīc-stede (_fields and dwelling seemed to him all too broad_, i.e. could not hide his shame at the unavenged death of his murdered son), 2462.--2) in moral sense, _great, magnanimous, noble-hearted_: acc. sg. þurh rūmne sefan, 278.

rūm-heort, adj., _big-hearted, noble-spirited_: nom. sg., 1800, 2111.

ge-rūm-līc, adj., _commodious, comfortable_: compar. ge-rūm-līcor, 139.

rūn, st. f., _secrecy, secret discussion, deliberation_ or _council_: dat. sg. ge-sæt rīce tō rūne, 172.--Comp. beado-rūn.

rūn-stæf, st. m., _rune-stave, runic letter_: acc. pl. þurh rūn-stafas, 1696.

rūn-wita, w. m., _rune-wit, privy councillor, trusted adviser_: nom. sg., 1326.

ge-rysne. See ge-risne.

ge-rȳman, w. v.: 1) _to make room for, prepare, provide room_: pret. pl. þæt hīe him ōðer flet eal ge-rȳmdon, 1087; pret. part. þā wæs Gēat-mæcgum ... benc gerȳmed, 492; so, 1976.--2) _to allow, grant, admit_: pret. part. þā mē ge-rȳmed wæs (sīð) (_as access was permitted me_), 3089; þā him gerȳmed wearð, þæt hīe wæl-stōwe wealdan mōston, 2984.


ge-saca, w. m., _opponent, antagonist, foe_: acc. sg. ge-sacan, 1774.

sacan, st. v., _to strive, contend_: inf. ymb feorh sacan, 439.

ge-sacan, _to attain, gain by contending_ (Grein): inf. gesacan sceal sāwl-berendra ... gearwe stōwe _(gain the place prepared_, i.e. the death-bed), 1005.

on-sacan: 1) (originally in a lawsuit), _to withdraw, take away, deprive of_: pres. subj. þætte freoðuwebbe fēores on-sæce ... lēofne mannan, 1943.--2) _to contest, dispute, withstand_: inf. þæt hē sǣmannum on-sacan mihte (i.e. hord, bearn, and brȳde), 2955.

sacu, st. f., _strife, hostility, feud_: nom. sg., 1858, 2473; acc. sg. sæce, 154; sæcce, 1978, 1990, 2348, 2500, 2563; dat. sg. æt (tō) sæcce, 954, 1619, 1666, 2613, 2660, 2682, 2687; gen. sg. secce, 601; gen. pl. sæcca, 2030.

ge-sacu, st. f., _strife, enmity_: nom. sg., 1738.

sadol, st. m., _saddle_: nom. sg., 1039.

sadol-beorht, adj., _with bright saddles_ (?): acc. pl. sadol-beorht, 2176.

ge-saga. See secgan.

samne, somne, adv., _together, united_; in æt-somne, _together, united_, 307, 402, 491, 544, 2848.

tō-somne (_together_), 3123; þā se wyrm ge-bēah snūde tō-somne (_when the dragon quickly coiled together_), 2569.

samod, somod: I. adv., _simultaneously, at the same time_: somod, 1212, 1615, 2175, 2988; samod, 2197; samod æt-gædere, 387, 730, 1064.--II. prep. w. dat., _with, at the same time with_: samod ǣr-dæge (_with the break of day_), 1312; somod ǣr-dæge, 2943.

sand, st. n., _sand, sandy shore_: dat. sg. on sande, 295, 1897, 3043(?); æfter sande (_along the shore_), 1965; wið sande, 213.

sang, st. m., _song, cry, noise_: nom. sg. sang, 1064; swutol sang scopes, 90; acc. sg. sige-lēasne sang (Grendel's cry of woe), 788; sārigne sang (Hrēðel's dirge for Herebeald), 2448.

sāl, st. m., _rope_: dat. sg. sāle, 1907; on sāle (sole, MS.), 302.

sāl. See sǣl.

sār, st. n., _wound, pain_ (physical or spiritual): nom. sg. sār, 976; sīo sār, 2469; acc. sg. sār, 788; sāre, 2296; dat. (instr.) sg. sāre, 1252, 2312, 2747.--Comp. līc-sār.

sār, adj., _sore, painful_: instr. pl. sārum wordum, 2059.

sāre, adv., _sorely, heavily, ill_, graviter: sē þe him [sā]re gesceōd (_who injured him sorely_), 2224.

sārig, adj., _painful, woeful_: acc. sg. sārigne sang, 2448.

sārig-ferð, adj., _sore-hearted, grieved_: nom. sg. sārig-ferð (Wīglāf), 2864.

sārig-mōd, adj., _sorrowful-minded, saddened_: dat. pl. sārig-mōdum, 2943.

sār-līc, adj., _painful_: nom. sg., 843; acc. sg. neut., 2110.

sāwol, sāwl, st. f., _soul_ (the immortal principle as contrasted with līf, the physical life): nom. sg. sāwol, 2821; acc. sg. sāwle, 184, 802; hǣðene sāwle, 853; gen. sg. sāwele, 1743; sāwle, 2423.

sāwl-berend, pres. part., _endowed with a soul, human being_: gen. pl. sāwl-berendra, 1005.

sāwul-drēor, st. n., (blood gushing from the seat of the soul), _soul-gore, heart's blood, life's blood_: instr. sg. sāwul-drīore, 2694.

sāwul-lēas, adj., _soulless, lifeless_: acc. sg. sāwol-lēasne, 1407; sāwul-lēasne, 3034.

sæce, sæcce. See sacu.

sæd, adj., _satiated, wearied_: in comp. hilde-sæd.

sæl, st. n., _habitable space, house_, _hall_: dat. sg. sel, 167; sæl, 307, 2076, 2265.

sæld, st. n., _hall, king's hall_ or _palace_: acc. sg. geond þæt sæld (Heorot), 1281.

sǣ, st. m. and f., _sea, ocean_: nom. sg., 579, 1224; acc. sg. on sīdne sǣ, 507; ofer sǣ, 2381; ofer sǣ sīde, 2395; dat. sg. tō sǣ, 318; on sǣ, 544; dat. pl. be sǣm tweonum, 859, 1298, 1686, 1957.

sǣ-bāt, st. m., _sea-boat_: acc. sg., 634, 896.

sǣ-cyning, st. m., _sea-king, king ruling the sea_: gen. pl. sǣ-cyninga, 2383.

sǣ-dēor, st. n., _sea-beast, sea-monster_: nom. sg., 1511.

sǣ-draca, w. m., _sea-dragon_: acc. pl. sǣ-dracan, 1427.

ge-sǣgan, w. v., _to fell, slay_: pret. part. hæfdon eal-fela eotena cynnes sweordum ge-sǣged (_felled with the sword_), 885.

sǣge. See on-sǣge.

sǣ-genga, w. m., _sea-goer_, i.e. sea-going ship: nom. sg., 1883, 1909.

sǣ-gēap, adj., _spacious_ (broad enough for the sea): nom. sg. sǣ-gēap naca, 1897.

sǣ-grund, st. m., _sea-bottom, ocean-bottom_: dat. sg. sǣ-grunde, 564.

sǣl, sāl, sēl, st. f.: 1) _favorable opportunity, good_ or _fit time_: nom. sg. sǣl, 623, 1666, 2059; sǣl and mǣl, 1009; acc. sg. sēle, 1136; gen. pl. sǣla and mǣla, 1612.--2) _Fate_(?): see Note on l. 51.--3) _happiness, joy_: dat. pl. on sālum, 608; sǣlum, 644, 1171, 1323. See sēl, adj.

ge-sǣlan, w. v., _to turn out favorably, succeed_: pret. sg. him ge-sǣlde þæt ...(_he was fortunate enough to_, etc.), 891; so, 574; efne swylce mǣla, swylce hira man-dryhtne þearf ge-sǣlde (_at such times as need disposed it for their lord_), 1251.

sǣlan (see sāl), w. v., _to tie, bind_: pret. sg. sǣlde ... sīð-fæðme scip, 1918; pl. sǣ-wudu sǣldon, 226.

ge-sǣlan, _to bind together, weave, interweave_: pret. part. earm-bēaga fela searwum ge-sǣled (_many curiously interwoven armlets_, i.e. made of metal wire: see Guide to Scandinavian Antiquities, p. 48), 2765.

on-sǣlan, with acc., _to unbind, unloose, open_: on-sǣl meoto, sige-hrēð secgum (_disclose thy views to the men, thy victor's courage_; or, _thy presage of victory_?), 489.

sǣ-lāc, st. n., _sea-gift, sea-booty_: instr. sg. sǣ-lāce, 1625; acc. pl. þās sǣ-lāc, 1653.

sǣ-lād, st. f., _sea-way, sea-journey_: dat. sg. sǣ-lāde, 1140, 1158.

sǣ-līðend, pres. part., _seafarer_: nom. pl. sǣ-līðend, 411, 1819, 2807; sǣ-līðende, 377.

sǣ-man, m., _sea-man, sea-warrior_: dat. pl. sǣ-mannum, 2955; gen. pl. sǣ-manna, 329 (both times said of the Gēatas).

sǣmra, weak adj. compar., _the worse, the weaker_: nom. sg. sǣmra, 2881; dat. sg. sǣmran, 954.

sǣ-mēðe, adj., _sea-weary, exhausted by sea-travel_: nom. pl. sǣ-mēðe, 325.

sǣ-næs, st. m., _sea-promontory, cape, naze_: acc. pl. sǣ-næssas, 223, 571.

sǣne, adj., _careless, slow_: compar. sg. nom. hē on holme wæs sundes þē sǣnra, þē hyne swylt fornam (_was the slower in swimming in the sea, whom death took away_), 1437.

sǣ-rinc, st. m., _sea-warrior_ or _hero_: nom. sg., 691.

sǣ-sīð, st. m., _sea-way, path, journey_: dat. sg. æfter sǣ-sīðe, 1150.

sǣ-wang, st. m., _sea-shore_ or _beach_: acc. sg. sǣ-wong, 1965.

sǣ-weal, st. m., _(sea-wall), seashore_: dat. sg. sǣ-wealle, 1925.

sǣ-wudu, st. m., _(sea-wood), vessel, ship_: acc. sg. sǣ-wudu, 226.

sǣ-wylm, st. m., _sea-surf, billow_: acc. pl. ofer sǣ-wylmas, 393.

scacan, sceacan, st. v., properly, _to shake one's self_; hence, _to go, glide, pass along_ or _away_: pres. sg. þonne mīn sceaceð līf of līce, 2743; inf. þā cōm beorht [sunne] scacan [ofer grundas], (_the bright sun came gliding over the fields_), 1804; pret. sg. duguð ellor scōc _(the chiefs are gone elsewhither_, i.e. have died), 2255; þonne strǣla storm ... scōc ofer scild-weall (_when the storm of arrows leapt over the wall of shields_), 3119; pret. part. wæs hira blǣd scacen (_their bravest men had passed away_), 1125; þā wæs winter scacen (_the winter was past_), 1137; so, sceacen, 2307, 2728.

scadu, sceadu, st. f., _shadow, concealing veil of night_: acc. sg. under sceadu bregdan (i.e. kill), 708.

scadu-genga, w. m., _shadow-goer, twilight-stalker_ (of Grendel): nom. sg. sceadu-genga, 704.

scadu-helm, st. m., _shadow-helm, veil of darkness_: gen. pl. scadu-helma ge-sceapu (_shapes of the shadow, evil spirits wandering by night_), 651.

scalu, st. f., _retinue, band_ (part of an armed force); in comp. hand-scalu: mid his hand-scale (hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

scamian, w. v., _to be ashamed_: pres. part. nom. pl. scamiende, 2851; nō hē þǣre feoh-gyfte ... scamigan þorfte (_needed not be ashamed of his treasure-giving_), 1027.

scawa (see scēawlan), w. m., _observer, visitor_: nom. pl. scawan, 1896.

ge-scād, st. n., _difference, distinction_: acc. sg. ǣg-hwæðres gescād, worda and worca (_difference between, of, both words and deeds_), 288.

ge-scādan, st. v., _to decide, adjudge_: pret. sg. rodera rǣdend hit on ryht gescēd (_decided it in accordance with right_), 1556.

scānan? See scīnan, pret. pl. scionon, 303; the imaginary scānan having been abandoned.

ge-scæp-hwīle, st. f., _fated hour, hour of death (appointed rest?)_: dat. sg. tō gescæp-hwīle (_at the fated hour_), 26.

sceððan, w. v., _to scathe, injure_: inf. w. dat. pers., 1034; aldre sceððan (_hurt her life_), 1525; þæt on land Dena lāðra nǣnig mid scipherge sceððan ne meahte (_injure through robber incursions_), 243; pret. sg. þǣr him nǣnig wæter wihte ne sceðede, 1515.

ge-sceððan, the same: inf. þæt him ... ne mihte eorres inwit-feng aldre gesceððan, 1448.

scenc, st. m., _vessel, can_: in comp. medu-scenc.

scencan, w. v., _to hand drink, pour out_: pret. sg. scencte scīr wered, 496 (cf. skinker = cup-bearer).

scenne, w. f.?, _sword-guard?_: dat. pl. on þǣm scennum scīran goldes, 1695.

sceran, st. v., _to shear off, cleave, hew to pieces_: pres. sg. þonne heoru bunden ... swīn ofer helme andweard scireð (_hews off the boar-head on the helm_), 1288.

ge-sceran, _to divide, hew in two_: pret. sg. helm oft ge-scær (_often clove the helm in two_), 1527; so, gescer, 2974.

scerwen, st. f.?, in comp. ealu-scerwen (_ale-scare_ or _panic_?), 770.

scēt. See scēotan.

sceadu. See scadu.

sceaða, w. m.: 1) _scather, foe_: gen. pl. sceaðena, 4.--2) _fighter, warrior_: nom. pl. scaðan, 1804.--Comp.: attor-, dol-, fēond-, gūð-, hearm-, lēod-, mān-, sin-, þēod-, ūht-sceaða.

sceaðan, st. v. w. dat., _to scathe, injure, crush_: pret. sg. sē þe oft manegum scōd (_which has oft oppressed many_), 1888.

ge-sceaðan, w. dat., the same: pret. sg. swā him ǣr gescōd hild æt Heorote, 1588; sē þe him sāre ge-sceōd (_who injured him sorely_), 2224; nō þȳ ǣr in gescōd hālan līce, 1503; bill ǣr gescōd eald-hlāfordes þām þāra māðma mund-bora wæs (_the weapon of the ancient chieftain had before laid low the dragon, the guardian of the treasure_), 2778 (or, _sheathed in brass_?, if ǣr and gescōd form compound).

sceaðen-mǣl, st. n., _deadly weapon, hostile sword_: nom. sg., 1940.

sceaft, st. m., _shaft, spear, missile_: nom. sg. sceft, 3119.--Comp.: here-, wæl-sceaft.

ge-sceaft, st. f.: 1) _creation, earth, earthly existence_: acc. sg. þās lǣnan ge-sceaft, 1623.--2) _fate, destiny_: in comp. forð-, līf-, mǣl-gesceaft.

scealc, st. m., _servant, military retainer_: nom. sg., 919; (of Bēowulf), 940.--Comp bēor-scealc.

ge-sceap, st. n.: 1) _shape, creature_: nom. pl. scadu-helma ge-sceapu, 651.--2) _fate, providence_: acc. sg. hēah ge-sceap (_heavy fate_), 3085.

sceapan, sceppan, scyppan, st. v., _to shape, create, order, arrange, establish_: pres. part. scyppend (_the Creator_), 106; pret. sg. scōp him Heort naman (_shaped, gave, it the name Heorot_), 78; pres. part. wæs sīo wrōht scepen heard wið Hūgas, syððan Hygelāc cwōm (_the contest with the Hūgas became sharp after H. had come_), 2915.

ge-sceapan, _to shape, create_: pret. sg. līf ge-sceōp cynna gehwylcum, 97.

scear, st. m., _massacre_: in comp. gūð-, inwit-scear, 2429, etc.

scearp, adj., _sharp, able, brave_: nom. sg. scearp scyld-wiga, 288.--Comp.: beadu-, heaðo-scearp.

scearu, st. f., _division, body, troop_: in comp. folc-scearu; _that is decided_ or _determined_, in gūð-scearu (_overthrow_?), 1214.

sceat, st. m., _money_; also _unit of value in appraising_ (cf. Rieger in Zacher's Zeits. 3, 415): acc. pl. sceattas, 1687. When numbers are given, sceat appears to be left out, cf. 2196, 2995 (see þūsend).--Comp. gif-sceat.

scēat, st. m., _region, field_: acc. pl. gefrætwade foldan scēatas leomum and lēafum, 96;--_top, surface, part_: gen. pl. eorðan scēata, 753.

scēawere, st. m., _observer, spy_: nom. pl. scēaweras, 253.

scēawian, w. v. w. acc., _to see, look at, observe_: inf. scēawian, 841, 1414, 2403, 2745, 3009, 3033; scēawigan, 1392; pres. sg. II. þæt gē genōge nēan scēawiað bēagas and brād gold, 3105; subj. pres. þæt ic ... scēawige swegle searo-gimmas, 2749; pret. sg. scēawode, 1688, 2286, 2794; sg. for pl., 844; pret. pl. scēawedon, 132, 204, 984, 1441.

ge-scēawian, _to see, behold, observe_: pret. part. ge-scēawod, 3076, 3085.

sceorp, st. n., _garment_: in comp. hilde-sceorp.

scēotan, st. v., _to shoot, hurl missiles_: pres. sg. sē þe of flān-bogan fyrenum scēoteð, 1745; pres. part. nom. pl. scēotend (_the warriors, bowmen_), 704, 1155; dat. pl. for scēotendum (MS. scotenum), 1027.

ge-scēotan, w. acc., _to shoot off, hurry_: pret. sg. hord eft gescēat (_the dragon darted again back to the treasure_), 2320.

of-scēotan, _to kill by shooting_: pret. sg. his mǣg of-scēt ... blōdigan gāre _(killed his brother with bloody dart_), 2440.

scild, scyld, st. m., _shield_: nom. sg. scyld, 2571; acc. sg. scyld, 437, 2076; acc. pl. scyldas, 325, 333, 2851.

scildan, scyldan, w. v., _to shield, protect_: pret. subj. nymðe mec god scylde (_if God had not shielded me_), 1659.

scild-freca, w. m., _shield-warrior_ (warrior armed with a shield): nom. sg. scyld-freca, 1034.

scild-weall, st. m., _wall of shields_: acc. sg. scild-weall, 3119.

scild-wiga, w. m., _shield-warrior_: nom. sg. scyld-wiga, 288.

scinna, w. m., _apparition, evil spirit_: dat. pl. scynnum, 940.

scip, st. n., _vessel, ship_: nom. sg., 302; acc. sg., 1918; dat. sg. tō scipe, 1896; gen. sg. scipes, 35, 897; dat pl. tō scypum (scypon, MS.), 1155.

scip-here, st. m., (exercitus navalis) _armada, fleet_: dat. sg. mid scip-herge, 243.

ge-scīfe (for ge-scȳfe), adj., _advancing_ (of the dragon's movement), 2571; = G. _schief_?

scīnan, st. v., _to shine, flash_: pres. sg. sunne ... sūðan scīneð, 607; so, 1572; inf. geseah blācne lēoman beorhte scīnan, 1518; pret. sg. (gūð-byrne, woruld--candel) scān, 321, 1966; on him byrne scān, 405; pret. pl. gold-fāg scinon web æfter wāgum, 995; scionon, 303.

scīr, adj., _sheer, pure, shining_: nom. sg. hring-īren scīr, 322; scīr metod, 980; acc. sg. n. scīr wered, 496; gen. sg. scīran goldes, 1695.

scīr-ham, adj., _bright-armored, clad in bright mail_: nom. pl. scīr-hame, 1896.

scoten. See scēoten.

ge-scōd, pret. part., _shod_ (calceatus), _covered_: in comp. ǣr-ge-scōd(?). See ge-sceaðan, and Note.

scop, st. m., _singer, shaper, poet_: nom. sg., 496, 1067; gen. sg. scopes, 90.

scræf, st. n., _hole in the earth, cavern_: in comp. eorð-scræf.

scrīðan, st. v., _to stride, go_: pres. pl. scrīðað, 163; inf. scrīðan, 651, 704; scrīðan tō, 2570.

scrīfan, st. v., _to prescribe, impose_ (punishment): inf. hū him (Grendel) scīr metod scrīfan wille, 980.

for-scrīfan, w. dat. pers., _to proscribe, condemn_: pret. part. siððan him scyppend for-scrifen hæfde, 106.

ge-scrīfan, _to permit, prescribe_: pret. sg. swā him Wyrd ne ge-scrāf (_as Weird did not permit him_), 2575.

scrūd, st. m., _clothing, covering; ornament_: in comp. beadu-, byrdu-scrūd.

scucca, w. m., _shadowy sprite, demon_: dat. pl. scuccum, 940.

sculan, aux. v. w. inf.: 1) _shall, must_ (obligation): pres. sg. I., III. sceal, 20, 24, 183, 251, 271, 287, 440, 978, 1005, 1173, 1387, 1535, etc.; scel, 455, 2805, 3011; II. scealt, 589, 2667; subj. pres. scyle, 2658; scile, 3178; pret. ind. sg. I., III. scolde, 10, 806, 820, 966, 1071, 1444, 1450, etc.; sceolde, 2342, 2409, 2443, 2590, 2964; II. sceoldest, 2057; pl. scoldon, 41, 833, 1306, 1638; subj. pret. scolde, 1329, 1478; sceolde, 2709.--2) w. inf. following it expresses futurity, = _shall, will_: pres. sg. I., III. sceal bēodan (_shall offer_), 384; so, 424, 438, 602, 637, 1061, 1707, 1856, 1863, 2070; sceall, 2499, 2509, etc.; II. scealt, 1708; pl. wit sculon, 684; subj. pret. scolde, 280, 692, 911; sceolde, 3069.--3) sculan sometimes forms a periphrastic phrase or circumlocution for a simple tense, usually with a slight feeling of obligation or necessity: pres. sg. hē ge-wunian sceall (_he inhabits; is said to inhabit?_), 2276; pret. sg. sē þe wæter-egesan wunian scolde, 1261; wæcnan scolde (_was to awake_), 85; sē þone gomelan grētan sceolde (_was to, should, approach_), 2422; þæt se byrn-wiga būgan sceolde (_the corseleted warrior had to bow, fell_), 2919; pl. þā þe beado-grīman bȳwan sceoldon (_they that had to polish or deck the battle-masks_), 2258; so, 230, 705, 1068.--4) w. omitted inf., such as wesan, gangan: unc sceal worn fela māðma ge-mǣnra (i.e. wesan). 1784; so, 2660; sceal se hearda helm ... fǣtum befeallen (i.e. wesan), 2256; ic him æfter sceal (i.e. gangan), 2817; subj. þonne þū forð scyle (i.e. gangan), 1180. A verb or inf. expressed in an antecedent clause is not again expressed with a subsequent sceal: gǣð ā Wyrd swā hīo scel (_Weird goeth ever as it shall_ [go]), 455; gūð-bill ge-swāc swā hit nō sceolde (i.e. ge-swīcan), 2586.

scūa, w. m., _shadowy demon_: in comp. dēað-scūa.

scūfan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to move forward, hasten_: pret. part. þā wæs morgen-lēoht scofen and scynded, 919.--2) w. acc., _to shove, push_: pret. pl. guman ūt scufon ... wudu bundenne (_pushed the vessel from the land_), 215; dracan scufun ... ofer weall-clif (_pushed the dragon over the wall-like cliff_), 3132. See wīd-scofen(?)

be-scūfan, w. acc., _to push, thrust down, in_: inf. wā bið þǣm þe sceal ... sāwle be-scūfan in fȳres fæðm (_woe to him that shall thrust his soul into fire's embrace_), 184.

scūr, st. m., _shower, battle-shower_: in comp. īsern-scūr.

scūr-heard, adj., _fight-hardened? (file-hardened?_): nom. pl. scūr-heard, 1034.

scyld, scyldan. See scild, scildan.

scyldig, adj., _under obligations_ or _bound for; guilty of_, w. gen. and instr.: ealdres (morðres) scyldig, 1339, 1684, 2062; synnum scyldig (_guilty of evil deeds_), 3072.

scyndan, w. v., _to hasten_: inf. scyndan, 2571; pret. part, scynded, 919

scynna. See scinna.

scyppend. See sceapan.

scȳran, w. v., _to arrange, decide_: inf. þæt hit sceaðen-mǣl scȳran mōste (_that the sword must decide it_), 1940. O.N. skora, _to score, decide_.

scȳne, adj., _sheen, well-formed, beautiful_: nom. sg. mægð scȳne, 3017.

sē, se, pron. dem. and article, _the_: m. nom., 79, 84, 86, 87, 90, 92, 102, etc.; fem, sēo, 66, 146, etc.; neut. þæt;--relative: sē (_who_), 1611, 2866; sē þe (_he who_), 2293; sēo þe (_she who_), 1446; sē þe (for sēo þe), 1345, 1888, 2686; cf. 1261, 1498; (Grendel's mother, as a wild, demonic creature, is conceived now as man, now as woman: woman, as having borne a son; man, as the incarnation of savage cunning and power); se for sēo, 2422; dat. sg. þām (for þām þe), 2780.

secce. See sacu.

secg, st. m., _man, warrior, hero, spokesman_ (secgan?): nom. sg., 208, 872, 2228, 2407, etc.; (Bēowulf), 249, 948, 1312, 1570, 1760, etc.; (Wulfgār), 402; (Hunferð), 981; (Wīglāf), 2864; acc. sg. sinnigne secg (Grendel's mother, cf. se), 1380; dat. sg. secge, 2020; nom. pl. secgas, 213, 2531, 3129; dat. pl. secgum, 490; gen. pl. secga, 634, 843, 997, 1673.

secg, st. f., _sword_ (sedge?): acc. sg. secge, 685.

secgan, w. v., _to say, speak_: 1) w. acc.: pres. sg. gode ic þanc secge, 1998; so, 2796; pres. part. swā se secg hwata secgende wæs lāðra spella (partitive gen.), 3029; inf. secgan, 582, 876, 881, 1050; pret. sg. sægde him þæs lēanes þanc, 1810; pret. sg. II. hwæt þū worn fela ... sægdest from his sīðe, 532.--2) without acc inf. swā wē sōðlīce secgan hȳrdon, 273; pret. sg. sægde, 2633, 2900--3) w. depend. clause: pres. sg. ic secge, 591; pl. III. secgað, 411; inf. secgan, 51, 391, 943, 1347, 1701, 1819, 2865, 3027; gerund. tō secganne, 473, 1725; pret. sg. sægde, 90, 1176; pl. sægdon, 377, 2188; sǣdan, 1946.

ā-secgan (edicere), _to say out, deliver_: inf. wille ic ā-secgan suna Healfdenes ... mīn ǣrende, 344.

ge-secgan, _to say, relate_: imper. sg. II. ge-saga, 388; þæt ic his ǣrest þē eft ge-sægde (_that I should, after, tell thee its origin_), 2158; pret. part. gesægd, 141; gesǣd, 1697.

sefa, w. m., _heart, mind, soul, spirit_: nom. sg., 49, 490, 595, 2044, 2181, 2420, 2601, 2633; acc. sg. sefan, 278, 1727, 1843; dat. sg. sefan, 473, 1343, 1738.--Comp. mōd-sefa.

ge-segen, st. f., _legend, tale_: in comp. eald-ge-segen.

segl, st. n., _sail_: nom. sg., 1907.

segl-rād, st. f., _sail-road_, i.e. sea: dat. sg. on segl-rāde, 1430.

segn, st. n., _banner_, vexillum: nom. sg., 2768, 2959; acc. sg. segen, 47, 1022; segn, 2777; dat. sg. under segne, 1205.--Comp. hēafod-segn.

sel, st. n., _hall, palace_. See sæl.

seld, st. n., _dwelling, house_: in comp. medu-seld.

ge-selda, w. m., contubernalis, _companion_: acc. sg. geseldan, 1985.

seldan, adv., _seldom_: oft [nō] seldan, 2030.

seld-guma, w. m., _house-man, home-stayer(?); common man?, house-carl?_: nom. sg., 249.

sele, st. m. and n., _building consisting of one apartment; apartment, room_: nom. sg., 81, 411; acc. sg. sele, 827, 2353; dat. sg. tō sele, 323, 1641; in (on, tō) sele þām hēan, 714, 920, 1017, 1985; on sele (_in the den of the dragon_), 3129.--Comp.: bēah-, bēor-, dryht-, eorð-, gest-, gold-, grund-, gūð-, hēah-, hring-, hrōf-, nið-, win-sele.

sele-drēam, st. m., _hall-glee, joy in the hall_: acc. sg. þāra þe þis līf ofgeaf, gesāwon sele-drēam (referring to the joy of heaven?), 2253.

sele-ful, st. n., _hall-goblet_: acc. sg., 620.

sele-gyst, st. m., _hall-guest, stranger in hall_ or _house_: acc. sg. þone sele-gyst, 1546.

sele-rǣdend, pres. part., _hall-ruler, possessor of the hall_: nom. pl., 51; acc. lēode mīne sele-rǣdende, 1347.

sele-rest, st. f., _bed in the hall_: acc. sg. sele-reste, 691.

sele-þegn, st. m., _retainer, hall-thane, chamberlain_: nom. sg., 1795.

sele-weard, st. m., _hall-ward, guardian of the hall_: acc. sg., 668.

self, sylf, pron., _self_: nom. sg. strong form, self, 1314, 1925 (? selfa); þū self, 595; þū þē self, 954; self cyning (_the king himself, the king too_), 921, 1011; sylf, 1965; in weak form, selfa, 1469; hē selfa, 29, 1734; þǣm þe him selfa dēah (_that can rely upon, trust to, himself_), 1840; seolfa, 3068; hē sylfa, 505; god sylfa, 3055; acc. sg. m. selfne, 1606; hine selfne (_himself_), 962; hyne selfne (_himself_, reflex.), 2876; wið sylfne (_beside_), 1978; gen. sg. m. selfes, 701, 896; his selfes, 1148; on sīnne sylfes dōm (_at his own will_), 2148; sylfes, 2224, 2361, 2640, 2711, 2777, 3014; his sylfes, 2014, 2326; fem. hire selfre, 1116; nom. pl. selfe, 419; Sūð-Dene sylfe, 1997.

ge-sella, w. m., _house-companion, comrade_: in comp. hand-gesella.

sellan, syllan, w. v.: 1) w. acc. of thing, dat. of pers., _to give, deliver; permit, grant, present_: pres. sg. III. seleð him on ēðle eorðan wynne, 1731; inf. syllan, 2161, 2730; pret. sg. sealde, 72, 673, 1272, 1694, 1752, 2025, 2156, 2183, 2491, 2995; nefne god sylfa sealde þām þe hē wolde hord openian (_unless God himself gave to whom he would to open the hoard_), 3056; pret. sg. II. sealdest, 1483.--2) _to give, give up_ (only w. acc. of thing): ǣr hē feorh seleð (_he prefers to give up his life_), 1371; nallas on gylp seleð fǣtte bēagas (_giveth out gold-wrought rings_, etc.), 1750; pret. sg. sinc-fato sealde, 623; pl. byrelas sealdon wīn of wunder-fatum, 1162.

ge-sellan, w. acc. and dat. of pers., _to give, deliver; grant, present_: inf. ge-sellan, 1030; pret. sg. ge-sealde, 616, 1053, 1867, 1902, 2143, etc.

sel-līc, syl-līc (from seld-līc), adj., _strange, wondrous_: nom. sg. glōf ... syllīc, 2087; acc. sg. n. syllīc spell, 2110; acc. pl. sellīce sǣ-dracan, 1427. Compar. acc. sg. syllīcran wiht (the dragon), 3039.

semninga, adv., _straightway, at once_ 645, 1641, 1768.

sendan, w. v. w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers., _to send_: pret. sg. þone god sende folce tō frōfre (_whom God sent as a comfort to the people_), 13; so, 471, 1843.

for-sendan, _to send away, drive off_ pret. part. hē wearð on fēonda geweald ... snūde for-sended, 905.

on-sendan, _to send forth, away_, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers.: imper. sg. on-send, 452, 1484; pret. sg. on-sende, 382; pl. þē hine ... forð on-sendon ǣnne ofer ȳðe (_who sent him forth alone over the sea_), 45; pret. part. bealo-cwealm hafað fela feorh-cynna feorr on-sended, 2267.

sendan (cf. Gl. Aldhelm, sanda = ferculorum, epularum, in Haupt IX. 444), w. v., _to feast, banquet_: pres. sg. III. sendeð, 601.--Leo.

serce, syrce, w. f., _sark, shirt of mail_: nom. sg. syrce, 1112; nom. pl. syrcan, 226; acc. pl. grǣge syrcan, 334.--Comp.: beadu-, heoro-serce; here-, leoðo-, līc-syrce.

sess, st. m., _seat, place for sitting_: dat. sg. sesse, 2718; þā hē bī sesse gēong (_by the seat_, i.e. before the dragon's lair), 2757.

setl, st. n., _seat, settle_: acc. sg., 2014; dat. sg. setle, 1233, 1783, 2020; gen. sg. setles, 1787; dat. pl. setlum, 1290.--Comp.: hēah-, hilde-, meodu-setl.

settan, w. v., _to set_: pret. sg. setton sǣ-mēðe sīde scyldas ... wið þæs recedes weall (_the sea-wearied ones set their broad shields against the wall of the hall_), 325; so, 1243.

ā-settan, _to set, place, appoint_: pret. pl. hīe him ā-setton segen [gyl]-denne hēah ofer hēafod, 47; pret. part. hæfde kyninga wuldor Grendle tō-gēanes ... sele-weard ā-seted, 668.

be-settan, _to set with, surround_: pret. sg. (helm) besette swīn-līcum (_set the helm with swine-bodies_), 1454.

ge-settan: 1) _to set, set down_: pret. part. swā wæs ...þurh rūn-stafas rihte ge-mearcod, ge-seted and ge-sǣd (_thus was ... in rune-staves rightly marked, set down and said_), 1697.--2) _to set, ordain, create_: pret. sg. ge-sette ... sunnan and mōnan lēoman tō lēohte land-būendum, 94.--3) = componere, _to lay aside, smooth over, appease_: pret. sg. þæt hē mid þȳ wīfe wæl-fǣhða ... dǣl ... ge-sette, 2030.

sēcan, w. v., _to follow after_, hence: 1) _to seek, strive for_, w. acc.: pret. sg. sinc-fæt sōhte _(sought the costly cup_), 2301; ne sōhte searo-nīðas, 2739; so, 3068. Without acc.: þonne his myne sōhte (_than his wish demanded_), 2573; hord-weard sōhte georne æfter grunde (_the hoard-warden sought eagerly along the ground_), 2294.--2) _to look for, come_ or _go some whither, attain something_, w. acc.: pres. sg. III. sē þe ... biorgas sēceð, 2273; subj. þēah þe hǣð-stapa holt-wudu sēce, 1370; imper. sēc gif þū dyrre (_look for her_, i.e. Grendel's mother, _if thou dare_), 1380; inf. sēcean, 200, 268, 646, 1598, 1870, 1990, 2514(?), 3103, etc.; sēcan, 665, 1451; drihten sēcean (_seek, go to, the Lord_), 187; sēcean wyn-lēas wīc (_Grendel was to seek a joyless place_, i.e. Hell), 822; so, sēcan dēofla gedræg, 757; sāwle sēcan (_seek the life, kill_), 802; so, sēcean sāwle hord, 2423; gerund. sæcce tō sēceanne, 2563; pret. sg. I., III. sōhte, 139, 208, 376, 417, 2224; II. sōhtest, 458; pl. sōhton, 339.--3) _to seek, attack_: þē ūs sēceað tō Swēona lēode, 3002; pret. pl. hine wræc-mæcgas ofer sǣ sōhtan, 2381.

ge-sēcan: 1) _to seek_, w. acc.: inf. gif hē gesēcean dear wīg ofer wǣpen, 685.--2) _to look for, come_ or _go to attain_, w. acc.: inf. ge-sēcean, 693; gerund, tō ge-sēcanne, 1923; pret. sg. ge-sōhte, 463, 520, 718, 1952; pret. part. nom. pl. feor-cȳððe bēoð sēlran ge-sōhte þām þe hine selfa dēah, 1840.--3) _to seek with hostile intent, to attack_: pres. sg. ge-sēceð 2516; pret. sg. ge-sōhte, 2347; pl. ge-sōhton, 2927; ge-sōhtan, 2205.

ofer-sēcan, w. acc., _to surpass, outdo_ (in an attack): pres. sg. wæs sīo hond tō strong, sē þe mēca gehwane ... swenge ofer-sōhte, þonne hē tō sæcce bær wǣpen wundrum heard (_too strong was the hand, that surpassed every sword in stroke, when he_ [Bēowulf] _bore the wondrous weapon to battle_, i.e. the hand was too strong for any sword; its strength made it useless in battle), 2687.

sēl, st. f. See sǣl.

sēl, sǣl, adj., _good, excellent, fit_, only in compar.: nom. sg. m. sēlra, 861, 2194; þǣm þǣr sēlra wæs (_to the one that was the better_, i.e. Hygelāc), 2200; dēað bið sēlla þonne edwīt-līf, 2891; neut. sēlre, 1385; acc. sg. m. sēlran þē (_a better than thee_), 1851; sēlran, 1198; neut. þæt sēlre, 1760; dat. sg. m. sēlran sweord-frecan, 1469; nom. pl. fem. sēlran, 1840. Superl., strong form: nom. sg. neut. sēlest, 173, 1060; hūsa sēlest, 146, 285, 936; ofost is sēlest, 256; bolda sēlest, 2327; acc. sg. neut. hrægla sēlest, 454; hūsa sēlest, 659; billa sēlest, 1145;--weak form: nom. sg. m. reced sēlesta, 412; acc. sg. m. þone sēlestan, 1407, 2383; (þæs, MS.), 1957; dat. sg. m. þǣm sēlestan, 1686; nom. pl. sēlestan, 416; acc. pl. þā sēlestan, 3123.

sēl, compar. adv., _better, fitter, more excellent_, 1013, 2531; ne byð him wihte þē sēl (_he shall be nought the better for it_), 2278; so, 2688.

sealma (Frisian selma, in bed-selma), w. m., _bed-chamber, sleeping-place_: acc. sg. on sealman, 2461.

sealt, adj., _salty_: acc. sg. neut. ofer sealt wæter (_the sea_), 1990.

searo (G. sarwa, pl.), st. n.: 1) _armor, accoutrements, war-gear_: nom. pl. sǣ-manna searo, 329; dat. pl. secg on searwum (_a man, warrior, in panoply_), 249, 2701; in (on) searwum, 323, 1558; 2531, 2569; instr. pl. searwum, 1814.--2) _insidiae, ambuscade, waylaying, deception, battle_: þā ic of searwum cwōm, fāh from fēondum, 419.--3) _cunning, art, skill_: instr. pl. sadol searwum fāh (_saddle cunningly ornamented_), 1039; earmbēaga fela, searwum ge-sǣled (_many cunningly-linked armlets_), 2765.--Comp. fyrd-, gūð-, inwit-searo.

searo-bend, st. f., _band, bond, of curious workmanship_: instr. pl. searo-bendum fæst, 2087.

searo-fāh, adj., _cunningly inlaid, ornamented, with gold_: nom. sg. here-byrne hondum ge-brōden, sīd and searo-fāh, 1445.

searo-ge-þræc, st. n., _heap of treasure-objects_: acc. sg., 3103.

searo-gim, st. m., _cunningly set gem, rich jewel_: acc. pl. searo-gimmas, 2750; gen. pl. searo-gimma, 1158.

searo-grim, adj., _cunning and fierce_: nom. sg., 595.

searo-hæbbend, pres. part. as subst., _arms-bearing, warrior with his trappings_: gen. pl. searo-hæbbendra, 237.

searo-net, st. n., _armor-net, shirt of mail, corselet_: nom. sg., 406.

searo-nīð, st. m.: 1) _cunning hostility, plot, wiles_: acc. pl. searo-nīðas, 1201, 2739.--2) also, only _hostility, feud, contest_: acc. pl. searo-nīðas, 3068; gen. pl. searo-nīða, 582.

searo-þanc, st. m., _ingenuity_: instr. pl. searo-þoncum, 776.

searo-wundor, st. n., _rare wonder_: acc. sg., 921.

seax, st. n., _shortsword, hip-knife; dagger_: instr. sg. seaxe, 1546.--Comp. wæl-seax.

seax-ben, st. f., _dagger-wound_: instr. pl. siex-bennum, 2905.

seofon, num., _seven_, 517; seofan, 2196; decl. acc. syfone, 3123.

seomian, w. v.: 1) intrans., _to be tied; lie at rest_: inf. siomian, 2768; pret. sg. seomode, 302.--2) w. acc., _to put in bonds, entrap, catch_: pret. sg. duguðe and geogoðe seomade (cf. 2086-2092, 161.

seonu, st. f., _sinew_: nom. pl. seonowe, 818.

sēoc, adj., _feeble, weak; fatally ill_: nom. sg. feorh-bennum sēoc (of Bēowulf, _sick unto death_), 2741; siex-bennum sēoc (of the dead dragon), 2905; nom. pl. mōdes sēoce (_sick of soul_), 1604.--Comp.: ellen-, feorh-, heaðo-sēoc.

sēoðan, st. v. w. acc., _to seethe, boil_; figuratively, _be excited over, brood_: pret. sg. ic þæs mōd-ceare sorh-wylmum sēað (_I pined in heart-grief for that_), 1994; so, 190.

seoloð, st. m.?, _bight, bay_ (cf. Dietrich in Haupt XI. 416): gen. pl. sioleða bi-gong (_the realm of bights_ = the [surface of the] sea?), 2368.

sēon, sȳn, st. f., _aspect, sight_: in comp. wlite-, wundor-sēon, an-sȳn.

sēon, st. v., _to see_: a) w. acc.: inf. searo-wunder sēon, 921; so, 387, 1181, 1276, 3103; þǣr mæg nihta ge-hwǣm nīð-wundor sēon (_there may every night be seen a repulsive marvel_), 1366; pret. sg. ne seah ic ... heal-sittendra medudrēam māran, 2015.--b) w. acc. and predicate adj.: ne seah ic elþēodige þus manige men mōdiglīcran, 336.--c) w. prep. or adv.: pret. sg. seah on enta ge-weorc, 2718; seah on un-lēofe, 2864; pl. folc tō sǣgon (_looked on_), 1423.

ge-sēon, _to see, behold_: a) w. acc.: pres. sg. III. sē þe bēah ge-syhð, 2042; inf. ge-sēon, 396, 571, 649, 962, 1079, etc.; pret. sg. geseah, 247, 927, 1558, 1614; pl. ge-sāwon, 1606, 2253.--b) w. acc. and predicate adj., pres. sg. III. ge-syhð ... on his suna būre win-sele wēstne (_sees in his son's house the wine-hall empty_; or, _hall of friends_?), 2456.--c) w. inf.: pret. sg. ge-seah ... beran ofer bolcan beorhte randas (_saw shining shields borne over the gang-plank_), 229; pret. pl. mǣre māððum-sweord monige ge-sāwon beforan beorn beran, 1024.--d) w. acc. and inf.: pret. sg. ge-seah, 729, 1517, 1586, 1663, 2543, 2605, etc.; pl. ge-sāwon, 221, 1348, 1426; ge-sēgan, 3039; ge-sēgon, 3129.--e) w. depend, clause: inf. mæg þonne ... gesēon sunu Hrēðles, þæt ic (_may the son of H. see that I..._), 1486; pret. pl. ge-sāwon, 1592.

geond-sēon, _to see, look through, over_, w. acc.: pret. sg. (ic) þæt eall geond-seh, 3088.

ofer-sēon, _to see clearly, plainly_: pret. pl. ofer-sāwon, 419.

on-sēon, _to look on, at_, w. acc.: pret. pl. on-sāwon, 1651.

sēowian, w. v., _to sew, put together, link_: pret. part. searo-net sēowed smiðes or-þancum (_the corselet woven by the smith's craft_), 406.

sib, st. f., _peace, friendship, relationship_: nom. sg., 1165, 1858; sibb, 2601; acc. sibbe, 950, 2432, 2923; instr. sg. sibbe (_in peace_?), 154.--Comp.: dryht-, friðo-sib.

sib-æðeling, st. m., _nobilis consanguineus, kindred prince_ or _nobleman_: nom. pl. -æðelingas, 2709.

sibbe-gedryht, st. f., _body of allied_ or _related warriors_: acc. sg. sibbe-gedriht (the Danes), 387; (the Gēatas), 730.

siððan, syððan: 1) adv.: a) _since, after, from now on, further_, 142, 149, 283, 567, 1903, 2052, 2065, 2176, 2703, 2807, 2921; seoððan, 1876.--b) _then, thereupon, after_, 470, 686, 1454, 1557, 1690, 2208; seoððan, 1938; ǣr nē siððan (_neither before nor after_), 719.

2) Conj.: a) w. ind. pres., _as soon as, when_, 413, 605, 1785, 2889,

  2912.--b) w. ind. pret., _when, whilst_, 835, 851, 1205, 1207, 1421,
  1590, 2357, 2961, 2971, 3128; seoððan, 1776;--_since_, 649, 657, 983,
  1199, 1254, 1309, 2202;--_after_, either with pluperf.: siððan him
  scyppend forscrifen hæfde (_after the Creator had proscribed him_), 106;
  so, 1473; or with pret. = pluperf.: syððan niht becōm (_after night had
  come on_), 115; so, 6, 132, 723, 887, 902, 1078, 1149, 1236, 1262, 1282,
  1979, 2013, 2125; or pret. and pluperf. together, 2104-2105.

siex. See seax.

sige-dryhten, st. m., _lord of victory, victorious lord_: nom. sg. sige-drihten, 391.

sige-ēadig, adj., _blest with victory, victorious_: acc. sg. neut. sige-ēadig bil, 1558.

sige-folc, st. n., _victorious people, troop_: gen. pl. sige-folca, 645.

sige-hrēð, st. f., _confidence of victory_(?): acc. sg., 490. See Note.

sige-hrēðig, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg., 94, 1598, 2757.

sige-hwīl, st. f., _hour_ or _day of victory_: gen. sg. sige-hwīle, 2711.

sige-lēas, adj., _devoid of victory, defeated_: acc. sg. sige-lēasne sang, 788.

sige-rōf, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg., 620.

sige-þēod, st. f., _victorious warrior troop_: dat. sg. on sige-þēode, 2205.

sige-wǣpen, st. n., _victor-weapon, sword_: dat. pl. sige-wǣpnum, 805.

sigl, st. n.: 1) _sun_: nom. sg. sigel, 1967.--2) _sun-shaped ornament_: acc. pl. siglu, 3165; sigle (bracteates of a necklace), 1201; gen. pl. sigla, 1158.--Comp. māððum-sigl.

sigor, st. m., _victory_: gen. sg. sigores, 1022; gen. pl. sigora, 2876, 3056.--Comp.: hrēð-, wīg-sigor.

sigor-ēadig, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg. sigor-ēadig secg (of Bēowulf), 1312, 2353.

sin. See syn.

sinc, st. n., _treasure, jewel, property_: nom. sg., 2765; acc. sg. sinc, 81, 1205, 1486, 2384, 2432; instr. sg. since, 1039, 1451, 1616, 1883, 2218, 2747; gen. sg. sinces, 608, 1171, 1923, 2072; gen. pl. sinca, 2429.

sinc-fāh, adj., _treasure-decked_: acc. sg. neut. weak form, sinc-fāge sel, 167.

sinc-fæt, st. n., _costly vessel_: acc. sg., 2232, 2301;--_a costly object_: acc. sg., 1201 (i.e. mene); acc. pl. sinc-fato, 623.

sinc-ge-strēon, st. n., _precious treasure, jewel of value _: instr. pl. -gestrēonum, 1093; gen. pl. -gestrēona, 1227.

sinc-gifa, w. m., _jewel-giver, treasure-giver = prince, ruler_: acc. sg. sinc-gyfan, 1013; dat. sg. sinc-gifan (of Bēowulf), 2312; (of Æschere), 1343.

sinc-māððum, st. m., _treasure_: nom. sg., 2194.

sinc-þego, f., _acceptance, taking, of jewels_: nom. sg., 2885.

sin-dolh, st. n., _perpetual_, i.e. incurable, _wound_: nom. sg. syn-dolh, 818.

sin-frēa, w. m., _wedded lord, husband_: nom. sg., 1935.

sin-gāl, adj., _continual, lasting_: acc. sg. fem, sin-gāle sæce, 154.

sin-gāles, adv. gen. sg., _continually, ever_, 1778; syngales, 1136.

singāla, adv. gen. pl., the same, 190.

singan, st. v., _to sound, ring, sing_: pret. sg. hring-īren scīr song in searwum (_the ringed iron rang in the armor_), 323; horn stundum song fūs-līc f[yrd]-lēoð (_at times the horn rang forth a ready battle-song_), 1424; scop hwīlum sang (_the singer sang at whiles_), 496.

ā-singan, _to sing out, sing to an end_: pret. part. lēoð wæs ā-sungen, 1160.

sin-here, st. m., (_army without end_?), _strong army, host_: instr. sg. sin-herge, 2937.

sin-niht, st. f., _perpetual night, night after night_: acc. pl. sin-nihte (_night after night_), 161.

sin-sceaða, w. m., _irreconcilable foe_: nom. sg. syn-scaða, 708; acc. sg. syn-scaðan, 802.

sin-snǣd, st. f., (_continuous biting_) _bite after bite_: dat. pl. syn-snǣdum swealh (_swallowed bite after bite, in great bites_), 744.

sittan, st. v.: 1) _to sit_: pres. sg. Wīglāf siteð ofer Bīowulfe, 2907; imper. sg. site nū tō symle, 489; inf. þǣr swið-ferhðe sittan ēodon (_whither the strong-minded went and sat_), 493; ēode ... tō hire frēan sittan (_went to sit by her lord_), 642; pret. sg. on wicge sæt (_sat on the horse_), 286; æt fōtum sæt (_sat at the feet_), 500, 1167; þǣr Hrōðgār sæt (_where H. sat_), 356; so, 1191, 2895; hē gewērgad sæt ... frēan eaxlum nēah, 2854; pret. pl. sǣton, 1165; gistas sētan (MS. sēcan) ... and on mere staredon (_the strangers sat and stared on the sea_), 1603.--2) _to be in a certain state_ or _condition_ (_quasi_ copula): pret. sg. mǣre þēoden ... unblīðe sæt, 130.--Comp.: flet-, heal-sittend.

be-sittan, obsidere, _to surround, besiege_, w. acc.: besæt þā sin-herge sweorda lāfe wundum wērge (_then besieged he with a host the leavings of the sword, wound-weary_), 2937.

for-sittan, obstrui, _to pass away, fail_: pres. sg. ēagena bearhtm for-siteð (_the light of the eyes passeth away_), 1768.

ge-sittan: 1) _to sit, sit together_: pret. sg. monig-oft ge-sæt rīce to rūne (_very often sat the king deliberating with his council_ (see rīce), 171; wið earm ge-sæt (_supported himself upon his arm, sat on his arm_?), 750; fēða eal ge-sæt (_the whole troop sat down_), 1425; ge-sæt þā wið sylfne (_sat there beside, near to, him_, i.e. Hygelāc), 1978;

ge-sæt þā on næsse, 2418; so, 2718; pret. part. (syððan) ... wē tō symble ge-seten hæfdon, 2105.--2) w. acc., _to seat one's self upon_ or _in something, to board_: pret. sg. þā ic ... sǣ-bāt ge-sæt, 634.

of-sittan, w. acc., _to sit over_ or _upon_: pret. sg. of-sæt þā þone sele-gyst, 1546.

ofer-sittan, w. acc., _to dispense with, refrain from_ (cf. ofer, 2 [c]): pres. sg. I. þæt ic wið þone gūð-flogan gylp ofer-sitte, 2529; inf. secge ofer-sittan, 685.

on-sittan (O.H.G. int-sizzan, _to start from one's seat, to be startled_), w. acc., _to fear_: inf. þā fǣhðe, atole ecg-þræce ēower lēode sīwðe onsittan _to dread the hostility, the fierce contest, of your people_, 598.

ymb-sittan, _to sit around_, w. acc.: pret. pl. (þæt hīe) ... symbel ymb-sǣton (_sat round the feast_), 564. See ymb-sittend.

sīd, adj.: 1) _wide, broad, spacious, large_: nom. sg. (here-byrne, glōf) sīd, 1445, 2087; acc. sg. m. sīdne scyld, 437; on sīdne sǣ, 507; fem. byrnan sīde (of a corselet extending over the legs), 1292; ofer sǣ sīde, 2395; neut. sīde rīce, 1734, 2200; instr. sg. sīdan herge, 2348; acc. pl. sīde sǣ-næssas, 223; sīde scyldas, 325; gen. pl. sīdra sorga (_of great sorrows_), 149.--2) in moral sense, _great, noble_: acc. sg. þurh sīdne sefan, 1727.

side, adv., _far and wide, afar_, 1224.

sīd-fæðme, adj., _broad-bosomed_: acc. sg. sīd-fæðme scip, 1918.

sīd-fæðmed, _quasi_ pret. part., the same: nom. sg. sīd-fæðmed scip, 302.

sīd-rand, st. m., _broad shield_: nom. sg., 1290.

sīð (G. seþu-s), adj., _late_: superl. nom. sg. sīðast sige-hwīle (_the last hour, day, of victory_), 2711; dat. sg. æt sīðestan (_in the end, at last_), 3014.

sīð, adv. compar., _later_: ǣr and sīð (_sooner and later, early and late_), 2501.

sīð (G. sinþ-s), st. m.: l) _road, way, journey, expedition_; esp., _road to battle_: nom. sg., 501, 3059, 3090; næs þæt ēðe sīð (_that was no easy road, task_), 2587; so, þæt wæs gēocor sīð, 766; acc. sg. sīð, 353, 512, 909, 1279, 1430, 1967; instr. dat. sīðe, 532, 1952, 1994; gen. sg. sīðes, 579, 1476, 1795, 1909. Also, _return_: nom. sg., 1972.--2) _undertaking, enterprise_; esp., _battle-work_: nom. sg. nis þæt ēower sīð, 2533; ne bið swylc earges sīð (_such is no coward's enterprise_), 2542; acc. sg. sīð, 873. In pl.= _adventures_: nom. sīðas, 1987; acc. sīðas, 878; gen. sīða, 318.--3) time (as iterative): nom. sg. næs þæt forma sīð (_that was not the first time_), 717, 1464; so, 1528, 2626; acc. sg. oftor micle þonne on ǣnne sīð, 1580; instr. sg. (forman, ōðre, þriddan) sīðe, 741, 1204, 2050, 2287, 2512, 2518, 2671, 2689, 3102.--Comp.: cear-, eft-, ellor-, gryre-, sǣ-, wil-, wrǣc-sīð.

ge-sīð, st. m., _comrade, follower_: gen. sg. ge-sīðes, 1298; nom. pl. ge-sīðas, 29; acc. pl. ge-sīðas, 2041, 2519; dat. pl. ge-sīðum, 1314, 1925, 2633; gen. pl. ge-sīða, 1935.--Comp.: eald-, wil-gesīð.

sīð-fæt, st. m., _way, journey_: acc. sg. þone sīð-fæt, 202; dat. sg. sīð-fate, 2640.

sīð-fram, -from, adj., _ready for the journey_: nom. pl. sīð-frome, 1814.

sīðian, w. v., _to journey, march_: inf., 721, 809; pret. sg. sīðode, 2120.

for-sīðian, _iter fatale inire_ (Grein): pret. sg. hæfde þā for-sīðod sunu Ecg-þēowes under gynne grund _(would have found his death_, etc.), 1551.

sīe, sȳ. See wesan.

sīgan, st. v., _to descend, sink, incline_: pret. pl. sigon æt-somne (_descended together_), 307; sigon þā tō slǣpe _(they sank to sleep_), 1252.

ge-sīgan, _to sink, fall_: inf. ge-sīgan æt sæcce (_fall in battle_), 2660.

sīn, poss. pron., _his_: acc. sg. m. sīnne, 1961, 1985, 2284, 2790; dat. sg. sīnum, 1508.

slǣp, st. m., _sleep_: nom. sg., 1743; dat. sg. tō slǣpe, 1252.

slǣpan, st. v., _to sleep_: pres. part. nom. sg. slǣpende, 2220; acc. sg. hē gefēng ... slǣpendne rinc (_seized a sleeping warrior]_, 742; acc. pl. slǣpende fræt folces Denigea fīftȳne men _(devoured, sleeping, fifteen of the people of the Danes_), 1582.

slēac, adj., _slack, lazy_: nom. sg., 2188.

sleahan, slēan: 1) _to strike, strike at_: a) intrans.: pres. subj. sg. þæt hē mē ongēan slēa (_that he should strike at me_), 682; pret. sg. yrringa slōh (_struck angrily_), 1566; so, slōh hilde-bille, 2680. b) trans.: pret. sg. þæt hē þone nīð-gæst nioðor hwēne slōh _(that he struck the dragon somewhat lower_, etc.), 2700.--2) w. acc.: _to slay, kill_: pret. sg. þæs þe hē Ābel slōg (_because he slew A._), 108; so, slōg, 421, 2180; slōh, 1582, 2356; pl. slōgon, 2051; pret. part. þā wæs Fin slægen, 1153.

ge-slēan, w. acc.: 1) _to fight a battle_: pret. sg. ge-slōh þīn fæder fǣhðe mǣste, 459.--2) _to gain by fighting_: syððan hīe þā mǣrða ge-slōgon, 2997.

of-slēan, _to ofslay, kill_, w. acc.: pret. sg. of-slōh, 574, 1666, 3061.

slīðe (G. sleiþ-s), adj., _savage, fierce, dangerous_: acc. sg. þurh slīðne nīð, 184; gen. pl. slīðra ge-slyhta, 2399.

slīðen, adj., _furious, savage, deadly_ nom. sg. sweord-bealo slīðen, 1148.

slītan, st. v., _to slit, tear to pieces_, w. acc.: pret. sg. slāt (slǣpendne rinc), 742.

slyht, st. m., _blow_: in comp. and-slyht.

ge-slyht, st. n. (collective), _battle, conflict_: gen. pl. slīðra ge-slyhta, 2399.

smið, st. m., _smith, armorer_: nom. sg. wǣpna smið, 1453; gen. sg. smiðes, 406.--Comp. wundor-smið.

be-smiðian, w. v., _to surround with iron-work, bands_, etc.: pret. part. hē (the hall Heorot) þæs fæste wæs innan and ūtan īren-bendum searo-þoncum besmiðod (i.e. the beams out of which the hall was built were held together skilfully, within and without, by iron clamps), 776.

snell, adj., _fresh, vigorous, lively; of martial temper_: nom. sg. se snella, 2972.

snellīc, adj., the same: nom. sg., 691.

snotor, snottor, adj., _clever, wise, intelligent_: nom. sg. snotor, 190, 827, 909, 1385; in weak form, (se) snottra, 1314, 1476, 1787; snotra, 2157, 3121; nom. pl. snotere, 202, 416; snottre, 1592.--Comp. fore-snotor.

snotor-līce, adv., _intelligently, wisely_: compar. snotor-līcor, 1483.

snūde, adv., _hastily, quickly, soon_, 905, 1870, 1972, 2326, 2569, 2753.

be-snyðian, w. v., _to rob, deprive of_: pret. sg. þætte Ongenþīo ealdre be-snyðede Hæðcyn, 2925.

snyrian, w. v., _to hasten, hurry_: pret. pl. snyredon æt-somne (_hurried forward together_), 402.

snyttru, f., _intelligence, wisdom_: acc. sg. snyttru, 1727; dat. pl. mid mōdes snyttrum, 1707; þē wē ealle ǣr ne meahton snyttrum be-syrwan (_a deed which all of us together could not accomplish before with all our wisdom_), 943. Adv., _wisely_, 873.

somne. See samne.

sorgian, w. v.: 1) _to be grieved, sorrow_: imper. sg. II. ne sorga! 1385.--2) _to care for, trouble one's self about_: inf. nō þū ymb mīnes ne þearft līces feorme leng sorgian (_thou needst not care longer about my life's [body's] sustenance_), 451.

sorh, st. f., _grief, pain, sorrow_: nom. sg., 1323; sorh is mē tō secganne (_pains me to say_), 473; acc. sg. sorge, 119, 2464; dat. instr. sg. mid þǣre sorge, 2469; sorge (_in sorrow, grieved_), 1150; gen. sg. worna fela ... sorge, 2005; dat. pl. sorgum, 2601; gen. pl. sorga, 149.--Comp.: hyge-, inwit-, þegn-sorh.

sorh-cearig, adj., _curis sollicitus, heart-broken_: nom. sg., 2456.

sorh-ful, adj., _sorrowful, troublesome, difficult_: nom. sg., 2120; acc. sg. sorh-fullne (sorh-fulne) sīð, 512, 1279, 1430.

sorh-lēas, adj., _free from sorrow_ or _grief_: nom. sg., 1673.

sorh-leoð, st. n., _dirge, song of sorrow_: acc. sg., 2461.

sorh-wylm, st. m., _wave of sorrow_ nom. pl. sorh-wylmas, 905.

sōcn, st. f., _persecution, hostile pursuit_ or _attack_ (see sēcan): dat, (instr.) þǣre sōcne (by reason of Grendel's persecution), 1778.

sōð, st. n., _sooth, truth_:: acc. sg. sōð, 532, 701, 1050, 1701, 2865; dat. sg. tō sōðe (_in truth_), 51, 591, 2326.

sōð, adj., _true, genuine_: nom. sg, þæt is sōð metod, 1612; acc. sg. n. gyd āwræc sōð and sār-līc, 2110.

sōðe, adv., _truly, correctly, accurately_, 524; sōðe gebunden (of alliterative verse: _accurately put together_), 872.

sōð-cyning, st. m., _true king_: nom. sg. sigora sōð-cyning (_God_), 3056.

sōð-fæst, adj., _soothfast, established in truth, orthodox_ (here used of the Christian martyrs): gen. pl. sōð-fæstra dōm (_glory, realm, of the saints_), 2821.

sōð-līce, adv., _in truth, truly, truthfully_, 141, 273, 2900.

sōfte, adv., _gently, softly_: compar. þȳ sēft (_the more easily_), 2750.--Comp. un-sōfte.

sōna, adv., _soon, immediately_, 121, 722, 744, 751, 1281, 1498, 1592, 1619, 1763, etc.

on-spannan, st. v., _to un-span, unloose_: pret. sg. his helm on-spēon (_loosed his helm_), 2724.

spel, st. n., _narrative, speech_: acc. sg. spell, 2110; acc. pl. spel, 874; gen. pl. spella, 2899, 3030.--Comp. wēa-spel.

spēd, st. f.: 1) _luck, success_: in comp. here-, wīg-spēd.--2) _skill, facility_: acc. sg. on spēd (_skilfully_), 874.

spīwan, st. v., _to spit, spew_, w. instr.: inf. glēdum spīwan (_spit fire_), 2313

spor, st. n., _spur_: in comp. hand-spor.

spōwan, st. v., _to speed well, help, avail_: pret. sg. him wiht ne spēow (_availed him naught_), 2855; hū him æt ǣte spēow (_how he sped in the eating_), 3027.

sprǣc, st. f., _speech, language_: instr. sg. frēcnan sprǣce (_through bold, challenging, discourse_), 1105.--Comp.: ǣfen-, gylp-sprǣc.

sprecan, st. v., _to speak_: inf. ic sceal forð sprecan gēn ymbe Grendel _(I shall go on speaking about G._), 2070; w. acc. sē þe wyle sōð sprecan (_he who will speak the truth_), 2865; imper. tō Gēatum sprec (sprǣc, MS.), 1172; pret. sg. III. spræc, 1169, 1699, 2511, 2725; word æfter spræc, 341; nō ymbe þā fǣhðe spræc, 2619; II. hwæt þū worn fela ... ymb Brecan sprǣce (_how much thou hast spoken of Breca!_), 531; pl. hwæt wit geō sprǣcon (_what we two spoke of before_), 1477; gomele ymb gōdne on-geador sprǣcon, þæt big ... _(the graybeards spoke together about the valiant one, that they ..._), 1596; swā wit furðum sprǣcon (_as we two spoke, engaged, before_), 1708; pret. part. þā wæs ... þrȳð-word sprecen, 644.

ge-sprecan, w. acc., _to speak_: pret. sg. ge-spræc, 676, 1399, 1467, 3095.

sprēot, st. m., _pole; spear, pike_: in comp. eofor-sprēot.

springan, st. v., _to jump, leap; flash_: pret. sg. hrā wīde sprong _(the body bounded far_), 1589; swāt ǣdrum sprong forð under fexe (_the blood burst out in streams from under his hair_), 2967; pl. wīde sprungon hilde-lēoman (_flashed afar_), 2583. Also figuratively: blǣd wīde sprang (_his repute spread afar_), 18.

ge-springan, _to spring forth_: pret. sg. swā þæt blōd ge-sprang (_as the blood burst forth_), 1668. Figuratively, _to arise, originate_: pret. sg. Sigemunde gesprong æfter dēað-dæge dōm un-lȳtel, 885.

on-springan, _to burst in two, spring asunder_: pret. pl. seonowe onsprungon, burston bānlocan 818.

standan, st. v.: 1) absolutely or with prep., _to stand_: pres. III. pl. ēored-geatwe þē gē þǣr on standað (_the warlike accoutrements wherein ye there stand_), 2867; inf. ge-seah ... orcas stondan (_saw vessels standing_), 2761; pret. sg. æt hȳðe stōd hringed-stefna (_in the harbor stood the curved-prowed?, metal-covered?, ship_), 32; stōd on stapole (_stood near the [middle] column_), 927; so, 1914, 2546; þæt him on aldre stōd here-strǣl hearda (_that the sharp war-arrow stood in his vitals_), 1435; so, 2680; pl. gāras stōdon ... samod æt-gædere (_the spears stood together_), 328; him big stōdan bunan and orcas (_by him stood cans and pots_), 3048. Also of still water: pres. sg. III. nis þæt feor heonon ... þæt se mere standeð, 1363.--2) with predicate adj., _to stand, continue in a certain state_: subj. pres. þæt þes sele stande ... rinca ge-hwylcum īdel and unnyt (_that this hall stands empty and useless for every warrior_), 411; inf. hord-wynne fand eald ūht-sceaða opene standan, 2272; pret. sg. oð þæt īdel stōd hūsa sēlest, 145; so, 936; wæter under stōd drēorig and ge-drēfed, 1418--3) _to belong_ or _attach to; issue_: pret. sg. Norð-Denum stōd atelīc egesa (_great terror clung to, overcame, the North Danes_), 784; þāra ānum stōd sadol searwum fāh (_on one of the steeds lay an ingeniously-inlaid saddle_), 1038; byrne-lēoma eldum on andan (_burning light stood forth, a horror to men_), 2314; lēoht inne stōd (_a light stood in it_, i.e. the sword), 1571; him of ēagum stōd ... lēoht unfǣger (_an uncanny light issued from his eyes_), 727; so, þæt [fram] þām gyste [gryre-] brōga stōd, 2229.

ā-standan, _to stand up, arise_: pret. sg. ā-stōd, 760, 1557, 2093.

æt-standan, _to stand at, near_, or _in_: pret. sg. þæt hit (i.e. þæt swurd) on wealle æt-stōd, 892.

for-standan, _to stand against_ or _before_, hence: 1) _to hinder, prevent_: pret. sg. (brēost-net) wið ord and wið ecge in-gang for-stōd (_the shirt of mail prevented point or edge from entering_), 1550; subj. nefne him wītig god wyrd for-stōde (_if the wise God had not warded off such a fate from them_, i.e. the men threatened by Grendel), 1057.--2) _defend_, w. dat. of person against whom: inf. þæt hē ... mihte hēaðo-līðendum hord for-standan, bearn and brȳde (_that he might protect his treasure, his children, and his spouse from the sea-farers_), 2956.

ge-standan, intrans., _to stand_: pret. sg. ge-stōd, 358, 404, 2567; pl. nealles him on hēape hand-gesteallan ... ymbe gestōdon (_not at all did his boon-companions stand serried around him_), 2597.

stapa, w. m., _stepper, strider_: in comp. hǣð-, mearc-stapa.

stapan, st. v., _to step, stride, go forward_: pret. sg. eorl furður stōp, 762; gum-fēða stop lind-hæbbendra (_the troop of shield-warriors strode on_), 1402.

æt-stapan, _to stride up_ or _to_: pret. sg. forð nēar æt-stōp (_strode up nearer_), 746.

ge-stapan, _to walk, stride_: pret. sg. hē to forð gestōp dyrnan cræfte, dracan hēafde nēah (_he_, i.e. the man that robbed the dragon of the vessel, _had through hidden craft come too near the dragon's head_), 2290.

stapol, st. m., (= βάσις), _trunk of a tree_; hence, _support, pillar, column_: dat. sg. stōd on stapole (_stood by_ or _near the wooden middle column of Heorot_), 927; instr. pl. þā stān-bogan stapulum fæste (_the arches of stone upheld by pillars_), 2719. See Note.

starian, w. v., _to stare, look intently at_: pres. sg. I. þæt ic on þone hafelan ... ēagum starige (_that I see the head with my eyes_), 1782; þāra frætwa ... þē ic hēr on starie (_for the treasures ... that I here look upon_), 2797; III. þonne hē on þæt sine starað, 1486; sg. for pl. þāra þe on swylc starað, 997; pret. sg. þæt (sin-frēa) hire an dæges ēagum starede, 1936; pl. on mere staredon, 1604.

stān, st. m., 1) _stone_: in comp. eorclan-stān.--2) _rock_: acc. sg. under (ofer) hārne stān, 888, 1416, 2554, 2745; dat. sg. stāne, 2289, 2558.

stān-beorh, st. m., _rocky elevation, stony mountain_: acc. sg. stān-beorh stēapne, 2214.

stān-boga, w. m., _stone arch, arch hewn out of the rock_: dat. sg. stān-bogan, 2546; nom. pl. stān-bogan, 2719.

stān-clif, st. n., _rocky cliff_: acc. pl. stān-cleofu, 2541.

stān-fāh, adj., _stone-laid, paved with stones of different colors_: nom. sg. strǣt wæs stān-fāh (_the street was of different colored stones_), 320.

stān-hlið, st. n., _rocky slope_: acc. pl. stān-hliðo, 1410.

stæf, st. m.: 1) _staff_: in comp. rūn-staf.--2) _elementum_: in comp. ār-, ende-, fācen-stæf.

stǣl, st. m., _place, stead_: dat. sg. þæt þū mē ā wǣre forð-gewitenum on fæder stǣle (_that thou, if I died, wouldst represent a father's place to me_), 1480.

stǣlan, w. v., _to place; allure_ or _instigate_: inf. þā ic on morgne ge-frægn mǣg ōðerne billes ecgum on bonan stǣlan _(then I learned that on the morrow one brother instigated the other to murder with the sword's edge_; or, _one avenged the other on the murderer_?, cf. 2962 seqq.), 2486.

ge-stǣlan, _to place, impose, institute_: pret. part. gē feor hafað fǣhðe ge-stǣled (_Grendel's mother has further begun hostilities against us_), 1341.

stede, st. m., _place, -stead_: in comp. bǣl-, burh-, folc-, hēah-, meðel-, wang-, wīc-stede.

stefn, st. f., _voice_: nom. sg., 2553; instr. sg. nīwan (nīowan) stefne (properly novā voce) = denuo, _anew, again_, 2595, 1790.

stefn, st. m., _prow of a ship_: acc. sg., 213; see bunden-, hringed-, wunden-stefna.

on-stellan, w. v., _constituere, to cause, bring about_: pret. sg. sē þæs or-leges ōr on-stealde, 2408.

steng, st. m., _pole, pike_: in comp wæl-steng.

ge-steppan, w. v., _to stride, go_: pret. sg. folce ge-stepte ofer sǣ sīde sunu Ōhtheres (_O.'s son_, i.e. Ēadgils, _went with warriors over the broad sea_), 2394.

stede (O.H.G. stāti, M.H.G. stǣte), adj., _firm, steady_: nom. sg. wæs stēde nægla ge-hwylc stȳle ge-līcost (_each nail-place was firm as steel_), 986.

stēpan, w. v. w. acc., _to exalt, honor_: pret. sg. þēah þe hine mihtig god ... eafeðum stēpte, 1718.

ge-steald, st. n., _possessions, property_: in comp. in-gesteald, 1156.

ge-stealla, w. m., (contubernalis), _companion, comrade_: in comp. eaxl-, fyrd-, hand-, lind-, nȳd-ge-stealla.

stearc-heort, adj., (fortis animo), _stout-hearted, courageous_: nom. sg. (of the dragon), 2289; (of Bēowulf), 2553.

stēap, adj., _steep, projecting, towering_: acc. sg. stēapne hrōf, 927; stān-beorh stēapne, 2214; wið stēapne rond, 2567; acc. pl. m. beorgas stēape, 222; neut. stēap stān-hliðo, 1410.--Comp. heaðo-stēap.

stille, adj., _still, quiet_: nom. sg. wīd-floga wundum stille, 2831.

stille, adv., _quietly_, 301.

stincan, st. v., _to smell; snuff_: pret. sg. stonc þā æfter stāne (_snuffed along the stone_), 2289.

stīð, adj., _hard, stiff_: nom. sg. wunden-mǣl (swurd) ... stīð and stȳlecg, 1534.

stīð-mōd, adj., _stout-hearted, unflinching_: nom. sg., 2567.

stīg, st. m., _way, path_: nom. sg., 320, 2214; acc. pl. stīge nearwe, 1410--Comp. medu-stīg.

stīgan, st. v., _to go, ascend_: pret. sg. þā hē tō holme [st]āg (_when he plunged forward into the sea_), 2363; pl. beornas ... on stefn stigon, 212; Wedera lēode on wang stigon, 225; subj. pret. ǣr hē on bed stige, 677.

ā-stīgan, _to ascend_: pres. sg. þonon ȳð-geblond up ā-stīgeð won tō wolcnum, 1374; gūð-rinc ā-stāh (_the fierce hero ascended_, i.e. was laid on the pyre? or, _the fierce smoke_ [rēc] _ascended?_), 1119; gamen eft ā-stāh (_joy again went up, resounded_), 1161; wudu-rēc ā-stāh sweart of swioðole, 3145; swēg up ā-stāg, 783.

ge-stīgan, _to ascend, go up_: pret. sg. þā ic on holm ge-stāh, 633.

storm, st. m., _storm_: nom. sg. strǣla storm (_storm of missiles_), 3118; instr. sg. holm storme wēol (_the sea billowed stormily_), 1132.

stōl, st. m., _chair, throne, seat_: in comp. brego-, ēðel-, gif-, gum-stōl.

stōw, st. f., _place, -stow_: nom. sg. nis þæt hēoru stōw (_a haunted spot_), 1373; acc. sg. frēcne stōwe, 1379; grund-būendra gearwe stōwe _(the place prepared for men_, i.e. death-bed; see gesacan and ge-nȳdan), 1007: comp. wæl-stow.

strang, strong, adj., _strong; valiant; mighty_: nom. sg. wæs þæt ge-win tō strang (_that sorrow was too great_), 133; þū eart mægenes strang (_strong of body_), 1845; wæs sīo hond tō strong (_the hand was too powerful_), 2685; superl. wigena strengest (_strongest of warriors_), 1544; mægenes strengest (_strongest in might_), 196; mægene strengest, 790.

strādan? (cf. strǣde = passus, gressus), _to tread_, (be)-_stride, stride over_ (Grein): subj. pres. sē þone wong strāde, 3074. See Note.

strǣl, st. m., _arrow, missile_: instr. sg. biteran strǣle, 1747; gen. pl. strǣla storm, 3118.

strǣt, st. f., _street, highway_: nom. sg., 320; acc. sg. strǣte, 1635; fealwe strǣte, 917.--Comp.: lagu-, mere-strǣt.

strengel, st. m., (_endowed with strength_), _ruler, chief_: acc. sg. wigena strengel, 3116.

strengo, st. f., _strength, power, violence_: acc. sg. mægenes strenge, 1271; dat. sg. strenge, 1534; strengo, 2541;--dat. pl. strengum = _violently, powerfully_ [_loosed from the strings_?], 3118: in comp. hilde-, mægen-, mere-strengo.

strēgan (O.S. strōwian), w. v., _to strew, spread_: pret. part, wæs þǣm yldestan ... morðorbed strēd (_the death-bed was spread for the eldest one_), 2437.

strēam, st. m., _stream, flood, sea_: acc. sg. strēam, 2546; nom. pl. strēamas, 212; acc. pl. strēamas, 1262: comp. brim-, ēagor-, firgen-, lagu-strēam.

ge-strēon (cf. strēon = robur, vis), st. n., _property, possessions_; hence, _valuables, treasure, jewels_: nom. pl. Heaðo-beardna ge-strēon (_the costly treasure of the Heathobeardas_, i.e. the accoutrements belonging to the slain H.), 2038; acc. pl. æðelinga, eorla ge-strēon, 1921, 3168.--Comp.: ǣr-, eald-, eorl-, hēah-, hord-, long-, māðm-, sinc-, þēod-ge-strēon.

strūdan, st. v., _to plunder, carry off_: subj. pres. næs þā on hlytme hwā þæt hord strude, 3127.

ge-strȳnan, w. v. w. acc., _to acquire, gain_: inf. þæs þe (_because_) ic mōste mīnum lēodum ... swylc ge-strȳnan, 2799.

stund, st. f., _time, space of time, while_: adv. dat. pl. stundum (_at times_), 1424.

styrian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to arrange, put in order, tell_: inf. secg eft on-gan sīð Bēowulfes snyttrum styrian (_the poet then began to tell B.'s feat skilfully_, i.e. put in poetic form), 873.--2) _to rouse, stir up_: pres. sg. III. þonne wind styreð lāð ge-widru (_when the wind stirreth up the loathly weather_), 1375.--3) _to move against, attack, disturb_: subj. pres. þæt hē ... hring-sele hondum styrede (_that he should attack the ring-hall with his hands_), 2841.

styrman, w. v., _to rage, cry out_: pret. sg. styrmde, 2553.

stȳle, st. n., _steel_: dat. sg. stȳle, 986.

stȳl-ecg, adj., _steel-edged_: nom. sg., 1534.

be-stȳman, w. v., _to inundate, wet, flood_: pret. part. (wǣron) eal benc-þelu blōde be-stȳmed, 486.

suhtor-ge-fæderan (collective), w. m. pl., _uncle and nephew, father's brother and brother's son_: nom. pl., 1165.

sum, pron.: 1) indef., _one, a, any, a certain_; neut. _something_: a) without part. gen.: nom. sg. sum, 1252; hilde-rinc sum, 3125; neut. ne sceal þǣr dyrne sum wesan (_naught there shall be hidden_), 271; acc. sg. m. sumne, 1433; instr. sg. sume worde (_by a word, expressly_), 2157; nom. pl. sume, 400, 1114; acc. pl. sume, 2941. b) with part. gen.: nom. sg. gumena sum (_one of men, a man_), 1500, 2302; mere-hrægla sum, 1906; þæt wæs wundra sum, 1608; acc. sg. gylp-worda sum, 676. c) with gen. of cardinals or notions of multitude: nom. sg. fīftȳna sum (_one of fifteen, with fourteen companions_), 207; so, eahta sum, 3124; fēara sum (_one of few, with a few_), 1413; acc. sg. manigra sumne (_one of many, with many_), 2092; manna cynnes sumne (_one of the men_), i.e. one of the watchmen in Heorot), 714; fēara sumne (_some few, one of few_; or, _one of the foes_?), 3062.--2) with part. gen. sum sometimes = _this, that, the afore-mentioned_: nom. sg. ēower sum (_a certain one, that one, of you_, i.e. Bēowulf), 248; gūð-beorna sum (_the afore-mentioned warrior_, i.e. who had shown the way to Hrōðgār's palace), 314; eorla sum (_the said knight_, i.e. Bēowulf), 1313; acc. sg. hord-ærna sum (_a certain hoard-hall_), 2280.

sund, st. m.: 1) _swimming_: acc. sg. ymb sund, 507; dat. sg. æt sunde (_in swimming_), 517; on sunde (_a-swimming_), 1619; gen. sg. sundes, 1437.--2) _sea, ocean, sound_: nom. sg., 223; acc. sg. sund, 213, 512, 539, 1427, 1445.

ge-sund, adj., _sound, healthy, unimpaired_: acc. sg. m. ge-sundne, 1629, 1999; nom. pl. ge-sunde, 2076; acc. pl. w. gen. fæder alwalda ... ēowic ge-healde sīða ge-sunde (_the almighty Father keep you safe and sound on your journey!_), 318.--Comp. an-sund.

sund-ge-bland, st. n., (_the commingled sea_), _sea-surge, sea-wave_: acc. sg., 1451.

sund-nyt, st. f., _swimming-power_ or _employment, swimming_: acc. sg. sund-nytte drēah (_swam through the sea_), 2361.

sundur, sundor, adv., _asunder, in twain_: sundur gedǣlan (_to separate, sunder_), 2423.

sundor-nyt, st. f., _special service_ (service in a special case): acc. sg. sundor-nytte, 668.

sund-wudu, st. m., (_sea-wood_), _ship_: nom. acc. sg. sund-wudu, 208, 1907.

sunne, w. f., _sun_: nom. sg., 607; gen. sg. sunnan, 94, 649.

sunu, st. m., _son_: nom. sg., 524, 591, 646, 981, 1090, 1486, etc.; acc. sg. sunu, 268, 948, 1116, 1176, 1809, 2014, 2120; dat. sg. suna, 344, 1227, 2026, 2161, 2730; gen. sg. suna, 2456, 2613, (1279); nom. pl. suna, 2381.

sūð, adv., _south, southward_, 859.

sūðan, adv., _from the south_, 607; sigel sūðan fūs (_the sun inclined from the south_), 1967.

swaðrian, w. v., _to sink to rest, grow calm_: brimu swaðredon (_the waves became calm_), 570. See sweðrian.

swaðu, st. f., _trace, track, pathway_: acc. sg. swaðe, 2099.--Comp.: swāt-, wald-swaðu.

swaðul, st. m.? n.?, _smoke, mist_ (Dietrich in Haupt V. 215): dat. sg. on swaðule, 783. See sweoðol.

swancor, adj., _slender, trim_: acc. pl. þrīo wicg swancor, 2176.

swan-rād, st. f., _swan-road, sea_: acc. sg. ofer swan-rāde, 200.

and-swarian, w. v., _to answer_: pret. sg. him se yldesta and-swarode, 258; so, 340.

swā: 1) demons, adv., _so, in such a manner, thus_: swā sceal man dōn, 1173, 1535; swā þā driht-guman drēamum lifdon, 99; þæt ge-æfndon swā (_that we thus accomplished_), 538; þǣr hīe meahton (i.e. feorh ealgian), 798; so, 20, 144, 189, 559, 763, 1104, 1472, 1770, 2058, 2145, 2178, 2991; swā manlīce _(so like a man_), 1047; swā fela (_so many_), 164, 592; swā dēorlīce dǣd (_so valiant a deed_), 585; hine swā gōdne (_him so good_), 347; on swā geongum feore (_in so youthful age_), 1844; ge-dēð him swā ge-wealdene worolde dǣlas þæt ... (_makes parts of the world so subject to him that_...), 1733. In comparisons = _ever, the_ (adv.): mē þīn mōd-sefa līcað leng swā wēl (_thy mind pleases me ever so well, the longer the better_), 1855. As an asseverative = _so_: swā mē Higelāc sīe ... mōdes blīðe (_so be Higelac gracious-minded to me!_), 435; swā þēah (_nevertheless, however_), 973, 1930, 2879; swā þēh, 2968; hwæðre swā þēah (_yet however_), 2443.--2): a) conj., _as, so as_: oð þæt his byre mihte eorlscipe efnan swā his ǣrfæder (_until his son might do noble deeds, as his old father did_), 2623; eft swā ǣr (_again as before_), 643;--with indic.: swā hē selfa bæd (_as he himself requested_), 29; swā hē oft dyde (_as he often did_), 444; gǣð ā Wyrd swā hīo sceal, 455; swā guman gefrungon, 667; so, 273, 352, 401, 561, 1049, 1056, 1059, 1135, 1232, 1235, 1239, 1253, 1382, etc.;--with subj.: swā þīn sefa hwette _(as pleases thy mind_, i.e. any way thou pleasest), 490. b) _as, as then, how_, 1143; swā hīe ā wǣron ... nȳd-gesteallan (_as they were ever comrades in need_), 882; swā hit dīope ... be-nemdon þēodnas mǣre (_as, [how?] the mighty princes had deeply cursed it_), 3070; swā hē manna wæs wīgend weorðfullost (_as he of men the worthiest warrior was_), 3099. c) _just as, the moment when_: swā þæt blōd gesprang, 1668. d) _so that_: swā hē ne mihte nō (_so that he might not..._), 1509; so, 2185, 2007.--3) = qui, quae, quod, German so: worhte wlite-beorhtne wang swā wæter bebūgeð (_wrought the beauteous plain which_ (acc.) _water surrounds_), 93.--4) swā ... swā = _so ... as_, 595, 687-8, 3170; efne swā ... swā (_even so ... as_), 1093-4, 1224, 1284; efne swā hwylc mægða swā (_such a woman as, whatsoever woman_), 944; efne swā hwylcum manna swā (_even so to each man as_), 3058.

for-swāfan, st. v., _to carry away, sweep off_: pret. sg. ealle Wyrd for-swēof mīne māgas tō metod-sceafte, 2815.

for-swāpan, st. v., _to sweep off, force_: pret. sg. hīe Wyrd forswēop on Grendles gryre, 477.

swāt, st. m., (_sweat_), _wound-blood_: nom. sg., 2694, 2967; instr. sg. swāte, 1287.--Comp. heaðo-, hilde-swāt.

swāt-fāh, adj., _blood-stained_: nom. sg., 1112.

swātig, adj., _gory_: nom. sg., 1570.

swāt-swaðu, st. f., _blood-trace_: nom. sg., 2947.

be-swǣlan, w. v., _to scorch_: pret. part. wæs se lēg-draca ... glēdum beswǣled, 3042.

swǣs, adj., _intimate, special, dear_: acc. sg. swǣsne ēðel, 520; nom. pl. swǣse ge-sīðas, 29; acc. pl. lēode swǣse, 1869; swǣse ge-sīðas, 2041; gen. pl. swǣsra ge-sīða, 1935.

swǣs-līce, adv., _pleasantly, in a friendly manner_, 3090.

swebban, w. v., (_to put to sleep_), _to kill_: inf. ic hine sweorde swebban nelle, 680; pres. sg. III. (absolutely) swefeð, 601.

ā-swebban, _to kill, slay_: pret. part. nom. pl. sweordum ā-swefede, 567.

sweðrian, w. v., _to lessen, diminish_: inf. þæt þæt fyr ongan sweðrian, 2703; pret. siððan Heremōdes hild sweðrode, 902.

swefan, st. v.: 1) _to sleep_: pres. sg. III. swefeð, 1742; inf. swefan, 119, 730, 1673; pret. sg. swæf, 1801; pl. swǣfon, 704; swǣfun, 1281.--2) _to sleep the death-sleep, die_: pres. sg. III. swefeð, 1009, 2061, 2747; pl. swefað, 2257, 2458.

swegel, st. n., _ether, clear sky_: dat. sg. under swegle, 1079, 1198; gen. sg. under swegles begong, 861, 1774.

swegle, adj., _bright, etherlike, clear_: acc. pl. swegle searo-gimmas, 2750.

swegel-wered, _quasi_ pret. part., _ether-clad_: nom. sg. sunne swegl-wered, 607.

swelgan, st. v., _to swallow_: pret. sg. w. instr. syn-snǣdum swealh (_swallowed in great bites_), 744; object omitted, subj. pres. nymðe līges fæðm swulge on swaðule, 783.

for-swelgan, w. acc., _to swallow, consume_: pret. sg. for-swealg, 1123, 2081.

swellan, st. v., _to swell_: inf. þā sīo wund on-gan ... swelan and swellan, 2714.

sweltan, st. v., _to die, perish_: pret. sg. swealt, 1618, 2475; draca morðre swealt (_died a violent death_), 893, 2783; wundor-dēaðe swealt, 3038; hioro-dryncum swealt, 2359.

swencan, w. v., _to swink, oppress, strike_: pret. sg. hine wundra þæs fela swencte (MS. swecte) on sunde, 1511.

ge-swencan, _to oppress, strike, injure_: pret. sg. syððan hine Hæðcyn ... flāne geswencte, 2439; pret. part. synnum ge-swenced, 976; hǣðstapa hundum ge-swenced, 1369.--Comp. lyft-ge-swenced.

sweng, st. m., _blow, stroke_: dat. sg. swenge, 1521, 2967; swenge _(with its stroke_), 2687; instr. pl. sweordes swengum, 2387.--Comp.: feorh-, hete-, heaðo-, heoro-sweng.

swerian, st. v., _to swear_: pret. w. acc. I. nē mē swōr fela āða on unriht (_swore no false oaths_), 2739; hē mē āðas swōr, 472.

for-swerian, w. instr., _to forswear, renounce (protect with magic formulǣ?)_: pret. part. hē sige-wǣpnum for-sworen hæfde, 805.

swēg, st. m., _sound, noise, uproar_: nom. sg. swēg, 783; hearpan swēg, 89, 2459, 3024; sige-folca swēg, 645; sang and swēg, 1064; dat. sg. swēge, 1215.--Comp.: benc-, morgen-swēg.

swelan, w. v., _to burn_ (here of wounds): inf. swelan, 2714. See swǣlan.

sweart, adj., _swart, black, dark_: nom. sg. wudu-rēc sweart, 3146; dat. pl. sweartum nihtum, 167.

sweoðol (cf. O.H.G. suedan, suethan = cremare; M.H.G. swadem = vapor; and Dietrich in Haupt V., 215), st. m.? n.?, _vapor, smoke, smoking flame_: dat. sg. ofer swioðole (MS. swic ðole), 3146. See swaðul.

sweofot, st. m., _sleep_: dat. sg. on sweofote, 1582, 2296.

sweoloð, st. m., _heat, fire, flame_: dat. sg. sweoloðe, 1116. Cf. O.H.G. suilizo, suilizunga = ardor, cauma.

sweorcan, st. v., _to trouble, darken_. pres. sg. III. nē him inwit-sorh on sefan sweorceð (_darkens his soul_), 1738.

for-sweorcan, _to grow dark_ or _dim_: pres. sg. III. ēagena bearhtm for-siteð and for-sworceð, 1768.

ge-sweorcan (intrans.), _to darken_: pret. sg. niht-helm ge-swearc, 1790.

sweord, swurd, swyrd, st. n., _sword_: nom. sg. sweord, 1287, 1290, 1570, 1606, 1616, 1697; swurd, 891; acc. sg. sweord, 437, 673, 1559, 1664, 1809, 2253, 2500, etc.; swurd, 539, 1902; swyrd, 2611, 2988; instr. sg. sweorde, 561, 574, 680, 2493, 2881; gen. sg. sweordes, 1107, 2194, 2387; acc. pl. sweord, 2639; nom. pl., 3049; instr. pl. sweordum, 567, 586, 885; gen. pl. sweorda, 1041, 2937, 2962.--Comp.: gūð-, māððum-, wǣg-sweord.

sweord, st. f., _oath_: in comp. āð-sweord _(sword-oath_?), 2065.

sweord-bealo, st. n., _sword-bale, death by the sword_: nom. sg., 1148.

sweord-freca, w. m., _sword-warrior_: dat. sg. sweord-frecan, 1469.

sweord-gifu, st. f., _sword-gift, giving of swords_: nom. sg. swyrd-gifu, 2885.

sweotol, swutol, adj.: 1) _clear, bright_: nom. sg. swutol sang scopes, 90.--2) _plain, manifest_: nom. sg. syndolh sweotol, 818; tācen sweotol, 834; instr. sg. sweotolan tācne, 141.

swēof, swēop. See swāfan, swāpan.

swið, st. n.? (O.N. swiði), _burning pain_: in comp. þrȳð-swið(?).

swift, adj., _swift_: nom. sg. se swifta mearh, 2265.

swimman, swymman, st. v., _to swim_: inf. swymman, 1625.

ofer-swimman, w. acc., _to swim over_ or _through_: pret. sg. ofer-swam sioleða bigong (_swam over the sea_), 2368.

swincan, st. v., _to struggle, labor, contend_: pret. pl. git on wæteres ǣht seofon niht swuncon, 517.

ge-swing, st. n., _surge, eddy_: nom. sg. atol ȳða geswing, 849.

swingan, st. v., _to swing one's self, fly_: pres. sg. III. nē gōd hafoc geond sæl swingeð, 2265.

swīcan, st. v.: 1) _to deceive, leave in the lurch, abandon_: pret. sg. nǣfre hit (_the sword_) æt hilde ne swāc manna ǣngum, 1461.--2) _to escape_: subj. pret. būtan his līc swice, 967.

ge-swīcan, _to deceive, leave in the lurch_: pret. sg. gūð-bill ge-swāc nacod æt nīðe, 2585, 2682; w. dat. sēo ecg ge-swāc þēodne æt þearfe (_the sword failed the prince in need_), 1525.

swīð, swȳð (Goth, swinþ-s), adj., _strong, mighty_: nom. sg. wæs þæt ge-win tō swȳð, 191.--Comp. nom. sg. sīo swīðre hand (_the right hand_), 2099; _harsh_, 3086.

swīðe, adv., _strongly, very, much_, 598, 998, 1093, 1744, 1927; swȳðe, 2171, 2188. Compar. swīðor, _more, rather, more strongly_, 961, 1140, 1875, 2199--Comp. un-swīðe.

ofer-swīðian, w. v., _to overcome, vanquish_, w. acc. of person: pres. sg. III. oferswȳðeð, 279, 1769.

swīð-ferhð, adj., (_fortis animo_), _strong-minded, bold, brave_: nom. sg. swȳð-ferhð, 827; gen. sg. swīð-ferhðes, 909; nom. pl. swīð-ferhðe, 493; dat. pl. swīð-ferhðum, 173.

swīð-hycgend, pres. part. (_strenue cogitans_), _bold-minded, brave in spirit_: nom. sg. swīð-hycgende, 920; nom. pl. swīð-hycgende, 1017.

swið-mōd, adj., _strong-minded_: nom. sg., 1625.

on-swīfan, st. v. w. acc., _to swing, turn, at_ or _against, elevate_: pret. sg. biorn (Bēowulf) bord-rand on-swāf wið þām gryre-gieste, 2560.

swīgian, w. v., _to be silent, keep silent_: pret. sg. lȳt swīgode nīwra spella (_kept little of the new tidings silent_), 2898; pl. swīgedon ealle, 1700.

swīgor, adj., _silent, taciturn_: nom, sg. weak, þā wæs swīgra secg ... on gylp-sprǣce gūð-ge-weorca, 981.

swīn, swȳn, st. n., _swine, boar_ (image on the helm): nom. sg. swȳn, 1112; acc. sg. swīn, 1287.

swīn-līc, st. n., _swine-image_ or _body_: instr. pl. swīn-līcum, 1454.

swōgan, st. v., _to whistle, roar_: pres. part. swōgende lēg, 3146.

swutol. See sweotol.

swylc, swilc (Goth, swa-leik-s), demons, adj. = _talis, such, such a_; relative = _qualis, as, which_: nom. sg. swylc, 178, 1941, 2542, 2709; swylc ... swylc=talis ... qualis, 1329; acc. sg. swylc, 2799; eall ... swylc (_all ... which, as_), 72; ōðer swylc (_such another_, i.e. hand), 1584; on swylc (_on such things_), 997; dat. sg. gūð-fremmendra swylcum (_to such a battle-worker_, i.e. Bēowulf), 299; gen. sg. swylces hwæt (_some such_), 881; acc. pl. swylce, 2870; call swylce ... swylce, 3166; swylce twēgen (_two such_), 1348; ealle þearfe swylce (_all needs that_), 1798; swylce hīe ... findan meahton sigla searo-gimma (_such as they might find of jewels and cunning gems_), 1157; efne swylce mǣla swylce (_at just such times as_), 1250; gen. pl. swylcra searo-nīða, 582; swylcra fela ... ǣr-gestrēona, 2232.

swylce, adv., _as, as also, likewise, similarly_, 113, 293, 758, 831, 855, 908, 921, 1147, 1166, 1428, 1483, 2460, 2825; gē swylce (_and likewise_), 2259; swilce, 1153.

swylt, st. m., _death_: nom. sg., 1256, 1437.

swylt-dæg, st. m., _death-day_: dat. sg. ǣr swylt-dæge, 2799.

swynsian, w. v., _to sound_: pret. sg. hlyn swynsode, 612.

swyrd. See sweord.

swȳðl. See swīð.

swȳn. See swīn.

syððan (seðian, Gen. 1525), w. v., _to punish, avenge_, w. acc.: inf. þonne hit sweordes ecg syððan scolde (_then the edge of the sword should avenge it_), 1107.

syððan. See siððan.

syfan-wintre, adj., _seven-winters-old_: nom. sg., 2429.

syhð. See sēon.

syl (O.H.G. swella), st. f., _sill, bench-support_: dat. sg. fram sylle, 776.

sylfa. See selfa.

syllan. See sellan.

syllīc. See sellīc.

symbol, syml, st. n., _banquet, entertainment_: acc. sg. symbel, 620, 1011; geaf mē sinc and symbel (_gave me treasure and feasting_, i.e. made me his friend and table-companion), 2432; þæt hīe ... symbel ymbsǣton (_that they might sit round their banquet_), 564; dat. sg. symle, 81, 489, 1009; symble, 119, 2105; gen. pl. symbla, 1233.

symble, symle, adv., _continually, ever_: symble, 2451; symle, 2498; symle wæs þȳ sǣmra (_he was ever the worse, the weaker_, i.e. the dragon), 2881.

symbel-wyn, st. f., _banqueting-pleasure, joy at feasting_: acc. sg. symbel-wynne drēoh, 1783.

syn, st. f., _sin, crime_: nom. synn and sacu, 2473; dat. instr. pl. synnum, 976, 1256, 3072.

syn. See sin.

syn-bysig, adj., (culpa laborans), _persecuted on account of guilt?_ (Rieger), _guilt-haunted?_: nom. sg. secg syn-[by]sig, 2228.

ge-syngian, w. v., _to sin, commit a crime_: pret. part. þæt wæs feohlēas ge-feoht, fyrenum ge-syngad, 2442.

synnig, adj., _sin-laden, sinful_: acc. sg. m. sinnigne secg, 1380.--Comp.: fela-, un-synnig.

ge-synto, f., _health_: dat. pl. on gesyntum, 1870.

syrce. See serce.

syrwan, w. v. w. acc., _to entrap, catch unawares_: pret. sg. duguðe and geogoðe seomade and syrede, 161.

be-syrwan: 1) _to compass_ or _accomplish by finesse; effect_: inf. dǣd þē wē ealle ǣr ne meahton snyttrum be-syrwan (_a deed that all of us could not accomplish before with all our wisdom_), 943.--2) _to entrap by guile and destroy_: inf. mynte se mānscaða manna cynnes sumne be-syrwan (_the fell foe thought to entrap some one (all?_, see sum) _of the men_), 714.

sȳn, f., _seeing, sight, scene_: comp, an-sȳn.

ge-sȳne, adj., _visible, to be seen_: nom. sg. 1256, 1404, 2948, 3059, 3160.--Comp.: ēð-ge-sȳne, ȳð-ge-sēne.


taligean, w. v.: 1) _to count, reckon, number; esteem, think_: pres. sg. I. nō ic mē ... hnāgran gūð-geweorca þonne Grendel hine (_count myself no worse than G. in battle-works_), 678; wēn ic talige ...þæt (_I count on the hope ... that_), 1846; telge, 2068; sg. III. þæt rǣd talað þæt (_counts it gain that_), 2028.--2) _to tell, relate_: sōð ic talige (_I tell facts_), 532; swā þū self talast (_as thou thyself sayst_), 595.

tācen, st. n., _token, sign, evidence_: nom. sg. tācen sweotol, 834; dat. instr. sg. sweotolan tācne, 141; tīres tō tācne, 1655.--Comp. luf-tācen.

tān, st. m., _twig_: in comp. āter-tān. [emended to āter-tēarum in text--KTH]

ge-tǣcan, w. v., _to show, point out_: pret. sg. him þā hilde-dēor hof mōdigra torht ge-tǣhte (_the warrior pointed out to them the bright dwelling of the bold ones_, i.e. Danes), 313. Hence, _to indicate, assign_: pret. sōna mē se mǣra mago Healfdenes ... wið his sylfes sunu setl getǣhte (_assigned me a seat by his own son_), 2014.

tǣle, adj., _blameworthy_: in comp. un-tǣle.

ge-tǣse, adj., _quiet, still_: nom. sg. gif him wǣre ... niht ge-tǣse (_whether he had a pleasant, quiet, night_), 1321.

tela, adv., _fittingly, well_, 949, 1219, 1226, 1821, 2209, 2738.

telge. See talian.

tellan, w. v., _to tell, consider, deem_: pret. sg. nē his līf-dagas lēoda ǣnigum nytte tealde (_nor did he count his life useful to any man_), 795; þæt ic mē ǣnigne under swegles begong ge-sacan ne tealde (_I believed not that I had any foe under heaven_), 1774; cwæð hē þone gūð-wine gōdne tealde (_said he counted the war-friend good_), 1811; hē ūsic gār-wīgend gōde tealde (_deemed us good spear-warriors_), 2642; pl. swā (_so that_) hine Gēata beam gōdne ne tealdon, 2185.--2) _to ascribe, count against, impose_: pret. sg. (Þrȳðo) him wælbende weotode tealde hand-gewriðene, 1937.

ge-tenge, adj., _attached to, lying on_: w. dat. gold ... grunde ge-tenge, 2759.

tēar, st. m., _tear_: nom. pl. tēaras, 1873.

teoh, st. f., _troop, band_: dat. sg. earmre teohhe, 2939.

(ge?)-teohhian, w. v., _to fix, determine, assign_: pret. sg. ic for lǣssan lēan teohhode ... hnāhran rince, 952; pres. part. wæs ōðer in ǣr geteohhod (_assigned_)... mǣrum Gēate, 1301.

tēon, st. v., _to draw, lead_: inf. heht ... eahta mēaras ... on flet tēon (_bade eight horses be led into the hall_), 1037; pret. sg. mē tō grunde tēah fāh fēond-sceaða (_the many-hued fiend-foe drew me to the bottom_), 553; eft-sīðas tēah (_withdrew, returned_), 1333; sg. for pl. ǣg-hwylcum ...þāra þe mid Bēowulfe brim-lāde tēah (_to each of those that crossed the sea with B._) 1052; pret. part. þā wæs ... heard ecg togen (_then was the hard edge drawn_), 1289; wearð ... on næs togen (_was drawn to the promontory_), 1440.

ā-tēon, _to wander, go_, intrans.: pret. sg. tō Heorute ā-tēah (_drew to Heorot_), 767.

ge-tēon: 1) _to draw_: pret. sg. gomel swyrd ge-tēah, 2611; w. instr. and acc. hyre seaxe ge-tēah, brad brūn-ecg, 1546.--2) _to grant, give, lend_: imp. nō þū him wearne getēoh þīnra gegn-cwida glædnian (_refuse not to gladden them with thy answer_), 366; pret. sg. and þā Bēowulfe bēga gehwæðres eodor Ingwina onweald ge-tēah (_and the prince of the Ingwins gave B. power over both_), 1045; so, hē him ēst getēah (_gave possession of_), 2166.

of-tēon, _to deprive, withdraw_, w. gen. of thing and dat. pers.: pret. sg. Scyld Scēfing ... monegum mǣgðum meodo-setla of-tēah, 5; w. acc. of thing, hond ... feorh-sweng ne of-tēah, 2490; w. dat. hond (hord, MS.) swenge ne of-tēah, 1521.

þurh-tēon, _to effect_: inf. gif hē torn-gemōt þurh-tēon mihte, 1141.

tēon (cf. tēoh, _materia_, O.H.G. ziuc), w. v. w. acc., _to make, work_: pret. sg. tēode, 1453;--_to furnish out, deck_: pret. pl. nalas hī hine lǣssan lācum tēodan (_provided him with no less gifts_), 43.

ge-tēon, _to provide, do, bring on_: pres. sg. unc sceal weorðan ... swā unc Wyrd ge-tēoð, 2527; pret. sg. þē him ... sāre ge-tēode (_who had done him this harm_), 2296.

ge-tēona, w. m., _injurer, harmer_: in comp. lāð-ge-tēona.

til, adj., _good, apt, fit_: nom. sg. m. Hālga til, 61; þegn ungemete till (of Wīglāf), 2722; fem. wæs sēo þēod tilu, 1251; neut. ne wæs þæt ge-wrixle til, 1305.

tilian, w. v. w. gen., _to gain, win_: inf. gif ic ... ōwihte mæg þīnre mōd-lufan māran tilian (_if I ... gain_), 1824.

timbrian, w. v., _to build_: pret. part. acc. sg. sæl timbred (_the well-built hall_), 307.

be-timbrian, (construere), _to finish building, complete_: pret. pl. betimbredon on tȳn dagum beadu-rōfes bēcn, 3161.

tīd, st. f., _-tide, time_: acc. sg. twelf wintra tīd, 147; lange tīd, 1916; in þā tīde, 2228.--Comp.: ān-, morgen-tīd.

ge-tīðian (from tigðian), w. v., _to grant_: pret. part. impers. wæs ... bēne (gen.) ge-tīðad fēasceaftum men, 2285.

tīr, st. m., _glory, repute in war_. gen. sg. tīres, 1655.

tīr-ēadig, adj., _glorious, famous_: dat. sg. tīr-ēadigum menn (of Bēowulf), 2190.

tīr-fæst, adj., _famous, rich in glory_. nom. sg. (of Hrōðgār), 923.

tīr-lēas, adj., _without glory, infamous_: gen. sg. (of Grendel), 844.

toga, w. m., _leader_: in comp. folc-toga.

torht, adj., _bright, brilliant_: acc. sg. neut. hof ... torht, 313.--Comp.: wuldor-torht, heaðo-torht (_loud in battle_).

torn, st. n.: 1) _wrath, insult, distress_: acc. sg. torn, 147, 834; gen. pl. torna, 2190.--2) _anger_: instr. sg. torne ge-bolgen, 2402.--Comp. līge-torn.

torn, adj., _bitter, cruel_: nom. sg, hrēowa tornost, 2130.

torn-ge-mōt, st. n., (_wrathful meeting_), _angry engagement, battle_: acc. sg., 1141.

tō, I. prep. w. dat. indicating direction or tending to, hence: 1) local = whither after verbs of motion, _to, up to, at_: cōm tō recede (_to the hall_), 721; ēode tō sele, 920; ēode tō hire frēan sittan, 642; gǣð eft ... tō medo (_goeth again to mead_), 605; wand tō wolcnum (_wound to the welkin_), 1120; sigon tō slǣpe (_sank to sleep_), 1252; 28, 158, 234, 438, 553, 926, 1010, 1014, 1155, 1159, 1233, etc.; līð-wǣge bær hǣlum tō handa (_bore the ale-cup to the hands of the men? at hand?_), 1984; oð þæt niht becōm ōðer tō yldum, 2118; him tō bearme cwōm māððum-fæt mǣre (_came to his hands, into his possession_), 2405; sǣlde tō sande sīd-fæðme scip (_fastened the broad-bosomed ship to the shore_), 1918; þat se harm-scaða tō Heorute ā-tēah (_went forth to Heorot_), 767. After verb sittan: site nū tō symble (_sit now to the meal_), 489; siððan ... wē tō symble geseten hæfdon, 2105; tō ham (_home, at home_), 124, 374, 2993. With verbs of speaking: maðelode tō his wine-drihtne (_spake to his friendly lord_), 360; tō Gēatum sprec, 1172; so, heht þæt heaðo-weorc tō hagan bīodan (_bade the battle-work be told at the hedge_), 2893.--2) with verbs of bringing and taking (cf. under on, I., d): hraðe wæs tō būre Bēowulf fetod (_B. was hastily brought from a room_), 1311; siððan Hāma æt-wæg tō þǣre byrhtan byrig Brōsinga mene (_since H. carried the Brōsing-necklace off from the bright city_), 1200; wēan āhsode. fǣhðo to Frȳsum (_suffered woe, feud as to, from, the Frisians_), 1208.--3) =end of motion, hence: a) _to, for, as, in_: þone god sende folce tō frōfre (_for, as, a help to the folk_), 14; gesette ... sunnan and mōnan lēoman to lēohte (_as a light_), 95; ge-sæt ... tō rune (_sat in counsel_), 172; wearð hē Heaðo-lāfe tō hand-bonan, 460; bringe ... tō helpe (_bring to, for, help_), 1831; Jofore forgeaf āngan dōhtor ... hyldo tō wedde (_as a pledge of his favor_), 2999; so, 508(?), 666, 907, 972, 1022, 1187, 1263, 1331, 1708, 1712, 2080, etc.; secgan tō sōðe (_to say in sooth_), 51; so, 591, 2326. b) with verbs of thinking, hoping, etc., _on, for, at, against_: hē tō gyrn-wræce swīðor þōhte þonne tō sǣ-lāde (_thought more on vengeance than on the sea-voyage_), 1139; sæcce ne wēneð tō Gār-Denum (_nor weeneth of conflict with the Spear-Danes_), 602; þonne wēne ic tō þē wyrsan geþinges (_then I expect for thee a worse result_), 525; nē ic to Swēoþēode sibbe oððe trēowe wihte ne wēne (_nor expect at all of, from, the Swedes_ ...), 2923; wiste þǣm āhlǣcan tō þǣm hēah-sele hilde ge-þinged (_battle prepared for the monster in the high hall_), 648; wēl bið þǣm þe mot tō fæder fæðmum freoðo wilnian (_well for him that can find peace in the Father's arms_), 188; þāra þe hē ge-worhte tō West-Denum (_of those that he wrought against the West-Danes_), 1579.--4) with the gerund, inf.: tō gefremmanne (_to do_), 174; tō ge-cȳðanne (_to make known_), 257; tō secganne (_to say_), 473; to beflēonne (_to avoid, escape_), 1004; so, 1420, 1725, 1732, 1806, 1852, 1923, 1942, etc. With inf.: tō fēran, 316; tō friclan, 2557.--5) temporal: gewāt him tō gescæp-hwīle (_went at(?) the hour of fate_; or, _to his fated rest?_), 26; tō wīdan feore (_ever, in their lives_), 934; āwa tō aldre (_for life, forever_), 956; so, tō aldre, 2006, 2499; tō life (_during life, ever_), 2433.--6) with particles: wōd under wolcnum tō þæs þe ... (_went under the welkin to the point where_ ...), 715; so, elne ge-ēodon tō þæs þe, 1968; so, 2411; hē him þæs lēan for-geald ... tō þæs þe hē on reste geseah Grendel licgan (_he paid him for that to the point that he saw G. lying dead_), 1586; wæs þæt blōd tō þæs hāt (_the blood was hot to that degree_), 1617; næs þā long tō þon þæt (_'twas not long till_), 2592, 2846; wæs him se man tō þon lēof þæt (_the man was dear to him to that degree_), 1877; tō hwan siððan wearð hond-rǣs hæleða (_up to what point, how, the hand-contest turned out_), 2072; tō middes (_in the midst_), 3142.

II. Adverbial modifier, _quasi_ preposition [better explained in many cases as prep. postponed]: l) _to, towards, up to, at_: gēong sōna tō, 1786; so, 2649; fēhð ōðer tō, 1756; sǣ-lāc ... þē þū hēr tō lōcast (_upon which thou here lookest_), 1655; folc tō sǣgon (_the folk looked on_), 1423; þæt hī him tō mihton gegnum gangan (_might proceed thereto_), 313; sē þe him bealwa tō bōte gelȳfde (_who believed in help out of evils from him_, i.e. Bēowulf), 910; him tō anwaldan āre ge-lyfde (_trusted for himself to the Almighty's help_), 1273; þē ūs sēceað tō Swēona lēode (_that the Swedes will come against us_), 3002.--2) before adj. and adv., _too_: tō strang (_too mighty_), 133; tō fæst, 137; tō swȳð, 191; so, 789, 970, 1337, 1743, 1749, etc.; tō fela micles (_far too much_), 695; hē tō forð ge-stōp (_he had gone too far_), 2290.

tōð (G. tunþu-s), st. m., _tooth_: in comp. blōdig-tōð (adj.).

tredan, st. v. w. acc., _to tread_: inf. sǣ-wong tredan, 1965; el-land tredan, 3020; pret. sg. wræc-lāstas træd, 1353; medo-wongas træd, 1644; græs-moldan træd, 1882.

treddian, tryddian (see trod), w. v., _to stride, tread, go_: pret. sg. treddode, 726; tryddode getrume micle (_strode about with a strong troop_), 923.

trem, st. n., _piece, part_: acc. sg. nē ... fōtes trem (_not a foot's breadth_), 2526.

trēow, st. f., _fidelity, good faith_: acc. sg. trēowe, 1073; sibbe oððe trēowe, 2923.

trēow, st. n., _tree_: in comp. galg-trēow.

trēowian. See truwian.

trēow-loga, w. m., _troth-breaker, pledge-breaker_: nom. pl. trēow-logan, 2848.

trodu, st. f., _track, step_: acc. sg. or pl. trode, 844.

ge-trum, st. n., _troop, band_: instr. sg. ge-trume micle, 923.

trum, adj., _strong, endowed with_: nom. sg. heorot hornum trum, 1370.

ge-truwan, w. v. w. acc., _to confirm, pledge solemnly_: pret. sg. þā hīe getruwedon on twā healfe fæste frioðu-wǣre, 1096.

truwian, trēowan, w. v., _to trust in, rely on, believe in_: 1) w. dat.: pret. sg. sīðe ne truwode lēofes mannes (_I trusted not in the dear man's enterprise_), 1994; bearne ne truwode þæt hē ... (_she trusted not the child that_ ...), 2371; gehwylc hiora his ferhðe trēowde þæt hē ... (_each trusted his heart that_ ...), 1167.--2) w. gen.: pret. sg. Gēata lēod georne truwode mōdgan mægnes, 670; wiðres ne truwode, 2954.

ge-truwian, _to rely on, trust in_, w. dat.: pret. sg. strenge ge-truwode, mund-gripe mægenes, 1534;--w. gen. pret. sg. beorges ge-truwode, wīges and wealles, 2323; strenge ge-truwode ānes mannes, 2541.

tryddian. See treddian.

trȳwe, adj., _true, faithful_: nom. sg. þā gȳt wæs ... ǣghwylc ōðrum trȳwe, 1166.

ge-trȳwe, adj., _faithful_: nom. sg. hēr is ǣghwylc eorl ōðrum ge-trȳwe, 1229.

turf, st. f., _sod, soil, seat_: in comp. ēðel-turf.

tūx, st. m., _tooth, tusk_: in comp. hilde-tūx.

ge-twǣfan, w. v. w. acc. of person and gen. thing, _to separate, divide, deprive of, hinder_: pres. sg. III. þæt þec ādl oððe ecg eafoðes ge-twǣfeð (_robs of strength_), 1764; inf. god ēaðe mæg þone dol-scaðan dǣda ge-twǣfan (_God may easily restrain the fierce foe from his deeds_), 479; pret. sg. sumne Gēata lēod ... fēores getwǣfde (_cut him off from life_), 1434; nō þǣr wǣg-flotan wind ofer ȳðum sīðes ge-twǣfde (_the wind hindered not the wave-floater in her course over the water_), 1909; pret. part. æt rihte wæs gūð ge-twǣfed (_almost had the struggle been ended_), 1659.

ge-twǣman, w. v. acc. pers. and gen. thing, _to hinder, render incapable of, restrain_: inf. ic hine ne mihte ... ganges getwǣman, 969.

twēgen, m. f. n. twā, num., _twain, two_: nom. m. twēgen, 1164; acc. m. twēgen, 1348; dat. twǣm, 1192 gen. twēga, 2533; acc. f. twā, 1096, 1195.

twelf, num., _twelve_, gen. twelfa, 3172.

tweone (Frisian twine), num. = _bini, two_: dat. pl. be sǣm tweonum, 859, 1298; 1686.

twidig, adj., in comp. lang-twidig (_long-assured_), 1709.

tȳder, st. m., _race, descendant_: in comp. un-tȳder, 111.

tȳdre (Frisian teddre), adj., _weak, unwarlike, cowardly_: nom. pl. tȳdre, 2848.

tȳn, num., _ten_: uninflect. dat. on tȳn dagum, 3161; inflect. nom. tȳne, 2848.

tyrwian, w. v., _to tar_: pret. part. tyrwed in comp.: nīw-tyrwed.

on-tyhtan, w. v., _to urge on, incite, entice_: pret. sg. on-tyhte, 3087.


þafian, w. v. w. acc., _to submit to, endure_: inf. þæt se þēod-cyning þafian sceolde Eofores ānne dōm, 2964.

þanc, st. m.: 1) _thought_: in comp. fore-, hete-, or-, searo-þanc; inwit-þanc (adj.).--2) _thanks_ (w. gen. of thing): nom. sg., 929, 1779; acc. sg. þanc, 1998, 2795.--3) _content, favor, pleasure_: dat. sg. þā þe gif-sceattas Gēata fyredon þyder tō þance (_those that tribute for the Geātas carried thither for favor_). 379.

ge-þanc, st. m., _thought_: instr. pl. þēostrum ge-þoncum, 2333.--Comp. mōd-ge-þanc.

þanc-hycgende, pres. part., _thoughtful_, 2236.

þancian, w. v., _to thank_: pret. sg. gode þancode ... þæs þe hire se willa ge-lamp (_thanked God that her wish was granted_), 626; so, 1398; pl. þancedon, 627(?).

þanon, þonon, þonan, adv., _thence_: 1) local: þanon eft gewāt (_he went thence back_), 123; þanon up ... stigon (_went up thence_), 224; so, þanon, 463, 692, 764, 845, 854, 1293; þanan, 1881; þonon, 520, 1374, 2409; þonan, 820, 2360, 2957.--2) personal: þanon untȳdras ealle on-wōcon (_from him_, i.e. Cain, etc.), 111; so, þanan, 1266; þonon, 1961; unsōfte þonon feorh oð-ferede (i.e. from Grendel's mother), 2141.

þā, adv.: l) _there, then_, 3, 26, 28, 34, 47, 53, etc. With þǣr: þā þǣr, 331. With nū: nū þā (_now then_), 658.--2) conjunction, _when, as, since_, w. indic., 461, 539, 633, etc.;--_because, whilst, during, since_, 402, 465, 724, 2551, etc.

þæt, I. demons, pron. acc. neut. of se: demons, nom. þæt (_that_), 735, 766, etc.; instr. sg. þȳ, 1798, 2029; þæt ic þȳ wǣpne ge-bræd (_that I brandished as(?) a weapon; that I brandished the weapon?_), 1665; þȳ weorðra (_the more honored_), 1903; þȳ sēft (_the more easily_), 2750; þȳ lǣs hym ȳðe þrym wudu wynsuman for-wrecan meahte (_lest the force of the waves the winsome boat might carry away_), 1919; nō þȳ ǣr (_not sooner_), 755, 1503, 2082, 2374, 2467; nō þȳ leng (_no longer, none the longer_), 975. þȳ =adv., _therefore, hence_, 1274, 2068; þē ... þē = _on this account; for this reason ... that, because_, 2639-2642; wiste þē geornor (_knew but too well_), 822; hē ... wæs sundes þē sǣnra þē hine swylt fornam (_he was the slower in swimming as [whom?] death carried him off_), 1437; næs him wihte þē sēl (_it was none the better for him_), 2688; so, 2278. Gen. sg. þæs = adv., _for this reason, therefore_, 7, 16, 114, 350, 589, 901, 1993, 2027, 2033, etc. þæs þe, especially after verbs of thanking, = _because_, 108, 228, 627, 1780, 2798;--also = secundum quod: þæs þe hīe gewislīcost ge-witan meahton, 1351;--_therefore, accordingly_, 1342, 3001; tō þæs (_to that point; to that degree_), 715, 1586, 1617, 1968, 2411; þæs georne (_so firmly_), 969; ac hē þæs fæste wæs ... besmiðod (_it was too firmly set_), 774; nō þæs frōd leofað gumena bearna þæt þone grund wite (_none liveth among men so wise that he should know its bottom_), 1368; hē þæs (þǣm, MS.) mōdig wæs (_had the courage for it_), 1509.

II. conj. (relative), _that, so that_, 15, 62, 84, 221, 347, 358, 392, 571, etc.; oð þæt (_up to that, until_); see oð.

þætte (from þæt þe, see þē), _that_, 151, 859, 1257, 2925, etc.; þæt þe (_that_), 1847.

þǣr: 1) demons. adv., _there (where)_, 32, 36, 89, 400, 757, etc.; morðor-bealo māga, þǣr hēo ǣr mǣste hēold worolde wynne (_the death-bale of kinsmen where before she had most worldly joy_), 1080. With þā: þā þǣr, 331; þǣr on innan (_therein_), 71. Almost like Eng. expletive _there_, 271, 550, 978, etc.;--_then, at that time_, 440;--_thither_: þǣr swīð-ferhðe sittan ēodon (_thither went the bold ones to sit_, i.e. to the bench), 493, etc.--2) relative, _where_, 356, 420, 508, 513, 522, 694, 867, etc.; ēode ... þǣr se snottra bād (_went where the wise one tarried_), 1314; so, 1816;--_if_, 763, 798, 1836, 2731, etc.;--_whither_: gā þǣr hē wille, 1395.

þē, þe, I. relative particle, indecl., partly standing alone, partly associated with se, sēo, þæt: Hunferð maðelode, þē æt fōtum sæt (_H., who sat at his feet, spake_), 500; so, 138, etc.; wæs þæt gewin tō swȳð þē on þā lēode be-cōm (_the misery that had come on the people was too great_), 192, etc.; ic wille ... þē þā and-sware ǣdre ge-cȳðan þē mē se gōda ā-gifan þenceð (_I will straightway tell thee the answer that the good one shall give_), 355; oð þone ānne dæg þē hē ... (_till that very day that he_ ...), 2401; hēo þā fǣhðe wræc þē þū ... Grendel cwealdest (_the fight in which thou slewest G._), 1335; mid þǣre sorge þē him sīo sār belamp (_with the sorrow wherewith the pain had visited him_), 2469; pl. þonne þā dydon þē ... (_than they did that_ ...), 45; so, 378, 1136; þā māðmas þē hē mē sealde (_the treasures that he gave me_), 2491; so, ginfæstan gife þē him god sealde (_the great gifts that God had given him_), 2183. After þāra þe (_of those that_), the depend. verb often takes sg. instead of pl. (Dietrich, Haupt XI., 444 seqq.): wundor-sīona fela secga ge-hwylcum þāra þe on swylc starað (_to each of those that look on such_), 997; so, 844, 1462, 2384, 2736. Strengthened by se, sēo, þæt: sægde sē þe cūðe (_said he that knew_), 90; wæs se grimma gæst Grendel hāten, sē þe mōras hēold (_the grim stranger hight Grendel, he that held the moors_), 103; here-byrne ... sēo þe bān-cofan beorgan cūðe (_the corselet that could protect the body_), 1446, etc.; þǣr ge-lȳfan sceal dryhtnes dōme sē þe hine dēað nimeð (_he shall believe in God's judgment whom death carrieth off_), 441; so, 1437, 1292 (cf. Heliand I., 1308).

þæs þe. See þæt.

þēah þe. See þēah.

for þām þe. See for-þām.

þȳ, þē, _the, by that_, instr. of se: āhte ic holdra þȳ lǣs ... þē dēað for-nam (_I had the less friends whom death snatched away_), 488; so, 1437.

þeccan, w. v., _to cover_ (thatch), _cover over_: inf. þā sceal brond fretan, ǣled þeccean (_fire shall eat, flame shall cover, the treasures_), 3016; pret. pl. þǣr git ēagor-strēam earmum þehton (_in swimming_), 513.

þegn, st. m., _thane, liegeman, king's higher vassal; knight_: nom. sg., 235, 494, 868, 2060, 2710; (Bēowulf), 194; (Wīglāf), 2722; acc. sg. þegen (Bēowulf, MS. þegn), 1872; dat. sg. þegne, 1342, 1420; (Hengest), 1086; (Wīglāf), 2811; gen. sg. þegnes, 1798; nom. pl. þegnas, 1231; acc. pl. þegnas, 1082, 3122; dat. pl. þegnum, 2870; gen. pl. þegna, 123, 400, 1628, 1674, 1830, 2034, etc.--Comp.: ambiht-, ealdor-, heal-, magu-, sele-þegn.

þegnian, þēnian, w. v., _to serve, do liege service_: pret. sg. ic him þēnode dēoran sweorde (_I served them with my good sword_, i.e. slew them with it), 560.

þegn-sorh, st. f., _thane-sorrow, grief for a liegeman_: acc. sg. þegn-sorge, 131.

þegu, st. f., _taking_: in comp.: bēah-, bēor-, sinc-þegu.

þel, st. n., _deal-board, board for benches_: in comp. benc-þel, 486, 1240.

þencan, w. v.: 1) _to think_: absolutely: pres. sg. III. sē þe wēl þenceð, 289; so, 2602. With depend. clause: pres. sg. nǣnig heora þōhte þæt hē ... (_none of them thought that he_), 692.--2) w. inf., _to intend_: pres. sg. III. þā and-sware ... þē mē se gōda ā-gifan þenceð (_the answer that the good one intendeth to give me_), 355; (blōdig wæl) byrgean þenceð, 448; þonne hē ... gegān þenceð longsumne lof (_if he will win eternal fame_), 1536; pret. sg. nē þæt āglǣca yldan þōhte (_the monster did not mean to delay that_), 740; pret. pl. wit unc wið hronfixas werian þōhton, 541; (hine) on healfa ge-hwone hēawan þōhton, 801.

ā-þencan, _to intend, think out_: pret. sg. (hē) þis ellen-weorc āna ā-þōhte tō ge-fremmanne, 2644.

ge-þencan, w. acc.: 1) _to think of_: þæt hē his selfa ne mæg ... ende ge-þencean (_so that he himself may not think of, know, its limit_), 1735.--2) _to be mindful_: imper. sg. ge-þenc nū ... hwæt wit geō sprǣcon, 1475.

þenden: 1) adv., _at this time, then, whilst_: nalles fācen-stafas Þēod-Scyldingas þenden fremedon (_not at all at this time had the Scyldings done foul deeds_), 1020 (referring to 1165; cf. Wīdsīð, 45 seqq.); þenden rēafode rinc ōðerne (_whilst one warrior robbed another_, i.e. Eofor robbed Ongenþēow), 2986.--2) conj., _so long as, whilst_, 30, 57, 284, 1860, 2039, 2500, 3028;--_whilst_, 2419. With subj., _whilst, as long as_: þenden þū mōte, 1178; þenden þū lifige, 1255; þenden hyt sȳ (_whilst the heat lasts_), 2650.

þengel, st. m., _prince, lord, ruler_: acc. sg. hringa þengel (Bēowulf), 1508.

þes (m.), þēos (f.), þis (n.), demons. pron., _this_: nom. sg. 411, 432, 1703; f., 484; nom. acc. neut., 2156, 2252, 2644; þȳs, 1396; acc. sg. m. þisne, 75; f. þās, 1682; dat. sg. neut. þissum, 1170; þyssum, 2640; f. þisse, 639; gen. m. þisses, 1217; f. þisse, 929; neut. þysses, 791, 807; nom. pl. and acc. þās, 1623, 1653, 2636, 2641; dat. þyssum, 1063, 1220.

þē. See þæt.

þēh. See þēah.

þearf, st. f., _need_: nom. sg. þearf, 1251, 2494, 2638; þā him wæs manna þearf (_as he was in need of men_), 201; acc. sg. þearfe, 1457, 2580, 2850; fremmað gē nū lēoda þearfe (_do ye now what is needful for the folk_), 2802; dat. sg. æt þearfe, 1478, 1526, 2695, 2710; acc. pl. se for andrysnum ealle beweotede þegnes þearfe (_who would supply in courtesy all the thane's needs_), 1798 (cf. sele-þegn, 1795.--Comp.: firen-, nearo-, ofer-þearf.

þearf. See þurfan.

ge-þearfian, w. v., = _necessitatem imponere_: pret. part. þā him swā ge-þearfod wæs (_since so they found it necessary_), 1104.

þearle, adv., _very, exceedingly_, 560.

þēah, þēh, conj., _though, even though_ or _if_: 1) with subj. þēah, 203, 526, 588, 590, 1168, 1661, 2032, 2162. Strengthened by þe: þēah þe, 683, 1369, 1832, 1928, 1942, 2345, 2620; þēah ... eal (_although_), 681.--2) with indic.: þēah, 1103; þēh, 1614.--3) doubtful: þēah hē ūðe wēl, 2856; swā þēah (_nevertheless_), 2879; nō ... swā þēah (_not then however_), 973; næs þē forht swā þēh (_he was not, though, afraid_), 2968; hwæðre swā þēah (_yet however_), 2443.

þēaw, st. m., _custom, usage_: nom. sg., 178, 1247; acc. sg. þēaw, 359; instr. pl. þēawum (_in accordance with custom_), 2145.

þeód, st. f.: 1) _war-troop, retainers_: nom. sg., 644, 1231, 1251.--2) _nation, folk_: nom. sg., 1692; gen. pl. þēoda, 1706.--Comp.: sige-, wer-þēod.

þēod-cyning, st. m., (=folc-cyning), _warrior-king, king of the people_: nom. sg. (Hrōðgār), 2145; (Ongenþēow), 2964, 2971; þīod-cyning (Bēowulf), 2580; acc. sg. þēod-cyning (Bēowulf), 3009; gen. sg. þēod-cyninges (Bēowulf), 2695; gen. pl. þēod-cyninga, 2.

þēoden, st. m., _lord of a troop, war-chief, king; ruler_: nom. sg., 129, 365, 417, 1047, 1210, 1676, etc.; þīoden, 2337, 2811; acc. sg. þēoden, 34, 201, 353, 1599, 2385, 2722, 2884, 3080; þīoden, 2789; dat. sg. þēodne, 345, 1526, 1993, 2573, 2710, etc.; þēoden, 2033; gen. sg. þēodnes 798, 911, 1086, 1628, 1838, 2175; þīodnes, 2657; nom. pl. þēodnas, 3071.

þēoden-lēas, adj., _without chief_ or _king_: nom. pl. þēoden-lēase, 1104.

þēod-gestrēon, st. n., _people's-jewel, precious treasure_: instr. pl. þēod-ge-strēonum, 44; gen. pl. þēod-ge-strēona, 1219.

þēodig, adj., _appertaining to a_ þēod: in comp. el-þēodig.

þēod-scaða, w. m., _foe of the people, general foe_: nom. sg. þēod-sceaða (_the dragon_), 2279, 2689.

þēod-þrēa, st. f. m., _popular misery, general distress_: dat. pl. wið þēod-þrēaum, 178.

þēof, st. m., _thief_: gen. sg. þēofes cræfte, 2221.

þēon, st. v.: 1) _to grow, ripen, thrive_: pret. sg. weorðmyndum þāh (_grew in glory_), 8.--2) _to thrive in, succeed_: pret. sg. hūru þæt on lande lȳt manna þāh (_that throve to few_), 2837. See Note, l. 901.

ge-þēon, _to grow, thrive; increase in power and influence_: imper. ge-þēoh tela, 1219; inf. lof-dǣdum sceal ... man geþēon, 25; þæt þæt þēodnes bearn ge-þēon scolde, 911.

on-þēon? _to begin, undertake_, w. gen.: pret. hē þæs ǣr onþāh, 901. [In MS. Emended in text.--KTH] See Note l. 901.

þēon (for þēowan), w. v., _to oppress, restrain_: inf. næs se folc-cyning ymb-sittendra ǣnig þāra þe mec ... dorste egesan þēon (_that durst oppress me with terror_), 2737.

þēostor, adj., _dark, gloomy_: instr. pl. þēostrum ge-þoncum, 2333.

þēow, st. m., _slave, serf_ 2225.

þicgan, st. v. w. acc., _to seize, attain, eat, appropriate_: inf. þæt hē (Grendel) mā mōste manna cynnes þicgean ofer þā niht, 737; symbel þicgan (_take the meal, enjoy the feast_), 1011; pret. pl. þæt hīe mē þēgon, 563; þǣr wē medu þēgun, 2634.

ge-þicgan, w. acc., _to grasp, take_: pret. sg. (symbel and sele-ful, ful) ge-þeah, 619, 629; Bēowulf ge-þah ful on flette, 1025; pret. pl. (medo-ful manig) ge-þǣgon, 1015.

þider, þyder, adv., _thither_: þyder, 3087, 379, 2971.

þīhtig, þȳhtig, adj., _doughty, vigorous, firm_: acc. sg. neut. sweord ... ecgum þȳhtig, 1559.--Comp. hyge-þīhtig.

þincan. See þyncan.

þing, st. n.: 1) _thing_: gen. pl. ǣnige þinga (_ullo modo_), 792, 2375, 2906.--2) _affair, contest, controversy_: nom. sg. mē wearð Grendles þing ... undyrne cūð (_Grendel's doings became known to me_), 409.--3) _judgment, issue, judicial assembly_(?): acc. sg. sceal ... āna gehegan þing wið þyrse (_shall bring the matter alone to an issue against the giant_: see hegan), 426.

ge-þing, st. n.: 1) _terms, covenant_: acc. pl. ge-þingo, 1086.--2) _fate, providence, issue_: gen. sg. ge-þinges, 398, 710; (ge-þingea, MS.), 525.

ge-þingan, st. v., _to grow, mature, thrive_ (Dietrich, Haupt IX., 430): pret. part. cwēn mōde ge-þungen (_mature-minded, high-spirited, queen_), 625. See wēl-þungen.

ge-þingan (see ge-þing), w. v.: 1) _to conclude a treaty_: w. refl. dat, _enter into a treaty_: pres. sg. III. gif him þonne Hrēðrīc tō hofum Gēata ge-þingeð _(if H. enters into a treaty_ (seeks aid at?) _with the court of the Gēatas_, referring to the old German custom of princes entering the service or suite of a foreign king), 1838. Leo.--2) _to prepare, appoint_: pret. part. wiste [æt] þǣm āhlǣcan ... hilde ge-þinged, 648; hraðe wæs ... mēce ge-þinged, 1939.

þingian, w. v.: 1) _to speak in an assembly, make an address_: inf. ne hȳrde ic snotor-līcor on swā geongum feore guman þingian (_I never heard a man so young speak so wisely_), 1844.--2) _to compound, settle, lay aside_: inf. ne wolde feorh-bealo ... fēo þingian (_would not compound the life-bale for money_), 156; so, pret. sg. þā fǣhðe fēo þingode, 470.

þīhan. See þēon.

þin, possess, pron., _thy, thine_, 267, 346, 353, 367, 459, etc.

ge-þōht, st. m., _thought, plan_: acc. sg. ān-fealdne ge-þōht, 256; fæst-rǣdne ge-þōht, 611.

þolian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to endure, bear_: inf. (inwid-sorge) þolian, 833; pres. sg. III. þrēa-nȳd þolað, 284; pret. sg. þolode þrȳðswȳð, 131.--2) _to hold out, stand, survive_: pres. sg. (intrans.) þenden þis sweord þolað (_as long as this sword holds out_), 2500; pret. sg. (sēo ecg) þolode ǣr fela hand-gemōta, 1526.

ge-þolian: 1) _to suffer, bear, endure_: gerund. tō ge-þolianne, 1420; pret. sg. earfoð-lice þrāge ge-þolode..., þæt hē ... drēam gehȳrde (_bore ill that he heard the sound of joy_), 87; torn ge-þolode (_bore the misery_), 147.--2) _to have patience, wait_: inf. þǣr hē longe sceal on þæs waldendes wǣre ge-þolian, 3110.

þon (Goth, þan) = _tum, then, now_, 504; æfter þon (_after that_), 725; ǣr þon dæg cwōme (_ere day came_), 732; nō þon lange (_it was not long till then_), 2424; næs þā long tō þon (_it was not long till then_), 2592, 2846; wæs him se man tō þon lēof þæt ... _(the man was to that degree dear to him that ..._), 1877.

þonne: 1) adv., _there, then, now_, 377, 435, 525, 1105, 1456, 1485, 1672, 1823, 3052, 3098(?).--2) conj., _if, when, while_: a) w. indic., 573, 881, 935, 1034, 1041, 1043, 1144, 1286, 1327, 1328, 1375, etc.; þæt ic gum-cystum gōdne funde bēaga bryttan, brēac þonne mōste (_that I found a good ring-giver and enjoyed him whilst I could_), 1488. b) w. subj., 23, 1180, 3065; þonne ...þonne (_then ... when_), 484-85, 2447-48; gif þonne ...þonne (_if then ... then_), 1105-1107. c) _than_ after comparatives, 44, 248, 469, 505, 534, 679, 1140, 1183, etc.; a comparative must be supplied, l. 70, before þone: þæt hē ... hātan wolde medo-ærn micel men ge-wyrcean þone yldo bearn ǣfre ge-frūnon (_a great mead-house_ (greater) _than men had ever known_).

þracu, st. f., _strength, boldness_: in comp. mōd-þracu; = impetus in ecg-þracu.

þrāg, st. f., _period of time, time_: nom. sg. þā hine sīo þrāg be-cwōm (_when the_ [battle]-_hour befell him_), 2884; acc. sg. þrāge (_for a time_), 87; longe (lange) þrāge, 54, 114.--Comp. earfoð-þrāg.

ge-þræc, st. n., _multitude, crowd_: in comp. searo-ge-þræc.

þrec-wudu, st. m., (_might-wood_), _spear_ (cf. mægen-wudu): acc. sg., 1247.

þrēa, st. m. f., _misery, distress_: in comp. þēod-þrēa, þrēa-nēdla, -nȳd.

þrēa-nēdla, w. m., _crushing distress, misery_: dat. sg. for þrēa-nēdlan, 2225.

þrea-nȳd, st. f., _oppression, distress_: acc. sg. þrēa-nȳd, 284; dat. pl. þrēa-nȳdum, 833.

þrēat, st. m., _troop, band_: dat. sg. on þām þrēate, 2407; dat. pl. sceaðena þrēatum, 4.--Comp. īren-þrēat.

þrēatian, w. v. w. acc., _to press, oppress_: pret. pl. mec ...þrēatedon, 560.

þreot-teoða, num. adj. w. m., _thirteenth_: nom. sg. þreot-teoða secg, 2407.

þrēo, num. (neut.), _three_: acc. þrīo wicg, 2175; þrēo hund wintra, 2279.

þridda, num. adj. w. m., _third_: instr. þriddan sīðe, 2689.

ge-þring, st. n., _eddy, whirlpool, crush_: acc. on holma ge-þring, 2133.

þringan, st. v., _to press_: pret. sg. wergendra tō lȳt þrong ymbe þēoden (_too few defenders pressed round the prince_), 2884; pret. pl. syððan Hrēðlingas tō hagan þrungon (_after the Hrethlingas had pressed into the hedge_), 2961.

for-þringan, _to press out; rescue, protect_: inf. þæt hē ne mehte ...þā wēa-lāfe wīge for-þringan þēodnes þegne (_that he could not rescue the wretched remnant from the king's thane by war_), 1085.

ge-þringan, _to press_: pret. sg. cēol up geþrang (_the ship shot up_), i.e. on the shore in landing), 1913.

þrītig, num., _thirty_ (neut. subst.): acc. sg. w. partitive gen.: þrītig þegna, 123; gen. þrīttiges (XXXtiges MS.) manna, 379.

þrīst-hȳdig, adj., _bold-minded, valorous_: nom. sg. þīoden þrīst-hȳdig (Bēowulf), 2811.

þrowian, w. v. w. acc., _to suffer, endure_: inf. (hāt, gnorn) þrowian, 2606, 2659; pret. sg. þrowade, 1590, 1722; þrowode, 2595.

þrȳð, st. f., _abundance, multitude_, _excellence, power_: instr. pl. þrȳðum (_excellently, extremely; excellent in strength?_), 494.

þrȳð-ærn, st. n., _excellent house, royal hall_: acc. sg. (of Heorot), 658.

þrȳðlīc, adj., _excellent, chosen_: nom. sg. þrȳð-līc þegna hēap, 400, 1628; superl. acc. pl. þrȳð-līcost, 2870.

þrȳð-swȳð, st. n.?, _great pain_ (?): acc., 131, 737 [? adj., _very powerful, exceeding strong_].

þrȳð-word, st. n., _bold speech, choice discourse_: nom. sg., 644. (Great store was set by good table-talk: cf. Lachmann's Nibelunge, 1612; Rīgsmāl, 29, 7, in Möbius, p. 79b, 22.)

þrym, st. m.: 1) _power, might, force_: nom. sg. ȳða þrym, 1919; instr. pl. = adv. þrymmum (_powerfully_), 235.--2) _glory, renown_: acc. sg. þrym, 2.--Comp. hyge-þrym.

þrym-līc, adj., _powerful, mighty_: nom. sg. þrec-wudu þrym-līc (_the mighty spear_), 1247.

þū, pron., _thou_, 366, 407, 445, etc.; acc. sg. þec (poetic), 948, 2152, etc.; þē, 417, 426, 517, etc.; after compar. sēlran þē (_a better one than thee_), 1851. See gē.

þunca, w. m. See æf-þunca.

ge-þungen. See ge-þingan, st. v.

þurfan, pret.-pres. v., _to need_: pres. sg. II. nō þū ne þearft ... sorgian (_needest not care_), 450; so, 445, 1675; III. ne þearf ... onsittan (_need not fear_), 596; so, 2007, 2742; pres. subj. þæt hē ... sēcean þurfe, 2496; pret. sg. þorfte, 157, 1027, 1072, 2875, 2996; pl. nealles Hetware hrēmge þorfton (i.e. wesan) fēðe-wīges (_needed not boast of their foot-fight_), 2365.

ge-þuren. See þweran.

þurh, prep. w. acc. signifying motion through, hence: I. local, _through, throughout_: wōd þā þurh þone wæl-rēc (_went then through the battle-reek_), 2662.--II. causal: l) _on account of, for the sake of, owing to_: þurh slīðne nīð (_through fierce hostility, heathenism_), 184; þurh holdne hige (_from friendliness_), 267; so, þurh rūmne sefan, 278; þurh sīdne sefan, 1727; ēoweð þurh egsan uncūðne nīð (_shows unheard-of hostility by the terror he causes_), 276; so, 1102, 1336, 2046. 2) _by means of, through_: heaðo-rǣs for-nam mihtig mere-dēor þurh mīne hand, 558; þurh ānes cræft, 700; so, 941, 1694, 1696, 1980, 2406, 3069.

þus, adv., _so, thus_, 238, 337, 430.

þunian, w. v., _to din, sound forth_: pret. sg. sund-wudu þunede, 1907.

þūsend, num., _thousand_: 1) fem. acc. ic þē þūsenda þegna bringe tō helpe, 1830.--2) neut. with measure of value (sceat) omitted: acc. seofan þūsendo, 2196; gen. hund-þūsenda landes and locenra bēaga (100,000 _sceattas' worth of land and rings_), 2995.--3) uninflected: acc. þūsend wintra, 3051.

þwǣre, adj., _affable, mild_: in comp. man-þwǣre.

ge-þwǣre, adj., _gentle, mild_: nom. pl. ge-þwǣre, 1231.

ge-þweran, st. v., _to forge, strike_: pret. part. heoru ... hamere ge-þuren (for ge-þworen) (_hammer-forged sword_), 1286.

þȳhtig. See þīhtig.

ge-þyld (see þolian), st. f.: 1) _patience, endurance_: acc. sg. ge-þyld, 1396.--2) _steadfastness_: instr. pl. = adv.: ge-þyldum (_steadfastly, patiently_), 1706.

þyle, st. m., _spokesman, leader of the conversation at court_: nom. sg., 1166, 1457.

þyncan, þincean, w. v. w. dat. of pers., _to seem, appear_: pres. sg. III. þinceð him tō lȳtel (_it seems to him too little_), 1749; ne þynceð mē gerysne, þæt wē _(it seemeth to me not fit that we_ ...), 2654; pres. pl. hȳ ... wyrðe þinceað eorla ge-æhtlan (_they seem worthy contenders with_ (?) _earls_; or, _worthy warriors_), 368; pres. subj. swā him ge-met þince, 688; inf. þincean, 1342; pret. sg. þūhte, 2462, 3058; nō his līf-gedāl sār-līc þūhte secga ǣnigum (_his death seemed painful to none of men_), 843; pret. pl. þǣr him fold-wegas fægere þūhton, 867.

of-þincan, _to displease, offend_: inf. mæg þæs þonne of-þyncan þēoden (dat.) Heaðo-beardna and þegna gehwām þāra lēoda, 2033.

þyrs, st. m., _giant_: dat. sg. wið þyrse (Grendel), 426.

þys-līc, adj., _such, of such a nature_: nom. sg. fem. þys-līcu þearf, 2638.

þȳ. See þæt.

þȳwan (M.H.G. diuhen, O.H.G. duhan), w. v., _to crush, oppress_: inf. gif þec ymb-sittend egesan þȳwað (_if thy neighbors oppress thee with dread_), 1828.

þȳstru, st. f., _darkness_: dat. pl. in þȳstrum, 87.

ge-þȳwe, adj., _customary, usual_: nom. sg. swā him ge-þȳwe ne wæs (_as was not his custom_), 2333.


ufan, _adv., from above_, 1501; _above_, 330.

ufera (prop. _higher_), adj., _later_: dat. pl. ufaran dōgrum, 2201, 2393.

ufor, adv., _higher_, 2952.

umbor, st. n., _child, infant_: acc. sg., 46; dat. sg., 1188.

un-blīðe, adv.(?), _unblithely, sorrowfully_, 130, 2269; (adj., nom. pl.?), 3032.

un-byrnende, pres. part., _unburning, without burning_, 2549.

unc, dat. and acc. of the dual wit, _us two, to us two_, 1784, 2138, 2527; gen. hwæðer ... uncer twēga (_which of us two_), 2533; uncer Grendles (_of us two, G. and me_), 2003.

uncer, poss. pron., _of us two_: nom. sg. [uncer], 2002(?); dat. pl. uncran eaferan, 1186.

un-cūð, adj.: 1) _unknown_: nom. sg. stīg ... eldum uncūð, 2215; acc. sg. neut. uncūð ge-lād (_unknown ways_), 1411.--2) _unheard-of, barbarous, evil_: acc. sg. un-cūðne nīð, 276; gen. sg. un-cūðes (_of the foe_, Grendel), 961.

under, I. prep. w. dat. and acc.: 1) w. dat., answering question where? = _under_ (of rest), contrasted with _over_: bāt (wæs) under beorge, 211; þā cwōm Wealhþēo forð gān under gyldnum bēage (_W. walked forth under a golden circlet_, i.e. decked with), 1164; siððan hē under segne sine ealgode (_under his banner_), 1205; hē under rande ge-cranc (_sank under his shield_), 1210; under wolcnum, 8, 1632; under heofenum, 52, 505; under roderum, 310; under helme, 342, 404; under here-grīman, 396, 2050, 2606; so, 711, 1198, 1303, 1929, 2204, 2416, 3061, 3104.--2) w. acc.: a) answering question whither? = _under_ (of motion): þā secg wīsode under Heorotes hrōf, 403; siððan ǣfen-lēoht under heofenes hādor be-holen weorðeð, 414; under sceadu bregdan, 708; flēon under fen-hleoðu, 821; hond ālegde ... under gēapne hrōf, 837; tēon in under eoderas, 1038; so, 1361, 1746, 2129, 2541, 2554, 2676, 2745; so, hæfde þā for-sīðod sunu Ecg-þēowes under gynne grund, 1552 (for-sīðian requires acc.). b) after verbs of venturing and fighting, with acc. of object had in view: hē under hārne stān ...āna ge-nēðde frēcne dǣde, 888; ne dorste under ȳða ge-win aldre ge-nēðan, 1470. c) indicating extent, with acc. after expressions of limit, etc.: under swegles begong (_as far as the sky extends_), 861, 1774; under heofenes hwealf (_as far as heaven's vault reaches_), 2016.

II. Adv., _beneath, below_: stīg under læg (_a path lay beneath_, i.e. the rock), 2214.

undern-mǣl, st. n., _midday_: acc. sg., 1429.

un-dyrne, un-derne, adj., _without concealment, plain, clear_: nom. sg., 127, 2001; un-derne, 2912.

un-dyrne, adv., _plainly, evidently_; un-dyrne cūð, 150, 410.

un-fǣger, adj., _unlovely, hideous_: nom. sg. lēoht un-fǣger, 728.

un-fǣcne, adj., _without malice, sincere_: nom. sg., 2069.

un-fǣge, adj., _not death-doomed_ or "_fey_": nom. sg., 2292; acc. sg. un-fǣgne eorl, 573.

un-flitme, adv., _solemnly, incontestably_: Finn Hengeste elne unflitme āðum benemde (_F. swore solemnly to H. with oaths_) [if an adj., elne un-f. = _unconquerable in valor_], 1098.

un-forht, adj., _fearless, bold_: nom. sg., 287; acc. pl. unforhte (adv.?), 444. See Note.

un-from, adj., _unfit, unwarlike_: nom. sg., 2189.

un-frōd, adj., _not aged, young_: dat sg. guman un-frōdum, 2822.

un-gedēfelīce, adv., _unjustly, contrary to right and custom_, 2436.

un-gemete, adv., _immeasurably, exceedingly_, 2421, 2722, 2729.

un-gemetes, adv. gen. sg., the same, 1793.

un-geāra, adv., (_not old_), _recently, lately_, 933; _soon_, 603.

un-gifeðe, adj., _not to be granted; refused_: nom. sg., 2922.

un-glēaw, adj., _regardless, reckless_: acc. sg. sweord ... ecgum unglēaw (of a sharp-edged sword), 2565.

un-hār, adj., _very gray_: nom. sg., 357; (_bald_?).

un-hǣlo, st. f., _mischief, destruction_: gen. sg. wiht un-hǣlo (_the demon of destruction_, Grendel), 120.

un-hēore, un-hȳre, adj., _monstrous, horrible_: nom. sg. m., weard un-hīore (the dragon), 2414; neut. wīf un-hȳre (Grendel's mother), 2121; nom. pl. neut. hand-sporu ... unhēoru (of Grendel's claws), 988.

un-hlytme, un-hlitme, adv. (cf. A.S. hlytm = _lot_; O.N. hluti = _part division_), _undivided, unseparated_, _united_, 1130 [unless = un-flitme, 1098]. See Note.

un-lēof, adj., _hated_: acc. pl. seah on un-lēofe, 2864.

un-lifigende, pres. part., _unliving, lifeless_: nom. sg. un-lifigende, 468; acc. sg. un-lyfigendne, 1309; dat. sg. un-lifgendum, 1390; gen. sg. un-lyfigendes, 745.

un-lȳtel, adj., _not little, very large_: nom. sg. duguð un-lȳtel (_a great band of warriors_? or _great joy_?), 498; dōm un-lȳtel (_no little glory_), 886; acc. sg. torn un-lȳtel (_very great shame, misery_), 834.

un-murnlīce, adv., _unpityingly, without sorrowing_, 449, 1757.

unnan, pret.-pres. v., _to grant, give; wish, will_: pret.-pres. sg. I. ic þē an tela sinc-gestrēona, 1226; weak pret. sg. I. ūðe ic swīðor þæt þū hine selfne ge-sēon mōste, 961; III. hē ne ūðe þæt ...(_he granted not that ..._), 503; him god ūðe þæt ... hē hyne sylfne ge-wræc (_God granted to him that he avenged himself_), 2875; þēah hē ūðe wēl (_though he well would_), 2856.

ge-unnan, _to grant, permit_: inf. gif hē ūs ge-unnan wile þæt wē hine ... grētan mōton, 346; mē ge-ūðe ylda waldend, þæt ic ... ge-seah hangian (_the Ruler of men permitted me to see hanging ..._), 1662.

un-nyt, adj., _useless_: nom. sg., 413, 3170.

un-riht, st. n., _unright, injustice, wrong_: acc. sg. unriht, 1255, 2740; instr. sg. un-rihte (_unjustly, wrongly_), 3060.

un-rīm, st. n., _immense number_: nom. sg., 1239, 3136; acc. sg., 2625.

un-rīme, adj., _countless, measureless_: nom. sg. gold un-rīme, 3013.

un-rōt, adj., _sorrowing_: nom. pl. un-rōte, 3149.

un-snyttru, st. f., _lack of wisdom_: dat. pl. for his un-snyttrum (_for his unwisdom_), 1735.

un-softe, adv., _unsoftly, with violence_ (_hardly_?), 2141; _scarcely_, 1656.

un-swȳðe, adv., _not strongly_ or _powerfully_: compar. (ecg) bāt unswīðor þonne his þīod-cyning þearfe hæfde (_the sword bit less sharply than the prince of the people needed_), 2579; fȳr unswīðor wēoll, 2882.

un-synnig, adj., _guiltless, sinless_: acc. sg. un-synnigne, 2090.

un-synnum, adv. instr. pl., _guiltlessly_, 1073.

un-tǣle, adj., _blameless_: acc. pl. un-tǣle, 1866.

un-tȳder, st. m., _evil race, monster_: nom. pl. un-tȳdras, 111. [Cf. Ger. un-mensch.]

un-wāclīc, adj., _that cannot be shaken; firm, strong_: acc. sg. ād ... un-wāclīcne, 3139.

un-wearnum, adv. instr. pl., _unawares, suddenly_; (_unresistingly_?), 742.

un-wrecen, pret. part., _unavenged_, 2444.

up, adv., _up, upward_, 224, 519, 1374, 1620, 1913, 1921, 2894; (of the voice), þā wæs ... wōp up āhafen, 128; so, 783.

up-lang, adj., _upright, erect_: nom. sg., 760.

uppe (adj., ūfe, ūffe), adv., _above_, 566.

up-riht, adj., _upright, erect_: nom. sg., 2093.

uton. See wuton.


ūð-genge, adj., _transitory, evanescent, ready to depart_, (_fled_?): þǣr wæs Æsc-here ... feorh ūð-genge, 2124.

ūhte, w. f., _twilight_ or _dawn_: dat. or acc. on ūhtan, 126.

ūht-floga, w. m., _twilight-flier, dawn-flier_ (epithet of the dragon): gen. sg. ūht-flogan, 2761.

ūht-hlem, st. m., _twilight-cry, dawn-cry_: acc. sg., 2008.

ūht-sceaða, w. m., _twilight-_ or _dawn-foe_: nom. sg., 2272.

ūs, pers. pron. dat. and acc. of wē (see wē), _us, to us_, 1822, 2636, 2643, 2921, 3002, 3079; acc. (poetic), ūsic, 2639, 2641, 2642;--gen. ūre: ūre ǣg-hwylc (_each of us_), 1387; ūser, 2075.

ūser, possess, pron.: nom. sg. ūre man-drihten, 2648; dat. sg. ūssum hlāforde, 2635; gen. sg. neut. ūsses cynnes, 2814; dat. pl. ūrum ... bām (_to us both, two_) (for unc bām), 2660.

ūt, adv., _out_, 215, 537, 664, 1293, 1584, 2082, 2558, 3131.

ūtan, adv., _from without, without_, 775, 1032, 1504, 2335.

ūt-fūs, adj., _ready to go_: nom. sg. hringed-stefna īsig and ūt-fūs, 33.

ūt-weard, adj., _outward, outside, free_: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel) wæs ūt-weard, 762.

ūtan-weard, adj., _without, outward, from without_: acc. sg. hlǣw ... ealne ūtan-weardne, 2298.


wacian, w. v., _to watch_: imper. sg. waca wið wrāðum! 661.

wadan, st. v., (cf. wade, waddle) _to traverse; stride, go_: pret. sg. wōd þurh þone wæl-rēc, 2662; wōd under wolcnum (_stalked beneath the clouds_), 715.

ge-wadan, _to attain by moving, come to, reach_: pret. part. oð þæt ... wunden-stefna ge-waden hæfde, þæt þā līðende land ge-sāwon (_till the ship had gone so far that the sailors saw land_), 220.

on-wadan, w. acc., _to invade, befall_: pret. sg. hine fyren on-wōd(?), 916.

þurh-wadan, _to penetrate, pierce_: pret. sg. þæt swurd þurh-wōd wrǣt-līcne wyrm, 891; so, 1568.

wāg, st. m., _wall_: dat. sg. on wāge, 1663; dat. pl. æfter wāgum (_along the walls_), 996.

wala, w. m., _boss_: nom. pl. walan, 1032 (cf. Bouterwek in Haupt XI., 85 seqq.).

walda, w. m., _wielder, ruler_: in comp. an-, eal-walda.

wald-swaðu, st. f., _forest-path_: dat. pl. æfter wald-swaðum (_along the wood-paths_), 1404.

wam, wom, st. m., _spot, blot, sin_: acc. sg. him be-beorgan ne con wom (_cannot protect himself from evil_ or _from the evil strange orders_, etc.; wom = wogum? = _crooked_?), 1748; instr. pl. wommum, 3074.

wan, won, adj., _wan, lurid, dark_: nom. sg, ȳð-geblond ... won (_the dark waves_), 1375; se wonna hrefn (_the black raven_), 3025; wonna lēg (_lurid flame_), 3116; dat. sg. f. on wanre niht, 703; nom. pl. neut. scadu-helma ge-sceapu ... wan, 652.

wang, st. m., _mead, field; place_: acc. sg. wang, 93, 225; wong, 1414, 2410, 3074; dat. sg. wange, 2004; wonge, 2243, 3040; acc. pl. wongas, 2463.--Comp.: freoðo-, grund-, medo-, sǣ-wang.

wang-stede, st. m., (locus campestris), _spot, place_: dat. sg. wong-stede, 2787.

wan-hȳd (for hygd), st. f., _heedlessness, recklessness_: dat. pl. for his won-hȳdum, 434.

wanian, w. v.: 1) intrans., _to decrease, wane_: inf. þā þæt sweord ongan ... wanian, 1608.--2) w. acc., _to cause to wane_ or _lessen_: pret. sg. hē tō lange lēode mīne wanode, 1338.

ge-wanian, _to decrease, diminish_: pret. part. is mīn flet-werod ... ge-wanod, 477.

wan-sǣlig, adj., _unhappy, wretched_: nom. sg. won-sǣlig wer (Grendel), 105.

wan-sceaft, st. f., _misery, want_: acc. sg. won-sceaft, 120.

warian, w. v. w. acc., _to occupy, guard, possess_: pres. sg. III. þǣr hē hǣðen gold warað (_where he guards heathen gold_), 2278; pl. III. hīe (Grendel and his mother) dȳgel land warigeað, 1359; pret. sg. (Grendel) goldsele warode, 1254; (Cain) wēsten warode, 1266.

waroð, st. m., _shore_: dat. sg. tō waroðe, 234; acc. pl. wide waroðas, 1966.

waru, st. f., _inhabitants_, (collective) _population_: in comp. land-waru.

wā, interj., _woe!_ wā bið þǣm þe... (_woe to him that..._), 183.

wāðu, st. f., _way, journey_: in comp. gamen-wāðu.

wānian, w. v., _to weep, whine, howl_, w. acc.: inf. gehȳrdon ... sār wānigean helle hæftan (_they heard the hell-fastened one lamenting his pain_), 788; pret. sg. [wānode], 3152(?).

wāt. See witan.

wæcean, w. v., _to watch_: pret. part wæccende, 709, 2842; acc. sg. m. wæccendne wer, 1269. See wacian.

wæcnan, w. v., _to be awake, come forth_: inf., 85.

wæcnan, st. v., _to awake, arise, originate_: pret. sg. þanon (from Cain) wōc fela geō-sceaft-gāsta, 1266; so, 1961; pl. þām fēower bearn ... in worold wōcun, 60.

on-wæcnan: 1) _to awake_ (intrans.): pret. sg. þā se wyrm on-wōc (_when the drake awoke_), 2288.--2) _to be born_: pret. sg. him on-wōc hēah Healfdene, 56; pl. on-wōcon, 111.

wæd, st. n., (the moving) _sea, ocean_: nom. wado weallende, 546; wadu weallendu, 581; gen. pl. wada 508.

wǣfre, adj., _wavering_ (like flame), _ghostlike, without distinct bodily form_: nom. sg. wæl-gǣst wǣfre (of Grendel's mother), 1332;--_flickering, expiring_: nom. sg. wǣfre mōd, 1151; him wæs geōmor sefa, wǣfre and wæl-fūs, 2421.

be-wægnan, w. v., _to offer_: pret part, him wæs ... frēond-laðu wordum be-wægned, 1194.

wæl, st. n., _battle, slaughter, the slain in battle_: acc. sg. wæl, 1213, 3028, blōdig wæl, 448; oððe on wæl crunge (_or in battle, among the slain, fall_), 636; dat. sg. sume on wæle crungon (_some fell in the slaughter_), 1114; dat. sg. in wæle (proper name in MS. destroyed), 1071; nom. pl. walu, 1043.

wæl-bed, st. n., _slaughter-bed, deathbed_: dat. sg. on wæl-bedde, 965.

wæl-bend, st. f., _death-bond_: acc. sg. or pl. wæl-bende ... hand-gewriðene, 1937.

wæl-blēat, adj., _deadly, mortal, cruel_: acc. sg. wunde wæl-blēate, 2726.

wæl-dēað, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 696.

wæl-drēor, st. m., _battle-gore_: instr. sg. wæl-drēore, 1632.

wæl-fāh, adj., _slaughter-stained, blood-stained_: acc. sg. wæl-fāgne winter, 1129.

wæl-fæhð, st. f., _deadly feud_: gen. pl. wæl-fǣhða, 2029.

wæl-feall, st. m., _(fall of the slain), death, destruction_: dat. sg. tō wæl-fealle, 1712.

wæl-fūs, adj., _ready for death, foreboding death_: nom. sg., 2421.

wæl-fyllo, st. f., _fill of slaughter_: dat. sg. mid þǣre wæl-fulle (i.e. the thirty men nightly slaughtered at Heorot by Grendel), 125; wæl-fylla? 3155.

wæl-fȳr, st. n.: 1) _deadly fire_: instr. sg. wæl-fȳre (of the fire-spewing dragon), 2583.--2) _corpse-consuming fire, funeral pyre_: gen. pl. wæl-fȳra mǣst, 1120.

wæl-gǣst, st. m., _deadly sprite_ (of Grendel and his mother): nom. sg. wæl-gǣst, 1332; acc. sg. þone wæl-gǣst, 1996.

wæl-hlem, st. m., _death-stroke_: acc. sg. wæl-hlem þone, 1996.

wælm, st. m., _flood, whelming water_: nom. sg. þǣre burnan wælm, 2547; gen. sg. þæs wælmes (_of the surf_), 2136.--Comp. cear-wælm.

wæl-nīð, st. m., _deadly hostility_: nom. sg., 3001; dat. sg. æfter wæl-nīðe, 85; nom. pl. wæl-nīðas, 2066.

wæl-rāp, st. m., _flood-fetter, i.e. ice_: acc. pl. wæl-rāpas, 1611; (cf. wæll, wel, wyll = _well, flood_: leax sceal on wæle mid scēote scrīðan, Gnom. Cott. 39).

wæl-rǣs, st. m., _deadly onslaught_: nom. sg., 2948; dat. sg. wæl-rǣse, 825, 2532.

wæl-rest, st. f., _death-bed_, acc. sg. wæl-reste, 2903.

wæl-rēc, st. m., _deadly reek_ or _smoke_: acc. sg. wōd þā þurh þone wæl-rēc, 2662.

wæl-rēaf, st, n., _booty of the slain, battle-plunder_: acc. sg., 1206.

wæl-rēow, adj., _bold in battle_: nom. sg., 630.

wæl-sceaft, st. m., _deadly shaft, spear_: acc. pl. wæl-sceaftas, 398.

wæl-seax, st. n., _deadly knife, war-knife_: instr. sg. wæll-seaxe, 2704.

wæl-stenge, st. m., _battle-spear_: dat. sg. on þām wæl-stenge, 1639.

wæl-stōw, st. f., _battle-field_: dat. sg. wæl-stōwe, 2052, 2985.

wæstm, st. m., _growth, form, figure_: dat. sg. on weres wæstmum (_in man's form_), 1353.

wæter, st. n., _water_: nom. sg., 93, 1417, 1515, 1632; acc. sg. wæter, 1365, 1620; dēop wæter (_the deep_), 509, 1905; ofer wīd wæter (_over the high sea]_, 2474; dat. sg. æfter wætere _(along the Grendel-sea_), 1426; under wætere (_at the bottom of the sea_), 1657; instr. wætere, 2723; wætre, 2855; gen. sg. ofer wæteres hrycg (_over the surface of the sea_), 471; on wæteres ǣht, 516; þurh wæteres wylm (_through the sea-wave_), 1694; gen. = instr. wæteres weorpan (_to sprinkle with water_), 2792.

wæter-egesa, st. m., _water-terror_, i.e. _the fearful sea_: acc. sg., 1261

wæter-ȳð, st. f., _water-wave, billow_: dat. pl. wæter-ȳðum, 2243.

wǣd, st. f., _(weeds), garment_: in comp. here-, hilde-wǣd.

ge-wǣde, st. n., _clothing_, especially _battle-equipments_: acc. pl. gewǣdu, 292.--Comp. eorl-gewǣde.

wǣg, st. m., _wave_: acc. sg. wǣg, 3133.

wǣg-bora, w. m., _wave-bearer, swimmer_ (bearing or propelling the waves before him): nom. sg. wundorlīc wǣg-bora (of a sea-monster), 1441.

wǣg-flota, w. m., _sea-sailer, ship_: acc. sg. wēg-flotan, 1908.

wǣg-holm, st. m., _the wave-filled sea_: acc. sg. ofer wǣg-holm, 217.

wǣge, st. n., _cup, can_: acc. sg. fǣted wǣge, 2254, 2283.--Comp.: ealo-, līð-wǣge.

wǣg-līðend, pres. part., _sea-farer_: dat. pl. wǣg-līðendum (et līðendum, MS.), 3160.

wǣg-sweord, st. n., _heavy sword_: acc. sg., 1490.

wǣn, st. m., _wain, wagon_: acc. sg. on wǣn, 3135.

wǣpen, st. n., _weapon; sword_: nom. sg., 1661; acc. sg. wǣpen, 686, 1574, 2520, 2688; instr. wǣpne, 1665, 2966; gen. wǣpnes, 1468; acc. pl. wǣpen, 292; dat. pl. wǣpnum, 250, 331, 2039, 2396. --Comp.: hilde-, sige-wǣpen.

wǣpned-man, st. m., _warrior, man_: dat. sg. wǣpned-men, 1285.

wǣr, st. f., _covenant, treaty_: acc. sg. wǣre, 1101;--_protection, care_: dat. sg. on frēan (on þæs waldendes) wǣre (_into God's protection_), 27, 3110.--Comp.: frioðo-wǣr.

wǣsma, w. m., _fierce strength, war-strength_: in comp. here-wǣsma, 678.

wē, pers. pron., _we_, 942, 959, 1327, 1653, 1819, 1820, etc.

web, st. n., _woven work, tapestry_:, nom. pl. web, 996.

webbe, w. f., _webster, female weaver_: in comp. freoðu-webbe.

weccan, weccean, w. v. w. acc., _to wake, rouse; recall_: inf. wīg-bealu weccan (_to stir up strife_), 2047; nalles hearpan swēg (sceal) wīgend weccean (_the sound of the harp shall not wake up the warriors_), 3025; ongunnon þā ... bǣl-fȳra mǣst wīgend weccan (_the warriors then began to start the mightiest of funeral pyres_), 3145; pret. sg. wehte hine wætre (_roused him with water_, i.e. Wīglāf recalled Bēowulf to consciousness), 2855.

tō-weccan, _to stir up, rouse_: pret, pl. hū þā folc mid him (_with one another_), fǣhðe tō-wehton, 2949.

wed, st. n., (cf. wed-ding), _pledge_: dat. sg. hyldo tō wedde (_as a pledge of his favor_), 2999.

weder, st. n., _weather_: acc. pl. wuldor-torhtan weder, 1137; gen. pl. wedera cealdost, 546.

ge-wef, st. n., _woof, weaving_: acc. pl. wīg-spēda ge-wiofu (_the woof of war-speed_: the battle-woof woven for weal or woe by the Walkyries; cf. Njals-saga, 158), 698.

weg, st. m., _way_: acc. sg. on weg (_away, off_), 264, 764, 845, 1431, 2097; gyf þū on weg cymest (_if thou comest off safe_, i.e. from the battle with Grendel's mother), 1383.--Comp.: feor-, fold-, forð-, wīd-weg.

wegan, st. v. w. acc., _to bear, wear, bring, possess_: subj. pres. nāh hwā sweord wege (_I have none that may bear the sword_), 2253; inf. nalles (sceal) eorl wegan māððum tō ge-myndum (_no earl shall wear a memorial jewel_), 3016; pret. ind. hē þā frætwe wæg ... ofer ȳða ful (_bore the jewels over the goblet of the waves_), 1208; wæl-seaxe ... þæt hē on byrnan wæg, 2705; heortan sorge wæg (_bore heart's sorrow_); so, 152, 1778, 1932, 2781.

æt-wegan = _auferre, to carry off_: syððan Hāma æt-wæg tō þǣre byrhtan byrig Brōsinga mene (_since H. bore from the bright city the Brōsing-collar_), 1199.

ge-wegan (O.N. wega), _to fight_: inf. þē hē wið þām wyrme ge-wegan sceolde, 2401.

wēl, well, adv.: 1) _well_: wēl bið þǣm þe ... (_well for him that ...!_), 186; sē þe wēl þenceð (_he that well thinketh, judgeth_), 289; so, 640, 1046, 1822, 1834, 1952, 2602; well, 2163, 2813.--2) _very, very much_: Gēat ungemetes wēl ... restan lyste (_the Geat longed sorely to rest_), 1793.--3) _indeed, to be sure_, 2571, 2856.

wela, w. m., _wealth, goods, possessions_: in comp. ǣr-, burg-, hord-, māððum-wela.

wēl-hwylc, indef. pron., = quivis, _any you please, any_ (each, all): gen. pl. wēl-hwylcra wilna, 1345; w. partitive gen.: nom. sg. witena wēl-hwylc, 266;--substantively: acc. neut. wēl-hwylc, 875.

welig, adj., _wealthy, rich_: acc. sg. wīc-stede weligne Wǣgmundinga, 2608.

wēl-þungen, pres. part., _well-thriven_ (in mind), _mature, high-minded_: nom. sg. Hygd (wæs) swīðe geong, wīs, wēl-þungen, 1928.

wenian, w. v., _to accustom, attract, honor_: subj. pret. þæt ... Folcwaldan sunu ... Hengestes hēap hringum wenede (_sh. honor_), 1092.

be-(bi-)wenian, _entertain, care for, attend_: pret. sg. mæg þæs þonne of-þyncan þēoden Heaðo-beardna ... þonne hē mid fǣmnan on flet gǣð, dryht-bearn Dena duguða bi-wenede (_may well displease the prince of the H.... when he with the woman goes into the hall, that a noble scion of the Danes should entertain, bear wine to, the knights_, cf. 494 seqq.; or, _a noble scion of the Danes should attend on her?_), 2036; pret. part. nom. pl. wǣron hēr tela willum be-wenede, 1822.

wendan, w. v., _to turn_: pres. sg. III. him eal worold wendeð on willan (_all the world turns at his will_), 1740.

ge-wendan, w. acc.: l) _to turn, turn round_: pret. sg. wicg gewende (_turned his horse_), 315.--2) _to turn_ (intrans.), _change_: inf. wā bið þǣm þe sceal ... frōfre ne wēnan, wihte ge-wendan (_woe to him that shall have no hope, shall not change at all_), 186.

on-wendan, _to avert, set aside_: 1) w. acc.: inf. ne mihte snotor hæleð wēan on-wendan, 191.--2) intrans.: sibb ǣfre ne mæg wiht on-wendan þām þe wēl þenceð (_in, to, him that is well thinking friendship can not be set aside_), 2602.

wer, st. m., _man, hero_: nom. sg. (Grendel), 105; acc. sg. wer (Bēowulf), 1269, 3174; gen. sg. on weres wæstmum (_in man's form_), 1353; nom. pl. weras, 216, 1223, 1234, 1441, 1651; dat. pl. werum, 1257; gen. pl. wera, 120, 994, 1732, 3001; (MS. weora), 2948.

wered, st. n., (as adj. = _sweet_), _a sort of beer_ (probably without hops or such ingredients): acc. sg. scīr wered, 496.

were-feohte, f., _defensive fight, fight in self-defence_: dat. pl. for were-fyhtum (fere fyhtum, MS.), 457.

werhðo, st. f., _curse, outlawry, condemnation_: acc. sg. þū in helle scealt werhðo drēogan, 590.

werian, _to defend, protect_: w. vb., pres. sg. III. beaduscrūda ... þæt mīne brēost wereð, 453; inf. wit unc wið hron-fixas werian þōhton, 541; pres. part. w. gen. pl. wergendra tō lȳt (_too few defenders_), 2883; pret. ind. wæl-rēaf werede (_guarded the battle-spoil_), 1206; se hwīta helm hafelan werede (_the shining helm protected his head_), 1449; pl. hafelan weredon, 1328; pret. part. nom. pl. gē ... byrnum werede (_ye_ ... _corselet-clad_), 238, 2530.

be-werian, _to protect, defend_: pret. pl. þæt hīe ... lēoda land-geweorc lāðum be-weredon scuccum and scinnum (_that they the people's land-work from foes, from monsters and demons, might defend_), 939

werig, adj., _accursed, outlawed_: gen. sg. wergan gāstes (Grendel), 133; (of the devil), 1748.

werod, weorod, st. n., _band of men, warrior-troop_: nom. sg. werod, 652; weorod, 290, 2015, 3031; acc. sg. werod, 319; dat. instr. sg. weorode, 1012, 2347; werede, 1216; gen. sg. werodes, 259; gen. pl. wereda, 2187; weoroda, 60.--Comp.: eorl-, flet-werod.

wer-þēod, st. f., _people, humanity_: dat. sg. ofer wer-þēode, 900.

wesan, v., _to be_: pres. sg. I. ic eom, 335, 407; II. þū eart, 352, 506; III. is, 256, 272, 316, 343, 375, 473, etc.; nū is þīnes mægenes blǣd āne hwīle (_the prime [fame?] of thy powers lasteth now for a while_), 1762; ys, 2911, 3000, 3085; pl. I. wē synt, 260, 342; II. syndon, 237, 393; III. syndon, 257, 361, 1231; synt, 364; sint, 388; subj. pres. sīe, 435, 683, etc.; sȳ, 1832, etc.; sig, 1779, etc.; imper. sg. II. wes, 269 (cf. wassail, wes hǣl), 407, 1171, 1220, 1225, etc.; inf. wesan, 272, 1329, 1860, 2709, etc. The inf. wesan must sometimes be supplied: nealles Hetware hrēmge þorfton (i.e. wesan) fēðe-wīges, 2364; so, 2498, 2660, 618, 1858; pres. part. wesende, 46; dat. sg. wesendum, 1188; pret. sg. I., III. wæs, 11, 12, 18, 36, 49, 53, etc.; wæs on sunde (_was a-swimming_), 1619; so, 848, 850(?), 970, 981, 1293; progressive, wæs secgende (for sǣde), 3029; II. wǣre, 1479, etc.; pl. wǣron, 233, 536, 544, etc.; wǣran (w. reflex, him), 2476; pret. subj. wǣre, 173, 203, 594, 946, etc.; progressive, myndgiend wǣre (for myndgie), 1106.--Contracted neg. forms: , nis = ne + is, 249, 1373, etc.; næs = ne + wæs, 134, 1300, 1922, 2193, etc. (cf. uncontracted: ne wæs, 890, 1472); nǣron = ne + wǣron, 2658; nǣre = ne + wǣre, 861, 1168. See cniht-wesende.

wēg. See wǣg.

wēn, st. f., _expectation, hope_: nom. sg., 735, 1874, 2324; nū is lēodum wēn orleg-hwīle (gen.) (_now the people have weening of a time of strife_), 2911; acc. sg. þæs ic wēn hæbbe (_as I hope, expect_), 383; so, þæs þe ic [wēn] hafo, 3001; wēn ic talige, 1846; dat. pl. bēga on wēnum _(in expectation of both_, i.e. the death and the return of Bēowulf), 2896. See or-wēna.

wēnan, w. v., _to ween, expect, hope_: 1) absolutely; pres. sg. I. þæs ic wēne (_as I hope_), 272; swā ic þē wēne tō _(as I hope thou wilt_: Bēowulf hopes Hrōðgār will now suffer no more pain), 1397.--2) w. gen. or acc. pres. sg. I. þonne wēne ic tō þē wyrsan ge-þinges, 525; ic þǣr heaðu-fȳres hātes wēne, 2523; III. secce ne wēneð to Gār Denum (_weeneth not of contest with the Gar-Danes_), 601; inf. (beorhtre bōte) wēnan (_to expect, count on, a brilliant_ [? _a lighter penalty_] _atonement_), 157; pret. pl. þæs ne wēndon ǣr witan Scyldinga þæt ... _the wise men of the Scyldings weened not of this before, that_...), 779; þæt hig þæs æðelinges eft ne wēndon þæt hē ... sēcean cōme _(that they looked not for the atheling again that he_ ... _would come to seek_ ...), 1598.--3) w. acc. inf.: pret. sg. wēnde, 934.--4) w. depend, clause: pres. sg. I. wēne ic þæt..., 1185; wēn' ic þæt..., 338, 442; pret. sg. wēnde, 2330; pl. wēndon, 938, 1605.

wēpan, st. v., _to weep_: pret. sg. [wēop], 3152 (?).

werig, adj., _weary, exhausted_, w. gen.: nom. sg. siðes wērig (_weary from the journey, way-weary_), 579; dat. sg. siðes wērgum, 1795;--w. instr.: acc. pl. wundum wērge _(wound-weary_), 2938.--Comp.: dēað-, fyl-, gūð-wērig.

ge-werigean, w. v., _to weary, exhaust_: pret. part. ge-wērgad, 2853.

wērig-mōd, adj., _weary-minded (animo defessus)_: nom. sg., 845, 1544.

wēste, adj., _waste, uninhabited_: acc. sg. win-sele wēstne, 2457.

wēsten, st. n., _waste, wilderness_: acc. sg. wēsten, 1266.

wēsten, st. f., _waste, wilderness_: dat. sg. on þǣre wēstenne, 2299.

weal, st. m.: 1 _wall, rampart_: dat. instr. sg. wealle, 786, 892, 3163; gen. sg. wealles, 2308.--2) _elevated sea-shore_: dat. sg. of wealle, 229; acc. pl. windige weallas, 572, 1225.--3) _wall of a building_: acc, sg. wið þæs recedes weal, 326; dat. sg. be wealle, 1574; hence, the inner and outer rock-walls of the dragon's lair (cf. Heyne's essay: Halle Heorot, p. 59): dat. sg., 2308, 2527, 2717, 2760, 3061, 3104; gen. sg. wealles, 2324.--Comp.: bord-, eorð-, sǣ-, scyld-weal.

ge-wealc, st. n., _rolling_: acc. sg. ofer ȳða ge-wealc, 464.

ge-weald, st. n., _power, might_: acc. sg. on fēonda ge-weald _(into the power of his foes_), 809, 904; so, 1685; geweald āgan, hæbban, ā-bēodan (w. gen. of object = _to present) = to have power over_, 79, 655, 765, 951, 1088, 1611, 1728. See on-weald.

wealdan, st. v., _to wield, govern, rule over, prevail_: 1) absolutely or with depend, clause: inf. gif hē wealdan mōt (_if he may prevail_), 442; þǣr hē ... wealdan mōste swā him Wyrd ne ge-scrāf (_if [where?] he was to prevail, as Weird had not destined for him_), 2575; pres. part. waldend (_God_), 1694; dat. wealdende, 2330; gen. waldendes, 2293, 2858, 3110.--2) with instr. or dat.: inf. þām wǣpnum wealdan (_to wield, prevail with, the weapons_), 2039; Gēatum wealdan (_to rule the Gēatas_), 2391; þēah-hordum wealdan (_to rule over, control, the treasure of rings_), 2828; wæl-stōwe wealdan (_to hold the field of battle_), 2985; pret. sg. wēold, 465, 1058, 2380, 2596; þenden wordum wēold wine Scyldinga (_while the friend of the S. ruled the G._), 30; pl. wēoldon, 2052.--3) with gen.: pres. sg. I. þenden ic wealde wīdan rīces, 1860; pres. part. wuldres wealdend(waldend), 17, 183, 1753; weard, 2514; the _'dragon_ is called ylda waldend, 1662; waldend fīra, 2742; sigora waldend, 2876 (designations of God); pret. sg. wēold, 703, 1771.

ge-wealdan, _to wield, have power over, arrange_: 1) w. acc.: pret. sg. hālig god ge-wēold wīg-sigor, 1555.--2) w. dat.: pret. cyning ge-wēold his ge-witte (_the king possessed his senses_), 2704.--3) w. gen.: inf. hē ne mihte nō ... wǣpna ge-wealdan, 1510.

ge-wealden, pret. part., _subject, subjected_: acc. pl. gedēð him swā gewealdene worolde dǣlas, 1733.

weallan, st. v.: 1) _to toss, be agitated_ (of the sea): pres. part. nom. pl. wadu weallende (weallendu), 546, 581; nom. sg. brim weallende, 848; pret. ind. wēol, 515, 850, 1132; wēoll, 2139.--2) figuratively (of emotions), _to be agitated_: pres. pl. III. syððan Ingelde weallað wæl-nīðas (_deadly hate thus agitates Ingeld_), 2066; pres. part. weallende, 2465; pret. sg. hreðer inne wēoll (_his heart was moved within him_), 2114; hreðer ǣðme wēoll (_his breast_ [the dragon's] _swelled from breathing, snorting_), 2594; brēost innan wēoll þēostrum ge-þoncum, 2332; so, wēoll, 2600, 2715, 2883.

weall-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: acc. sg. ofer weall-clif, 3133.

weallian, w. v., _to wander, rove about_: pres. part. in comp. heoro-weallende, 2782.

weard, st. m., _warden, guardian; owner_: nom. sg. weard Scyldinga (_the Scyldings' warden of the march_), 229; weard, 286, 2240; se weard, sāwele hyrde, 1742; the _king_ is called bēah-horda weard, 922; rīces weard, 1391; folces weard, 2514; the _dragon_ is called weard, 3061; weard un-hīore, 2414; beorges weard, 2581; acc. sg, weard, 669; (dragon), 2842; beorges weard (dragon), 2525, 3067.--Comp.: bāt-, ēðel-, gold-, hēafod-, hord-, hȳð-, land-, rēn-, sele-, yrfe-weard.

weard, st. m., _possession_ (Dietrich in Haupt XI., 415): in comp. eorð-weard, 2335.

weard, st. f., _watch, ward_: acc. sg. wearde healdan, 319; wearde hēold, 305.--Comp. ǣg-weard.

weard, adj., _-ward_: in comp. and-, innan-, ūt-weard, 1288, etc.

weardian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to watch, guard, keep_: inf. hē his folme forlēt tō līf-wraðe, lāst weardian (_Grendel left his hand behind as a life-saver, to guard his track_ [Kemble]), 972; pret. sg. him sīo swīðre swaðe weardade hand on Hiorte (_his right hand kept guard for him in H._, i.e. showed that he had been there), 2099; sg. for pl. hȳrde ic þæt þām frætwum fēower mēaras lungre gelīce last weardode (_I heard that four horses, quite alike, followed in the traces of the armor_), 2165.--2) _to hold, possess, inhabit_: pret. sg. fīfel-cynnes eard ... weardode (_dwelt in the abode of the sea-fiends_), 105; reced weardode un-rīm eorla (_an immense number of earls held the hall_), 1238; pl. þǣr wē gesunde sæl weardodon, 2076.

wearh, st. m., _the accursed one; wolf_: in comp. heoro-wearg, 1268.

wearn, st. f.: 1) _resistance, refusal_, 366.--2) _warning?, resistance?_ See un-wearnum, 742.

weaxan, st. v., _to wax, grow_: pres. sg. III. oð þæt him on innan ofer-hygda dǣl weaxeð (_till within him pride waxeth_), 1742; inf. weaxan, 3116; pret. sg. wēox, 8.

ge-weaxan, _to grow up_: pret. sg. oft þæt sēo geogoð ge-wēox, 66.

ge-weaxan to, _to grow to_ or _for something_: pret. sg. ne ge-wēox hē him to willan (_grew not for their benefit_), 1712.

wēa, w. m., _woe, evil, misfortune_: nom. sg., 937; acc. sg. wean, 191, 423, 1207, 1992, 2293, 2938; gen. pl. wēana, 148, 934, 1151, 1397.

wēa-lāf, st. f., _wretched remnant_: acc. pl. þā wēa-lāfe (_the wretched remnant_, i.e. Finn's almost annihilated band), 1085, 1099.

wēa-spel, st. n., _woe-spell, evil tidings_: dat. sg. wēa-spelle, 1316.

ge-weoldum. See ge-wild.

weorc, st. n.: 1) _work, labor, deed_: acc. sg., 74; (_war-deed_), 1657; instr. sg. weorce, 1570; dat. pl. weorcum, 2097; wordum ne (and) worcum, 1101, 1834; gen. pl. worda and worca, 289.--2) _work, trouble, suffering_: acc. sg. þæs gewinnes weorc (_misery on account of this strife_), 1722; dat. pl. adv. weorcum (_with labor_), 1639.--Comp.: bǣdo-, ellen-, heaðo-, niht-weorc.

ge-weorc, st. n.: 1) _work, deed, labor_: nom. acc. sg., 455, 1563, 1682, 2718, 2775; gen. sg. ge-weorces, 2712. Comp.: ǣr-, fyrn-, gūð-, hond-, nīð-ge-weorc.--2) _fortification, rampart_: in comp. land-geweorc, 939.

weorce, adj., _painful, bitter_: nom. sg., 1419.

weorð, st. n., _precious object, valuable_: dat. sg. weorðe, 2497.

weorð, adj., _dear, precious_: nom. sg. weorð Denum æðeling (_the atheling dear to the Danes_, Bēowulf), 1815; compar. nom. sg. þæt hē syððan wæs ... māðme þȳ weorðra (_more honored from the jewel_), 1903; cf. wyrðe.

weorðan, st. v.: 1) _to become_: pres. sg. III. beholen weorðeð (_is concealed_), 414; underne weorðeð (_becomes known_), 2914; so, pl. III. weorðað, 2067; wurðað, 282; inf. weorðan, 3179; wurðan, 808; pret. sg. I., III. wearð, 6, 77, 149, 409, 555, 754, 768, 819, 824, etc.; pl. wurdon, 228; subj. pret. wurde, 2732.--2) inf. to frōfre weorðan (_to become a help_), 1708; pret. sg. wearð hē Heaðolāfe tō hand-bonan, 460; so, wearð, 906, 1262; ne wearð Heremōd swā (i.e. to frōfre) eaforum Ecgwelan, 1710; pl. wurdon, 2204; subj. pret. sg. II. wurde, 588.--3) pret. sg. þæt hē on fylle wearð (_that he came to a fall_), 1545.--4) _to happen, befall_: inf. unc sceal weorðan ... swā unc Wyrd ge-tēoð (_it shall befall us two as Fate decrees_), 2527; þurh hwæt his worulde gedāl weorðan sceolde, 3069; pret. sg. þā þǣr sōna wearð ed-hwyrft eorlum (_there was soon a renewal to the earls_, i.e. of the former perils), 1281.

ge-weorðan: 1) _to become_: pret. sg. ge-wearð, 3062; pret. part. cearu wæs genīwod ge-worden (_care was renewed_), 1305; swā us ge-worden is, 3079.--2) _to finish; complete?_: inf. þæt þū ... lēte Sūð-Dene sylfe ge-weorðan gūðe wið Grendel (_that thou wouldst let the S. D. put an end to their war with Grendel_), 1997.--3) impersonally with acc., _to agree, decide_: pret. sg. þā þæs monige ge-wearð þæt ... (_since many agreed that_ ...), 1599; pret. part. hafað þæs ge-worden wine Scyldinga, rīces hyrde, and þæt rǣd talað þæt hē ... (_therefore hath it so appeared(?) advisable to the friend of the S., the guardian of the realm, and he counts it a gain that_ ...), 2027.

weorð-ful, adj., _glorious, full of worth_: nom. sg. weorð-fullost, 3100.

weorðian, w. v., _to honor, adorn_: pret. sg. þǣr ic ... þīne lēode weorðode weorcum (_there honored I thy people by my deeds_), 2097; subj. pret. (þæt hē) æt feoh-gyftum ... Dene weorðode (_that he would honor the Danes at, by, treasure-giving_), 1091.

ge-weorðian, ge-wurðian, _to deck, ornament_: pret. part. hire syððan wæs æfter bēah-þege brēost ge-weorðod, 2177; wǣpnum ge-weorðad, 250; since ge-weorðad, 1451; so, ge-wurðad, 331, 1039, 1646; wide ge-weorðad (_known, honored, afar_), 1960.

weorð-līce, adv., _worthily, nobly_: superl. weorð-līcost, 3163.

weorð-mynd, st. f. n., _dignity, honor, glory_: nom. sg., 65; acc. sg. geseah þā eald sweord ..., wigena weorðmynd (_saw an ancient sword there, the glory of warriors_), 1560; dat. instr. pl. weorð-myndum, 8; tō worð-myndum, 1187; gen. pl. weorð-mynda dǣl, 1753.

weorðung, st. f., _ornament_: in comp. brēost-, hām-, heorft-, hring-, wīg-weorðung.

weorod. See werod.

weorpan, st. v.: 1) _to throw, cast away_, w. acc.: pret. sg. wearp þā wunden-mǣl wrǣttum gebunden yrre ōretta, þæt hit on eorðan læg (_the wrathful warrior threw the ornamented sword, that it lay on the earth_), 1532.--2) _to throw around_ or _about_, w. instr.: pret. sg. beorges weard . .. wearp wæl-fȳre (_threw death-fire around_), 2583.--3) _to throw upon_: inf. hē hine eft ongan wæteres (instr. gen.) weorpan (_began to cast water upon him again_), 2792.

for-weorpan, w. acc., _to cast away, squander_: subj. pret. þæt hē gēnunga gūð-gewǣdu wrāðe for-wurpe (_that he squandered uselessly the battle-weeds_, i.e. gave them to the unworthy), 2873.

ofer-weorpan, _to stumble_: pret. sg. ofer-wearp þā ... wigena strengest, 1544.

weotian, w. v., _to provide with, adjust_(?): pret. part. acc. pl. wæl-bende weotode, 1937.

be-weotian, be-witian, w. v. w. acc., _to regard, observe, care for_: pres. pl. III. be-witiað, 1136; pret. sg. þegn ... sē þe ... ealle be-weotede þegnes þearfe (_who would attend to all the needs of a thane_), 1797; draca sē þe ... hord be-weotode (_the drake that guarded a treasure_), 2213;--_to carry out, undertake_: pres. pl. III. þā ... oft be-witigað sorh-fulne sīð on segl-rāde, 1429.

wicg, st. n., _steed, riding-horse_: nom. sg., 1401; acc. sg. wicg, 315; dat. instr. sg. wicge, 234; on wicge, 286; acc. pl. wicg, 2175; gen. pl. wicga, 1046.

ge-widor, st. n., _storm, tempest_: acc. pl. lāð ge-widru (_loathly weather_), 1376.

wið prep. w. dat. and acc., with fundamental meanings of division and opposition: 1) w. dat., _against, with_ (in hostile sense), _from_: þā wið gode wunnon, 113; āna (wan) wið eallum, 145; ymb feorh sacan, lāð wið lāðum, 440; so, 426, 439, 550, 2372, 2521, 2522, 2561, 2840, 3005; þæt him holt-wudu ... helpan ne meahte, lind wið līge, 2342; hwæt ... sēlest wǣre wið fǣr-gryrum tō ge-fremmanne, 174; þæt him gāst-bona gēoce gefremede wið þēod-þrēaum, 178; wið rihte wan (_strove against right_), 144; hæfde ... sele Hrōðgāres ge-nered wið nīðe (_had saved H.'s hall from strife_), 828; (him dyrne langað ...) beorn wið blōde (_the hero longeth secretly contrary to his blood_, i.e. H. feels a secret longing for the non-related Bēowulf), 1881; sundur ge-dǣlan līf wið līce (_to sunder soul from body_), 2424; strēamas wundon sund wið sande (_the currents rolled the sea against the sand_), 213; līg-ȳðum forborn bord wið ronde (rond, MS.) (_with waves of flame burnt the shield against, as far as, the rim_), 2674; holm storme wēol, won wið winde (_the sea surged, wrestled with the wind_), 1133; so, hiora in ānum wēoll sefa wið sorgum (_in one of them surged the soul with sorrow_ [_against_?, Heyne]), 2601; þæt hire wið healse heard grāpode (_that the sharp sword bit against her neck_), 1567.--2) w. acc.: a) _against, towards_: wan wið Hrōðgār (_fought against H._), 152; wið fēonda gehwone, 294; wið wrāð werod, 319; so, 540, 1998, 2535; hine hālig god ūs on-sende wið Grendles gryre, 384; þæt ic wið þone gūð-flogan gylp ofer-sitte (_that I refrain from boastful speech against the battle-flier_), 2529; ne wolde wið manna ge-hwone ... feorh-bealo feorran (_would not cease his life-plotting against any of the men_; or, _withdraw life-bale from_, etc.? or, _peace would not have with any man..., mortal bale withdraw_?, Kemble), 155; ic þā lēode wāt gē wið fēond gē wið frēond fæste geworhte (_towards foe and friend_), 1865; hēold hēah-lufan wið hæleða brego (_cherished high love towards the prince of heroes_), 1955; wið ord and wið ecge ingang forstōd (_prevented entrance to spear-point and sword-edge_), 1550. b) _against, on, upon, in_: setton sīde scyldas ... wið þæs recedes weal (_against the wall of the hall_), 326; wið eorðan fæðm (eardodon) (_in the bosom of the earth_), 3050; wið earm ge-sæt (_sat on, against, his arm_), 750; so, stīð-mōd ge-stōd wið stēapne rond, 2567; [wið duru healle ēode] (_went to the door of the hall_), 389; wið Hrefna-wudu (_over against, near, H._), 2926; wið his sylfes sunu setl ge-tǣhte (_showed me to a seat with, near, beside, his own son_), 2014. c) _towards, with_ (of contracting parties): þæt hīe healfre ge-weald wið Eotena bearn āgan mōston (_that they power over half the hall with the Eotens' sons were to possess_), 1089; þenden hē wið wulf wæl rēafode (_whilst with the wolf he was robbing the slain_), 3028.--3) Alternately with dat. and acc., _against_: nū wið Grendel sceal, wið þām āglǣcan, āna gehegan þing wið þyrse, 424-426;--_with, beside_: ge-sæt þā wið sylfne..., mǣg wið mǣge, 1978-79.

wiðer-gyld, st. n., _compensation_: nom. sg., 2052, [proper name?].

wiðer-ræhtes, adv., _opposite, in front of_, 3040.

wiðre, st. n., _resistance_: gen. sg. wiðres ne truwode, 2954.

wiht, st. f.: 1) _wight, creature, demon_: nom. sg. wiht unhǣlo (_the demon of destruction_, Grendel), 120; acc. sg. syllīcran wiht (the dragon), 3039.--2) _thing, something, aught_: nom. sg. w. negative, nē hine wiht dweleð (_nor does aught check him_), 1736; him wiht ne spēow (_it helped him naught_), 2855; acc. sg. nē him þæs wyrmes wīg for wiht dyde (_nor did he count the worm's warring for aught_), 2349; ne meahte ic ... wiht gewyrcan _(I could not do aught_ ...), 1661;--w. partitive gen.: nō ... wiht swylcra searo-niða, 581;--the acc. sg. = adv. like Germ. _nicht_: nē hīe hūru wine-drihten wiht ne lōgon (_did not blame their friendly lord aught_), 863; so, ne wiht = _naught, in no wise_, 1084, 2602, 2858; nō wiht, 541; instr. sg. wihte (_in aught, in any way_), 1992; ne ... wihte (_by no means_), 186, 2278, 2688; wihte ne, 1515, 1996, 2465, 2924.--Comp.: ā-wiht (āht = _aught_), æl-wiht, ō-wiht.

wil-cuma, w. m., _one welcome_ (qui gratus advenit): nom. pl. wil-cuman Denigea lēodum (_welcome to the people of the Danes_), 388; so, him (the lord of the Danes) wil-cuman, 394; wil-cuman Wedera lēodum (_welcome to the Gēatas_), 1895.

ge-wild, st. f., _free-will_? dat. pl. nealles mid ge-weoldum (_sponte, voluntarily_, Bugge), 2223.

wil-dēor (for wild-dēor), st. n., _wild beast_: acc. pl. wil-dēor, 1431.

wil-gesīð, st. m., _chosen_ or _willing companion_: nom. pl. -ge-sīðas, 23.

wil-geofa, w. m., _ready giver_ (= voti largitor: princely designation), _joy-giver_?: nom. sg. wil-geofa Wedra lēoda, 2901.

willa, w. m.: 1) _will, wish, desire, sake_: nom. sg. 627, 825; acc. sg. willan, 636, 1740, 2308, 2410; instr. sg. ānes willan (_for the sake of one_), 3078; so, 2590; dat. sg. tō willan, 1187, 1712; instr. pl. willum (_according to wish_), 1822; sylfes willum, 2224, 2640; gen. pl. wilna, 1345.--2) _desirable thing, valuable_: gen. pl. wilna, 661, 951.

willan, aux. v., _will_: in pres. also _shall_ (when the future action is depend. on one's free will): pres. sg. I. wille ic ā-secgan (_I will set forth, tell out_), 344; so, 351, 427; ic tō sǣ wille (_I will to sea_), 318; wylle, 948, 2149, 2513; sg. II. þū wylt, 1853; sg. III. hē wile, 346, 446, 1050, 1182, 1833; wyle, 2865; wille, 442, 1004, 1185, 1395; ǣr hē in wille (_ere he will in_, i.e. go or flee into the fearful sea), 1372; wylle, 2767; pl. I. wē ... wyllað, 1819; pret. sg. I., III. wolde, 68, 154, 200, 646, 665, 739, 756, 797, 881, etc.; nō ic fram him wolde (i.e. flēotan), 543; so, swā hē hira mā wolde (i.e. ā-cwellan), 1056; pret. pl. woldon, 482, 2637, 3173; subj. pret., 2730.--Forms contracted w. negative: pres. sg. I. nelle (= ne + wille, _I will not_, nolo), 680, 2525(?); pret. sg. III. nolde (= ne + wolde), 792, 804, 813, 1524; w. omitted inf. þā metod nolde, 707, 968; pret. subj. nolde, 2519.

wilnian, w. v., _to long for, beseech_: inf. wēl bið þǣm þe mōt ... tō fæder fæðmum freoðo wilnian (_well for him that may beseech protection in the Father's arms_), 188.

wil-sīð, st. m., _chosen journey_: acc. sg. wil-sīð, 216.

ge-win, st. n.: 1) _strife, struggle, enmity, conflict_: acc. sg., 878; þā hīe ge-win drugon (_endured strife_), 799; under ȳða ge-win (_under the tumult of the waves_), 1470; gen. sg. þæs ge-winnes weorc (_misery for this strife_), 1722.--2) _suffering, oppression_: nom. sg., 133, 191; acc. sg. eald ge-win, 1782.--Comp.: fyrn-, ȳð-ge-win.

wīn-ærn, st. n., _hall of hospitality, hall, wine-hall_: gen. sg. wīn-ærnes, 655.

wind, st. m., _wind, storm_: nom. sg., 547, 1375, 1908; dat. instr. sg. winde, 217; wið winde, 1133.

windan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to wind, whirl_: pret. sg. wand tō wolcnum wæl-fȳra mǣst, 1120.--2) w. acc., _to twist, wind, curl_: pret. pl. strēamas wundon sund wið sande, 212; pret. part. wunden gold (_twisted, spirally-twined, gold_), 1194, 3135; instr. pl. wundnum (wundum, MS.) golde, 1383.

æt-windan, _to wrest one's self from, escape_: pret. sg. sē þǣm fēonde æt-wand, 143.

be-windan, _to wind with_ or _round, clasp, surround, envelop_ (involvere): pret. sg. þē hit (the sword) mundum be-wand, 1462; pret. part. wīrum be-wunden (_wound with wires_) 1032; feorh ... flǣsce be-wunden (_flesh-enclosed_), 2425; gār ... mundum be-wunden (_a spear grasped with the hands_), 3023; iū-manna gold galdre be-wunden (_spell-encircled gold_), 3053; (āstāh ...) lēg wōpe be-wunden (_uprose the flame mingled with a lament_), 3147.

ge-windan, _to writhe, get loose, escape_: inf. wīdre ge-windan (_to flee further_), 764; pret. sg. on flēam ge-wand, 1002.

on-windan, _to unwind, loosen_: pres. sg. (þonne fæder) on-windeð wæl-rāpas, 1611.

win-dæg, st. m., _day of struggle_ or _suffering_: dat. pl. on þyssum win-dagum (_in these days of sorrow_, i.e. of earthly existence), 1063.

wind-bland (blond), st. n., _wind-roar_: nom. sg., 3147.

wind-gereste, f., _resting-place of the winds_: acc. sg., 2457.

windig, adj., _windy_: acc. pl. windige (weallas, næssas), 572, 1359; windige weallas (wind geard weallas, MS.), 1225.

wine, st. m., _friend, protector_, especially the _beloved ruler_: nom. sg. wine Scyldinga, lēof land-fruma (Scyld), 30; wine Scyldinga (Hrōðgār), 148, 1184. As vocative: mīn wine, 2048; wine mīn, Bēowulf (Hunferð), 457, 530, 1705; acc. sg. holdne wine (Hrōðgār), 376; wine Deniga, Scyldinga, 350, 2027; dat. sg. wine Scyldinga, 170; gen. sg. wines (Bēowulf), 3097; acc. pl. wine, 21; dat. pl. Denum eallum, winum Scyldinga, 1419; gen. pl. winigea lēasum, 1665; winia bealdor, 2568.--Comp.: frēa-, frēo-, gold-, gūð-, mǣg-wine.

wine-dryhten, st. m., (dominus amicus), _friendly lord, lord and friend_: acc. sg. wine-drihten, 863, 1605; wine-dryhten, 2723, 3177; dat. sg. wine-drihtne, 360.

wine-geōmor, adj., _friend-mourning_: nom. sg., 2240.

wine-lēas, adj., _friendless_: dat. sg. wine-lēasum, 2614.

wine-mǣg, st. m., _dear kinsman_: nom. pl. wine-māgas, 65.

ge-winna, w. m., _striver, struggler, foe_: comp. eald-, ealdor-gewinna.

winnan, st. v., _to struggle, fight_: pret. sg. III. wan āna wið eallum, 144; Grendel wan ... wið Hrōðgār, 151; holm ... won wið winde (_the sea fought with the wind_: cf. wan wind endi water, Heliand, 2244), 1133; II. eart þū se Bēowulf, sē þe wið Brecan wunne, 506; pl. wið gode wunnon, 113; þǣr þā graman wunnon (_where the foes fought_), 778.

wīn-reced, st. n., _wine-hall, guest-hall, house for entertaining guests_: acc. sg., 715, 994.

wīn-sele, st. m., the same, _wine-hall_: nom. sg., 772; dat. sg. wīn-sele, 696 (cf. Heliand Glossary, 369 [364]).

winter, st. m. n.: 1) _winter_: nom. sg., 1133, 1137; acc. sg. winter, 1129; gen. sg. wintres, 516.--2) _year_ (counted by winters): acc. pl. fīftig wintru (neut.), 2210; instr. pl. wintrum, 1725, 2115, 2278; gen. pl. wintra, 147, 264, 1928, 2279, 2734, 3051.

wintre, adj., _so many winters_ (old): in comp. syfan-wintre.

ge-wislīce, adv., _certainly, undoubtedly_: superl. gewislīcost, 1351.

wist, st. f., fundamental meaning = _existentia_, hence: 1) _good condition, happiness, abundance_: dat. sg. wunað hē on wiste, 1736.--2) _food, subsistence, booty_: dat. sg. þā wæs æfter wiste wōp up ā-hafen (_a cry was then uplifted after the meal_, i.e. Grendel's meal of thirty men), 128.

wist-fyllo, st. f., _fulness_ or _fill of food, rich meal_: gen. sg. wist-fylle, 735.

wit, st. n., (wit), _understanding_: nom. sg., 590.--Comp.: fyr-, in-wit.

ge-wit, st. n.: 1) _consciousness_. dat. sg. ge-wēold his ge-witte, 2704.--2) _heart, breast_: dat. sg. fȳr unswīðor wēoll (_the fire surged less strongly from the dragon's breast_), 2883.

wit, pers. pron. dual of wē, _we two_, 535, 537, 539, 540, 544, 1187, etc. See unc, uncer.

wita, weota, w. m., _counsellor, royal adviser_; pl., _the king's council of nobles_: nom. pl. witan, 779: gen. pl. witena, 157, 266, 937 weotena, 1099.--Comp.: fyrn-, rūn-wita.

witan, pret.-pres. v., _to wot, know_. 1) w. depend, clause: pres. sg. I., III. wāt, 1332, 2657; ic on Higelāce wāt þæt hē ... (_I know as to H., that he_ ...), 1831; so, god wāt on mec þæt ...(_God knows of me, that_ ...), 2651; sg. II. þū wāst, 272; weak pret. sg. I., III. wiste, 822; wisse, 2340, 2726; pl. wiston, 799, 1605; subj. pres. I. gif ic wiste, 2520.--2) w. acc. and inf.: pres. sg. I. ic wāt, 1864.--3) w. object, predicative part, or adj.: pret. sg. III. tō þæs hē win-reced ... gearwost wisse, fǣttum fāhne, 716; so, 1310; wiste þǣm āhlǣcan hilde ge-binged, 647.--4) w. acc., _to know_: inf. witan, 252, 288; pret. sg. wisse, 169; wiste his fingra ge-weald on grames grāpum, 765; pl. II. wisson, 246; wiston, 181.

nāt = ne + wāt, _I know not_: 1) elliptically with hwylc, indef. pronoun = _some or other_: sceaða ic nāt hwylc.--2) w. gen. and depend. clause: nāt hē þāra gōda, þæt hē mē on-gēan slēa, 682.

ge-witan, _to know, perceive_: inf. þæs þe hīe gewis-līcost ge-witan meahton, 1351.

be-witian. See be-weotian.

wītig, adj., _wise, sagacious_: nom. sg. wītig god, 686, 1057; wītig drihten (God), 1555; wittig drihten, 1842.

ge-wittig, adj., _conscious_: nom. sg. 3095.

ge-wītnian, w. v., _to chastise, punish_: wommum gewītnad (_punished with plagues_), 3074.

wīc, st. n., _dwelling, house_: acc. sg. wīc, 822, 2590;--often in pl. because houses of nobles were complex: dat. wīcum, 1305, 1613, 3084; gen. wīca, 125, 1126.

ge-wīcan, st. v., _to soften, give way, yield_ (here chiefly of swords): pret. sg. ge-wāc, 2578, 2630.

wīc-stede, st. m., _dwelling-place_: nom. sg. 2463; acc. sg. wīc-stede, 2608.

wīd, adj., _wide, extended_: 1) space: acc. sg. neut. ofer wīd wæter, 2474; gen. sg. wīdan rīces, 1860; acc. pl. wīde sīðas, waroðas, 878, 1966.--2) temporal: acc. sg. wīdan feorh (acc. of time), 2015; dat. sg. tō wīdan feore, 934.

wīde, adv., _widely, afar_, 18, 74, 79, 266, 1404, 1589, 1960, etc.; wīde cūð (_widely, universally, known_), 2136, 2924; so, underne wīde, 2914; wīde geond eorðan (_over the whole earth, widely_), 3100;--modifier of superl.: wreccena wīde mǣrost (_the most famous of wanderers, exiles_), 899.--Compar. wīdre, 764.

wīd-cūð, adj., _widely known, very celebrated_: nom. sg. neut., 1257; acc. sg. m. wīd-cūðne man (Bēowulf), 1490; wīd-cūðne wēan, 1992; wīd-cūðes (Hrōðgār), 1043.

wīde-ferhð, st. m. n., (_long life_), _great length of time_: acc. sg. as acc. of time: wīde-ferhð (_down to distant times, always_), 703, 938; ealne wīde-ferhð, 1223.

wīd-floga, w. m., _wide-flier_ (of the dragon): nom. sg., 2831; acc. sg. wīd-flogan, 2347.

wīd-scofen, pret. part., _wide-spread_? _causing fear far and wide_? 937.

wīd-weg, st. m., _wide way, long journey_: acc. pl. wīd-wegas, 841, 1705.

wīf, st. n., _woman, lady, wife_: nom. sg. frēo-līc wīf (Queen Wealhþēow), 616; wīf un-hȳre (Grendel's mother), 2121; acc. sg. drihtlīce wīf (Finn's wife), 1159; instr. sg. mid þȳ wīfe (Hrōðgār's daughter, Frēawaru), 2029; dat. sg. þām wīfe (Wealhþēow), 640; gen. sg. wīfes (as opposed to _man_), 1285; gen. pl. wera and wīfa, 994.--Comp.: āglǣc-, mere-wīf.

wīf-lufe, w. f., _wife-love, love for a wife, woman's love_: nom. pl. wīf-lufan, 2066.

wīg, st. m.: 1) _war, battle_: nom. sg., 23, 1081, 2317, 2873; acc. sg., 686, 1084, 1248; dat. sg. wīge, wigge, 1338, 2630, 1657, 1771; as instr., 1085; ; gen. sg. wīges, 65, 887, 1269.--2) _valor, warlike prowess_: nom. sg. wæs his mōd-sefa manegum ge-cȳðed, wīg and wīsdōm, 350; wīg, 1043; wīg ... eafoð and ellen, 2349; gen. sg. wīges, 2324.--Comp. fēðe-wīg.

wiga, w. m., _warrior, fighter_: nom. sg., 630; dat. pl. wigum, 2396; gen. pl. wigena, 1544, 1560, 3116.--Comp.: æsc-, byrn-, gār-, gūð-, lind-, rand-, scyld-wiga.

wīgan, st. v., _to fight_: pres. sg. III. wīgeð, 600; inf., 2510.

wīgend, pres. part., _fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 3100; nom. pl. wīgend, 1126, 1815, 3145; acc. pl. wīgend, 3025; gen. pl. wīgendra, 429, 900, 1973, 2338.--Comp. gārwīgend.

wīg-bealu, st. n., _war-bale, evil contest_: acc. sg., 2047.

wīg-bil, st. n., _war-bill, battle-sword_: nom. sg., 1608.

wīg-bord, st. n., _war-board_ or _shield_: acc. sg., 2340.

wīg-cræft, st. m., _war-power_: acc. sg., 2954.

wīg-cræftig, adj., _vigorous in fight, strong in war_: acc. sg. wīg-cræftigne (of the sword Hrunting), 1812.

wīg-freca, w. m., _war-wolf, war-hero_: acc. sg. wīg-frecan, 2497; nom. pl. wīg-frecan, 1213.

wīg-fruma, w. m., _war-chief_ or _king_: nom. sg., 665; acc. sg. wīg-fruman, 2262.

wīg-geatwe, st. f. pl., _war-ornaments, war-gear_: dat. pl. on wīg-geatwum (-getawum, MS.), 368.

wīg-ge-weorðad, pret. part., _war-honored, distinguished in war_, 1784? See Note.

wīg-gryre, st. m., _war-horror_ or _terror_: nom. sg., 1285.

wīg-hete, st. m., _war-hate, hostility_: nom. sg., 2121.

wīg-heafola, w. m., _war head-piece, helmet_: acc. sg. wīg-heafolan, 2662.--Leo.

wīg-hēap, st. m., _war-band_: nom sg., 447.

wīg-hryre, st. m., _war-ruin, slaughter, carnage_: acc. sg., 1620.

wīg-sigor, st. m., _war-victory_: acc. sg., 1555.

wīg-sped, st. f.?, _war-speed, success in war_: gen. pl. wīg-spēda, 698.

wīg-weorðung, st. f., _idol-worship, idolatry, sacrifice to idols_: acc. pl. -weorðunga, 176.

wīn, st. n., _wine_: acc. sg., 1163, 1234; instr. wīne, 1468.

wīr, st. n., _wire, spiral ornament of wire_: instr. pl. wīrum, 1032; gen. pl. wīra, 2414.

wīs, adj., _wise, experienced, discreet_: nom. sg. m. wīs (_in his mind, conscious_), 3095; f. wīs, 1928; in w. form, se wīsa, 1401, 1699, 2330; acc. sg. þone wīsan, 1319; gen. pl. wīsra, 1414; w. gen. nom. sg. wīs wordcwida (_wise of speech_), 1846.

wīsa, w. m., _guide, leader_: nom. sg. werodes wīsa, 259.--Comp.: brim-, here-, hilde-wīsa.

wīscte. See wȳscan.

wīs-dōm, st. m., _wisdom, experience_: nom. sg., 350; instr. sg. wīs-dōme, 1960.

wīse, w. f., _fashion, wise, custom_: acc. sg. (instr.) ealde wīsan (_after ancient custom_), 1866.

wīs-fæst, adj., _wise, sagacious_ (sapientiā firmus): nom. sg. f., 627.

wīs-hycgende, pres. part. _wise-thinking, wise_, 2717.

wīsian, w. v., _to guide_ or _lead to, direct, point out_: 1) w. acc.: inf. hēan wong wīsian, 2410; pret. sg. secg wīsade land-gemyrcu, 208.--2) w. dat.: pres. sg. I. ic ēow wīsige (_I shall guide you_), 292, 3104; pret. sg. sē þǣm heaðo-rincum hider wīsade, 370; sōna him sele-þegn ... forð wīsade _(the hall-thane led him thither forthwith_, i.e. to his couch), 1796; stīg wīsode gumum æt-gædere, 320; so, 1664.--3) w. prep.?: pret. sg. þā secg wīsode under Heorotes hrōf (_when the warrior showed them the way under Heorot's roof_, [but under H.'s hrōf depends rather on snyredon ætsomne]), 402.

wītan, st. v., properly _to look at; to look at with censure, to blame, reproach, accuse_, w. dat. of pers. and acc. of thing: inf. for-þām mē wītan ne þearf waldend fīra morðor-bealo māga, 2742.

æt-wītan, _to blame, censure_ (cf. 'twit), w. acc. of thing: pret. pl. æt-witon wēana dǣl, 1151.

ge-wītan, properly _spectare aliquo; to go_ (most general verb of motion): 1) with inf. after verbs of motion: pret. sg. þanon eft ge-wāt ... tō hām faran, 123; so, 2570; pl. þanon eft gewiton ... mēarum rīdan, 854. Sometimes with reflex, dat.: pres. sg. him þā Scyld ge-wāt ... fēran on frēan wǣre, 26; gewāt him ... rīdan, 234; so, 1964; pl. ge-witon, 301.--2) associated with general infinitives of motion and aim: imper. pl. ge-wītað forð beran wǣpen and gewǣdu, 291; pret. sg. ge-wāt þā nēosian hēan hūses, 115; hē þā fāg ge-wāt ... man-drēam flēon, 1264; nyðer eft gewāt dennes nīosian, 3045; so, 1275, 2402, 2820. So, with reflex, dat.: him eft gewāt ... hāmes nīosan, 2388; so, 2950; pl. ge-witon, 1126.--3) without inf. and with prep, or adv.: pres. sg. III. þǣr firgen-strēam under næssa genipu niðer ge-wīteð, 1361; ge-wīteð on sealman, 2461; inf. on flōdes ǣht feor ge-wītan, 42; pret. sg. ge-wāt, 217; him ge-wāt, 1237, 1904; of līfe, ealdre ge-wāt (_died_), 2472, 2625; fyrst forð ge-wāt (_time went on_), 210; him ge-wāt ūt of healle, 663; ge-wāt him hām, 1602; pret. part. dat. sg. mē forð-ge-witenum (_me defuncto, I dead_), 1480.

oð-wītan, _to blame, censure, reproach_: inf. ne þorfte him þā lēan oð-wītan mon on middan-gearde, 2997.

wlanc, wlonc, adj., _proud, exulting_: nom. sg. wlanc, 341; w. instr. ǣse wlanc (_proud of, exulting in, her prey, meal_), 1333; wlonc, 331; w. gen. māðm-ǣhta wlonc (_proud of the treasures_), 2834; gen. sg. wlonces, 2954.--Comp. gold-wlanc.

wlātian, w. v., _to look_ or _gaze out, forth_: pret. sg. sē þe ǣr ... feor wlātode, 1917.

wlenco, st. f., _pride, heroism_: dat. sg. wlenco, 338, 1207; wlence, 508.

wlite, st. m. _form, noble form, look, beauty_: nom. sg., 250.

wlite-beorht, adj., _beauteous, brilliant in aspect_: acc. sg. wlite-beorhtne wang, 93.

wlite-sēon, st. n. f., _sight, spectacle_: acc. sg., 1651.

wlitig, adj., _beautiful, glorious, fair in form_: acc. sg. wlitig (sweord), 1663.

wlītan, st. v., _to see, look, gaze_: pret. sg. hē æfter recede wlāt (_looked along the hall_), 1573; pret. pl. on holm wliton (_looked on the sea_), 1593; wlitan on Wīglāf, 2853.

geond-wlītan, w. acc., _to examine, look through, scan_: inf. wrǣte giond-wlītan, 2772.

wōh-bogen, pret. part., (_bent crooked), crooked, twisted_: nom. sg. wyrm wōh-bogen, 2828.

wolcen, st. n. m., _cloud_ (cf. welkin): dat. pl. under wolcnum (_under the clouds, on earth_), 8, 652, 715, 1771; tō wolcnum, 1120, 1375.

wollen-tēar, adj., _tear-flowing, with flowing tears_: nom. pl. wollen-tēare, 3033.

wom. See wam.

won. See wan.

worc. See weorc.

word, st. n.: 1) _word, speech_: nom. sg., 2818; acc. sg. þæt word, 655, 2047; word, 315, 341, 390, 871, 2552; instr. sg. worde, 2157; gen. sg. wordes, 2792; nom. pl. þā word, 640; word, 613; acc. pl. word (of an alliterative song), 871; instr. pl, wordum, 176, 366, 627, 875, 1101, 1173, 1194, 1319, 1812, etc.; ge-saga him wordum (_tell them in words, expressly_), 388. The instr. wordum accompanies biddan, þancian, be-wægnan, secgan, hērgan, to emphasize the verb, 176, 627, 1194, 2796, 3177; gen. pl. worda, 289, 398, 2247, 2263(?), 3031.--2) _command, order_: gen. sg. his wordes geweald habban (_to rule, reign_), 79; so, instr. pl. wordum wēold, 30.--Comp.: bēot-, gylp-, meðel-, þrȳð-word.

word-cwide, st. m., (_word-utterance_), _speech_: acc. pl. word-cwydas, 1842; dat. pl. word-cwydum, 2754; gen. pl. word-cwida, 1846.

word-gid, st. m, _speech, saying_: acc. sg. word-gyd, 3174.

word-hord, st. n., _word-hoard, treasury of speech, mouth_: acc. sg. word-hord on-lēac (_unlocked his word-hoard_, opened his mouth, spoke), 259.

word-riht, st. n., _right speech, suitable word_: gen. pl. Wīglāf maðelode word-rihta fela, 2632.

worð-mynd. See weorð-mynd.

worðig (for weorðig), st. m., _palace, estate, court_: acc. sg. on worðig (_into the palace_), 1973.

worn, st. n., _multitude, number_: acc. sg. worn eall (_very many_), 3095; wintra worn (_many years_), 264; þonne hē wintrum frōd worn ge-munde (_when he old in years thought of their number_), 2115. Used with fela to strengthen the meaning: nom. acc. sg. worn fela, 1784; hwæt þū worn fela ... sprǣce (_how very much thou hast spoken!_), 530; so, eal-fela eald-gesegena worn, 871; gen. pl. worna fela, 2004, 2543.

woruld, worold, st. f., _humanity, world, earth_: nom. sg. eal worold, 1739; acc. sg. in worold (wacan) (_to be born, come into the world_), 60; worold oflǣtan, of-gifan (_die_), 1184, 1682; gen. sg. worolde, 951, 1081, 1388, 1733; worulde, 2344; his worulde ge-dāl (_his separation from the world, death_), 3069; worolde brūcan (_to enjoy life, live_), 1063; worlde, 2712.

worold-ār, st. f., _worldly honor_ or _dignity_: acc. sg. worold-āre, 17.

woruld-candel, st. f., _world-candle, sun_: nom. sg., 1966.

worold-cyning, st. m., _world king, mighty king_: nom. sg., 3182; gen. pl. worold-cyninga, 1685.

woruld-ende, st. m., _world's end_: acc. sg., 3084.

worold-rǣden, st. f., _usual course, fate of the world, customary fate_: dat. sg. worold-rǣdenne, 1143?

wōp, st. m., (_whoop_), _cry of grief, lament_: nom. sg., 128; acc. sg. wōp, 786; instr. sg. wōpe, 3147.

wracu, st. f., _persecution, vengeance, revenge_: nom. sg. wracu (MS, uncertain), 2614; acc. sg. wræce, 2337.--Comp.: gyrn-, nȳd-wracu.

wraðu, st. f., _protection, safety_: in comp. līf-wraðu.

wrāð, adj., _wroth, furious, hostile_: acc. sg. neut. wrāð, 319; dat. sg. wrāðum, 661, 709; gen. pl. wrāðra, 1620.

wrāðe, adv., _contemptibly, disgracefully_, 2873.

wrāð-līce, adv., _wrathfully, hostilely_ (in battle), 3063.

wrāsn, st. f., _circlet of gold for the head, diadem, crown_: in comp. frēa-wrāsn.

wræc-lāst, st. m., _exile-step, exile, banishment_: acc. sg. wræc-lāstas træd (_trod exile-steps, wandered in exile_), 1353.

wræc-mæcg, st. m., _exile, outcast_: nom. pl. wræc-mæcgas, 2380.

wræc-sīð, st. m., _exile-journey, banishment, exile, persecution_: acc. sg., 2293; dat. sg. -sīðum, 338.

wrǣt, st. f., _ornament, jewel_: acc. pl. wrǣte (wrǣce, MS.), 2772, 3061; instr. pl. wrǣttum, 1532; gen. pl. wrǣtta, 2414.

wrǣt-līc, adj.: 1) _artistic, ornamental; valuable_: acc. sg. wrǣt-līcne wundur-māððum, 2174; wrǣt-līc wǣg-sweord, 1490; wīg-bord wrǣt-līc, 2340.--2) _wondrous, strange_: acc. sg. wrǣt-līcne wyrm [from its rings or spots?], 892; wlite-sēon wrǣt-līc, 1651.

wrǣc, st. f., _persecution_; hence, _wretchedness, misery_: nom. sg., 170; acc. sg. wrǣc, 3079.

wrecan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to press, force_: pret. part. þǣr wæs Ongenþēo ... on bīd wrecen, 2963.--2) _to drive out, expel_: pret. sg. ferh ellen wræc, 2707.--3) _to wreak_ or _utter_: gid, spel wrecan (_to utter words or songs_); subj. pres. sg. III. hē gyd wrece, 2447; inf. wrecan spel ge-rāde, 874; word-gyd wrecan, 3174; pret. sg. gyd æfter wræc, 2155; pres. part. þǣr wæs ... gid wrecen, 1066.--4) _to avenge, punish_: subj. pres. þæt hē his frēond wrece, 1386; inf. wolde hire mǣg wrecan, 1340; so, 1279, 1547; pres. part. wrecend (_an avenger_), 1257; pret. sg. wræc Wedera nīð, 423; so, 1334, 1670.

ā-wrecan, _to tell, recount_: pret. sg. ic þis gid be þē ā-wræc (_I have told this tale for thee_), 1725; so, 2109.

for-wrecan, w. acc., _to drive away, expel; carry away_: inf. þȳ lǣs him ȳða þrym wudu wyn-suman for-wrecan meahte (_lest the force of the waves might carry away the winsome ship_), 1920; pret. sg. hē hine feor for-wræc ... man-cynne fram, 109.

ge-wrecan, w. acc., _to avenge, wreak vengeance upon, punish_: pret. sg. ge-wræc, 107, 2006; hē ge-wræc (i.e. hit, _this_) cealdum cear-sīðum, 2396; hē hine sylfne ge-wræc (_avenged himself_), 2876; pl. ge-wrǣcan, 2480; pret. part. ge-wrecen, 3063.

wrecca, w. m., (_wretch_), _exile, adventurer, wandering soldier, hero_: nom. sg. wrecca (Hengest), 1138; gen. pl. wreccena wīde mǣrost (Sigemund), 899.

wreoðen-hilt, adj., _wreathen-hilted, with twisted hilt_: nom. sg., 1699.

wridian, w. v., _to flourish, spring up_: pret. sg. III. wridað, 1742.

wriða, w. m., _band_: in comp. bēag-wriða (_bracelet_), 2019.

wrixl, st. n., _exchange, change_: instr. sg. wyrsan wrixle (_in a worse way, with a worse exchange_), 2970.

ge-wrixle, st. n., _exchange, arrangement, bargain_: nom. sg. ne wæs þæt ge-wrixle til (_it was not a good arrangement, trade_), 1305.

wrixlan, w. v., _to exchange_: inf. wordum wrixlan (_to exchange words, converse_), 366; 875 (_tell_).

wrīðan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to bind, fasten, wreathe together_: inf. ic hine (him, MS.) ... on wæl-bedde wrīðan þōhte, 965.--2) _to bind up_ (a wounded person, a wound): pret. pl. þā wǣron monige þē his mǣg wriðon, 2983. See hand-gewriðen.

wrītan, st. v., _to incise, engrave_: pret. part. on þǣm (hilte) wæs ōr writen fyrn-gewinnes (_on which was engraved the origin of an ancient struggle_), 1689.

for-wrītan, _to cut to pieces_ or _in two_: pret. sg. for-wrāt Wedra helm wyrm on middan, 2706.

wrōht, st. m. f., _blame, accusation, crime_; here _strife, contest, hostility_: nom. sg., 2288, 2474, 2914.

wudu, st. m., _wood_: 1) _material, timber_: nom. pl. wudu, 1365; hence, _the wooden spear_: acc. pl. wudu, 398.--2) _forest, wood_: acc. sg. wudu, 1417.--3) _wooden ship_: nom. sg. 298; acc. sg. wudu, 216, 1920.--Comp.: bǣl-, bord-, gamen-, heal-, holt-, mægen-, sǣ-, sund-, þrec-wudu.

wudu-rēc, st. m., _wood-reek_ or _smoke_: nom. sg., 3145.

wuldor, st. n., _glory_: nom. sg. kyninga wuldor (_God_), 666; gen. sg. wuldres wealdend, 17, 183, 1753; wuldres hyrde, 932, (designations of God).

wuldor-cyning, st. m., _king of glory, God_. dat. sg. wuldur-cyninge, 2796

wuldor-torht, adj., _glory-bright, brilliant, clear_: acc. pl. wuldor-torhtan weder, 1137.

wulf, st. m., _wolf_: acc. sg., 3028.

wulf-hlið, st. n., _wolf-slope, wolf's retreat, slope whereunder wolves house_: acc. pl. wulf-hleoðu, 1359.

wund, st. f., _wound_: nom. sg., 2712, 2977; acc. sg. wunde, 2532, 2907; acc. sg. wunde, 2726; instr. pl. wundum, 1114, 2831, 2938.--Comp. feorh-wund.

wund, adj., _wounded, sore_: nom. sg., 2747; dat. sg. wundum, 2754; nom. pl. wunde, 565, 1076.

wunden-feax, adj., _curly-haired_ (of a horse's mane): nom. sg., 1401.

wunden-heals, adj., _with twisted_ or _curved neck_ or _prow_: nom. sg. wudu wunden-hals (_the ship_), 298.

wunden-heorde?, _curly-haired_?: nom. sg. f., 3153.

wunden-mǣl, adj., _damascened, etched, with wavy ornaments_(?): nom. sg. neut., 1532 (of a sword).

wunden-stefna, w. m. _curved prow, ship_: nom. sg., 220.

wundor, st. n.: 1) _wonder, wonderwork_: nom. sg., 772, 1725; wundur, 3063; acc. sg. wundor, 841; wunder, 932; wundur, 2760, 3033, 3104; dat. sg. wundre, 932; instr. pl. wundrum (_wondrously_), 1453, 2688; gen. pl. wundra, 1608.--2) _portent, monster_: gen. pl. wundra, 1510.--Comp.: hand-, nīð-, searo-wundor.

wundor-bebod, st. n., _wondrous command, strange order_: instr. pl. -bebodum, 1748.

wundor-dēað, st. m., _wonder-death, strange death_: instr. sg. wundor dēaðe, 3038.

wundor-fæt, st. n., _wonder-vat, strange vessel_: dat. pl. of wundor-fatum (_from wondrous vessels_), 1163.

wundor-līc, adj., _wonder like, remarkable_: nom. sg., 1441.

wundor-māððum, st. m., _wonder-jewel, wonderful treasure_: acc. sg., 2174.

wundor-smið, st. m., _wonder-smith, skilled smith, worker of marvellous things_: gen. pl. wundor-smiða geweorc (the ancient giant's sword), 1682.

wundor-sēon, st. f., _wondrous sight_: gen. pl. wunder-sīona, 996.

wunian, w. v.: 1) _to stand, exist, remain_: pres. sg. III. þenden þǣr wunað on hēah-stede hūsa sēlest (_as long as the best of houses stands there on the high place_), 284; wunað hē on wiste (_lives in plenty_), 1736; inf. on sele wunian (_to remain in the hall_), 3129; pret. sg. wunode mid Finne (_remained with F._), 1129.--2) w. acc. or dat., _to dwell in, to inhabit, to possess_: pres. sg. III. wunað wæl-reste (_holds his death-bed_), 2903; inf. wæter-egesan wunian scolde..., strēamas, 1261; wīcum wunian, 3084; w. prep.: pres. sg. Higelāc þǣr æt hām wunað, 1924.

ge-wunian, w. acc.: 1) _to inhabit_: inf. ge-[wunian], 2276.--2) _to remain with, stand by_: subj. pres. þæt hine on ylde eft ge-wunigen wil-ge-sīðas, 22.

wurðan. See weorðan.

wuton, v. from wītan, used as interj., _let us go! up!_ w. inf.: wutun gangan tō (_let us go to him!_), 2649; uton hraðe fēran! 1391; uton nū efstan, 3102.

wylf, st. f., _she-wolf_: in comp. brim-wylf.

wylm, st. m., _surge, surf, billow_: num. sg. flōdes wylm, 1765; dat. wintres wylme (_with winter's flood_), 516; acc. sg. þurh wæteres wylm, 1694; acc. pl. heortan wylmas, 2508.--Comp.: brēost-, brim-, byrne-, cear-, fȳr-, heaðo-, holm-, sǣ-, sorh-wylm. See wælm.

wyn, st. f., _pleasantness, pleasure, joy, enjoyment_: acc. sg. mǣste ... worolde wynne (_the highest earthly joy_), 1081; eorðan wynne (_earth-joy, the delightful earth_), 1731; heofenes wynne (_heaven's joy_, the rising sun), 1802; hearpan wynne (_harp-joy, the pleasant harp_), 2108; þæt hē ... ge-drogen hæfde eorðan wynne (_that he had had his earthly joy_), 2728; dat. sg. weorod wæs on wynne, 2015; instr. pl. mægenes wynnum (_in joy of strength_), 1717; so, 1888.--Comp.: ēðel-, hord-, līf-, lyft-, symbel-wyn.

wyn-lēas, adj., _joyless_: acc. sg. wyn-lēasne wudu, 1417; wyn-lēas wīc, 822.

wyn-sum, adj., _winsome, pleasant_: acc. sg. wudu wyn-suman (_the ship_), 1920; nom. pl. word wǣron wyn-sume, 613.

wyrcan, v. irreg.: 1) _to do, effect_, w. acc.: inf. (wundor) wyrcan, 931.--2) _to make, create_, w. acc.: pret. sg. þæt se æl-mihtiga eorðan worh[te], 92; swā hine _(the helmet_) worhte wǣpna smið, 1453.--3) _to gain, win, acquire_, w. gen.: subj. pres. wyrce, sē þe mōte, dōmes ǣr dēaðe, 1388.

be-wyrcan, _to gird, surround_: pret. pl. bronda betost wealle be-worhton, 3163.

ge-wyrcan: 1) intrans., _to act, behave_: inf. swā sceal geong guma gōde gewyrcean ... on fæder wine þæt ... (_a young man shall so act with benefits towards his father's friends that_ ...), 20.--2) w. acc., _to do, make, effect, perform_: inf. ne meahte ic æt hilde mid Hruntinge wiht ge-wyrcan, 1661; sweorde ne meahte on þām āglǣcan ... wunde ge-wyrcean, 2907; pret. sg. ge-worhte, 636, 1579, 2713; pret. part. acc. ic þā lēode wāt ... fæste ge-worhte. 1865.--3) _to make, construct_: inf. (medo-ærn) ge-wyrcean, 69; (wīg-bord) ge-wyrcean, 2338; (hlǣw) ge-wyrcean, 2803; pret. pl. II. ge-worhton, 3097; III. ge-worhton, 3158; pret. part. ge-worht, 1697.--4) _to win, acquire_: pres. sg. ic mē mid Hruntinge dōm ge-wyrce, 1492.

Wyrd, st. f., _Weird_ (one of the Norns, guide of human destiny; mostly weakened down = _fate, providence_): nom. sg., 455, 477, 572, 735, 1206, 2421, 2527, 2575, 2815; acc. sg. wyrd, 1057, 1234; gen. pl. wyrda, 3031. (Cf. Weird Sisters of Macbeth.)

wyrdan, w. v., _to ruin, kill, destroy_: pret. sg. hē tō lange lēode mine wanode and wyrde, 1338.

ā-wyrdan, w. v., _to destroy, kill_: pret. part.: æðeling monig wundum ā-wyrded, 1114.

wyrðe, adj., _noble; worthy, honored, valued_: acc. sg. m. wyrðne (ge-dōn) (_to esteem worthy_), 2186; nom. pl. wyrðe, 368; compar. nom. sg. rīces wyrðra (_worthier of rule_), 862.--Comp. fyrd-wyrðe. See weorð.

wyrgen, st, f., _throttler_ [cf. sphinx], _she-wolf_; in comp. grund-wyrgen.

ge-wyrht, st. n., _work; desert_; in comp. eald-gewyrht, 2658.

wyrm, st. m., _worm, dragon, drake_: nom. sg., 898, 2288, 2344, 2568, 2630, 2670, 2746, 2828; acc. sg. wyrm, 887, 892, 2706, 3040, 3133; dat. sg. wyrme, 2308, 2520; gen. wyrmes, 2317, 2349, 2760, 2772, 2903; acc. pl. wyrmas, 1431.

wyrm-cyn, st. m., _worm-kin, race of reptiles, dragons_: gen. sg. wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426.

wyrm-fāh, adj., _dragon-ornamented, snake-adorned_ (ornamented with figures of dragons, snakes, etc.: cf. Dietrich in Germania X., 278): nom. sg. sweord ... wreoðen-hilt and wyrm-fāh, 1699.

wyrm-hord, st. n., _dragon-hoard_: gen. pl. wyrm-horda, 2223.

for-wyrnan, w. v., _to refuse, reject_: subj. pres. II. þæt þū mē nō for-wyrne, þæt... (_that thou refuse me not that_...), 429; pret. sg. hē ne for-wyrnde worold-rǣdenne, 1143.

ge-wyrpan, w. v. reflex., _to refresh one's self, recover_: pret. sg. hē hyne ge-wyrpte, 2977.

wyrpe, st. m., _change_: acc. sg. æfter wēa-spelle wyrpe ge-fremman (_after the woe-spell to bring about a change of things_), 1316.

wyrsa, compar. adj., _worse_: acc. sg. neut. þæt wyrse, 1740; instr. sg. wyrsan wrixle, 2970; gen. sg. wyrsan geþinges, 525; nom. acc. pl. wyrsan wīg-frecan, 1213, 2497.

wyrt, st. f., [_-wort_], _root_: instr. pl. wudu wyrtum fæst, 1365.

wȳscan, w. v., _to wish, desire_: pret. sg. wīscte (rihde, MS.) þæs yldan (_wished to delay that_ or _for this reason_, 2440, 1605(?). See Note.


yfel, st n., _evil_: gen. pl. yfla, 2095.

yldan, w. v., _to delay, put off_: inf. nē þæt se āglǣca yldan þōhte, 740; weard wine-geōmor wīscte þæs yldan, þæt hē lȳtel fæc long-gestrēona brūcan mōste, 2240.

ylde, st. m. pl., _men_: dat. pl. yldum, 77, 706, 2118; gen. pl. ylda, 150, 606, 1662. See elde.

yldest. See eald.

yldo, st. f., _age (senectus), old age_: nom. sg., 1737, 1887; atol yldo, 1767; dat. sg. on ylde, 22.--2) _age (ǣtas), time, era_: gen. sg. yldo bearn, 70. See eldo.

yldra. See eald.

ylf, st. f., _elf (incubus, alp_): nom. pl. ylfe, 112.

ymb, prep. w. acc.: 1) local, _around, about, at, upon_: ymb hine (_around, with, him_), 399. With prep, postponed: hine ymb, 690; ymb brontne ford (_around the seas, on the high sea_), 568; ymb þā gif-healle (_around the gift-hall, throne-hall_), 839; ymb þæs helmes hrōf (_around the helm's roof, crown_), 1031.--2) temporal, _about, after_: ymb ān-tīd ōðres dōgores (_about the same time the next day_), 219; ymb āne niht (_after a night_), 135.--3) causal, _about, on account of, for, owing to_: (frīnan) ymb þīnne sīð (_on account of, concerning?, thy journey_), 353; hwæt þū ... ymb Brecan sprǣce (_hast spoken about B._), 531; so, 1596, 3174; nā ymb his līf cearað (_careth not for his life_), 1537; so, 450; ymb feorh sacan, 439; sundor-nytte behēold ymb aldor Dena, 669; ymb sund (_about the swimming, the prize for swimming_), 507.

ymbe, I. prep. w. acc. = ymb: 1) local, 2884, 3171; hlǣw oft ymbe hwearf (prep, postponed), 2297. 2) causal, 2071, 2619.--II. adv., _around_: him ... ymbe, 2598.

ymb-sittend, pres. part., _neighbor_ gen. pl. ymb-sittendra, 9.

ymbe-sittend, the same: nom. pl. ymbe-sittend, 1828; gen. pl. ymbe-sittendra, 2735.

yppe, w. f., _high seat, dais, throne_: dat. sg. ēode ... tō yppan, 1816.

yrfe, st. n., _bequest, legacy_: nom. sg., 3052.

yrfe-lāf, st. f., _sword left as a bequest_: acc. sg. yrfe-lāfe, 1054; instr. sg. yrfe-lāfe, 1904.

yrfe-weard, st. m., _heir, son_: nom. sg., 2732; gen. sg. yrfe-weardes, 2454. (-as, MS.)

yrmðo, st. f., _misery, shame, wretchedness_: acc. sg. yrmðe, 1260, 2006.

yrre, st. n., _anger, ire, excitement_: acc. sg. godes yrre, 712; dat. sg, on yrre, 2093.

yrre, adj., _angry, irate, furious_: nom. sg. yrre ōretta (Bēowulf), 1533; þegn yrre (the same), 1576; gæst yrre (Grendel), 2074; nom. pl. yrre, 770. See eorre.

yrringa, adv., _angrily, fiercely_, 1566, 2965.

yrre-mōd, adj., _wrathful-minded, wild_: nom. sg., 727.

ys, _he is_. See wesan.


ȳð (O.H.G. unda), st. f., _wave; sea_: nom. pl. ȳða, 548; acc. pl. ȳðe, 46, 1133, 1910; dat. pl. ȳðum, 210, 421, 534, 1438, 1908; ȳðum weallan (_to surge with waves_), 515, 2694; gen. pl. ȳða, 464, 849, 1209, 1470, 1919.--Comp: flōd-, līg-, wæter-ȳð.

ȳðan, w. v., _to ravage, devastate, destroy_: pret. sg. ȳðde eotena cyn, 421 (cf. īðende = _depopulating_, Bosworth, from AElfric's Glossary; pret. ȳðde, Wanderer, 85).

ȳðe. See ēaðe.

ȳðe-līce, adv., _easily_: ȳðe-līce hē eft ā-stōd (_he easily arose afterwards_), 1557.

ȳð-gebland, st. n., _mingling_ or _surging waters, water-tumult_: nom. sg. -geblond, 1374, 1594; nom. pl. -gebland, 1621.

ȳð-gewin, st. n., _strife with the sea, wave-struggle, rushing of water_: dat. sg. ȳð-gewinne, 2413; gen. sg. -gewinnes, 1435.

ȳð-lād, st. f., _water-journey, sea-voyage_: nom. pl. ȳð-lāde, 228.

ȳð-lāf, st. f., _water-leaving, what is left by the water (undarum reliquiae), shore_: dat. sg. be ȳð-lāfe, 566.

ȳð-lida, w. m., _wave-traverser, ship_: acc. sg. ȳð-lidan, 198.

ȳð-naca, w. m., _sea-boat_: acc. sg. [ȳð-]nacan, 1904.

ȳð-gesēne. See ēð-gesȳne.

ȳwan, w. v. w. acc., _to show_: pret. sg. an-sȳn ȳwde (_showed itself, appeared_), 2835. See ēawan, ēowan.

ge-ȳwan, w. acc. of thing, dat. of pers., _to lay before, offer_: inf., 2150.


ābrecan, st. v., _to shatter_: part. his byrne ābrocen wǣre (_his byrnie was shattered_).

ānyman, st. v., _to take, take away_.

bān-helm, st. m., _bone-helmet; skull_, [_shield_, Bosw.].

buruh-þelu, st. f., _castle-floor_.

cēlod, part, (adj.?), _keeled_, i.e. boat-shaped or hollow.

dagian, w. v., _to dawn_: nē þis nē dagiað ēastan (_this is not dawning from the east_).

dēor-mōd, adj., _brave in mood_: dēor-mōd hæleð.

driht-gesīð, st m., _companion, associate_.

ēastan, adv., _from the east_.

eorð-būend, st. m., _earth-dweller, man_.

fēr, st. m. _fear, terror_.

fȳren, adj., _flaming, afire_: nom. f. swylce eal Finns-buruh fȳrenu wǣre (_as if all Finnsburh were afire_).

gehlyn, st. n., _noise, tumult_.

gellan, st. v., _to sing_ (i.e. ring or resound): pres. sg. gylleð grǣg-hama (_the gray garment_ [byrnie] _rings_); (_the gray wolf yelleth_?).

genesan, st. v., _to survive, recover from_: pret. pl. þā wīgend hyra wunda genǣson (_the warriors were recovering from their wounds_).

gold-hladen, adj., _laden with gold_ (wearing heavy gold ornaments).

grǣg-hama, w. m., _gray garment, mail-coat_; (_wolf_?--Brooke).

gūð-wudu, st. m., _war-wood, spear_.

hæg-steald, st. m., _one who lives in his lord's house, a house-carl._

heaðo-geong, adj., _young in war._

here-sceorp, st. n., _war-dress, coat of mail_.

hleoðrian, w. v., _to speak, exclaim_: pret. sg. hleoðrode ... cyning (_the prince exclaimed_).

hrǣw, st. n., _corpse_.

hrōr, adj., _strong_: here-sceorpum hrōr (_strong_ [though it was] _as armor_, Bosw.).

lac (lað?)? for flacor, _fluttering?_

oncweðan, st. v., _to answer_: pres. sg. scyld scefte oncwyð (_the shield answers the spear_).

onwacnian, w. v., _to awake, arouse one's self_: imper. pl. onwacnigeað ..., wīgend mine (_awake, my warriors!_).

sceft (sceaft), st. m., _spear, shaft_.

sealo-brūn, adj., _dusky-brown_.

sige-beorn, st. m., _victorious hero, valiant warrior_.

swæðer (swā hwæðer), pron., _which of two, which_.

swān, st. m., _swain, youth; warrior_.

sweart, adj., _swart, black_.

swēt, adj., _sweet_: acc. m. swētne medo ... forgyldan (_requite the sweet mead_, i.e. repay, by prowess in battle, the bounty of their chief).

swurd-lēoma, w. m., _sword-flame, flashing of swords_.

þyrl, adj., _pierced, cloven_.

undearninga, adv., _without concealment, openly_.

wandrian, w. v., _to fly about, hover_: pret. sg. hræfn wandrode (_the raven hovered_).

waðol, st. m., _the full moon_ [Grein]; [adj., _wandering_, Bosw.].

wæl-sliht (-sleaht), st. m., _combat, deadly struggle_: gen. pl. wæl-slihta gehlyn (_the din of combats_)

weā-dǣd, st. f., _deed of woe_: nom. pl. ārisað weā-dǣda.

witian (weotian), w. v., _to appoint, determine_: part. þē is ... witod.

wurðlīce (weorðlīce), adv., _worthily, gallantly_: compar. wurð-līcor.

wæg, weg, st. m., _way_.