Beowulf (Wyatt)/Glossary


The order of words is strictly alphabetical, except in the case of compound verbs, which will be found under their simple verbs.

Past participles compounded with ge- are usually glossed under the simple verb (Sievers § 366), but there are some marked exceptions; e.g. gegongen is the pp. of gongan in 822, 3036, hut of gegongan in 893, 3085.

æ comes between ad and af.

ð and þ are treated as identical, and come after t.

Numerous cross references are given, especially for unusual forms, but not as a rule for mere flexional forms which a knowledge of grammar should suffice to trace, such as parts of verbs.

All words are glossed under forms which actually occur in the poem, not under normalised forms. When divergent forms of the same word occur and cross references are not given,

io (both initial and final) should be sought under eo,
y i,
a (before nasals) o.

Dative and Instrumental are not distinguished, except when they have different forms, as in the singular of adjectives and of some pronouns.

Small capitals are used for modern renderings which are directly or almost directly descended from the Old English words.

The following abbreviations alone require explanation :

st. strong
w. weak
m. masculine
f. feminine
neut. neuter
n. noun
v. verb
sg. singular
pl. plural
subj. subjunctive
part. participle
pp. past participle
conj. conjunction
esp. especially
obl. oblique


N.B. All compound verbs must be sought under their simple verbs.


ā, adv., aye, ever, always, 455, etc.
ac, conj., but, 740, 773, etc.
ac, adv. interr., = Lat. nonne, used to mark a question, 1990.
ad, st. m., funeral pile, pyre, 1110, etc.
ād-faru, st. f., [pyre-faring] way to the funeral pile, 3010.
ādl, st. f., illness, sickness, disease, 1736, etc.
ǣdre, st. f., stream, canal, vein; dat. pl. swāt ǣdrum sprong, “blood sprang in streams,” 2966; blōd ēdrum dranc, “drank blood in streams,” 742.
ǣdre, adv., quickly, 354.
ǣfen, st. m., even, evening, 1235.
ǣfen-grom, adj., [even-angry] fierce in the evening, night-enemy, 2074.
ǣfen-lēoht, st. neut., even-light, 413.
ǣfen-ræst, st. f., even-rest, 1252.
ǣfen-sprǣc, st. f., even-speech, speech in the evening, 759.
æfnan, see efnan.
ǣfre, adv., ever, always, 70, etc.
aefter, prep., after, 85, 119, 931, 1320, 2816, etc.; after, for, concerning, 332, 1342, 1879, 2461; along, among, 140, 944, 995, 2832 (through), etc.; in accordance with, according to, 1049, 1720, 2179, 2753, etc.; on account of, in consequence of, 1606, 1943. Special passages: æfter beorne, “after (the death of) the hero, warrior,” 2260-1; æfter māððum-welan, “after obtaining wealth of treasure,” 2750; æfter faroðe, “with the tide,” 580.
æfter, adv., after, afterwards, 12, 1389, 315 (back), etc.
æf-þunca, w. m., mortification, vexation, annoyance, 502.
ǣg-hwā, ǣg-hwæt, pron., each, every one, every man, etc., 1384, 2624; qen. ǣghwæs, “of each kind,” 3135.
ǣg-hwæs, gen. neut. used adverbially, in every respect, altogether, 1865, 1886.
ǣg-hwǣr, adv. everywhere, 1059.
ǣg-hwæðer, pron., either, each (usu. of two), 2564, 2844. Special passages: ǣghwæðres sceal scearp scyldwiga gescād witan, worda ond worca, “a sharp shield-warrior must know the difference between words and works,” 287; earfoðlīce heora ǣghwæðrum, “with difficulty for each one of them,” 1636.
(1) pron., each, everyone, 1165, etc.; with gen. 1050, etc.;
(2) adj., each, every, 621.
ǣglǣca, see āglǣca.
ǣg-weard. st. f., sea-ward, watch by the sea-coast, 241.
ǣht, st. f., owning, possession, power, 42, 516.
ǣht, st. f., pursuit, chase, 2957.
-æhted, see eahtian.
ǣled, st. m., fire, 3015.
ǣled-lēoma, w. m., fire-gleam, torch, 3125.
æl-fylce, st. neut., alien folk, foreign nation, 2371.
æl-mihtig, adj. ( = eal-mihtig), almighty; weak se Ælmihtiga, 92.
æl-wiht, st. f., [alien-wight] strange monster, 1500.
ǣne, adv., once, once only, 3019.
ǣnig, adj.-pron., any, anyone, 474, 503, etc.; nom. næs se folc-cyning ymbe-sittendra ǣnig ðāra þe, “among neighbouring folk-kings there was not one that,” 2734. For ǣnige þinga see þing.
ǣn-līc, adj., [one-like] unique, peerless, 251, 1941.
ǣnne, see ān.
æppel-fealu, adj., apple-fallow, apple or reddish yellow, 2165.
ǣr, adv., ERE, erst, before, formerly, 15, 642, 718, 2595, etc.; earlier, 2500; first, 3038. Special passages: nō þȳ ǣr, “none the sooner,” 754, etc.; ǣr hē feorh seleð...ǣr hē, “he will sooner give up life than he,” 1370.
ǣror, compar., before, formerly, first, 809, 2654. ǣrest, superl., [erst] first, 6, 2157, etc.
ǣr, prep., with dat., ere, before, 1388, etc.
ǣr, conj., ere, before: usu. with subj. 252, etc.; with indic. 2019.

Correl. with ǣr adv. (q. v.), 1371.

ǣr þon, conj., ere, 732.
ǣr-dæg, st. m., [ere-day] morning twilight, day-break, 126, etc.
ǣrende, st. neut., errand, 270, etc.
ǣrest, see ǣr.
ǣr-fæder, st. m., [ere-father] father, 2622.
ǣr-gestrēon, st. neut., [ere-treasure] ancient treasure, former gain, 1757, 2232.
ǣr-geweorc, st. neut., [ere-work] ancient work, 1679.
ǣr-gōd, adj., [ere-good] good before others, very good, 130, 989, etc.
ærn, st. neut., house, 2225.
ǣrra, compar. adj. (formed from adv. ǣr), earlier, former: dat. pl. ǣrran mǣlum, “in former times,” 907, 2237, 3035.
ǣr-wela, st. m., [ere-weal] ancient wealth, 2747.
ǣs, st. neut., carrion, carcase, corpse: dat. atol ǣse wlanc, “the dire carrion-proud creature (Grendel’s mother exulting over Æschere’s corpse),” 1332.
æsc, st. m., [ash] spear, 1772.
æsc-holt, st. neut., [ash-wood] spear, 330.
æsc-wiga, w. m., [ash-warrior] spear-warrior, 2042.
æt, prep. with dat., at, in, of time and place, 32, 45, 81, 1089, 1110, 1337, 2270, 3013, 3026, etc.; from, 629, 2860, etc. Special passage: nū is se rǣd gelaug eft æt þē ānum, “now is the rede again along of thee alone,” 1377.
ǣt, st. m., eating, meal, 3026.
æt-gæedere, adv., together, 321, etc.; after samod, 387, etc.; gāras stōdon samod ætgædere, “the spears stood all together,” 329.
æt-grǣpe, adj., groping after, grasping at, at grips with, 1269.
æt-rihte, adv., almost, 1657.
æt-somne, adv., together, 2847, 3122, etc.
ættren, adj., poisonous, 1617.
æþele, adj., noble, 198, 263, etc.
æþeling, st. m., atheling, noble, prince, 3, 33, 118, 888, 1225, 1294, 1804, 2888, etc.
æþelu, st. neut. (always pl. in “Beowulf”), noble descent, lineage, 332, etc.; dat. pl. fæder æþelum, “his father’s preeminence,” 911; æþelum gōd, dīore, “good, dear, by virtue of lineage,” 1870, 1949.
ǣðm, st. m., breath, 2593.
āgan, st.-w. v., pres. āh, pret. āhte: own, possess, have, 1088, 1727, etc.; absolutely 31. Neg. form nah = ne-āh, 2252.
āgen, adj. (pp. of āgan), own, 2676.
Āgend, st. m., Owner, God, 3075.
āgend-frēa, w. m., owning lord, owner, 1883.
āglǣca, ǣglǣca, w. m., monster, monster-fighter, warrior, champion, 159, 739, etc.; acc. sg. āglǣcan, 556; gen. dat. āglæcan, 1512 (or nom. pl.?), 425; āglǣcean, 2557, 2520, etc.; āhlǣcan, 989, 646; nom. pl. āglǣcean, 2592. Used of Grendel, 433, 1269, etc.; of the dragon, 2535, etc.; of a sea-monster, 556; of Sigemund, 893; of Beowulf, 1512 (or sea-monsters?); of Beowulf and the dragon, 2592.
āglǣc-wīf, st. neut., monster-wife, monster of a woman; nom. Grendles mōdor, ides, āglǣc-wīf, 1259.
āh, āhte, see āgan.
āhsian, w. v., endure, suffer, 423, 1206.
ge-ahsian, w. v., learn by asking, learn, hear; pp. geahsod, 433.
āht ( = ā-wiht, q. v.), st. neut., aught; with gen. āht cwices, “aught living,” 2314.
aldor, see ealdor.
Al-walda, Al-wealda, w. m., the All-wielder, God, 928, 955, 1314.
al-walda, w. adj., all-wielding, all-ruling, 316.
an, 1225, pres. sg. 1st of unnan, q.v.
an, prep., see on.
ān, num. (adj. and pron.), acc. sg. m. ānne and ǣnne:

(1) one, an, a, 100, 135, 428, 699, 2280, 3077, etc.; with the def. art. 1053, 2237; emphatic, sometimes perhaps demonstrative, 1458, 1885, 2410, 2774. Special passages: on ǣnne sīð, “once,” 1579; gen. pl. ānra gehwylces, gehwylcum, “of, to, each one,” 732, 784; (= Lat. alter) ān æfter ānum, “the one for the other,” 2461.

(2) only, alone (more usual with the weak form āna, q. v.), 46, 1377, 2964 (sole); gen. ānes hwæt, “a part only,” 3010.
āna, w. adj., only, alone, 145, 1081, 2361, 2657.
ancor, st. m., anchor, 303, 1883.
anda, w. m.

(1) indignation, defiance; dat. wrāþum on andan, “in indignation against the wroth foe,” 708.

(2) mischief, horror, 2314.
and-git, st. neut., understanding, intelligence, 1059.
and-long, see ond-long.
and-rysno, st. f., etiquette, courtesy, attention due, 1796.
and-weard, adj.: acc. neut. sweord swāte fāh swīn ofer helme…and-weard scireð, “the blood-stained sword cuts the boar standing on the opposed (foe’s) helmet,” 1287.
and-wlita, w. m., face, countenance, 689.
ān-feald, adj., onefold, plain, 256.
ānga, w. adj., only, sole, 375, 1262, 1547, 2997.
ān-geng(e)a, w. m., [one-goer] one who goes alone (of Grendel), 165, 449.
ān-haga, w. m., a solitary, 2368.
ān-hȳdig, adj., one-minded, resolute, 2667.
ān-pæð, st. m., [one-path] lonesome path, or single track, 1410.
ān-rǣd, adj., [one-rede] resolute, 1529, 1575.
an-sund, adj., sound, 1000.
an-sȳn, see on-sȳn.
an-tīd, st. f., 219 (see note).
ānunga, adv., once for all, 634.
An-walda, w. m., [on-wielder] God, 1272.
ār, st. m., messenger, 336, 2783.
ār, st. f., honour, kindness, benefit, favour, grace, 2378, 2606, 1272; gen. pl. arna, 1187; dat. pl. ārum healdan, “hold in (with) honour,” 296, 1099, 1182.
ār-fæst, adj., [honour-fast] upright, dutiful, 1168.
ārian, w. v., with dat., spare, 598.
-arn, see -iernan.
ār-stæf, st. m., favour, mercy, kind help, 317, 382, 458.
atelīc, adj., dreadful, horrible, dire, 784.
āter-tān, st. m., poison-twig, 1459.
atol, eatol, adj., dire, terrible, fearful, horrible, 159, etc.; dat. pl. atolan, 1502.
attor, st. neut., poison, venom, 2715; gen. sg. attres, 2523.
attor-sceaða, w. m., [poison-scather] poisonous foe, 2839.
āð, st. m., oath, 472, etc.
āð-sweord, st. n., oath-swearing, oath, 2064.
āðum-swerian, w. m. pl., father-in-law and son-in-law; dat. āðum-swerian, 84.
āwa, adv., aye, ever; in āwa tō aldre, “for ever and ever,” 955.


bǣdan, w. v., beset, press, press hard, oppress, urge, incite, encourage, 2018; pp. gebǣded, 2580, 2826; strengum gebǣded, “sent by the strings,” 3117.
bǣl, st. neut., fire, burning, 2308, 2322; the fire of the funeral pile, funeral pile, pyre, 1019, etc.
bǣl-fȳr, st. neut., fire of the funeral pile, 3143.
bǣl-stede, st. m., pyre-stead, place of the funeral pile, 3097.
bǣl-wudu, st. m., pyre-wood, wood for the funeral pile, 3112.
bǣr, st. f., bier, 3105.
-bǣran, w. v.
ge-bǣran, w. v., bear oneself, behave, fare, 2824; with two comparatives, ne gefrægen ic þā mǣgþe māran weorode…sēl ge-bǣran, “I heard not that that people in greater numbers ever bore themselves better,” 1012.
bærnan, w. v., trans., burn, 2313.
bǣtan, w. v., bridle, bit; pp. gebǣted, 1399.
bæð, st. neut., bath, 1861.
balder, see bealdor.
balu, adj., baleful; dat. pl., bal-won, 977.
bān, st. neut., bone, 2692 (of the dragon’s teeth).
bana, see bona.
bān-cofa, w. m., [bone-cove] body, 1445.
bān-fæt, st. neut., [bone-vat] body; acc. pl. bān-fatu, 1116.
bān-fāg, adj., bone-dight, adorned with bones or antlers, 780.
bān-hring, st. m., bone-ring, vertebra, 1567.
bān-hūs, st. neut., bone-house, body, 2508, 3147.
bān-loca, w. m., bone-locker, flesh, 818.
bannan, st. v.
ge-bannan, st. v., order; inf. ðā ic wīde gefrægn weorc gebannan manigre mǣgþe, “then I learnt that orders for the work were given widely to many a tribe,” 74.
bāt, st. m., boat, 211, etc.
bāt-weard, st. m., [boat-ward] captain, 1900.
be, bī, prep., with dat., by in its various meanings, originally and usu. local, more rarely instrumental (nearer in meaning to Ger. bei than Eng. by): beside, near, by, 36, 814, 1191, 1537, 1722, 1872, 1905, 1950, 2219, 2243, 2538, 2717, 2756; by, along 566 (rest), 1188 (motion), 1573; by (in “I’ll do my duty by you”), in connexion with, 1723. Following its case, him big, 3047. Special passages: wǣpen hafenade heard be hiltum, “raised the sharp weapon by the hilt,” 1574; be ðē lifigendum, “during thy life,” 2665; wæs se gryre lǣssa efne swā micle, swā bið mǣgþa cræft…be wǣpned-men, “the terror was less even by so much, as is women’s power beside (in comparison with) a man, or, as women’s power is [accounted less] by a man,” 1284.
be () sǣm twēonum = be-twēonum sǣm, “between the seas,” 858, 1297, 1685, 1956.
bēacen, st. neut., beacon, sign, monument, 570; nom. bēcn, 3160.
bēacnian, w. v., [beckon] indicate; pp. gebēacnod, 140.
beado, beadu, st. f., battle, war, 709; gen. beadwe, 1539.
beado-grīma, w. m., battle-mask, helmet, 2257.
beado-hrægl, st. neut., [battle-rail] war-dress, coat of mail, 552.
beado-lēoma, w. m., [battle-ray] sword, 1523.
beado-mēce, st. m., battle-sword, 1454.
beado-rinc, st. m., [battle-]warrior, 1109.
beadu-folm, st. f., battle-hand, 990.
beadu-lāc, st. neut., battle-play, battle, war, 1561.
beadu-rōf, adj., battle-strong, mighty in war, 3160.
beadu-rūn, [battle-rune] quarrel, 501.
beadu-scearp, adj., battle-sharp, 2704.
beadu-scrūd, st. neut., [battle-shroud] coat of mail, 453.
beadu-sērce, w. f., battle-sark, coat of mail; acc. sg. beadu-sērcean, 2755. [Sievers § 159. 1.]
beadu-weorc, st. neut., battle-work, battle, 2299.
bēag, bēah, ring, circlet, (armlet, necklace, etc.); often = money, treasure; 1211, 80, 523, etc.; acc. pl. bēg, 3163.
bēag-gyfa, w. m., ring-giver, 1102.
bēag-hroden, adj. (pp.), ring-adorned, adorned with diadem, bracelets, or rings, 623.
bēah-hord, st. neut., ring-hoard, 894, etc.
bēah-sele, st. m., ring-hall, hall in which rings were given, 1177.
bēah-þegu, st. f., ring-receiving, 2176 (referring to Hygd’s receiving from Beowulf the wonderful necklace which Wealhtheow gave him).
bēah-wriða, w. m., ring-wreath, circlet, 2018.
bealdian, w. v., bear oneself boldly, 2177.
bealdor, baldor, st. m., prince, lord, 2428, 2567.
bealo, bealu, st. neut., bale, evil, ruin, 2826; gen. pl. bealwa, 909, bealuwa, 281, bealewa, 2082.
bealo-cwealm, st. m., baleful or violent death, 2265.
bealo-hycgende, adj. (pres. part.), [bale-thinking] intending evil, 2565.
bealo-hȳdig, adj., [bale-minded] intending evil, 723.
bealo-nīð, st. m., [bale-envy, -hate, -mischief] baleful envy, malicious hatred, 1758, 2404; poison, venom, 2714.
bearhtm, st. m.

(1) brightness, 1766.

(2) sound, 1431.
bearm, st. m., [barm] lap, bosom, 35, 1137, 2404 (possession).
bearn, st. neut., bairn, child, son, 150, 469, 3170, etc.; pl. ylda bearn, 605, gumena bearn, 878, niðða bearn(a), 1005, “the children of men.”
bearn-gebyrdo, st. f., bairn-birth, child-bearing; gen. 946.
bearu, st. m., grove, wood, 1363.
bēatan, st. v., beat, smite, paw, 2265; pp. gebēaten, 2359.
bēcn, see bēacen.
bed(d), st. neut., bed, 140, 1240, etc.
be-foran, adv., before; of place, 1412, of time, 2497.
be-foran, prep., with acc., before, 1024.
bēg, see bēag.
bēgen, m., bā, f. and neut., num. and adj.-pron., both, 536, 1305, 2196, etc.; gen. bēga folces, “of the folk of both [peoples],” 1124; bēga wēn, “expectation of both things” (Beowulf’s return home and revisiting the Danes; see ll. 1868—9), 1873.
be-gong, be-gang, st. m., extent, expanse, compass, circuit, 362, 860, etc.; acc. bigong, 2367.
belgan, st. v., swell with anger, anger oneself; pp. gebolgen “swollen,” 2401, “swollen with anger, enraged,” 723, 1539, 2220; pl. gebolgne, 1481.
ā-belgan, st. v., anger; pret. ābealh, 2280. ge-belgan, st. v., with dat., anger; pret. subj. gebulge, 2331.
bēn, st. f., [bene] boon, request, 428, 2284.
bēna, w. m., suppliant, 352, 364; nom. swā hē bēna wæs, “as he had begged,” 3140.
benc, st. f., bench, 327, etc.
benc-swēg, st. m., bench-sound, noise from the benches, 1161.
benc-þel, st. neut., [bench-thill] bench-board, bench, 486, 1239.
bend, st. m. f., band, bond, 977, 1609.
ben-geat, st. neut., wound-gate, opening of a wound, 1121.
benn, st. f., wound, 2724.
bēodan, bīodan, st. v.

(1) announce, 2892.
(2) offer, give, 385, 1085, 2957.

ā-bēodan, st. v., announce, 390; offer, 668. Special passages: pret. him hǣl ābēad, “bade him hail, wished him health,” 653; hǣlo ābēad, “bade farewell,” 2418.

be-bēodan, st. v., bid, command, order, 401, 1975.

ge-bēodan, st. v.
(1) bid, command; inf. hēt þā gebēodan byre Wihstānes…hǣleða monegum, “then the son of Weohstan ordered that command should be given to many heroes,” 3110.

(2) proclaim, offer, give, 603, 2369.
bēod-genēat, st. m., board-comrade, table-companion, 343, 1713.
bēon, irreg. v., be, usu. with a fut. sense, 183, etc.; be, happen, 1762, etc.; pres. sg. 3rd bið, 186, etc., byð, 1002, 2277; pl. bēoð, 1838, bīoð, 2063; imperat. sg. bēo, 386, etc., bīo, 2747.
bēor, st. neut., beer, beer-drinking, 480, 2041, etc.
beorgan, st. v., with dat., defend, protect, save, 1445, etc.; pret. pl. burgan, 2599.
be-beorgan, st. v., with refl. dat. and acc. or dat. rei, defend, protect (oneself) against, 1746 (see note on 1747), 1758.

ge-beorgan, st. v., with dat., protect, save; pret. gebearg, 2570, gebearh, 1548.

ymb-beorgan, st. v., [about-protect] surround and protect, 1503.
beorh, biorb, beorg, st. m., hill, mountain, mount, barrow, grave-mound, 211, 2241, 2524, 2529, 2807.
beorht, adj., bright, light, shining, splendid, 158, 231, etc.; weak forms, beorhte, 997, byrhtan, 1199, etc.
beorhtost, superl., brightest, 2777.
beorhte, adv., brightly, 1517.
beorhtian, w. v., intrans., brighten, sound clearly, 1161.
beorn, biorn, st. m., hero, warrior, 1024, 2404, 2559, etc.
beornan, st. v., intrans., burn, 2280 (see note); pres. part, byruende, 2272.
for-beornan, st. v., intrans., pret. forbarn, forborn: burn up, 1616, 2672, etc. ge-beornan, st. v., intrans., burn, be burnt, 2697.
beorn-cyning, st. m., hero-king, warrior-king, 2148.
bēor-scealc, st. m., beer-seneschal, steward, 1240.
bēor-sele, bīor-sele, st. m., beer-hall, 482, 2635, etc.
bēor-þegu, st. f., [beer-taking] beer- drinking, 117, 617.
bēot, st. neut., boast, promise, 80, 523.
bēotian, w. v.
ge-bēotian, w. v., boast, make a boastful promise, 480, 536.
bēot-word, st. neut., [boast-word] boastful word, 2510.
beran, st. v.

(1) bear, carry, wear, 48, 437, 2055, 2281, etc.; pres. sg. 3rd, byreð, 296, etc.; pret. pl. bǣron, 213, etc., bǣran, 2850.
(2) bear, give birth to; pp. geboren, born, 1703.

æt-beran, st. v., bear to, carry to, bear, 28, 519, etc.

for-beran, st. v., forbear, restrain, 1877.

on-beran, st. v., bear off, carry away, 2284 ; take off, 990.

oþ-beran, st. v., bear to, bear, 579.
berian, w. v., bare, clear, 1239.
berstan, st. v., intrans., burst, 760 (crack), 818, 1121.
for-berstan, st. v., intrans., burst, break in pieces, snap, 2680.
bētan, w. v.
ge-bētan, w. v., amend, make good, requite, 1991, 2465; pp. pl. gēbette, 830.
betera, adj. compar. (of gōd), better, 469, 1703.
betost, betst, superl., best, 453, 3007, etc.; weak forms betsta, 947, betstan, 1871.
betlīc, adj., excellent, splendid, 780, 1925.
bī, see be.
bi-, see be-,
bicgan, see bycgan.
bīd, st. neut., biding, tarrying, delay, 2962.
bīdan, st. v., with gen. or absolutely, bide, abide, remain, await, wait for, 87, 400, 709, etc.
ā-bīdan, st. v., with gen., abide, await, 977.

ge-bīdan, st. v.
(1) usu. with acc. or governed clause, bide, abide, endure, experience, 264, 929, 1618, 1720, 2445, etc.; pp. gebiden, 1928; imperat. absolutely, gebīde gē, 2529.
(2) with gen., wait for; dat. inf. ōðres…tō gebīdanne…yrfeweardas, “to wait for another heir,” 2452.

on-bīdan, st. v., with gen., abide, await; inf. lætað hildebord hēr onbīdan…worda geþinges, “let your battle-boards here abide the issue of words,” 397.

or-bīdan, st. v., abide, wait, tarry, 2302.
biddan, st. v., [bid] ask, beg, pray, 29, 176, 1994, etc.; pret. sg. bæd hine blīðne, “begged him to be blithe,” 617; with acc. pers. and gen. rei, ic þē…biddan wille…ānre bēne, “I will ask of thee one boon,” 427.
big, see bī.
bil(l), st. neut., bill, sword, 40, 1567, 2777, etc.
bindan, st. v., bind: pp. bunden, 216, 1285 (see ll. 1531, 1900), 1900; gebunden, 871, 1531, 1743, 2111.
ge-bindan, st. v., bind, 420. on-bindan, st. v., unbind; pret. sg. onband beadu-rūne, “opened a quarrel,” 501.
bisgu, bisigu, see bysigu.
bītan, st. v., bite, cut, 742, 1454, etc.
bite, st. m., bite, 2060, 2259.
biter, adj., bitter, cutting, sharp, furious, 1431, 1746, 2704; dat. pl. biteran, 2692.
bitre, adv., bitterly, 2331.
blāc, adj., bleak, bright, brilliant, 1517.
blæc, adj., black, 1801.
blǣd, st. m., breath, life, prosperity, renown, 1124, 18, 1703, 1761.
blǣd-āgende, adj. (pres. part.), abuudance-owning, prosperous, 1013.
blǣd-fæst, adj., prosperous, renowned, 1299.
blanca, w. m., a white horse, 856.
blēate, adv., miserably, pitifully, 2824.
blīcan, st. v., shine, gleam, 222.
blīðe, adj., blithe, joyous, 617; gracious, with gen., 436.
blīð-heort, adj., blithe of heart, joyful, 1802.
blōd, st. neut., blood, 742, etc.
blōdegian, w. v., make bloody: pp. geblōdegod, 2692.
blōd-fāg, adj., blood-stained, 2060.
blōdig, adj., bloody, 2440, etc.
blōdig-tōð, adj., bloody-toothed, 2081.
blōd-rēow, adj., blood-fierce, blood-thirsty, 1719.
blonden-feax, adj., [blended-haired] gray-haired, 1594, 1791, 1873; weak nom. sg. blonden-fexa, 2962.
bodian, w. v., [bode] announce, 1802.
bolca, w. m., gangway, 231.
bold, st. neut., building, 997, 1925, etc.
bold-āgend, st. m. (pres. part.), house-owner, 3112.
bolgen-mōd, adj., [bulged-mood] angry in mind, enraged, 709, etc.
bolster, st. m., bolster, 1240.
bona, bana, w. m., bane, banes-man, slayer, 158, 1968, 2506, etc.
bon-gār, st. m., bane-spear, deadly spear, 2031.
bord, st. neut., [board] shield, 2524, etc.
bord-hæbbende, adj. (pres. part.), [board-having] shield-bearing, 2895.
bord-hrēoða, w. m., [board-cover] shield, 2203.
bord-rand, st. m., [board-]shield, 2559.
bord-weal, st. m., [board-wall] wall of shields, 2980.
bord-wudu, st. m., [board-wood] shield; acc. pl. 1243.
bōt, st. f., boot, remedy, help, compensation, 158, 909, etc.
botm, st. m., bottom, 1506.
brād, adj., broad, wide, ample, 2207, 2978, 3105, etc.
brǣdan, w. v., broaden.
geond-braǣdan, w. v., over-spread, 1239.
brēatan, st. v.
ā-brēatan, st. v., break up, kill, 2930.
brecan, st. v.

(1) trans., break, 1100, 1511 (injure), 2980; pp. pl. 2063. Special passages: hine fyrwyt bræc, “curiosity tormented him (as to),” 232, 1985, 2784.
(2) intrans., break, 2546.

ge-brecan, st. v., break, crush, shatter, 2508.

tō-brecan, st. v., break to pieces, knock about, 780, 997.

þurh-brecan, st. v., break through, 2792.
brecþ, st. f., breaking, grief, 171.
-bredwian, w. v.
ā-bredwian, w. v., overthrow, slay, 2619.
bregdan, st. v., with acc. or dat.

(1) brandish, cast, whirl, drag, draw, 707, 794, 1540 (throw); pret. pl. mundum brugdon, “brandished your hands,” 514; pp. brōden, brogden mǣl, “drawn (or decorated?) sword,” 1616, 1667.
(2) braid, weave; inf. bregdon, 2167; pp. brōden, 552, 1548; acc. sg. f. brogdne, 2755.

ā-bregdan, st. v., draw, lift; pret. sg. ābrǣd, 2575.

ge-bregdan, st. v., with acc. or dat.
(1) draw; pret. gebrægd, gebrǣd, 1564, 1664, 2562, 2703.
(2) braid, weave; pp. gebrōden, 1443.

on-bregdan, st. v., burst open; pret. sg. onbrǣd, 723.
brego, st. m., prince, lord, king, 427, etc.; nom. brego rōf cyning, “the prince [was] a brave king,” 1925.
brego-stōl, st. m., [prince-stool] throne, dominion, 2196, 2370, 2389.
brēme, adj., [brim] renowned, 18.
brenting, st. m., high ship, 2807.
brēost, st. neut., breast, 552, etc.
brēost-gehygd, st. neut., breast-thought, thought of the heart, 2818.
brēost-gewǣdu, st. neut. pl., [breast-weeds] coat of mail, 1211, etc.
brēost-hord, st. neut., [breast-hoard] breast’s treasure, mind, thought, 1719, 2792.
brēost-net, st. neut., breast-net, coat of chain-mail, 1548.
brēost-weorðung, st. f., breast-adornment, 2504 (see ll. 1202 ff.).
brēost-wylm, st. m., [breast-welling] heaving of the breast, grief, 1877.
brēotan, st. v., break, kill, 1713.
ā-brēotan, st. v., break up, destroy, kill, 1298, 1599, 2707.
brim, st. neut., [brim] surge, billow, sea, mere, ocean, 28, 570, 847, 1594, 2803.
brim-clif, st. neut., [brim-cliff] sea-cliff, 222.
brim-lād, st. f., ocean-way, 1051.
brim-līðend, st. m. (pres. part.), sea-farer, 568.
brim-strēam, st. m., sea-stream, 1910.
brim-wīsa, w. m., [sea-wise] sea-leader, sea-king, 2930.
brim-wylf, st. f., she mere-wolf, 1506, 1599.
brim-wylm, st. m., mere-welling, surge, 1494.
bringan, st. v., bring, 1829, etc.
ge-bringan, st. v., bring; subj. pres. pl. gebringan, 3009.
brōden, see bregdan.
brōga, w. m., terror, 1291, etc.; gen. sg. 583.
brond, st. m., brand, burning, fire. sword, 1454, 2126, 2322, 3014, 3160.
bront, adj., high, 238, deep, 568.
brosnian, w. v., crumble, perish, 2260.
brōþor, st. m., brother, 1324, etc.; gen. brōðor, 2619.
brūcan, st. v., with gen., brook, use, enjoy, 1062, 1178, 1953; without expressed object, 1045, 1487, etc.
brūn, adj., brown, 2578.
brūn-ecg, adj., brown-edged, 1546.
brūn-fāg, adj., brown-coloured, of brown hue, 2615.
brȳd, st. f., bride, wife, 2031; acc. sg. brȳd, 2930, brȳde, 2956.
brȳd-būr, st. neut., bride-bower, woman’s room, 921.
bryne-lēoma, w. m., burning-ray (the dragon’s vomit of fire), 2313.
bryne-wylm, st. w., [burning-welling] surge of fire, 2326.
brytnian, w. v., distribute; pret. sg. brytnade, 2383.
brytta, w. m., distributer, giver, 35, 607, etc.
bryttian, w. v., distribute, bestow, 1726.
būan, st. v.

(1) intrans., dwell; inf. būon, 2842.

(2) trans., dwell in, inhabit, occupy, 3065; pp. gebūn, 117.
būgan, st. v., bow, bend, stoop, 327, (lie at rest) 2598, 2918, 2031, etc.; pret. sg. bēah, 2956; pp. gebogen, 2569.
ā-būgan, st. v., [bow away] give way, start, 775.

be-būgan, st. v., [bow about] encompass, 93, 1223.

ge-būgan, st. v., pret. gebēag, gebēah:
(1) intrans., bow, bend, fall, 1540, 2567, 2980.

(2) trans., bow to; pret. sg. sele-reste gebēah, “lay down on his bed in the hall,” 690; so 1241.
bunden-beorde, adj., with hair bound up, 3151 (see note on 3155).
bunden-stefna, w. m., bound stem, bound prow, ship, 1910.
būne, w. f., cup, drinking-vessel, 2775, 3047.
būr, st. neut., bower, room, 140, etc.
burg, burh, st. f., burgh, fortified place, castle, palace, city, 53, 523, 1968, 2433; dat. byrig, 1199 (see note on 1200).
burh-loca, w. m., burgh-lock, castle-lock, barrier of a castle or city, 1928.
burh-stede, st. m., burgh-stead, courtyard, 2265.
burh-wela, w. m., [burgh-weal] wealth of a castle or city, 3100.
burne, w. f., burn, stream, 2546.
būton, prep., with dat., but, except, 73, 657, 705.
būton, būtan, conj.

(1) with subj., unless, 966.

(2) with indic., without, but that, except, 1560; in elliptical sentences, 879, 1614.
bycgan, bicgan, w. v., buy, 1305.
be-bycgan, w. v., sell, 2799. ge-byegan, to. v., buy, obtain, 973; pret. his ealdre gebohte, “paid for [it] with his life,” 2481; pp. pl. 3014.
byldan, w. v., embolden, encourage, 1094.
bȳme, w. f., trumpet; gen. 2943.
byrdu-scrūd, st. neut., shield-covering, shield, 2660.
byre, st. m., son, boy, youth, 1188, 2018, 2053, etc.
byrele, st. m., cup-bearer, 1161.
byreð, see beran.
byrgean, w. v., taste, 448.
byrht, see beorht.
byrig, see burg.
byrnan, see beornan.
byrne, w. f., byrny, coat of mail, 405, etc.
byrn-wiga, w. m., byrny-warrior, mailed warrior, 2918.
bysigu, st. f., [business] trouble, affliction; nom. besigu, 281; dat. pl. bisgum, 1743, bysigum, 2580.
byð, see bēon.
bȳwan, w. v., prepare, adorn, 2257.


camp, st. m., battle, 2505.
can, see cunnan.
candel, st. f., candle, 1572 (of the sun).
ceald, adj., cold, 1261, etc.
cealdost, superl., coldest, 546.
cēap, st. m., [chap] bargain, purchase, 2415, 2482.
cēapian, w. v., [cheapen, chop] purchase; pp. gecēapod, 3012.
cearian, w. v., care, take care, 1536.
cear-sīð, st. m., [care-journey] journey fraught with care, expedition that brings sorrow, 2396 (see Ēadgils in “Persons and Places”).
cearu, st. f., care, sorrow, 1303, 3171.
cear-wylm, -wǣlm, st. m., [care-welling] surge of care, wave of sorrow, extreme grief, 2821, 2066. [Sievers § 159, 2.]
ceaster-būend, st. m., castle-dweller, denizen of a city, 768.
cempa, w. m., champion, fighter, 1312, etc.; dat. 2044.
cēne, adj., keen, bold, brave, 768.
cēnost, superl., keenest, boldest, 206.
cennan, w. v.

(1) beget, bear, bring forth, 12, 943.
(2) declare; imperat. sg. refl., cen þec, 1219.

a-cennan, w. v., beget, bear, 1356.
cēnðu, st. f., keenness, boldness, 2696.
cēol, st. m., keel, ship, 38, etc.
ceorfan, st. v., carve.
be-ceorfan, st. v., with acc. pers. and dat. rei, cut off, 1590, 2138.
ceorl, st. m., churl, man, 202, 2444, 2972, etc.
cēosan, cīosan, st. v., choose, accept, 2376, 2818; pp. pl. gecorone, 206.
ge-cēosan, st. v., choose, 1201 (see note on 1200), 1758, 2469, etc.; dat. inf. gecēosenne, 1851.
cīgān, w. v.
ā-cīgan, w. v., call, summon, 3121.
cirran, w. v.
on-cirran, w. v.

(1) trans., turn, change, 2857.

(2) intrans., turn, return, 2951, 2970.
clif, st. neut., cliff, 1911.
clomm, clamm, st. m., clasp, grip, 963, 1335, 1502.
cnāwan, st. v.
ge-cnāwan, st, v., know, recognise, 2047. on-cnāwan, st. v., know, recognise, 2554.
cniht, st. m., [knight] boy, 1219.
cniht-wesende, adj. (pres. part.), being a boy or youth, 372, 535.
cnyssan, w. v., crash, clash; pret. pl. cnysedan, 1328.
cōl, adj., cool.
cōlra, compar., cooler, 282, 2066.
collen-ferhð, -ferð, adj., [swollen-minded] of proud spirit, high-minded, bold-minded, 1806, 2785.
con, const, see cunnan.
corðer, st. neut., troop, guard, crowd, 1153, 3121.
costian, w. v., with gen., try, prove, 2084.
cræft, st. m., might, strength; skill, craft; 699, 982, 2168, 2221 (mass), etc.; dat. pl. dēofles cræftum, “with devil’s devices,” 2088.
cræftig, adj., [crafty] strong, powerful, 1466, 1962.
cringan, st. v., cringe, fall, 635, 1113.
ge-cringan, st. v., cringe, fall; pret. sg. gecrong, 1568, 2505, gecrang, 1337, gecranc, 1209.
cuma, w. m., comer, 1806.
cuman, st. v., pret. c(w)ōm: come, 23, 376, 430, 569, 731, 1382, 2058, etc.; subj. pres. pl. cymen, 3106; pret. pl. cwōmon, 239, etc., cwōman, 650; pp. pl. cumene, 361. Often with foll. inf. (which is sometimes best translated by a pres. part.), 268, 710, etc.
be-cuman, st. v., pret. bec(w)ōm:

(1) come, 115, 192, 2992, etc.
(2) with. acc. pers., befall, 2883.

ofer-cuman, overcome; pret. sg. ofercwōm, 1273; pret. pl. ofercōmon, 699; pp. 845.
cumbol, st. m., standard, banner, 2505.
cunnan, st.-w. v., pres. sg. 1st, 3rd,

con, can, 2nd, const:
(1) with acc. or clause, know, be acquainted with, 359, 372, 392, 418, 1180, 1377, 1739, etc.; with acc. and clause, 1355.

(2) with inf., know how to, be able to, 50, 90, 182, 1746, etc.
cunnian, w. v., with acc. or gen., try, make trial of, explore, 508, 1426, 1444, 1500, 2045.
cūð, adj. (pp. of cunnan), known, well known, famous, 150, 867, 1913, etc.
cūð-līce, adv., openly.
cūð-līcor, compar., more openly, 244.
cwealm, st. m., [quelling] murder, death, 107, 3149.
cwealm-bealu, st. neut., death-bale, deadly evil, 1940.
cwealm-cuma, w. m., murderous comer, 792.
cweccan, w. v., [quake] brandish, 235.
cwellan, w. v., quell, kill, 1334.
ā-cwellan, w. v., quell, kill, 886, etc.
cwēn, st. f., queen, wife, 62, etc.
cwēn-līc, adj., queenly, womanly. 1940.
cweðan, st. v., say, speak, 2041; pret. cwæð, “quoth,” 315, etc.
ā-cweðan, st. v., say, speak; pres. sg. ācwyð, 2046; pret. sg. ācwaeð, “quoth,” 654. ge-cweðan, st. v., say, speak, 535, 2664; pret. sg. gecwæð, “quoth,” 857, etc.
cwic, cwico, adj., quick, living, alive, 98, 2314, 3093, etc.
cwīðan, st. v., with acc., lament, mourn, 2112, 3171.
-cwyð, see -cweðan.
cyme, st. m., coming; pl. 257.
cymen, see cuman.
cym-līce, adv.
cym-līcor, compar., in more comely fashion, more fitly, 38.
cyn(n), st. neut., kin, race, 98, 107, 421, etc.
cyne-dōm, st. m., kingdom, 2376.
cyning, kyning, st. m., king, 11, 619, 3171, etc.
cyning-bald, adj., [king-bold] royally bold, 1634.
cynn, st. neut., only in pl. (of adj. cyn(n), “akin, suitable”), customs, courtesies, etiquette, 613.
cȳpan, w. v., sell.
ge-cypan, w. v., buy, purchase, hire, 2496.
cyssan, w. v.
ge-cyssan, w. v., kiss, 1870.
cyst, st. f., [choosing] choice, choiceness, choice quality, excellence, pick, 673, 802, 867, 923, etc.
cȳðan, w. v., make known, show, 659, etc.; pp. gecȳðed, “made known, famed,” 262, 700, 1971, etc.
ge-cūðan, w. v., make known, 257, 354.


dǣd, st. f., deed, act, 181, etc.; acc. dǣd, 585, etc., dǣde, 889; gen. pl. hafað…dǣda gefondad, “has experienced deeds (of violence?),” 2454.
dǣd-cēne, adj., [deed-keen] bold in act, 1645.
dǣd-fruma, w. m., [deed-chief] doer of deeds, 2090.
dǣd-hata, w. m., [deed-hater] one who shows his hatred in deeds, 275.
dæg, st. m., day, 197, 485, 3159, etc.
dæges, gen. of dæg used adverbially, by day, 1935, 2269.
dæg-hwīl, st. f., day-while, day; acc. pl. hē dæg-hwīla gedrogen hæfde eorðan wynne, “he had spent his days of earth’s joy,” 2726.
dæg-rīm, st. neut., [day-rime] number of days; nom. dōgera dæg-rim, “the number of his days,” 823.
dǣl, st. m., deal, part, portion, share, 621, 1740, 2843, etc.
dǣlan, w. v., deal, divide, distribute, share, 80, 2534, etc.
be-dǣlan, w. v., with dat. rei, deprive, bereave, 721, 1275. ge-dǣlan, w. v., deal out, 71; divide, part, 731, 2422.
daroð, st. m., dart, javelin, 2848.
dēad, adj., dead, 467, etc.
dēagan, st. v., dye; pret. dēað-fǣge dēog, “the doomed one dyed [the mere],” 850.
dēah, see dugan.
deall, adj., proud, 494.
dear, dearst, see durran.
dēað, st. m., death, 441, 2269, 2843, etc.
dēað-bedd, st. neut., death-bed, 2901.
dēað-cwalu, st. f., [death-quelling] violent death, murder, 1712.
dēað-cwealm, st. m., [death-quelling] violent death, slaughter, 1670.
dēað-dæg, st. m., death-day, 187, 885.
dēað-fǣge, adj., [death-fey] doomed to death, 850.
dēað-scūa, w. m., death-shadow, deadly sprite, 160.
dēað-werig, adj., death-weary, dead, 2125.
dēað-wīc, st. neut., [death-wick] dwelling of death, 1275.
dēman, w. v., deem; adjudge, 687; appraise, 3174.
dēmend, st. m., judge, 181.
denn, st. neut., den, 2759, 3045.
dēofol, st. m., devil, 756, etc.
dēogol, see dȳgel.
dēop, st. neut., deep, 2549.
dēop, adj., deep, 509, 1904.
dēor, dīor, adj., bold, brave, dire, 1933, 2090.
dēorc, adj., dark, 160, 275, etc.
dēore, see dȳre.
dēor-līc, adj., bold, 585.
dēð, see dōn.
-dīgan, see -dȳgan.
dīope, adv., deeply, 3069.
diore, see dyre.
disc, st. m., dish, 2775, 3048.
dōgor, st. neut., day, 219, 2200, 2573, etc.; dat. sg. dōgore, 1797, dōgor, 1395 (see note); gen. pl. dōgora, 88, dōgera, 823, dōgra, 1090.
dōgor-gerīm, st. neut., number of days, 2728.
dohtor, st. f., daughter, 375, etc.
dol-gilp, st. m., [doltish yelp] foolish boast, 509.
dol-līc, adj., rash, desperate, audacious, 2646.
dol-sceaða, w. m., doltish scather, foolish or rash foe, 479.
dōm, st. m., doom, judgment, 441, 1098, etc.; free-will, choice, 895, 2147, etc.; glory, 885, 2666, etc. Special passages: æfter dōme, “according to custom, or merit,” 1720; drēah æfter dōme, “lived, employed himself, according to right, or honour,” 2179.
dōm-lēas, adj., [glory-less] inglorious, 2890.
dōn, irreg. v., do, make, take, esteem, put, lay, 444, 1116, 1828, etc.; pres. sg. dēð, 1058; pret. sg. dyde, etc., 44, 1676, 2809, etc. Special passages: him Hūnlāfing hilde-lēoman…on bearm dyde, “the son of Hunlaf thrust the sword into his [Hengest’s] breast,” 1144 (see note); ne him þæs wyrmes wīg for wiht dyde, eafoð ond ellen, “he esteemed the worm’s warfare as naught, its strength and courage,” 2348.
gē-dōn, st. v., do, make, put, esteem, 2090, 2186; pres. sg. gedēð, 1732.
dorste, pret. of durran.
draca, w. m.

(1) drake, dragon, 892, 2088;

(2) the drake or dragon, the slaying of which forms Beowulf’s third great exploit, 2211, etc.
-drǣdan, st. v.
on-drǣdan, st. v., dread, 1674, 2275; pret. ondrēd, 2347.
drēah, see drēogan.
drēam, st. m., [dream] joy, mirth, 88, 99, etc.
drēam-lēas, adj., joyless, 1720.
drēfan, w. v., trouble, stir, 1904; pp. gedrēfed, 1417.
drēogan, st. v., [dree] do, go through, experience, endure, suffer, enjoy, 589, 1470, 2179 (see dōm), etc.; imperat. sg. drēoh, 1782; pret. sg. drēah, 131; pret. pl. drugon, 798, 1966; pp. gedrogen, “spent,” 2726. Special passage: sund-nytte drēah, “(did swimming-office, i.e.) swam,” 2360.
ā-drēogan, st. v., endure, 3078.
drēor, st. m., blood, 447.
drēor-fāh, adj., blood-stained, 485.
drēorig, drīorig, adj., [dreary] bloody, 1417, 2789.
drēosan, st. v.
ge-drēosan, st. v., fall, sink, fail, decline, 1754, 2666.
drepan, st. v., strike, hit; pret. sg. drep, 2880; pp. drepen, 1745, dropen, 2981.
drepe, st. v., stroke, blow, 1589.
drīfan, st. v., drive, 1130, 2808.
to-drīfan, st. v., drive asunder, 545.
driht-, see dryht-.
drihten, see dryhten.
drincan, st. v. drink, 742, 1233, 1945, etc.; pp. druncen, “drunk, having drunk (not necessarily intoxicated),” 531, etc.; pl. druncne, 480, etc.
drinc-fæt, see drync-fæt.
drohtoð, st. m., way of life, calling, 756.
dropen, see drepan.
drūsian, w. v., become turbid?, subside?, 1630.
dryht-bearn, st. neut., [noble bairn] noble youth, noble scion; acc. 2035.
dryhten, drihten, st. m.

(1) lord, chieftain, 1484, 1050, etc.; dat. dryhtne, 2482, etc., dryhten (?), 1831.

(2) Lord (of the Deity), 108, etc.
dryht-guma, driht-guma, w. m., [clansman] warrior, noble warrior, noble man, 99, 1790, etc.
dryht-līc, driht-līc, adj., lordly, courtly, royal, noble, excellent, 892; weak neut. drihtlīce wīf, 1158.
dryht-māðum, st. m., lordly treasure, splendid treasure, 2843.
[dryht-,] driht-scype, st. m., [warrior-ship] heroic deed, 1470.
dryht-sele, driht-sele, st. m., lordly hall, warrior-hall, 485, etc.
dryht-sibb, st. f., troop-peace, peace between bands of warriors, 2068.
drync-fæt, drinc-fæt, st. n., [drink-vat] drinking-vessel, 2254, 2306.
drysmian, w. v., darken, grow dark, 1375.
dūfan, st. v., dive.
ge-dūfan, st. v., dive into, sink into; pret. sg. gedēaf, 2700. þurh-dūfan, st. v., dive through, swim through; pret. sg. þurhdēaf, 1619.
dugan, st.-w. v., pres. sg. indic. dēah, 369, etc.; pres. sg. subj. duge, 589, etc.; pret. sg. dohte, 1344, 1821, etc.: be doughty, avail, 369, 573, etc., with gen. 526; treat (with dat.), 1821 ; rely, 1839.
duguð, st. f., doughtiness, the doughty, doughty warriors, noble warriors, 498, 2020, etc.; often coupled with geogoð, “the youthful”, 160, etc.; nom. pl. duguða, 2035; dat. pl. for dugeðum, “in virtue of doughtiness, by dint of doughty deeds,” 2501; duguðum, “doughtily, or to the doughty,” 3174.
*durran, st.-w. v., dare; pres. sg. dear, dearst, 684, 621; pres. subj. dyrre, 1379; pret. sg. dorste, 1462, 2848, etc.
duru, st. f., door, 388, 721.
dwellan, w. v., mislead, deceive, hinder; pres. sg. dweleð, 1735.
dyde, dydon, see dōn.
dȳgan, w. v.
ge-dȳgan, ge-dīgan, w. v., survive, escape, endure, 300, 578, 661, etc.
dȳgel, dēogol, adj., secret, hidden, 275, 1357.
dyhtig, adj., doughty, 1287.
dynnan, w. v., din, resound; pret. sg. dynede, 767, etc.
dȳre, dēore, adj., dear in both senses, costly and beloved, 560, 1528, 1879, etc.; nom. dīore, 1949; gen. sg. f. dēorre, 488.
dēorest, superl., dearest, 1309.
dyrne, adj., secret, hidden, 271, 1879, etc.
dyrre, see durran.
dyrstig, adj., daring, bold; with gen. 2838.


ēac, adv., eke, also, 97, etc.; once ēc, 3131.
ēacen, adj. (pp. of *ēacan), [eked] great, extensive, mighty, powerful, 198, 1621, 1663, 2140.
ēacen-cræftig, adj., enormously strong, immense, 2280, 3051.
ēadig, adj., rich, prosperous, 1225, 2470.
ēadig-līce, adv., happily, 100.
eafor, see eofor.
eafora, eafera, w. m., child, son, 12, 375, etc.; pl. descendants, successors, 1710: dat. pl. eaferan, 1185.
eafoð, st. neut., strength, might, 902, etc.; acc. pl. eofoðo, 2534; dat. pl. eafeðum, 1717. Special passage: ic him Gēata sceal eafoð ond ellen…gūþe gebēodan, “I shall proclaim to him in war the strength and courage of the Geats,” 602 (see note).
ēage, w. neut., eye, 726, etc.
ēagor-strēam, st. m., water-stream, 513.
eahta, num., eight, 1035; gen. eahta sum, “one of eight, with seven others,” 3123.
eahtian, w. v., consider, deliberate about, esteem, watch over, rule: pres. pl. ehtigað, 1222; pret. sg. eahtode, 1407; pret. pl. eahtedon, 172, eahtodan, 3173; pp. geæhted, 1885.
eal(l), adj., all, 111, 523, 652, 705, 914, 2739; nom. sg. f. eal, 1738; neut. pl. eal, 486; uninflected, 2042, 3164. In some instances it is impossible to say certainly whether the word is an adj. or an adv.: 77, 1230, 1567, 1620, 2241. Substantively, sg. and pl.: 145, 649, 2162, 2794, 1727 (all things), 2461 (everything); gen. pl. ealra, “in all,” 3170; with gen. 744, 835, 1057, 1122, 2149, 2727.
eal, adv., all, 1708, 680 (see þēah). ealles, adv. (gen. of eall), all, altogether, 1000, 1129.
eald, adj., old, 72, 357, 1776, etc.; acc. pl. neut. ealde, 2330. Special passages: eald Metod, “our God of old,” 945; gold-māðmas hēold eald under eorðan, “the old [dragon] held gold-treasures under the earth,” 2415.
yldra, compar., elder, older, 468, etc. yldesta, weak superl., eldest, oldest, 258, etc.
ealder-, see under ealdor-.
eald-gesegen, st. f., old saga, old tradition, 869.
eald-gesīð, st. m., old comrade, 853.
eald-gestrēon, st. neut., old treasure, 1381, etc.
eald-hlāford, st. m., old lord (Beowulf), 2778.
ealdor, aldor, st. m., [alder- in alderman] chief, lord, prince, sovereign, 56, 346, 369, 1644, 1848, 2920, etc.
aldor-lēas, adj., princeless, without a chief, 15. aldor-þegn, st. m., [prince-thane] chief thane, 1308.
ealdor, aldor, st. neut., life, 1371, 1442, etc.; vitals, 1434. Special phrases: tō aldre, “for life, for ever, always,” 2005, 2498; āwa tō aldre, “for ever and ever,” 955.
aldor-bealu, st. neut., life-bale, death, 1676.

aldor-cearu, st. f., life-care, 906.

aldor-dæg, ealder-dæg, st. m., life-day, day of life, 718, 757.

aldor-gedāl, st. neut., life-parting, death, 805.
ealdor-gewinna, w. m., [life-winner] life-adversary, 2903.
ealdor-lēas, aldor-lēas, adj., life-less, 1587, 3003.
eal-fela, adj., [all-many] very many, with gen., 883; acc. eal-fela…worn, “a very great number,” 869.
ealgian, w. v., defend, protect, 796, 1204, etc.
eall, see eal.
eal(l)-gylden, adj., all-golden, 1111, 2767.
eall-īrenne, adj., all-iron, 2338.
ealo-benc, ealu-benc, st. f., ale-bench, 1029, 2867.
ealo-drincend, st. m. (pres. part.), ale-drinker, 1945.
ēa-lond, st. neut., water-land; acc. ēa-lond ūtan, “the sea-board,” 2334.
ealo-wǣge, ealu-wǣge, st. neut., ale-stoup, ale-can, tankard of ale, 481, 495, 2021.
ealu-scerwen, st. f., ale-dearth, tenor as of a dearth of ale, great terror, 769.
ēam, st. m., [“eme” Spenser] uncle, mother’s brother, 881.
eard, st. m., country, estate, home, abode, dwelling, 56, 104, 1621 (expanses), 1727, 2198, 2493, 2736, etc.
eardian, w. v.

(1) intrans., dwell, rest, 3050.

(2) trans., inhabit, 166; inf. wīc eardian, “take up his abode,” 2589.
eard-lufu, w. f., home-love, dear home?, 692. [Sievers § 279, N. 1.]
eard-weall, st. m., land-wall, 1224.
earfoð, st. neut., hardship, hard battling, endurance; acc. pl. earfeðo, 534.
earfoð-līce, adv., hardly, with difficulty, 86, etc.; with trouble, sorrowfully, 2822.
earfoð-þrāg, st. f., time of stress, time of tribulation, 283.
earg, adj., cowardly; gen. absolutely, earges sīð, “coward’s way,” 2541.
earm, st. m., arm, 513, etc.
earm, adj., wretched, 2368, 2938; weak fem. earme, 1117.
earmra, compar., more wretched, 577.
earm-bēag, st. m., arm-ring, armlet, 2763.
earm-hrēad, st. f., arm-ornament, 1194.
earm-līc, adj., wretched, miserable, 807.
earm-sceapen, adj. (pp.), wretched-shapen, miscreated, miserable, 1351, 2228.
earn, st. m., eagle, 3026.
eart, art, 352, 506, 2nd sg. pres. indic. of wesan (q. v.).
ēastan, adv., from the east, 569.
eatol, see atol.
ēaðe, ȳðe, adj., easy, pleasant, 228, 1002, etc.; once ēðe, 2586.
ēaðe, adv., easily, 478, etc.
ēað-fynde, adj., easy to find, 138.
ēawan, see ȳwan.
eaxl, st. f., [axle] shoulder, 835, etc.
eaxl-gestealla, w. m., shoulder-comrade, bosom friend, 1326, 1714.
ēc, see ēac.
ēce, adj., eternal, 108, etc.
ecg, st. f., edge (of a weapon), sword, 1106, 2506, etc.
ecg-bana, w. m., [edge-bane] slayer with a weapon, sword-slayer, 1262.
ecg-hete, st. m., edge-hate, sword-hate, hatred leading to war, 84, 1738.
ecg-þracu, st. f., edge-onset, sword-onset, armed attack, 596.
ed-hwyrft, st. m., return, change, reverse, 1281.
ēdre, see ǣdre, st. f.
ed-wenden, st. f., return, change, 1774, 2188.
edwīt-līf, st. neut., life of reproach, life of infamy, 2891.
efn, adj., even.
on efn, with dat., even with, beside, 2903.
efnan, æfnan, w. v., achieve, perform, accomplish, do, make, 1041, 1254, etc.; pp. geæfned, 3106; āð wæs geæfned, “the oath was sworn,” 1107.
ge-æfnan, w. v., perform, etc., 538.
efne, adv., even, 943, etc.
efstan, w. v., hasten, 1493, etc. [“Beiträge,” x. 506.]
eft, adv., after, afterwards, again, back, 56, 135, 123, 296, etc.
eft-cyme, st. m., back-coming, return, 2896.
eft-sīð, st. m., back-journey, return, 1332, etc.
ēg-clif, st. neut., sea-cliff, 2893.
egesa, st. m., fear, terror, 784, etc.; acc. egsan, 276.
eges-full, adj., terrible, 2929.
eges-līc, adj., terrible, 1649, etc.
egl, adj., [ail = a spike or awn of barley] claw, 987.
egsa, see egesa.
egsian, w. v., cause terror, affright; pret. egsode eorl, “the earl caused terror,” 6.
ēg-strēam, st. m., water-stream, ocean current, 577.
ēhtan, w. v., with gen., pursue, 159, 1512.
ehtigað, see eahtian.
elde, see ylde.
eldo, see yldo.
el-land, st. neut., alien land, strange land, 3019.
ellen, st. m. neut., strength, courage, bravery, 573, 893, 2706, etc.; dat. sg. elne, sometimes best rendered by an adv., “courageously,” 2676; sometimes with strictly adverbial force, “quickly,” 1967, “absolutely,” 1097, “altogether,” 1129.
ellen-dǣd, st. f., [strength-deed] deed of strength or courage, 876, 900.
ellen-gǣst, st. m., [strength-ghost] powerful sprite, 86.
ellen-līce, adv., mightily, courageously, 2122.
ellen-mǣrðu, st. f., [might-greatness] fame for strength or courage, feat of strength, 824, 1471.
ellen-rōf, adj., courage-strong, famed for strength or courage, 340, 1787, etc.
ellen-sīoc, adj., [strength-sick] strengthless, 2787.
ellen-weorc, st. neut., strength-work, deed of might or courage, 661, etc.
elles, adv., else, otherwise, 138, etc.
ellor, adv., elsewhither, 55, etc.
ellor-gāst, ellor-gǣst, st. m., [elsewhither-ghost] sprite living elsewhere, alien sprite, 807, 1349, 1617, 1621.
ellor-sīð, st. m., journey elsewhither, death, 2451.
elne, see ellen.
elra, adj. (compar. of *ele), another, 752.
el-þēodig, adj., of alien nation, foreign, 336.
ende, st. m., end, 822, 1734, etc.; acc. hæfde eorð-scrafa ende genyttod, “had had the last of his earth-caves,” 3046; dat. eorlum on ende, “to the earls at the end (of the high table?, i.e. the noblest),” 2021.
ende-dæg, st. m., end-day, day of death, 637, etc.
ende-dōgor, st. m., end-day, day of death, 2896.
ende-lāf, st. f., [end-leaving] last remnant, 2813.
ende-lēan, st. neut., end-reward, final reward, 1692.
ende-sǣta, w. m., [end-sitter] coast-guard, 241.
ende-stæf, st. m., [end-staff] end; acc. on ende-stæf, “towards, in, the end,” 1753.
endian, w. v.
ge-endian, w. v., end; pp. geendod, 2311.
enge, adj., narrow, 1410.
ent, st. m., giant, 1679, etc.
entisc, adj., gigantic, 2979.
ēode, ēodon, see gān.
eodor, st. m.

(1) fence, barrier; acc. pl. under eoderas, “under the barriers, into the house,” 1037,

(2) protector, lord, prince, 428, etc.; nom. eodur, 663.
eofer, eofor, st. m., boar, figure of a boar upon a helmet, 1112, 1328; acc. eafor, 2152.
eofer-sprēot, st. m., boar-spear, 1437.
eofor-līc, st. neut., boar-likeness, figure of a boar upon a helmet; pl. 303.
eofoð, see eafoð.
eolet, st. m. or neut., sea (?); gen. þā wæs sund liden eoletes æt ende, “then was the sound traversed at the far side of the sea,” 224.
eom, am, see wesan.
eorclan-stān, st. m., precious stone, 1208.
ēored-geatwe, st. f. pl., troop-trappings, military equipments, 2866.
eorl, st. m., earl, noble, warrior, 6, 248, etc.
eorl-gestrēon, st. neut., earls’ treasure, 2244.
eorl-gewǣde, st. neut., [earl-weeds] armour, 1442.
eorlīc ( = eorl-līc), adj., earl-like, noble, 637.
eorl-scipe, st. m., earlship, courage, heroic deeds, 1727, 2133, etc.
eorl-weorod, st. neut., [earl-host] warrior-band, 2893.
eormen-cynn, st. neut., [extended, enormous kin] mankind, 1957.
eormen-grund, st. neut., [enormous ground] the whole broad earth, 859.
eormen-lāf, st. neut., [enormous leaving] immense legacy, 2234.
eorre, see yrre.
eorð-cyning, st. m., earth-king, earthly king, 1155.
eorð-draca, w. m., earth-drake, earth-dragon, 2712, etc.
eorðe, w. f., earth, world, 92, 2834, etc.
eorð-hūs, st. neut., earth-house, 2232.
eorð-reced, st. neut., earth-house, earth-hall, 2719.
eorð-scræf, st. neut., earth-cave; gen. pl. eorð-scrafa, 3046.
eorð-sele, st. m., earth-hall, 2410, etc.
eorð-weall, st. m., earth-wall, 2957, etc.
eorð-weard, st. m., earth-possession, land-property, locality, 2334.
eoten, eoton, st. m., eoten, giant, monster, enemy, 112, 421, 668, 761, 902, etc.
eotenisc, eotonisc, adj., gigantic, of a giant, 1558, 2979; acc. etonisc, 2616.
eoten-weard, st. f., [eoten-ward] ward or watch against a monster; acc. eoten-weard ābead, “offered watch against Grendel,” 668 (see note).
ēow, pers. pron., acc. and dat. pl. (of þū), you, 391, 2865, etc.
ēowan, see ȳwan.
ēower, pers. pron., gen. pl. (of þū), of you, 248, etc.
ēower, poss. adj., your, 257, etc.
ēowic, pers. pron., acc. pl. (of þū), you, 317, 3095.
ēst, st. f., favour, grace, 958, 2165, etc.; acc. þæt ic his ǣrest ðē ēst gesægde, “that I should first give thee his kindly greeting,” 2157; dat. pl. ēstum, with adverbial force, “graciously, gladly, kindly,” 1194, 2149,” 2378.
ēste, adj., gracious; with. gen. hyre…ēste wǣre bearn-gebyrdo, “was gracious to her in her child-bearing,” 945.
etan, st. v., eat, 444, 449.
þurh-etan, st. v., eat through; pp. pl. þurhetone, 3049.
etonisc, see eotenisc.
ēð-begēte, adj., [easy-begotten] easily got, 2861.
ēðe, see ēaðe.
ēðel, st. m., native land, fatherland, land, estate, 520, 1730, etc.
ēðel-riht, st. neut., land-right, 2198.
ēðel-stōl, st. m., [fatherland-stool] native seat; pl. country, 2371.
ēðel-turf, st. f., native turf, native soil; dat. ēðel-tyrf, 410.
ēðel-weard, st. m., fatherland-warden, guardian of his country, 616, 1702, 2210.
ēðel-wyn, st. f., land-joy, home joy, 2885; acc. ēðel-wyn, 2493.
ēð-gesȳne, ȳð-gesēne, adj., [easy-] manifest, easily visible (not seen, pp.), 1110, 1244.


fācen-stæf, st. m., treachery, 1018.
fæc, st. neut., period of time, 2240,
fæder, st. m., father, 55, 316 (of God), etc.; gen. fæder, 911.
fæderen-mǣg, st. m., father’s kinsman, kinsman on the father’s side, 1263.
fǣge, adj. fey, doomed, 846, etc.
fægen, adj., fain, glad, 1633.
fæger, adj., fair, beautiful, 522, etc.
fægere, fægre, adv., fairly, becomingly, courteously, 1014, 1788, etc.
-fǣgon, see -feon.
fǣhð, fǣhðo, st. f., feud, hostility, 2403, 2999; acc. fǣhðe, 153, etc., fǣghðe, 2465, fǣhðo, 2489.
fǣlsian, w. v., cleanse, 432, etc.; pp. gefǣlsod, 825, etc.
fǣmne, w. f., bride, lady, 2034, 2059.
fær, st. neut., craft, vessel, 33.
fǣr, st. m., fear, sudden danger, 1068, 2230.
fǣr-gripe, st. m., fear-grip, sudden grip, 738, etc.
fǣr-gryre, st. m., [fear-terror] sudden terror, terror of sudden danger, 174.
fǣringa, adv., suddenly, 1414, etc.
fǣr-nīð, st. m., [fear-malice] sudden mischief, sudden horror, 476.
fæst, adj., fast, 303, 1742, etc.; often with dat. 1290, 1878, etc.
fæstan, w. v., fasten.
be-fæstan, w. v., commit to, 1115.
fæste, adv., fast, 554, etc.
fæstor, compar., faster, 143.
fæsten, st. neut., fast}ness, stronghold, 104, etc.
fæst-rǣd, adj., [fast-rede] firm-purposed, steadfast, 610.
fæt, st. m., vat, vessel, flagon, 2761.
fǣt, st. neut., plating, gold-plate, 716, 2256.
fǣted, fǣtt, adj. (pp.), plated, gold-plated, 333, etc.
fǣted-hlēor, adj., with bridle covered with plates of gold, 1036.
fǣt-gold, st. neut., plated gold, 1921.
fǣtt, see fǣted.
fǣðm, st. m., [fathom] embrace, bosom, lap, 185, 188, 1393, etc.; power, 1210.
fæðmian, w. v., embrace, 2652, etc.
fāg, fāh, adj., stained, coloured, variegated, bright, shining, 305, 1615, 1631, 2217, 2701, 420 (blood-stained), 1038 (bedecked), 2671 (flashing), etc.; acc. sg. m. fāgne, fāhne, 725, 446, etc.
fāh, fāg, adj.:

(1) hostile, 554; nom. hē fāg wið God, “he a foe to God,” 811. Substantively, foe; acc. sg. m. fāne, 2655; gen. pl. fāra, 578, 1463.

(2) guilty, outlawed, 978, 1001, 1263.
fāhne, see fāg, fāh.
fāmi(g)-heals, adj., foamy-necked, 218, 1909.
fandian, see fondian.
fāne, see fāh, fāg.
-fangen, see -fon.
fāra, see fāh, fāg.
faran, st. v., fare, go, 124, 1404, 1895, etc.; dat. inf. farenne, 1805.
ge-faran, st. v., fare, 738.
faroð, st. m., tide, stream, flood, 28, etc.
fēa, pl. adj., few; acc. (with gen.) fēa worda, 2246, 2662; gen. fēara, 1412, 3061; dat. fēaum, 1081.
-feah, see -fēon.
fealh, see fēolan.
feallan, st. v., fall, 1070, etc. pret. sg. feol(l), 772, 2919, etc.
be-feallan; pp. befeallen, “deprived, bereft,” 1126, 2256.

ge-feallan, st. v.
(1) intrans., fall, 1755.

(2) trans., fall to, fall on to, 2100, 2834.
fealo, see fela.
fealu, adj., fallow, yellow, dun; acc. sg. m. fealone, 1950; f. fealwe, 916; acc. pl. fealwe, 865.
fea-sceaft, adj., wretched, destitute, 7, etc.
feax, st. neut., hair, hair of the head, 1647; dat. fexe, 2967.
fēdan, w. v., feed.
ā-fedan, w. v., bring up, 693.
-fēgon, see -fēon.
-feh, see -fēon.
fehð, see fōn.
fēl, st. f., file; gen. pl. fēla lāfe, “leavings of files, i.e. swords,” 1032.
fela, st. neut., indecl., much, many, 586, 2106.

Usu. with gen. sg. or pl. 164, 809, 876, 929, 992, 1060, 1888; fealo, 2757; see also worn.

Used as an adj. qualifying worn (q. v.), 530, etc.
fela, adv., much, greatly, 1385, 2102, 3025, 3029, 694 (see micel).
fela-gēomor, adj., very sad, 2950.
fela-hrōr, adj., very vigorous, 27.
fela-mōdig, adj., [very moody] very brave, 1637.
fela-synnig, adj., very sinful, 1379.
fell, st. neut., fell, skin, 2088.
fen(n), st. neut., fen, moor, 104, 2009, etc.
fen-freoðo, st. f., fen-refuge, 851.
feng, st. m., clutch, grasp, 578, 1764.
fēng, see fōn.
fengel, st. m., prince, 1400, etc.
fen-gelād, st. neut., fen-path, 1359.
fen-hlið, st. neut., fen-slope; pl. fen-hleoðu, 820.
fen-hop, st. neut., fen-retreat, “sloping hollow with a fenny bottom” (Skeat), 764.
feoh, st. neut., fee, property, money; dat. sg., fēo, 156, etc.
feoh-gift, -gyft, st. f., fee-gift, gift of money, valuable gift, 21, 1025, etc.
feoh-lēas, adj., fee-less, not to be atoned for with money, 2441.
feohtan, st. v.
ge-feohtan, st. v., fight, 1083.
feohte, w. f., fight, 576, 959.
fēolan, st. v., penetrate; pret. sg. fealh, 1281, 2225.
æt-fēolan, st. v., cleave, stick; pret. ætfealh, 968.
-fēon, st. v.
ge-fēon, st. v., rejoice; pret. sg. gefeah, 109, etc., gefeh, 827, etc.; pret. pl. gefǣgon, 1014, gefēgon, 1627.
fēond, st. m., fiend, foe, 101, 164, etc.
fēond-grāp, st. f., fiend-grip, foe’s grasp, 636.
fēond-scaða, w. m., [fiend-scather] dire foe, 554.
fēond-scipe, st. m., fiendship, enmity, 2999.
feor, adj., far, 1361, 1921.
feor, adv., far, afar, 42, 542, 808, 1221, etc.; once feorr, 1988; of time, “far back,” 1701.
fyr, feor, compar., farther, 143, 252, 1340.
feor-būend, st. m. (pres. part.), far dweller, dweller afar; pl. 254.
feor-cȳðð, st. f., far country; pl. feor-cȳððe, 1838.
feorh, st. m. neut., life, 73, 439, 1152 (bodies), 1210, 2040, etc.; gen. fēores, 1433, etc.; dat. fēore, 1843, etc.; dat. pl. fēorum, 73, etc. Special passages: acc. ferh (see wrecan), 2706; wæs in feorh dropen, “was mortally wounded,” 2981; wīdan feorh, “ever,” 2014; dat. tō wīdan fēore, “ever,” 933.
feorh-bealu, -bealo, st. neut., life-bale, deadly evil, 156, 2077, etc.
feorh-benn, st. f., life-wound, deadly wound, 2740.
feorh-bona, w. m., [life-bane] murderer, 2465.
feorh-cynn, st. neut., life-kin, generation or race of men, 2266.
feorg-genīðla, w. m., life-foe, deadly foe, 969, etc.
feorh-lāst, st. m., life-step, 846.
feorh-legu, st. f., laying down of life; acc. nū ic on māðma hord mīne bebohte frōde feorh-lege, “now that in exchange for the hoard of treasures I have sold the laying down of my old life,” 2800.
feorh-sēoc, adj., life-sick, mortally wounded, 820.
feorh-sweng, st. m., [life-blow] deadly blow, 24S9.
feorh-wund, st. f., life-wound, deadly wound, 2385.
feorm, st. f., food, sustenance, 451.
feormend, st. m. (pres. part.), polisher; pl. 2256.
feormend-lēas, adj., polisher-less, wanting the furbisher, 2761.
feormian, w. v.

(1) polish; subj. pres. 2253.

(2) eat, devour; pp. gefeormod, 744.
feorr, see fēor.
feorran, adv., from afar,

(1) of space, 361, etc.

(2) of time, 91, 2106 (of old times).
feorran-cund, adj. come from afar, 1795.
feor-weg, st. m., far way, distant land, 37.
fēower, num., four, 59, 1637, etc.
fēower-tȳne, num., fourteen, 1641.
fēran, w. v., fare, go, 27, 839, etc.; subj. pres. pl., fēran, 254.
ge-fēran, w. v.

(1) trans., go to, reach, gain, bring about, 1221, 1855, 2844, 3063.

(2) intrans., fare, behave; pret. pl., frēcne gefērdon, “they behaved daringly,” 1691.
ferh, 2706, see feorh.
ferh, st. m., [farrow] boar, figure of a boar on a helmet, 305.
ferhð, st. m., heart, mind, etc., 754, 1166, 3176, etc.
ferhð-frec, adj., bold-minded, 1146.
ferhð-genīðla, w. m., life-foe, deadly foe, 2881.
ferian, w. v., [ferry] bear, carry, bring; pres. pi. ferigeað, 333; pret. pl. feredon, 1154, etc., fyredon, 378 ; pp. pl. geferede, 361.
æt-ferian, w. v., bear off, 1669.

ge-ferian, w. v., bear, bring, 1638, etc.; imperat. pl. 1st, ge-ferian, “let us bear,” 3107.

of-ferian, w. v., bear off, 1583.

oð-ferian, w. v., bear away, save, 2141.
fetel-hilt, st. neut., belted hilt, 1563.
fetian, w. v., fetch; pp. fetod, 1310.
ge-fetian, w. v., fetch, bring, 2190.
fēða, w. m., troop on foot, troop of warriors, troop, 1327, 1424, 2544, etc.
fēðe, st. neut., movement, pace, 970.
fēðe-cempa, w. m., foot-champion, foot-warrior, 1544, etc.
fēðe-gest, st. m., foot-guest, 1976.
fēðe-lāst, st. m., [movement-track] foot-track, 1632.
feðer-gearwa, st. f. pl., feather-gear, 3119.
fēðe-wīg, st. m., foot-war, battle on foot, 2364.
fex, see feax.
fīf, num., five, 545; inflected, fīfe, 420.
fīfel-cynn, st. neut., monster-kin, race of monsters, 104,
fīf-tēne, num., fifteen; acc. fȳftȳne, 1582; inflected gen., fīftēna sum, “with fourteen others,” 207.
fīftig, num., fifty; as adj. 2209; with gen. 2733; inflected gen. sg. fīftiges, 3042.
findan, st. v., find, 7, 207, etc.; obtain, prevail, 2373: inf. swā hyt weorðlīcost fore-snotre men findan mihton, “as very wise men could most worthily devise it,” 3162.
on-findan, st. v., find out, perceive, observe, discover, 750, 1293, 1890, etc.
finger, st. m., finger, 760, etc.
fīras, st. m. pl., men, 91, etc.; gen. pl. fȳra, 2250. [“Beiträge” x. 487.]
firen, fyren, st. f., crime, violence, 137, 915, etc.; acc. fyrene, 153, 2480, etc., firen, 1932. dat. pl. fyrenum, “by crimes, criminally, maliciously,” 1744,


fyren-dǣd, st. f., crime-deed, deed of violence, 1001, 1669. fyren-ðearf, st. f., [crime-need] dire distress, 14.
firgen-, see fyrgen-.
flǣsc, st. neut., flesh, 2424.
flǣsc-homa, w. m., flesh-covering, body, 1568.
flān, st. m., arrow, barb, 2438, 3119.
flān-boga, w. m., arrow-bow, 1433, etc.
flēah, see flēon.
flēam, st. m., flight, 1001, etc.
flēogan, st. v., fly, 2273.
flēon, st. v., flee, 755, etc.; pret. sg., with acc., flēah, 1200 (see note), 2225.
be-flēon, st. v., with acc., flee, escape from; dat. inf. nō þæt ȳðe byð to beflēonne, “that (fate or death) will not be easy to escape from,” 1003. ofer-flēon, st. v., flee from; inf. nelle ic beorges weard oferflēon fōtes trem, “I will not flee from the barrow’s warden a foot’s space,” 2525.
flēotan, st. v., float, swim, 542, etc.
flet, st. neut., floor, floor of a hall, hall, 1025, 1086, 1540, etc.
flet-ræst, st. f., floor-rest, bed in a hall, 1241.
flet-sittend, st. m. (pres. part.), floor-sitter, hall-sitter, 1788, 2022.
flet-werod, st. neut., [floor-host] hall-troop, 476.
fliht, st. m., flight, 1765.
flītan, st. v., [sc. flite] contend, strive, 916; pret. sg. 2nd, 507.
ofer-flītan, st. v., overcome, 517.
flōd, st. m., flood, 545, etc.
flōd-ȳð, st. f., flood-wave, 542.
flōr, st. m., floor, 725, etc.
flota, w. m., [floater] bark, ship, 210, etc.
flot-here, st. m., [float-army] fleet, 2915.
flȳman, w. v., put to flight; pp. geflymed, 846, etc.
-fōh, see -fōn.
folc, st. neut., folk, nation, people, warriors, army, 14, 55, 262, 1855, 2393, etc. The plural is sometimes used with the same meaning as the singular, 1422, etc.; cf. lēod, lēode.
folc-āgend, st. m. (pres. part.), [folk-owner] folk-leader, 3113.
folc-cwēn, st. f., folk-queen, 614.
folc-cyning, st. m., folk-king, 2733, etc.
folc-rēd, st. m., folk-rede; acc. folc-rēd fremede, “did what was for the public good,” 3006.
folc-riht, st. neut., folk-right, public right, 2608.
folc-scaru, st. f., folk-share, public property?, 73.
folc-stede, st. m., folk-stead, 76 (Heorot); acc. folc-stede fāra, “the field of battle,” 1463.
folc-toga, w. m., folk-leader, 839.
fold-bold, st. neut., earth-building, hall on the earth, 773.
fold-būend, st. m. (pres. part.), earth-dweller, 309; pl. fold- būend, 2274, fold-būeude, 1355.
folde, w. f., earth, ground, world, 96, 1196, 2975.
fold-weg, st. m., earth-way, 866, etc.
folgian, w. v., follow, pursue, 1102, 2933.
folm, st. f., hand, 158, etc.
fōn, st. v., seize, take, receive, grapple, clutch, 438; pres. 3rd, fēhð ōðer tō, “another succeeds,” 1755; pret. fēng, 1542, with dat. 2989.
be-fōn, bi-fōn, st. v., seize, seize on, embrace, encircle, encompass; pp. befongen, 977, 1451, 2274, etc., bifongen, 2009, befangen, 1295, etc.

ge-fōn, st. v., with acc., seize; pret. gefēng, 740, 1563, 2215, 2609, 3090, etc.

on-fōn, st. v., usu. with dat., receive, take, seize, 911; imperat. sg. onfōh, 1169; pret. onfēng, 52, 1214, etc.; hē onfēng hraðe inwit-þancum ond wið earm gesæt, “he (Grendel) quickly seized [Beowulf] with hostile intent and sat on, fixed, came down on, his arm” (or, as Grein, “Beowulf quickly received the malignant monster, and supported himself on his arm”), 748.

þurh-fōn, st. v., with acc., [seize through] penetrate, 1504.

wið-fōn, st. v., with dat., grapple with; pret. wið-fēng, 760.

ymbe-fōn, st. v., with acc., [seize about] encircle, enclose; pret. ymbefēng, 2691.
fondian, fandian, w. v., with gen., search out, prove, experience; pp. gefandod, 2301, gefondad, 2454.
for, prep.

(1) with dat., before, 358, 1026, 1120, 2020, 1649, 2990; before or because of, 169, 2781; for, out of, from, through, because of, on account of, about, 110, 338–9, 385, 508, 832, 951, 965, 1442, 1515, 2501 (in virtue of), 2549, 2926, 2966, etc.; for (purpose), 382, 458.

(2) with acc., for, instead of, as, 947, 1175, 2348.
foran, adv., before, to the fore, forwards, 984, 1458. Special passage: þe him foran ongēan linde bǣron, “who bare their linden-shields forwards against him,” 2364.
ford, st. m., ford, 568.
fore, prep., with dat., before, 1215; for, through, because of, 136, 2059; of, about, 1064.
fore-mǣre, adj., [fore-great].
fore-mǣrost, superl., most famous of all, 309.
fore-mihtig, adj., [fore-mighty] over-powerful, 969.
fore-snotor, adj. [fore-prudent] very wise, 3162.
fore-þanc, st. m., forethought, 1060.
forht, adj., fearful, afraid, 754, 2967.
forma, adj. superl. (of fore), first, 716, etc.
forst, st. m., frost, 1609.
forð, adv., forth, forward(s), away, on, 45, 210, 745, 1718, 1795, 2289 (see tō, adv.), 3176, etc.; of time, henceforth, from now, 948, 2069.
for-ðam, for-ðan, for-ðon, adv., for that, therefore, 418, 1957,

2645, 2741, 3021, etc.

for-þon þe, conj., because, 503.
forð-gesceaft, st. f., [forth-creation] future world or destiny, 1750.
for-þon, see for-ðam.
forð-weg, st. m., forth-way, way forth, 2625.
fōt, st. m., foot, 500, 7405, etc.
fōt-gemearc, st. neut., foot-mark, foot-length, foot; gen. sg. fīftiges fōt-gemearces lang, “fifty feet long,” 3042.
fōt-lāst, st. m., foot-track, 2289.
fracod, adj., worthless, 1575.
-frægen, see -frignan.
frægn, see frignan.
frætwa, frætwe, st. f. pl., [fret-] adornments, jewels, fretted armour, 3, 37, 896, 1208, 2163 etc.; dat. frætwum, 2054, etc. frætewum, 962.
frætw(i)an, w. v., [fret] adorn, 76 pp. gefrætwod, 992.
ge-frætw(i)an, w. v., adorn pret. sg. gefrætwade, 96.
fram, see from.
frēa, w. m., lord, 271, etc.; of the Deity, the Lord, 27, 2794.
frēa-drihten, st. m., lord and master, 796.
frēa-wine, st. m., lord-friend, friendly ruler, 2357, etc.; acc. 2438.
frēa-wrāsn, st. f., lordly chain, noble chain, 1451.
freca, w. m., wolf, bold man, warrior, 1563.
frēcne, adj., [Sc. frack] daring, audacious, 889, 1104, 2689; dangerous, dread, fearful, 1359, 1378, 2250, 2537.
frēcne, adv., daringly, fiercely, 959, 1032, 1691.
fremde, adj., foreign, 1691.
freme, adj., forward, strenuous, 1932.
fremman, w. v., frame, do, perform, accomplish, bring about, try, 3, 101, 1003, 2514 (see note), etc.; further, support, 1832: pret. fremede, 3006, etc.; pp. gefremed, 954, etc., acc. f. gefremede, 640.
ge-fremman, w. v., frame, do, work, etc., 174, 636, 1315, 2449, etc.; pret. hine mihtig God…forð gefremede, “him mighty God advanced,” 1718.
frēo-burh, st. f., free burgh, free city, noble city, 693.
frēod, st. f., friendship, 2476, 2556.
frēo-dryhten, st. m., noble lord, 1169, 2627.
frēogan, w. v., love, 948, 3176.
frēo-līc, adj., [free-like] noble, 615; fem. frēolicu, 641.
frēond, st. m., friend, 915, etc.
frēond-lār, st. f., friend-lore, friendly counsel, 2377.
frēond-laþu, st. f., friendly invitation, 1192.
frēond-līce, adv.
frēondlīcor, compar., in a more friendly way, in friendlier wise, 1027.
frēond-scipe, st. m., friendship, 2069.
frēo-wine, st. m., noble friend, 430.
freoðo, st. f., protection, peace; acc. freoðo, 188, 1174; freoðe, “compact,” 1707.
freoðo-burh, st. f., protecting burgh, peaceful city, city of refuge, 522.
freoðo-wong, st. m., peace-plain, field of peace, 2959.
freoðu-webbe, w. f., peace-weaver, 1942.
frioðo-wǣr, frioðu-wǣr, st. f., peace-compact, treaty of peace, 1096, 2282. friðu-sibb, st. f., peace-kin, peace-bringer, 2017.
fretan, st. v., [fret] devour, consume, 1581, etc.
fricgean, w. v., ask; inf. fricgcean, 1985; pres. part. fricgende, 2106.
ge-fricgean, w. v., learn, 2889, etc.; pres. subj. gefricge, 1826.
friclan, w. v., seek for, 2556.
frignan, frīnan, st. v., ask, inquire, 351; imperat. sg. frīn, 1322; pret. sg. frægn, 236, etc.
ge-frignan, st. v., learn, hear of; pret. sg., gefrægn, 194, etc., gefrægen, 1011; pret. pi. gefrūnon, 2, etc., gefrungon, 666; pp. gefrūnen, 694, etc., gefrægen, 1196. Often followed by acc. and inf. 74, 1969, etc.
frīnan, see frignan.
frioðo-, frioðu-, friðu-, see freoðo-.
frōd, adj., old, wise, 1306, 279, etc.
frōfor, st. f., solace, comfort, 14, etc.; acc. frōfre, 7, etc., frōfor, 698.
from, adj., forward, keen, bold, 1641, etc.; rich, 21.
from, fram, prep., with dat., from, away from, 420, 541, 1635, 2565, etc.; of, concerning, 532, 581, etc. Following its case, 110, etc.
from, fram, adv., away, forth, 754, 2556.
fruma, w. m., beginning, 2309.
frum-cyn, st. neut., [first kin] lineage, origin, 252.
frum-gār, st. m., [first-spear, cf. Lat. primipilus] chieftain, 2856.
frum-sceaft, st. f., first creation, beginning, 45, etc.
-frūnen, -frungon, -frūnon, see -frignan.
fugol, st. m., fowl, bird, 218, etc.
ful, adv., full, very, 480, etc.
ful(l), st. neut., cup, beaker, 615, etc.; acc. ȳða ful, “the waves’ cup, i.e. the sea,” 1208.
full, adj., full, 2412.
fultum, st. m., help, aid, 698, 2662, etc.
fundian, w. v., hasten, intend, strive to go, 1137, 1819.
furðum, adv., first, 323, etc.; at first, formerly, 1707.
furður, adv., further, 254, etc,
fūs, adj., ready, eager, longing, 1241, 1475, etc.; hastening, inclined, 1966; nom. lēofra manna fūs, “longing for the dear men,” 1916.
fūs-līc, adj., ready, prepared, 1424, etc.; neut. pl. fūslicu, 232.
fȳf-tȳne, see fīf-tēne.
fyll, st. m., fall, 1544, 2912.
fyllan, w. v.
ā-fyllan, w. v., fill up, fill, 1018.
fyllan, w. v.
ge-fyllan, w. v., fell, 2655; pret. pl. gefyldan, 2706.
fyllo, st. f., fill, 562, 1333, etc.
fyl-wērig, adj., fall-weary, weary to the point of falling, 962.
fyr, see feor, adv.
fȳr, st. neut., fire, 185, etc.
fȳras, see fīras.
fȳr-bend, st. m. f., fire-band, 722.
fyrd-gestealla, w. m., army-comrade, 2873.
fyrd-hom, st. m., army-coat, coat of mail, 1504.
fyrd-hrægl, st. neut., [army-rail] armour, 1527.
fyrd-hwæt, adj., [army-active] war-like, brave; pl. fyrd-hwate, 1641, 2476.
fyrd-lēoð, st. neut., army-lay, war-song, 1424.
fȳr-draca, w. m., fire-drake, fire-dragon, 2689.
fyrd-searu, st. neut., [army-] armour, 2618; pl. 232.
fyrd-wyrðe, adj., [army-worthy] war-worthy, distinguished in war, 1316.
fyren, see firen.
fyrgen-bēam, st. m., [mountain-beam] mountain-tree, 1414.
fyrgen-holt, st. m., mountain-holt, mountain-wood, 1393.
fyrgen-strēam, firgen-strēam, st. m., mountain-stream, 1359, 2128.
fȳr-heard, adj., fire-hard, fire-hardened, 305.
fyrian, see ferian.
fȳr-lēoht, st. neut., firelight, 1516.
fyrmest, adv. superl. (of fore), fore-most, first, 2077.
fyrn-dagas, st. m. pl., former days, days of old, 1451.
fyrn-geweorc, st. neut., former work, ancient work, 2286.
fyrn-gewinn, st. neut., former strife, ancient strife, 1689.
fyrn-mann, st. m., former man, man of old, 2761.
fyrn-wita, w. m., former counsellor, old counsellor, 2123.
fyrst, st. m., time, space of time, 76, 545, etc.
fyrðran, w. v., further; pp. fræt-wum gefyrðred, “furthered by, fraught with, jewels,” 2784.
fyr-wet, -wyt, st. neut., curiosity, 232, etc.
fȳr-wylm, st. m., fire-welling, surge of fire, 2671.
fȳsan, w. v., make ready, prepare; pp. gefȳsed, 630, etc.; winde gefȳsed, “impelled by the wind,” 217. From fūs.


gād, st. neut., lack, 660, etc.
gædeling, st. m., relative, comrade, 2617, 2949.
gæst, see gist.
gǣst, see gāst.
gǣðs, see gān.
galan, st. v., sing, sound, 786, 1432; pres. sg., gæleð, 2460.
ā-galan, st. v., sing, ring; pret. āgōl, 1521.
galdor, see gealdor.
galga, w. m., gallows, 2446.
galg-mōd, adj., [sad-mood] sad in mind, gloomy, 1277.
galg-trēow, st. neut., gallows-tree, 2490.
gamen, see gomen.
gamol, see gomol.
gān, irreg. v., go, 395, etc.; pres. indic. 3rd, gǣð, 455; pres. subj. gā, 1394; pret. ēode, 358, 493, etc.; imperat. gā, 1782; pp. syððan hīe tōgædre gegān hæfdon, “after they had closed in strife,” 2630. (See also gongan.)
full-gān, st. v., with dat., follow and aid; pret. sceft…flāne full-ēode, “the shaft followed and aided the barb,” 3119.

ge-gān, st. v., pret. geēode, geīode (2200):
(1) go (intrans.), 1967, 2676.
(2) go (trans.), make, venture, 1277, 1462.
(3) gain (by going), obtain, 1535; with dependent clause, 2917.
(4) happen, 2200.

ofer-gān, st. v., with acc., go over, 1408, 2959.

oð-gān, st. v., go (to), 2934.

ymb-gān, st. v., with acc., go about, go around, 620.
gangan, see gongan.
ganot, st. m., gannet, diver, 1861.
gār, st. m., spear, javelin, 328, etc.
gār-cēne, adj., spear-keen, spear-bold, 1958.
gār-cwealm, st. m., [spear-quelling] death by the spear, 2043.
gār-holt, st. neut., spear-holt, spear-shaft, spear, 1834.
gār-secg, st. m., [spear-man, cf. Neptune] ocean, 49, etc.
gār-wiga, w. m., spear-warrior, 2674, etc.
gār-wīgend, st. m. (pres. part.), spear- warrior, 2641.
gāst, st. w., ghost, sprite, devil, 133, 1747, etc.; gen. pl. gāsta, 1357, gǣsta, 1123.
gāst-bona, w. m., [ghost-bane] soul-slayer, the devil, 177.
ge, conj., and, 1248, 1340; with swylce, 2258; correl. ge…ge, “both…and,” 1248, 1864.
gē, pers. pron. (pl. of þū), ye, you, 237, etc.
geador, adv., together, 835; with ætsomne, 491.
on geador, together, 1595.
ge-æhtla, w. m., or ge-æhtle, w. f., high esteem, 369.
geald, see gyldan.
gealdor, st. neut.:

(1) sound, blast, 2943.

(2) incantation; dat. galdre, 3052.
gealp, see gilpan.
gēap, adj., spacious, extensive, roomy, 836, 1800.
gēar, st. neut., year, 1134.
gēara, gen. pl. (in adverbial sense), of yore, formerly, 2664.
geard, st. m., yard; always pl. in “Beowulf,” courts, dwelling-place, 13, 265, 1134, etc.
gēar-dagas, st. m. pl., yore-days, days of yore, 1, 1354.
geare, see gearwe.
gearo, gearu, adj., yare, ready, prepared, 77, 1109, 1914, etc.; with gen. 1825; acc. sg. f. gearwe, 1006; pl. gearwe, 210, etc.
gearo, adv., well, 2748.
gearo-folm, adj., ready-handed, 2085.
gearwe, geare, well, 265, 2656, etc.; with ne, “not at all,” 246.
gearwor, compar., more readily, 3074. gearwost, superl., best, 715.
-geat, see -gitan.
geato-līc, adj., stately, splendid, 215, 1401, etc,
geatwa, st. f. pl., garniture, 3088,
ge-bedde, w. f., bed-fellow, 665.
ge-bræc, st. neut., [break] crash, 2259.
ge-brōðor, ge-brōðru, st. m. pl., brothers, 1191.
ge-byrd, st. neut., fate, 1074.
ge-cynde, adj., [kind] natural, hereditary, 2197, 2696.
ge-dāl, st. neut., severance, parting, 3068.
ge-dēfe, adj., meet, fitting, 561, etc; friendly, 1227.
ge-dræg, st. neut., [dray = squirrel’s nest?] band, tumult, 756.
ge-dryht, ge-driht, st. neut., band, troop, 118, 431, etc.
ge-fægra, compar. adj., more fair?, more dear; nom. hē…wearð…frēondum gefægra; hine fyren onwōd, “he (Beowulf) became more dear to his friends; him (Heremod) crime assailed,” 915.
-gēfan, see -gifan.
ge-fēa, w. m., joy, 562, etc.
ge-feoht, st. neut., fight, 2048, etc.
ge-flit, st. neut., “fliting,” contest, match, 865.
ge-frǣge, adj., renowned, notorious, 55, 2481.
ge-frǣge, st. neut., hearsay; dat. (instr.) sg. mīne gefrǣge, “as I have heard or learned,” 776, etc. [Cf. “mien escientre,” Chanson de Roland.]
gegn-cwide, st. m., reply, 367.
gegnum, adv., forwards, straight, direct, 314, 1404.
gehðo, see giohðo.
ge-hwā, pron., with gen., each, each one; acc. gehwone, gehwane, 294, 2397, etc.; dat. m. gehwām, gehwǣm, 88, 1420, etc.; dat. f. gehwǣre, 25. Masc. form with dependent gen. of fem, or neut. n. 800, 1365, 2838, 2765.
ge-hwǣr, adv., everywhere, 526.
ge-hwæðer, pron., either, 584, etc.; nom. neut. an wīg gearwe ge æt hām ge on herge, ge gehwæþer þāra efne swylce mǣla, “ready for war both at home and in the field, and either (i.e. both) of them even at such times,” 1248.
ge-hwylc, ge-hwelc, adj.-pron., with gen. pl., each, 98, 148, 732, 805, 1090, 1705, etc.
ge-hygd, st. neut., thought, 2045.
ge-hyld, st. neut., protection, 3056.
ge-lāc, st. neut., play, 1040, etc.
ge-lād, st. neut., [lode] path, 1410.
ge-lang, see ge-long.
ge-lenge, adj., belonging to, 2732.
ge-līc, adj., like, 2164.
ge-līcost, superl., likest, most like, 218, 1608, etc.
ge-lōme, adv., frequently, 559.
ge-long, ge-lang, adj.; gelong (gelang) æt þē, “along of, dependent on, thee,” 1376, 2150.
ge-mǣne, adj., common, in common, 1784, etc.
ge-mēde, st. neut., consent, 247.
ge-met, st. neut., measure, power, ability, 779, etc.
ge-met, adj., meet, 687, etc.
ge-mēting, st. f., meeting, 2001.
ge-mong, st. m., troop, 1643.
ge-mynd, st. f., reminder, memorial, 2804, etc.
ge-myndig, adj., mindful, 613, etc.
gēn, adv., again, yet, still, 734, 2070, 3006, etc.; often with þā, nū, 83, 2859, etc.
gēna, adv., still, 2800, etc.
ge-neahhe, adv., enough, 783; frequently, 3152.
genehost, superl., very often. Special passage: genehost brægd eorl Bēowulfes ealde lāfe, “many an earl of Beowulf’s drew his old sword,” 794.
ge-nip, st. neut., mist, 1360, etc.
ge-nōg, adj., enough, 2489, etc.
gēnunga, adv., wholly, utterly, 2871.
gēo, gīo, īu, adv., formerly, 1476, 2459, 2521.
gēoc, st. f., help, 177, etc.
gēocor, adj., dire, sad, 765.
geofon, gifen, gyfen, st. neut., ocean, 362, 1394, 1690, etc.
geofu, see gifu.
geogoð, giogoð, st. f., youth, time of youth, 160, 2426, etc.; gen. iogoðe, 1674.
geogoð-feorh, st. neut., youth-life, days of youth, 537, etc.
geolo, adj., yellow, 2610.
geolo-rand, st. m., yellow buckler, yellow shield, 438.
gēo-mēowle, w. f., former virgin, bride, spouse, 3150; acc. īo-mēowlan, 2931.
gēomor, gīomor, adj., sad, 49, 3150, etc.; f. gēomuru, 1075.
gēomore, adv., sadly, 151.
gēomor-līc, adj., [srd-like] sad, 2444.
gēomor-mōd, gīomor-mōd, adj., [sad-mood] sad-minded, sorrowful, 2044, 2267, etc.
gēomrian, w. v., lament, 1118.
gēomuru, see gēomor.
geond, prep., with acc., [yond] throughout, 75, etc.
geong, giong, adj., young, 13, 2446, etc.; dat. sg., geongum, 2044, etc., geongan, 2626.
gingæst, superl., youngest, last; weak, 2817.
geong, 2743, see gongan.
gēong, see gongan.
georn, adj., yearning, eager, 2783.
georne, adv., eagerly, gladly, 66, etc.; well, 968.
geornor, compar., more surely, 821.
gēo-sceaft, st. f., [former shaping] fate, 1234.
gēosceaft-gāst, st. m., [former-shaping-ghost] demon sent by fate, 1266.
gēotan, st. v., pour, rush, 1690.
ge-rād, adj., skilful, 873.
ge-rūm-līce, adv., roomily.
ge-rūmlīcor, compar., more roomily, more at large, 139.
ge-rysne, adj., befitting, 2653.
ge-saca, w. m., adversary, 1773.
ge-sacu, st. f., strife, 1737.
ge-scād, st. neut., difference, 288.
gescæp-hwīl, st. f., [shaped while] fated hour, 26.
ge-sceaft, st. f., [shaping] existence, 1622.
ge-sceap, st. neut., shape, 650; destiny, 3084
ge-scipe, st. neut., fate, 2570.
ge-selda, w. m., hall-fellow, comrade, 1984.
ge-sīð, st. m., comrade, 29, etc.
ge-slyht, st. neut., slaying, encounter, 2398.
ge-strēon, st. neut., possession, treasure, 1920, 3166, etc.
gest-sele, st. m., guest-hall, 994.
ge-sund, adj., sound, safe and sound, 1628, etc.; with gen. sīða gesunde, “safe and sound on your journeys,” 318.
ge-swing, st. neut., swing, eddy, 848.
ge-sȳne, adj., evident, visible, 1255, etc.
ge-synto, st. f., soundness, health, 1869.
-get, see -gitan.
ge-tæse, adj., quiet, pleasant, 1320.
gētan, w. v., slay, destroy; inf. cwæð, hē on mergenne mēces ecgum gētan wolde, sume on galg-trēowum fuglum tō gamene, “quoth, he would destroy [them] in the morn with the edges of the sword, [hang] some on gallows-trees for a sport for birds,” 2940. [“Beiträge” x. 313.]
ge-tenge, adj., touching, lying on, 2758.
ge-trum, st. neut., troop, 922.
ge-trȳwe, adj., true, faithful, 1228.
ge-þing, st. neut.:

(1) terms, pl. 1085.

(2) issue, 398, 709; gen. pl. ge-þingea, “fates,” 525.
ge-þōht, st. m., thought, resolution, 256, 610.
ge-þonc, st. m., thought, 2332.
ge-þring, st. neut., eddy, whirlpool, 2132.
ge-þwǣre, adj. gentle, 1230.
ge-þyld, st. f., patience, 1395, etc.
ge-þȳwe, adj., [thewy] wonted, customary, 2332.
ge-wǣde, st. neut., [weeds] armour, 292.
ge-wealc, st. neut., [walk] rolling, 464.
ge-weald, st. neut., wielding, power, control, 79, 808, 2221 (see mid), etc.
ge-wealden, adj. (pp.), subject, 1732.
ge-wef, st. neut., web, woof; pl. gewiofu, 697.
ge-weorc, st. neut., work, 455, etc.
ge-wider, st. neut., weather, storm, tempest; pl. 1375.
ge-win(n), st. neut., strife, struggle, 133, etc.
ge-winna, w. m., striver, foe, 1776.
ge-wiofu, see ge-wef.
gewis-līce, adv.
gewis-līcost, superl., most certainly, 1350.
ge-witt, st. neut., wit(s), senses, 2307; head, 2882.
ge-wittig, adj., [witty] conscious, 3094.
ge-wrixle, st. neut., exchange, 1304.
ge-wyrht, st. neut., desert, merit; pl. 2657.
gid(d), gyd(d), st. neut., glee, lay, dirge, 151, 868, 1065, 3150, etc.
gif, gyf, conj., if, 442, 944, etc.; if = whether, 272, etc.
gifan, giofan, st. v., pret. geaf, gēafon, pp. gyfen: give, 49, 64, 1719, etc.
ā-gifan, st. v., give back, 355, 2929.

æt-gifan, st. v., give (to), render, 2878.

for-gifan, st. v., give, 17, etc.

of-gifan, of-gyfan, st. v., give up, leave, 1600, 2251, 2588, etc.; pret. pl. ofgēfan, 2846.
gifen, see geofon.
gifeðe, gyfeðe, adj., given, granted, 299, 555, etc.
gifeðe, neut. used as a noun, thing granted, fate, 3085.
gif-heall, st. f., gift-hall, 838.
gīfre, adj., greedy, 1277.
gīfrost, superl., greediest, 1123.
gif-sceatt, st. m., gift-tribute, treasure, valuable gift, 378.
gif-stōl, st. m., gift-stool, throne, 168, etc.
gifu, st. f., gift, 1173, 1271, etc.; gen. pl. gifa, 1930, geofena, 1173; dat. pl. geofum, 1958.
gīgant, st. m., giant, 113, etc. [“Beiträge” x. 501.]
gilp, gylp, st. m., [yelp] boast, 829, 1749, etc.
gilpan, gylpan, st. v., [yelp] boast, 586, 2006, 2583, etc.
gilp-cwide, st. m., [yelp-speech] boasting speech, 640.
gilp-hlæden, adj. (pp.), [yelp-laden] vaunt-laden, 868.
gylp-sprǣc, st. f., [yelp-speech] boasting speech, 981. gylp word, st. neut., [yelp-word] boastful word, 675.
gim, st. m., gem, 2072.
gim-fæst, see gin-fæst.
gimme-rīce, adj., gem-rich, rich in jewels, 466.
gin-fæst, gim-fæst, adj., [wide-fast] ample and lasting, 1271 (see note), 2182.
gingæst, see geong.
-ginnan, st. v.
on-ginnan, st. v., begin, undertake, attempt, 244, 409, 2878, etc.; pret. sg. ongan, 100, etc.; ongon, 2790.
gīo, see geo.
giofan, see gifan.
giogoð, see geogoð.
giohðo, st. f., sorrow, care; dat. giohðo, 2267, giohðe, 2793, gehðo, 3095.
gīomor, see geomor.
giong, see geong.
-giredan, see -gyrwan.
gist, gyst, gæst, st. m., guest, stranger, 102, 1138, 2228, etc.
git, pers. pron. (dual of þū), ye two, 508, etc.
git, gyt, adv., yet, still, hitherto, 536, 944, 956, etc.
-gitan, st. v., pret. -geat, -geaton.
an-gitan, see on-gitan.

be-gitan, st. v., get, get at, seize, befall, 1068, 2249, etc.; pret. sg. beget, 2872; pret. subj. (sg. for pl.) begēate, 2130. Special passage: ferhð-frecan Fin eft begeat sweord-bealo slīðen, “dire sword-bale afterwards befell the bold-minded Finn,” 1146.

for-gytan, st. v., forget, 1751.

on-gitan, on-gytan, st. v.
(1) get hold of, seize; pret. sg. angeat, 1291.

(2) get hold of with the mind, perceive, 14, 1431, 1723, 2748, etc.; inf. ongyton, 308.
gladian, w. v., glisten, 2036.
glæd, adj., [glad] gracious, 58,2025, etc.
glæd-man, adj., benignant, courteous, 367 (see note).
glæd-mōd, adj., glad of mood, 1785.
glēd, st. f., glede, ember, fire, 2312, etc.
glēd-egesa, w. m., glede-terror, terror of fire, 2650.
glēo, st. neut., glee, 2105.
glēo-bēam, st. m., [glee-beam] harp, 2263.
glēo-drēam, st. m., [glee-dream = joy] mirth, 3021.
glēo-mann, st. m., gleeman, minstrel, 1160.
glīdan, st. v., glide, 515, etc.
tō-glīdan, st. v., [glide asunder] fall to pieces, 2487.
glitinian, w. v., glitter, glisten, gleam, 2758.
glōf, st. f., glove, 2085.
gnēað, adj., niggardly, 1930.
gnorn, st. m., sorrow, 2658.
gnornian, w. v., mourn, 1117.
be-gnornian, w. v., with acc., bemoan, 3178.
God, st. m., God, 13, etc.
gōd, adj., good, 11, etc.; pl. gōde, “good men,” 2249. With gen., wes þū ūs lārena gōd, “be thou good to us in guidance,” 269.
gōd, st. neut., good, goodness, good thing, good gift, 20, 1952, etc.; dat. pl. manig ōþerne gōdum ge-grēttan, “many a one [shall] greet another with good things,” 1861.
gōd-fremmend, st. m. (pres. part.), [good-framing] framer of good, one who acts well or bravely, 299.
gold, st. neut., gold, 304, etc.
gold-ǣht, st. f., treasure in gold, 2748.
gold-fāg, -fāh, adj., golden-hued, adorned with gold, gold-brocaded, 994, 1800, 2811.
gold-gyfa, w. m., gold-Giver, 2652.
gold-hroden, adj. (pp.), gold-adorned, 614, etc.
gold-hwæt, adj., [gold-active] greedy for gold, 3074 (see note).
gold-māðum, st. m., gold-treasure, 2414.
gold-sele, st. m., gold-hall, 715, etc.
gold-weard, st. m., [gold-ward] guardian of gold, 3081.
gold-wine, st. m., gold-friend, prince, 1171, etc.
gold-wlanc, adj., gold-proud, 1881.
gombe, w. f., tribute, 11.
gomen, gamen, st. neut., game, mirth, joy, 1160, 2459, etc.
gomen-wāð, st. f., [game-path] joyous journey, 854.
gomen-wudu, st. m., [game-wood] harp, 1065, etc.
gomol, gomel, gamol, adj., old, gray, aged, ancient, 58, 2112, 3095, etc.; weak gomela, gamela, 1792, 2105, etc.; gen. pl. gomelra lāfe, “the heirlooms of their late [fathers],” 2036.
gamol-feax, adj., gray-haired, 608.
gongan, gangan, st. v., [gang] go, 314, 1974, etc.; imperat. geong, 2743; pret. gēong, 925, etc., gīong, 2214, etc.; gang, 1009, etc.; gengde, 1401, 1412; pp. gegongen, 822, 3036; inf. gangan cwōmon, “came going, marching,” 324; so 711, 1642, 1974. (See also gān.)
a-gangan, st. v., go forth, befall, 1236.

ge-gangan, ge-gongan, st. v.:
(1) gain (by going), obtain, 2536; pp. gegongen, 3085, with dependent clause, 893; dat. inf. gegaunenne, 2416.

(2) come to pass, happen, 1846; pp. gegongen, 2821.
grǣdig, adj., greedy, 121, etc.
grǣg, adj., gray, 330, etc.
grǣg-mǣl, adj., marked, etched, or coloured with gray, 2682.
græs-molde, w. f., grass-earth, grass-plain, 1881.
gram, adj., angry, fierce, 424, 765, etc.
grāp, st. f., grasp, claw, 438, 836, etc.
grāpian, w. v., grope, gripe, grasp, 1566, 2085.
grēot, st. m., grit, earth, 3167.
grēotan, st. v., [Sc. greet] weep, 1342.
grētan, w. v., pret. grētte: greet:

(1) salute, 347, etc.
(2) approach, seek out. attack, touch, 168, 803, 1995, 2736, 3081, etc.

ge-grētan, w. v., greet, 1980, etc.; inf. gegrēttan, 1861.
grim(m), adj., grim, 121, etc.; dat. pl. grimman, 1542.
grīm-helm, st. m., visored helmet, 334.
grim-līc, adj., grim[-like], 3041.
grimman, st. v., snort, rage, hurry; pret. pl. grummon, 306.
grimme, adv., drimly, terribly, 3012, etc.
grindan, st. v.
for-grlndan, st. v., grind down, grind to pieces, ruin, destroy; with dat., 424; with acc. 2335, 2677.
grīpan, st. v., gripe, grasp, seize, 1501.
for-grīpan, st. v., with dat., grip[e] to death, 2353. wið-grīpan, st. v., gripe at, oppose; inf. wið ðām āglǣcean…gylpe wiðgrīpan, “maintain my boast against the monster (lit. with boast oppose),” 2521.
gripe, st. m., grip, 1148, etc.
grom-heort, adj., fierce-hearted, hostile-hearted, 1682.
grom-hȳdig, adj., angry-minded, hostile-minded, 1749.
grōwan, st. v., grow; pret. sg. grēow, 1718.
grund, st. m., ground, earth, bottom, 1367, 1404, etc.
grund-būend, st. m. (pres. part.), [ground-dweller] inhabitant of earth, 1006.
grund-hyrde, st. m., [ground-herd] guardian of the bottom (of the mere), 2136.
grund-sele, st. m., ground-hall, hall or cave at the bottom (of the mere), 2139.
grund-wong, st. m., ground-plain, plain, floor (of a cave), bottom (of a mere), 1496, 2588, 2771.
grund-wyrgen, st. f., [ground-she-wolf] she-wolf at the bottom (of a mere), 1518.
gryn, st. neut., snare (= O.E. grin), or sorrow (= O.E. gyrn, q.v.), 930.
gryre, st. m., terror, terrible deed, 384, 591, 3041, etc.
gryre-broga, w. m., grisly terror, horror, 2227.
gryre-fāh, adj., [grisly-stained] horribly bright, 2576.
gryre-gēatwa, st. f. pl., grisly trappings, warlike trappings, 324.
gryre-giest, st. m., grisly guest, terrible stranger, 2560.
gryre-lēoð, st. neut., grisly lay, terrible song, 786.
gryre-līc, adj., grisly, terrible, 1441, etc.
gryre-sīð, st. m., grisly journey, terrible expedition, 1462.
guma, w. m., man, 73, 652, 2821, etc.
gum-cynn, st. neut., [man-kin] race, tribe, or nation of men, 260, 944.
gum-cyst, st. f., manly virtue, 1723, etc.; dat. pl. gum-cystum gōdnc, “munificent,” 1486.
gum-drēam, st. m., joy of men, 2469.
gum-dryhten, st. m., lord of men, 2469.
gum-fēða, w. m., troop of warriors on foot, 1401.
gum-mann, st. m., [man-]man, 1028.
gum-stōl, st. m., [groom-stool] throne, 1952.
gūð, st. f., war, battle, 483, etc.; dat., 603, etc.
gūð-beorn, st. m., war-hero, 314.
gūð-bill, st. neut., war-bill, 803, etc.
gūð-byrne, w. f., war-byrny, coat of mail, 321.
gūð-cearu, st. f., war-care, war-sorrow, 1258.
gūð-cræft, st. m., war-craft, war-might, 127.
gūð-cyning, -kyning, st. m., war-king, 199, 1969, etc.
gūð-dēað, st. m., war-death, death in battle, 2249.
gūð-floga, w. m., war-flier, 2528.
gūð-freca, w. m., war-wolf, 2414.
gūð-fremmend, st. m. (pres. part.), war-framer, warrior, 246.
gūð-geatwa, -getāwa, st. f. pl., war-raiment, war-gear, war-equipments; acc. gūð-getāwa, 2636; dat. gūð-geatawum, 395. [Sievers § 43, N. 4.]
gūð-gewǣde, st. neut., war-weeds, armour, 2623, etc.; nom. pl. gūð-gewǣdu, -gewǣdo, 227, 2730, etc.
gūð-geweorc, st. neut., war-work, battle-work, warlike deed, 678, etc.
gūð-helm, st. m., war-helmet, 2487.
gūð-horn, st. neut., war-horn, 1432.
gūð-hrēð, st. f., war-fame, 819.
gūð-kyning, see gūð-cyning.
gūð-lēoð, st. neut., war-lay, battle-song, 1522.
gūð-mōd, adj., [war-mood] of war-like mind; pl. gūð-mōd, 306.
gūð-rǣs, st. m., [war-race] attack in war, storm of battle, 1577, etc.
gūð-rēo(u)w, adj., war-fierce, 58.
gūð-rinc, st. m., warrior, 838, etc.
gūð-rōf, adj., war-famed, 608.
gūð-scear, st. m., [war-share] slaughter in battle, 1213.
gūð-sceaða, w. m., war-scather, battle-foe, 2318.
gūð-searo, st. neut., war-armour, 215, 328.
gūð-sele, st. m., war-hall, 443.
gūð-sweord, st. neut., war-sword, 2154.
gūð-wērig, adj., war-weary, dead, 1586.
gūð-wiga, w. m., warrior, 2111.
gūd-wine, st. m., [war-friend] sword, 1810, 2735.
gyd(d), see gid(d).
gyddian, w. v., recite, chant, 630.
gyf, see gif.
gyfan, see gifan.
gyfen, n., see geofon.
gyfen, pp., see gifan.
gyfeðe, see gifeðe.
gyldan, st. v., pret. geald: yield, pay, repay, 11, 1184, 2636, etc.
ā-gyldan, st. v., offer (oneself, itself); pret. þā mē sǣl āgeald, “when the opportunity offered itself to me,” 1665; so 2690.

an-gyldan, st. v., pay for, 1251.

for-gyldan, st. v., repay, requite, atone for, 114, 956, 1054.
gylden, adj., golden, 47, etc.
gylp, see gilp.
gylpan, see gilpan.
gȳman, w. v., with gen., heed, care, incline to, 1757, 1760, 2451.
for-gȳman, w. v., with acc., neglect, despise, 1751.
gyn(n), adj., wide, spacious; acc. m. sg. gynne, 1551.
gyrdan, w. v., gird, 2078.
gyrede, etc., see gyrwan.
gyrn, st. neut., sorrow, 1775.
gyrn-wracu, st. f., revenge for harm, 1138, 2118.
gyrwan, w. v., pret. gyrede, pp. gegyr(w)ed: gear, prepare, equip, adorn, 994, 1472, 2087, etc.; pp. pl. gegyrede, 1028, etc.
ge-gyrwan, w. v., gear, prepare, 38, 199; pret. pl. ge-giredan, 3137.
gyst, see gist.
gystra, adj., yester, 1334.
gyt, see git.
gȳtsian, w. v., be greedy, covet, 1749.


habban, w. v., pret. hæfde: have, 383, 658, etc.; often as auxiliary, 106, etc. Pres. 1st, hafu, 2523, hafo, 2150, 3000; 2nd, hafast, 953, etc.; 3rd, hafað, 474, etc. Negative form of subj. pres. pl. næbben, 1850.
for-habban, w. v., keep back, retain, refrain, 2609; inf. ne meahte wǣfre mōd forhabban in hreþre, i.e. he was dying, 1151. wið-habban, w. v., withstand, resist, 772.
hād, st, m., [-hood] condition, quality, manner, wise, 1297, 1335, etc.
hador, st. m., retreat?, 414 (see note).
hādor, adj., clear-voiced, sonorous, 497.
hādre, adv., clearly, brightly, 1571.
hæf, st. neut., sea, mere; pl. heafo, 2477.
hæfen, see hebban.
hæft, st. m., captive, 2408.
hæfta, w. m., captive; acc. hæfton, 788.
hæft-mēce, st. m., [haft-sword] hilted sword, 1457.
hæg-steald, st. m., bachelor, liege-man, young warrior, 1889.
hǣl, st. f.:

(1) health, good luck, 653, 1217.

(2) omen, 204.
hæle, st. m., man, hero, warrior, 1646, etc.; acc. pl. 719.
hæleð, st. m., man, hero, warrior, 52, etc.
hǣlo, st. f., health, hail, farewell, 2418.
hærg-træf, st. neut., idol-tent, heathen fane, 175.
hǣst, adj., violent, 1335.
hǣðen, adj., heathen, 179, 852, etc.
hǣðen, st. m., heathen, 986.
hæð-stapa, w. m., heath-stepper, stag, 1368.
hafa, imperat. sg. of habban.
hafela, hafala, heafola, w. m., head, 446, 672, 2679, etc.
hafen, see hebban.
hafenian, w. v., heave, uplift; pret. hafenade, 1574.
hafo, hafu, see habban.
hafoc, st. m., hawk, 2263.
haga, w. m., [haw] hedge, enclosure, entrenchment, 2892, 2960.
hāl, adj., whole, hale, safe and sound, 300, etc. Special passages: wes…hāl, “hail,” 407; with gen. heaðo-lāces hāl, “safe and sound from the strife,” 1974.
halig, adj. holy, 381, etc.
hals, see heals.
hām, st. m., home, 717, 2325, etc.; locative, tō hām, “at home,” 374.
hamer, see homer.
hām-weorðung, st. f., home-adorning, that which graces a home, 2998.
hand, see hond.
hangian, see hongian.
hār, adj., hoar, hoary, gray, 887, etc.; gen. hāres hyrste, “the old man’s (Ongentheow’s) harness,” 2988.
hard-, see heard-,
hāt, adj., hot, 2781, etc.; dat. sg. hāton, 849; nom. wyrm hāt ge-mealt, “the dragon melted in its heat,” 897.
hātost, superl., hottest, 1668.
hāt, st. neut., heat, 2605.
hatan, st. v.:

(1) order, command, bid, 293, 386, etc.; pret. sg. hēht, 1035, etc., hēt, 198, etc.; pp. ðā wæs hāten hreþe Heort innan-weard folmum gefrætwod, “then it was commanded that the inside of Heorot should quickly be adorned by hands,” 991.
(2) name, call, 102, etc.; subj. pres. pl. hātan, 2807.

ge-hātan, st. v., usu. with acc., promise, vow, 1392, 2024, etc.; with gen. 2989; pret. gehēt, 175, 2937, etc.
hatian, w. v., with acc., hate, pursue with hatred, 2319, 2466; pres. part. swā þec hetende hwīlum dydon, “as they, hating thee, whilom did,” 1828.
hē, hēo, hit, pers. pron., he, she, it, 7, 1215, 3167, 2377, 1875, etc. Less usual forms are: f. hīo, 2019, etc.; neut. hyt, 2248, etc.; acc. m. hyne, 28, etc.; dat. f. hyre, 2175, etc.; pl. hī, 28, 3163, etc., hig, 1085, etc., hȳ, 307, etc.; gen. pl. hiora, 2599, etc., hyra, 2040; dat. pl. hym, 1918. Used reflexively, 26, 301, 2948, 2949, 2976, etc. Alliterating, hē, 505. Possessive dat. 40, etc.
hēa, see hēah.
hēa-burh, st. f., high burgh, city, 1127.
heafo, see hæf.
hēafod, st. neut., head, 48, etc.; dat. pl. hēafdon, 1242.
hēafod-beorg, st. f., head-protection; acc. sg. 1030 (see wala).
hēafod-mǣg, st. m., head-kinsman, near relative, 588; gen. pl. hēafod-māga, 2151,
hēafod-segn, st. neut., head-sign, 2152 (see note).
hēafod weard, st. f., head-ward, guard over the head, 2909.
heafola, see hafela.
hēah, adj., high, 57, etc.; acc. sg. m. hēanne, 983; gen. dat. hēan, 116, 713; dat. sg. m. hēaum, 2212; pl. hēa, 1926. Denoting position, hēah ofer horde, “high above the hoard,” 2768.
hēah-cyning, st. m., high king, 1039.
hēah-gestrēon, st. neut., high treasure, splendid treasure, 2302.
hēah-lufu, w. f., high love, 1954.
hēah-sele, st. m., high hall, 647.
hēah-setl, st. neut., high settle, high seat, throne, 1087.
hēah-stede, st. m., high stead, high place, 285.
heal(l), st. f., hall, 89, etc.; pl. healle, 1926.
heal-ærn, st. neut., hall-house, 78.
healdan, st. v., with acc., pret. hēold, 2183, etc., hīold, 1954: hold, keep, guard, protect, have, possess, inhabit, 103, 230, 296, 788, 948, 1079, 1227, 1705, 2377 (support), 2389, 2430, 2909, 3043, 3166, etc.; rule, 57, 1852; subj. sg. for pl. 2719 (hold up). Special passages: 1031 (see wala); Gēata lēode hrēa-wīc hēoldon, “the corpses of the Geats covered the field,” 1214; 3084 (see note); sceft nytte hēold, “the shaft did its duty,” 3118.
be-healdan, st. v., with acc., hold, guard, 1498. Special passages: (sundor-)nytte behēold, “minded, attended to, the (special) service,” 494, 667; þrȳð-swȳð behēold mǣg Higelāces, “Hygelac’s kinsman beheld great distress,” or “great distress possessed Hygelac’s kinsman (as to),” 736.

for-healdan, st. v., with acc., rebel against, 2381.

ge-healdan, st. v., with acc., hold, have, keep, guard, rule, 317, 658, 911, 2293, 2856, 3003, etc.; pret. hē gehēold tela, “he ruled [it] well,” 2208.
healf, st. f., half, side, 800, etc.
heal-gamen, st. neut., hall-game, hall-mirth, 1066.
heall, see heal.
heal-reced, st. neut., hall-house, palace, 68, 1981.
heals, st. m., neck, 1872, etc.; dat. sg. halse, 1566.
heals-bēag, -bēah, st. m., neck-ring, carcanet, 1195, 2172.
heals-gebedda, w. m. f., beloved bed-fellow, wife, 63.
healsian, w. v., entreat, 2132.
heal-sittend, st. m. (pres. part.), hall-sitter, 2015, etc.
heal-þegn, st. m., hall-thane, 142, etc.
heal-wudu, st. m., hall-wood, 1317.
hēan, adj., abject, ignominious, despised, 1274, 2183, etc.
hēan, hēanne, see hēah.
hēap, st. m., heap, band, company, 335, 400, etc.
heard, adj., hard, hardy, strong, brave, cruel, severe, 166, 322, 342, 432, 540, 1574, 1807, etc.; dat. pl. heardan, 963; gen. pl. “of the brave,” 988. With gen. “brave in,” 886, 1539, etc. Special passage: þæt hire wið halse heard grāpode, “so that the hard [sword] griped at her neck,” 1566.
heardra, compar., harder, 576, etc. hard-fyrde, adj., hard to carry, heavy, 2245.
hearde, adv., hard, 1438.
heard-ecg, adj., hard-edged, 1288.
heard-hicgende, adj. (pres. part.), [hard-thinking] brave-minded, bold of purpose, 394, etc.
hearm, st. m., harm, insult, 1892.
hearm-scaða, w. m., [harm-acather] harmful foe, 766.
hearpe, w. f., harp, 89, etc.
heaðerian, w. v., restrain, confine; pp. hergum geheaðerod, “confined in idol-fanes (-groves), i.e. accursed,” 3072.
hēaðo-, see hēaðu-.
heaðo-byrne, w. f., battle-byrny, coat of mail, 1552.
heaðo-dēor, adj., battle-brave, bold in fight, 688, etc.
heaðo-fȳr, heaðu-fȳr, st. neut., battle-fire, 2522, 2547.
heaðo-grim, adj., battle-grim, 548,
heaðo-lāc, st. neut., battle-play, 584, etc.
hēaðo-maǣre, adj., battle-great, famous in war, 2802.
heaðo-rǣs, st. m., [battle-RACE] rush of battle, 526, etc.
heaðo-rēaf, st. neut., battle-dress, armour, 401.
heaðo-rinc, st. m., warrior, 370, 2466.
heaðo-rōf, adj., battle-strong, war-renowned, 381, 864.
heaðo-sceard, adj., battle-notched, battle-gashed, 2829.
heaðo-sēoc, adj., battle-sick, wounded in battle, 2754.
heaðo-stēap, adj., [battle-steep] towering or bright in battle, 1245, 2153.
heaðo-swāt, st. m., battle-sweat, blood shed in battle, 1460, etc.
heaðo-torht, adj., battle-bright, clear in battle, 2553.
heaðo-wǣd, st. f., [battle-weeds] battle-dress, armour, 39.
heaðo-weorc, st. neut., battle-work, 2892.
heaðo-wylm, st. m., [battle-welling] flame-surge, surging of fire, 82, 2819.
hēaðu, st. f., sea, ocean, 1862.
hēaðo-līðend, st. m. (pres. part.), ocean-farer, sea-farer, 1798, 2955.
heaðu-sweng, st. m., [battle-swing] battle-stroke, 2581.
hēawan, st. v., hew, 800.
ge-heawan, st. v., hew, cleave, 682.
hebban, st. v., pp. hafen, hæfen:

heave, raise, lift, 656, 1290, 3023.

ā-hebban, st. v., upheave, uplift, 128, etc.
hēdan, w. v., with gen., heed; pret. ne hēdde hē þæs heafolan, “he heeded not the head (of the dragon),” 2697.
ge-hedan, w. v., with gen., obtain, 505.
hefen, see heofon.
-began, w. v.
ge-hegan, w. v., decide, 425.
hēht, see hātan.
hel(l), st. f., hell, 101, 852, etc.
helan, st. v.
be-helan, st. v., hide; pp. be-holen, 414.
hell-bend, st. m. f., hell-bond, 3072.
helm, st. m., [helm]:

(1) helmet, 672, etc.
(2) covert, protection, 1392.

(3) protector, king, 371, etc.; God, 182.
helm-berend, st. m. (pres. part.), [helm-bearing] helmet-wearer, 2517, etc.
helmian, w. v.
ofer-helmian, w. v., with acc., overhang, overshadow, 1364.
help, st. f., help, 551, etc.
helpan, st. v., help, 2340, etc.
helpe, w. f., help, 2448 (see note).
hel-rūna, w. m., sorcerer, 163.
heofon, st. m., heaven, 52, etc.; dat. hefene, 1571.
heolfor, st. neut., gore, 849, etc.
heolster, st. neut., darkness, 755.
heonan, heonon, adv., hence, 252, 1361.
heora, gen. pl. of hē (q. v.).
-hēoran, w. v.
ā-hēoran ?, w. v., rescue?, 2930.
heorde, see bunden-heorde.
hēore, adj., canny, pleasant, 1372.
heoro, heoru, st. m., sword, 1285.
heoro-blāc, adj., [sword-bleak] sword-pale, 2488.
heoro-drēor, heoru-drēor, st. m., sword-blood, 487, 849.
heoro-drēorig, adj., [sword-dreary] sword-gory, 935, etc.
heoro-gīfre, adj., [sword-greedy] fiercely greedy, 1498.
heoro-grim, heoru-grim, adj., [sword-grim] fiercely grim, 1564, 1847.
heoro-hōcyht, adj., [sword-hooked] savagely barbed, 1438.
heoro-sweng, st. m., [sword-swing] sword-stroke, 1590.
heorot, st. m., hart, 1369.
heoro-wearh, st. w., [sword-wolf] fierce wolf, 1267.
hioro-drync, st. m., sword-drink, 2358.

hioro-sērce, w. f., [sword-sark] shirt of mail; acc. hioro-sērcean, 2539. [Sievers § 159. 1.]

hioro-weallende, adj. (pres. part.), [sword-] fiercely welling; acc. sg. m. -weallende, 2781.
heorr, st. m., hinge, 999.
heorte, w. f., heart, 2270, etc.
heoru, see heoro.
heorð-genēat, st. m., hearth-comrade, 261, etc.
hēoð, st. f., dais, 404.
hēr, adv., here, hither, 244, 397, etc.
here, st. m., army; dat. sg. herge, 2347, 2638; on herge, “in the field,” 1248.
here-brōga, w. m., army-terror, fear of war, 462.
here-byrne, w. f., army-byrny, coat of mail, 1443.
here-grīma, w. m., army-mask, visored helmet, 396, etc.
here-net, st. neut., army-net, coat of ring-mail, 1553.
here-nīð, st. m., army-hate, hostility, 2474.
here-pād, st. f., army-coat, coat of mail, 2258.
here-rinc, st. m., army-man, warrior, 1176.
here-sceaft, st. m., [army-shaft] spear, 335.
here-spēd, st. f., [army-speed] success in war, 64.
here-strǣl, st. m., army-arrow, war-arrow, 1435.
here-syrce, w. f., army-sark, shirt of mail, 1511.
here-wǣd, st. f., [army-weeds] armour, 1897.
here-wǣsma, w. m., army-might, prowess in war; dat. pl. here-wǣsmun, 677.
here-wīsa, w. m., [army-wise] army-leader, 3020.
herg, st. m., idol-grove, idol-fane, 3072 (see heaðerian).
herge, n., see here.
herge, v., see herian.
herian, w. v., with. acc., praise, honour, 182, etc.; pres. subj. herige, herge, 1833, 3175.
hete, st. m., hate, 142, etc.
hete-līc, adj., full of hatred, hate-ful, 1267.
hete-nīð, st. m., hate-enmity, bitter enmity, 152.
hete-sweng, st. m., hate-blow; pl. hete-swengeas, 2224.
hete-þanc, st. m., hate-thought, malice, 475.
hettend, st. m. (pres. part, of hatian), hater, foe, 3004.
hī, pi. of hē (q. v.).
-hicgan, see -hycgan.
hider, adv., hither, 240, etc.
hig, pl. of hē (q. v.).
hige, see hyge.
-hīgian, w. v.
ofer-hīgian, w. v., befool?, make over-arrogant?; inf. sinc ēaðe mæg…gum-cynnes gehwone oferhīgian, 2766.
hild, st. f., battle, war, 452, etc.; prowess in battle, 2952.
hilde-bil(l), st. neut., battle-bill, sword, 557, etc.
hilde-bord, st. neut., [battle-board] shield, 397, etc.
hilde-cyst, st. f., [battle-virtue] bravery in battle, 2598.
hilde-dēor, -dīor, adj., battle-brave, bold in battle, 312, 834, 3111, etc.
hilde-freca, hild-freca, w. m., battle-wolf, 2205, 2366.
hilde-geatwe, st. f. pl., battle-trappings, equipments for war, armour, 674, 2362.
hilde-gicel, st. m., battle-iciecle; dat. pl. ðā þæt sweord ongan æfter heaþo-swāte hilde-gicelum…wanian, “then the sword began to dwindle in icicles of steel in consequence of the blood (of Grendel),” 1606.
hilde-grāp, st. f., battle-grasp, war-clutch, 1446, etc.
hilde-hlemm, -hæemm, st. m., battle-crash, crash of battle, 2201, 2351, 2544.
hilde-lēoma, w. m., battle-ray:

(1) battle-flame (of the dragon), 2583.

(2) flashing sword, 1143.
hilde-mēce, st. m., battle-sword; pl. hilde-mēceas, 2202.
hilde-mecg, st. m., battle-man, warrior, 799.
hilde-rǣs, st. m., [battle-race] rush of battle, 300.
hilde-rand, st. m., battle-shield, 1242.
hilde-rinc, st. m., battle-man, warrior, 986, etc.
hilde-sæd, adj., battle-sated, 2723.
hilde-sceorp, st. neut., battle-dress, armour, 2155.
hilde-setl, [battle-settle] battle-seat, saddle, 1039.
hilde-strengo, st. f., battle-stregnth, 2113.
hilde-swāt, st. m., [battle-sweat] war-breath (of the dragon), 2558.
hilde-tux, st. m., battle-tusk, 1511.
hilde-wǣpen, st. m., battle-weapon, 39.
hilde-wīsa, w. m., [battle-wise] battle-leader (Hnæf), 1064.
hild-freca, see hilde-freca.
hild-fruma, st. m., battle-chief, 1678, etc.
hild-lata, w. m., [battle-late] laggard in battle, 2846.
hilt, st. m. neut., hilt, sword-hilt, 1574, etc.; pl. (of a single weapon; cf. “Julius Caesar” v. 3. 43) 1574, 1614.
hilte-cumbor, st. neut., [hilt-banner] staff-banner, 1022.
hilted, adj., hilted, 2987.
hindema, superl. adj., hindmost, last, 2049, etc.
hin-fūs, adj., [hence-ready] eager to be gone, 755.
hīo = hēo, fem. of hē (q. v.).
hīofan, w. v., lament; pres. part. 3142.
hīold, see healdan.
hiora, gen. pl. of hē (q. v.).
hiore-, see heoro-.
hladan, st. v., lade, load, lay, 1897, 2126, etc.; inf. hladon, 2775.
ge-hladan, st. v., lade, load; pret. gehlēod, 895.
hlæst, st. neut., [last] load, freight, 52.
hlǣw, hlāw, st. m., [low, in place-names] mound, burial-mound, cavern, 1120, 2411, 3157, etc.
hlāford, st. m., lord, 267, etc,
hlāford-lēas, adj., lord-less, 2935.
hlāw, see hlǣw.
hlealitor, st. m., laughter, 611, etc.
hlēapan, st. v., leap, gallop, 864.
ā-hlēapan, st. v., leap up, 1397.
hlēo, st. m., [lee] refuge, protection, protector (used of a chieftain or king), 429, 791, etc.
hlēo-burh, st. f., protecting burgh or city, 912, etc.
-hlēod, see -hladan.
hleonian, w. v., lean, slope, 1415.
hlēor-berge, w. f., cheek-guard, 304.
hlēor-bolster, st. m., [cheek-] bolster, 688.
hlēotan, st. v., with acc., get by lot, 2385.
hlēoðor-cwyde, st. m., [sound-speech] courtly speech, ceremonious speech, 1979.
hīldan, st. v.
tō-hīldan, st. v., spring apart; pp. pl. tōhlidene, 999.
hliehhan, st. v.
ā-hliehhan, st. v., laugh aloud; pret. sg. āhlōg, 730.
hlīfian, w. v., tower, 2805; pret. hlīfade, 81, etc., hlīuade, 1799. [“Beiträge” x. 502.]
hlim-bed, st. neut., leaning bed, (last) resting-place, 3034 (see note).
hlið, st. neut., cliff, slope, 1892, 3157.
hlūd, adj., loud, 89.
hlyn, st. m., din, noise, 611.
hlynnan, hlynian, w. v., resound, roar, crackle, 2553; pret. hlynode, 1120.
hlynsian, w. v., resound, 770.
hlytm, st. m., lot, 3126.
hnǣgan, w. v.
ge-hnǣgan, w. v., with acc., fell, vanquish, 1274, 2916.
hnāh, adj., mean, base, illiberal, 1929.
hnāgra, hnāhra, compar., lower, inferior, 677, 952.
hnītan, st. v., encounter, clash, 1327; pret. pl. hnitan, 2544.
hof, st. neut., court, dwelling, lodge, residence, manor, mansion, 312, 1236, 2313, etc.
hōfian, w. v.
be-hōfian, w. v., with gen., [behove] need, 2647.
hogode, see hycgan.
-hōhsnian, w. v.
on-hohsnian, w. v., check, 1944.
hold, adj., friendly, gracious, 290, 376, etc.; faithful, loyal, 290, 1229, etc.
hōlinga, adv., without reason, 1076.
holm, st. m., ocean, sea, mere, 48, etc.
holm-clif, st. neut., sea-cliff, 230, etc.
holm-wylm, st. m., [sea-welling] sea-surge, 2411.
holt, st. neut., holt, wood, 2598, etc.
holt-wudu, st. m., holt-wood; wood, forest, 1369; wood (material), 2340.
homer, hamer, st. m., hammer, 1285; gen. pl. homera lāfe, “leavings of hammers, i.e. swords,” 2829.
hōn, st. v.
be-hōn, st. v., trans., hang with; pp. behongen, 3139.
hond, hand, st. f., hand, 558, 656, etc.
hand-bona, -bana, w. m., [hand-bane] hand-slayer, 460, 1330.

hand-gemǣne, adj., [hand-common] hand to hand; nom. neut. þǣr unc hwīle wæs hand-gemǣne, “there we two engaged a while hand to hand,” 2137. [Ger. hand-gemein.]

hand-gewriðen, adj. (pp.), hand-wreathed, hand-twisted; pl. 1937.

hand-sporu, st. f., hand-spur, claw, 986.
hond-gemōt, st. neut., hand-meet-ing, hand to hand fight, 1526, 2355.
hond-gesella, w. m., hand-comrade, 1481.
hond-gestealla, hand-gestealla, w. m., hand-comrade, 2169, 2596.
hond-geweorc, st. neut., hand-work, 2835.
hond-lēan, hand-lēan, st. m., hand-requital, hand-reward, 1541, 2094.
hond-locen, adj. (pp.), hand-locked, 322, 551.
hond-rǣs, st. m., [hand-race] hand to hand fight, 3072.
hond-scolu, hand-scolu, st. f., [hand-shoal] hand-troop, followers, 1317 (see note), 1963.
hond-wundor, st. neut., [hand-wonder] wonderful handiwork, 2768.
-hongen, see -hōn.
hongian, hangian, w. v., hang, 1363, 1662, etc.
hord, st. m. neut., hoard, treasure, 887, 912, etc.
hord-ærn, st. neut., hoard-hall, treasure-cave, 2279, etc.
hord-burh, st. f., hoard-burgh, wealthy city, 467.
hord-gestrēon, st. neut., hoard-treasure, 1899, etc.
hord-mādm ( = -māðum), st. m., hoard-treasure, hoard-jewel; dat. pl. nǣnigne ic under swegle sēlran hȳrde hord-mādmum hæleþa, “I heard of none better under the sky among the hoard-jewels of heroes,” 1198.
hord-weard, st. m., [hoard-ward] guardian of a hoard or treasure, 1047 (of the king), 2293 (of the dragon), etc.
hord-wela, w. m., hoard-weal, wealth of treasure, 2344.
hord-weorðung, st. f., [hoard-honouring] honouring by gifts, valuable reward, 952.
hord-wynn, st. f., hoard-joy, joy-giving hoard, 2270.
horn, st. m., horn, 1369, etc.
horn-boga, w. m., horn-bow, 2437.
horn-gēap, adj., with wide intervals between (the horns on) the gables, 82.
horn-reced, st. neut., [horn-house,

i.e.] a house with horns on the gables, or a house with gables,

hors, st. neut., horse, 1399.
hōs, st. f., bevy, 924.
hoðma, w. m., grave, 2458.
hrā, st. neut., corpse, 1588.
hrædlīce, adv., hastily, quickly, 356, etc.
hrægl, st. neut., [rail] dress, armour, 1195, etc.
hrā-fyl, st. m., fall of corpses, slaughter, havoc, 277.
hraðe, hræðe, adv., [“rathe”] quickly, hastily, 224, 740, 1437, etc.; hreðe, 991 ; raðe, 724.
hraðor, compar., [rather] more quickly, 543.
hrēam, st. m., noise, clamour, 1302.
hrēa-wīc, st. neut., [corpse-wick] abode of corpses, 1214 (see healdan).
hrefn, st. m., raven, 1801, etc.
hrēmig, adj., exultant, 124, etc.; pl. hrēmge, 2363.
hrēoh, adj., rough, fierce, cruel, sad, 1564, 2180; dat. sg. m. hrēom, 1307, hrēoum, 2581; pl. hrēo, 548.
hrēoh-mōd, adj., of fierce mood, of sad mood, 2132, 2296.
hrēosan, st. v., fall, 1074, 1430, etc.
be-hrēosan, st. v., deprive; pp. pl. behrorene, 2762.
hrēoðan, st. v., cover, clothe, adorn; pp. hroden, gehroden, 304, 495, etc.
hrēow, st. f., distress, grief, 2129, 2328.
hrēran, w. v.
on-hrēran, w. v., rouse, arouse, stir up, 549, 2554. See hrōr.
hrēð, st. m. neut., glory, renown; acc. 2575.
hreðe, see hraðe.
hreðer, st. m., breast, heart, 1446, 1745, 2113, 2442, etc.
hreðer-bealo, st. neut., heart-bale; nom. þæs þe þincean mæg þegne monegum…hreþer-bealo hearde, “as it may seem heavy heart-woe to many a thane,” 1343.
hrēð-sigor, st. m., triumphant victory, 2583.
hrīmig, adj., rimy, covered with hoar-frost; pl. hrīmge, 1363 (see note).
hrīnan, st. v., usu. w. dat., touch, lay hold of, 988, 2270, etc.; subj. pret. sg. þēah ðe him wund hrine, “though the wound touched him close,” 2976.
hring, st. m., ring, ring-mail, 1202, 1503, etc.; nom. byrnan hring, “ring-mail of the byrny, ringed byrny,” 2260.
hringan, w. v., ring, rattle, 327.
hring-boga, w. m., [ring-bow] one that bends himself in the shape of a ring (the dragon), 2561.
hringed, adj. (pp.), ringed, 1245; inflected 2615.
hringed-stefna, w. m., ring-stemmed ship (with rings on its prow), 32, 240, etc.
hring-īren, st. neut., ring-iron; nom. hring-īren scīr song in searwum, “the bright iron rings rang in the armour,” 322.
hring-mǣl, st. neut., ring-sword, 1521, 1564.
hring-mǣl, adj., ring-adorned, 2037.
hring-naca, w. m., [ring-bark] ship with a ringed prow, 1862.
hring-net, st. neut., [ring-net] shirt of mail made of rings, 1889, etc.
hring-sele, st. m., ring-hall, 2010, 3035, etc.
hring-weorðung, st. f., ring-adornment, 3017.
hroden, see hrēoðan.
hrōf, st. m., roof, 926, 983, etc.
hrōf-sele, st. m., roofed hall, 1515.
hron-fix, st. m., whale-fisH, whale, 540.
hron-rād, st. f., whale-road, sea, 10.
hrōr, adj., stirring, valorous, strong, 1629.
hrōðor, st. m., benefit, kindness, comfort, joy, 2171, 2448.
hrūse, w. f., earth, 2247, etc.
hrycg, st. m., ridge, back, 471.
hryre, st. m., fall, destruction, 1680, etc.
hrysian, w. v., rattle, 226.
hū, adv., how, 3, etc.
hund, st. m., hound, 1368.
hund, num., with gen., hundred, 2278, etc.
hūru, adv., indeed, especially, at least, 182, 369, 862 (however), etc.; now, 3120.
hūs, st. neut., house, 116, etc.
hūð, st. f., booty, plunder, 124.
hwā, m. and f., hwæt, neut., interr. and indef. pron., who, what, any (one), somewhat, 52, 3126, etc. With gen. hwæt…hȳnðo, “what humiliation,” 474; swulces hwæt, “somewhat of such (matter),” 880; ānes hwæt, “somewhat only, a part only,” 3010. Special passages: nāh hwā sweord wege, “I have no one who may wear sword,” 2252; dat. hwām, “for whom,” 1696; instr. tō hwan syððan wearð hond-rǣs hæleða, “to what issue the hand-fight of heroes afterwards came,” 2071.
hwæder, see hwyder.
hwǣr, adv., where, anywhere, 2029. Special passages: wundur hwār þonne, “it is a wonder (mystery) anywhere when,” 3062; with swā following, “whereso-ever,” 762 (see note, and cf. 797); elles hwǣr, “elsewhere,” 138.
hwæt, adj., active, keen, bold; weak hwata, 3028; dat. hwatum, 2161; pl. hwate, 1601, etc.
hwæt, pron., see hwā.
hwæt, interj., what!, lo!, 1, 530, etc.
hwæðer, adj.-pron., whether, which of two; nom. gebīde gē…hwæðer sēl mæge…uncer twēga, “await ye whether of us twain may the better,” 2530; acc. f. on swā hwæðere hond…swā him gemet þince,” “on whichsoever hand it may seem to him meet,” 686.
hwæðer, hwæðre, conj., whether, 1314, 1356, etc.
hwæð(e)re, adv., however, yet, 555, 578, etc.; anyway, however that may be, 574; with swā þēah, 2442.
hwan, see hwā.
hwanan, hwanon, adv., whence, 257, 333, etc.
hwār, see hwǣr.
hwata, hwate, hwatmn, see hwæt, adj.
hwealf, st. f., vault, 576, etc.
hwēne, adv., a little, a trifle, 2699.
hweorfan, st. v., turn, wander, die, 264, 1980, 2832 (whirl), 2888 (roam), etc.; inf. hworfan, 1728.
æt-hweorfan, st. v., return, 2299.

ge-hweorfan, st. v., turn, go, 1210, 1679, 1684, 2208.

geond-hweorfan, st. v., traverse, 2017.

ond-hweorfan, st. v., turn against; pret. norðan wind…ond-hwearf, “a wind from the north turned against [us],” 548.

ymbe-hweorfan, st. v., with acc., turn about, go round, 2296.
hwergen, adv., in elles hwergen, “elsewhere,” 2590.
hwettan, w. v., whet, urge, encourage, 204, 490. From hwæt.
hwīl, st. f., while, space of time, 146, 1495, etc.; dat. pi. used adverbially, hwīlum, “at whiles, sometimes, whilom,” 175, 864, 867, etc.; “at one time…at another,” 2107-8-9-11.
hwīt, adj., white, flashing, 1448.
hwōpan, st. v., cry out, mourn; pret. hwēop, 2268.
hworfan, see hweorfan.
hwyder, hwæder, adv., whither, 163, 1331.
hwylc, adj.-pron., which, what, any, 274 (see witan), 1986, 2002; with gen. 1104, 2433.
swā hwylc swā, see swā.
hwyrfan, w. v., move, 98.
hwyrft, st. m., going, turn; dat. pl. “in their goings, or to and fro,” 163.
hycgan, w. v., think, resolve (upon); pret. hogode, 632.
for-hicgan, w. v., forgo, reject, despise, 435.

ge-hycgan, w. v., think, 1988.

ofer-hyegan, w. v., scorn, 2345.
hȳdan, w. v., hide, 1372, 2766; bury, 446.
ge-hydan, w. v., hide, 2235, 3059.
hyge, hige, st. m., mind, heart, soul, 267, 755, 3148, etc.
hige-mǣð, st. f., mind-honour, heart-reverence, 2909.

hige-mēðe, adj., wearying the soul or mind, 2442.

hige-þihtig, adj., great-hearted, 746.

hige-þrymm, st. m., [mind-strength] magnanimity, 339.
hyge-bend, st. m. f., mind-bond; dat. pl., hyge-bendum fæst…dyrne langað, “a secret longing fast in the bonds of his mind,” 1878.
hyge-gīomor, adj., sad at heart, 2408.
hyge-rōf, hige-rōf, adj., strong of mind or heart, valiant, 204, 403.
hyge-sorg, st. f., sorrow of mind or heart, 2328.
hyht, st. m., hope, 179.
hyldan, w. v., heel over, incline (oneself), lie down; pret. 688.
hyldo, st. f., favour, friendliness. 670, 2293, etc.; acc. hyldo ne telge…Denum unfǣcne, “I reckon not their faithfulness for the Danes sincere,” 2067. Cf. hold.
hym, dat. pl. of hē (q. v.).
hȳnan, w. v., humiliate, harm, 2319. From hēan.
hyne, acc. sg. m. of hē (q. v.).
hȳnðo, hȳnðu, st. f., humiliation, 166, 277, 475, 593.
hyra, gen. pl. of hē (q. v.).
hȳran, w. v., hear, learn, 38, 62, 273, 1197, etc.; with dat. pers., obey, 10, etc.
ge-hȳran, w. v., hear, learn, 255, 290, 785, etc.
hyrdan, w. v.
ā-hyrdan, w. v., harden, 1460.
hyrde, st. m., [herd] keeper, guardian, etc., 610, 2505, etc.; nom. wuldres Hyrde, “the King of glory,” 931.
hyre, gen. and dat. sg. f. of hē (q. v.).
hyrst, st. f., harness, accoutrement, adornment, 2988, 3164.
hyrstan, w. v., adorn; pp. “dight, jewelled,” 672, 2255.
hyrtan, w. v., hearten, embolden; with refl. pron., 2593.
hyse, st. m., youth, 1217.
hyt, st. f. ?, heat, 2649.
hyt, neut. of hē (q. v.).
hȳð, st. f., hythe, haven, 32.
hyðo, see note on l. 3155.
hȳð-weard, st. m., [hythe-ward] guard of the haven, 1915.


ic, pers. pron., I, 247, etc.; acc. mec, mē; gen. mīn; dat. mē; dual nom. wit; acc. uncit, unc; gen. uncer; dat. unc; pl. nom. wē; acc. ūsic; gen. ūre, ūser; dat. ūs, ūrum.
icge, adj., golden?, costly?, massive?, 1107.
īdel, adj., [idle] deprived; nom. lond-rihtes…īdel, “deprived of land-right,” 2888.
īdel-hende, adj., idle-handed, empty-handed, 2081.
ides, st. f., woman, lady, 620, 1259, etc.
iernan, st. v.
be-iernan, st. v., run, occur; pret. him on mōd bearn, “it occurred to him,” 67. on-iernan, st. v., spring open; pret. onarn, 721.
in, prep., in, with dat. (of rest) and acc. (of motion):

(1) with dat., in, on, 13, 25, 87, 89, 324, 443, 1029, 1952, 2505, 2599, 2635, 2786, 3097, etc.; after its case, 19; of time, 1.
(2) with acc., into, 60, 185, 1210, 2935.

in innan, see innan.
in, adv., in, 386, 1037, 1644, etc.; once inn, 3090.
in, st. neut., inn, dwelling, 1300.
inc, pers. pron. (dat. dual of þū), to you two, 510.
incer, pers. pron. (gen. dual of þū), of you two, 584.
incge, adj., weighty?, 2577 (see note).
in-frōd, adj., very old, 1874, 2449.
in-gang, st. m., entrance, 1549.
in-genga, w. m., in-goer, invader, 1776.
in-gesteald, st. m., house-property, 1155.
inn, see in, adv.
innan, adv., within, inside, 774, etc.
in innan, within; with preceding dat. 1968, 2452.

on innan, within, 2715; with preceding dat. 1740.

þǣr on innan, therein, there-within, in there, 71, 2089, etc.
innan-weard, adj., inward, inside, interior, 991, 1976.
inne, adv., inside, within, 390, 642,

1866, etc.; therein, 1141.

þǣr inne, therein, 118, etc.
inne-weard, adj., inward, interior, 998.
inwid-sorg, see inwit-sorh.
inwit-feng, st. m., hostile grasp, 1447.
inwit-gæst, st. m., hostile guest, foe, 2670.
inwit-hrōf, st. m., hostile roof, 3123.
inwit-net, st. neut., hostile net, cunning snare, 2167.
inwit-nīð, st. neut., hostile hate, malicious enmity, 1858, 1947.
inwit-scear, st. m., hostile attack, inroad, 2478.
inwit-searo, st. neut., hostile cunning, 1101.
inwit-sorh, inwid-sorg, st. f., [hostile sorrow] sorrow caused by a foe, 831, 1736.
inwit-ðanc, st. m., hostile or malicious thought, 749 (see onfōn).
-īode, see -gān.
iogoð, see geogoð.
īo-mēowle, see gēo-mēowle.
īren, st. neut., iron, sword, 892, etc.; gen. pl., īrena, īrenna, 673, 802, etc.
īren, adj., of iron, 1459, 2778.
īren-bend, st. m. f., iron-band, 774, 998.
īren-byrne, w. f., iron-byrny, coat of iron mail, 2986.
īren-heard, adj., iron-hard, 1112.
īren-þrēat, st. m., iron-band, troop of armed men, 330.
īs, st. neut., ice, 1608.
īsern-byrne, w. f., byrny of iron, coat of iron mail, 671.
īsern-scūr, st. f., iron-shower, 3116.
īs-gebind, st. neut., ice-bond, 1133.
īsig, adj., icy, 33.
īu, see gēo.
īu-monn, st. m., former man, man of olden times, 3052.


kyning, 620, 3171, 665, see cyning.


lā, interj., lo, 1700, etc.
lāc, st. neut., gift, offering, booty prey, 43, 1584, etc.
lācan, st. v., play, fight, fly, 2832 2848.
lād, st. f., [lode] way, faring, journey, 569, 1987.
lǣdan, w. v., lead, 239, etc.; pp. gelǣded, 37.
for-lǣdan, w. v., w. acc., mislead; pret. pl., forlǣddan, 2039.
lǣfan, w. v., leave, 1178, 2315 etc.
lǣn, st. neut., loan, 1810.
lǣn-dagas, st. m., loan-days, fleeting days, 2341, etc.
lǣne, adj., fleeting, transitory 3177, etc.
lǣran, w. v., teach, 1722.
ge-lǣran, w. v., teach, persuade, give (advice), 278, 415, etc.
lǣs, compar. adv., less, 1946, 487 (see sē).
þȳ lǣs, conj., lest, 1918.
lǣssa, compar. adj., less, lesser, fewer, 1282, 2571; dat. pl. lǣssan, 43. Absolutely, for lǣssan, “for less,” 951.
lǣsest, superl. adj., least, 2354.
lǣstan, w. w.:
(1) with dat., last, hold out, 812.
(2) with acc., do, perform, 2663.
ful-lǣstan, w. v., with dat., help; pres. sg. 1st ful-lǣstu, 2668.

ge-lǣstan, w. v.:
(1) with acc. or dat., serve, 24, 2500.
(2) usu. with acc., do, perform, fulfil, etc., 1706, 2990, etc.

ge-lǣsted, pp. of lǣstan or geleestan, “performed,” 829.

læt, adj., [late] slow; with gen. 1529.
lǣtan, st. v., let, allow, 48, etc.
ā-lǣtan, st. v., let, 2665; let go, leave, 2591, etc.

for-lǣtan, st. v., let, 970, etc.; let go, 792; leave (behind), 2787.

of-lǣtan, st. v., leave, 1183, etc.

on-lǣtan, st. v., loosen, 1609.

lāf, st. f., leaving, heirloom, bequest (often a sword), 454, 795, 1032, 2036, 2829, 2936, 3160, etc.
lafian, w. v.
ge-lafian, w. v., refresh, 2722.
lagu, st. m., lake, 1630.
lagu-cræftig, adj., [sea-crafty] skilful as a sailor, 209.
lagu-strǣt, st. f., [sea-street] way over the sea, 239.
lagu-strēam, st. m., sea-stream, current, tide, 297.
lāh, see lēon.
land, see lond.
lang, see long.
langað, st. f., longing, 1879.
lange, see longe.
lār, st. f., lore, instruction, guidance, 1950; gen. pl. lāra, 1220, lārena, 269.
lāst, st. m., track, trace, 132, etc.
on lāst, with preceding dat., in the tracks of, behind, 2945.
lāð, adj., [loth] loathly, loath-some, loathed, hateful, hated, hostile, 134, 511, 2315, 2467, etc.; dat. pl. lāðan, 1505. Often used absolutely, foe, loathed foe, 550, 841, 1061; gen. pl. 242; weak, se lāða, 2305; lāð wið lāþum, “foe with foe,” 440; æfter lāðum, “after the loathed foe,” 1257; neut. fela ic lāðes gebād, “much hostility or evil I endured,” 929.
lāðra, compar., more loathly, more hateful, 2432.
lāð-bite, st. m., foe-bite, wound, 1122.
lāð-getēona, w. m., evil-doer, monster, 559, 974.
lāð-līc, adj., loathly, 1584.
lēaf, st. neut., leaf, 97.
lēafnes-word, st. neut., leave-word, permission, pass-word?, 245.
-lēah, see -lēogan.
lēan, st. neut., reward, 114, 951, 1021, 2145, etc.
lēan, st. v., w. acc., blame; pres. sg. 3rd lȳhð, 1048; pret. lōg, 203, etc.
be-lēan, st. v., with acc. rei and dat. pers., dissuade from, prohibit, 511.
lēanian, w. v., with acc. rei and dat. pers., pay for, repay, reward for, 1380, 2102.
lēas, adj., [-less]:

(1) with gen., lacking, deprived of, 850, 1664.

(2) false, 253.
lecgan, w. v.
ā-lecgan, w. v., lay, lay down, lay aside, 34, 3020, etc.
lēg, see līg.
leger, st. neut., [lair] lying, 3043.
-lēh, see lēogan.
lemian, w. v., lame, trouble; pret. sg. with pl. nom., lemede, 905.
leng, see longe.
lenge, adj., long, 83.
lengest, see longe.
lengra, see long.
lēod, st. m., prince, chief, 341, etc.
lēod, st. f., people, nation, 596, 599, etc.; pl. lēoda, 3001. See lēode.
lēod-bealo, st. neut., [nation-bale] national evil, 1722; gen. pl. -bealewa, 1946.
lēod-burg, st. f., [nation-burgh] chief city; acc. pl. -byrig, 2471.
lēod-cyning, st. m., nation-king, king of a people, 54.
lēode, st. m. pl., people, 24, 362, etc. See lēod, st. f.
lēod-fruma, w. m., nation-chief, prince of a people, 2130.
lēod-gebyrgea, w. m., protector of a people, 269.
lēod-hryre, st. m., fall of a prince or people, 2030, 2391.
lēod-sceaða, w. m., scather of a people, national foe,, 2093.
lēod-scipe, st. m., [people-ship] nation, 2197, 2751.
lēof, adj., lief, dear, 31, etc.
leofað, see libban.
lēof-līc, adj., dear, beloved, precious, 2603, 1809.
lēogan, st. v., lie, belie, 250, 3029.
ā-lēogan, st. v., with acc. rei, bclie, falsify; pret. ālēh, 80. ge-lēogan, st. v., with dat. pers., deceive ; pret. gelēah, 2323.
lēoht, st. neut., light, brilliance, 569, 727, etc.
lēoht, adj., light, bright, flashing, 2492.
lēoma, w. m., gleam, ray, 311, 1570, etc.
leomum, see līm.
lēon, st. v., lend; pret. lāh, 1456.
on-lēon, st. v., with gen. rei and dat. pers., lend; pret. onlāh, 1467.
leornian, w. v., learn, devise, 2336.
lēosan, st. v., lose.
be-lēosan, st. v., deprive; pp. beloren, 1073. for-lēosan, st. v., with dat., lose, 1470, etc.
lēoð, st. neut., lay, 1159.
leoðo-cræft, st. m., [limb-craft] hand-craft; dat. pl. segn…gelocen leoðo-cræftum, “a banner woven by skill of hand,” 2769.
leoðo-syrce, limb-sark, shirt of mail, 1505, etc.
lettan, w. v., with acc. pers. and gen. rei, let, hinder, 569.
libban, w. v., pres. sg. lifað, lyfað, leofað; subj. lifige; pret. lifde, lyfde; pres. part. lifigende: live, 57, etc.
līc, st. n., [lych] body, corpse, 967.
licg(e)an, st. v., lie, lie down, lie low, lie dead, 40, 1343, 2051, 2388, etc.; fail, 1041.
ā-licg(e)an, st. v., fail, cease, 1528, 2886. ge-licg(e)an, st. v., be still, be lulled, 3146.
līc-homa, līc-hama, w. m., [lych-covering] body, 812, 1007, etc.
līcian, w. v., with dat., [like] please, 639, etc.
līc-sār, st. neut., body-sore, wound in the body, 815.
līc-syrce, w. f., body-sark, shirt of mail, 550.
lid-mann, st. m., sea-man, seafarer, 1623.
līf, st. neut., life, 97, etc.
lifað, etc., see libban.
līf-bysig, adj., [life-busy] in the throes of death, 966.
līf-dagas, st. m. pl., life-days, 793, etc.
Līf-frēa, w. m., Life-lord, Lord of life, 16.
līf-gedāl, st. neut., life-parting, death, 811.
līf-gesceaft, st. f., [life-shaping] destiny, 1953, etc.
līf-wraðu, st. f., life-protection, 971, 2877.
līf-wynn, st. f., life-joy, 2097.
līg, lēg, st. m., flame, 83, 2549, etc.; dat. ligge, 727.
līg-draca, lēg-draca, w. m., flame-drake, flaming dragon, 2333, 3040.
līg-egesa, w. m., flame-terror, 2780.
līge-torn, st. m., [lying-anger] pretended insult, 1943.
ligge, see līg.
līg-ȳð, st. f., flame-wave, 2672.
lim, st. neut., limb, branch; dat. pl. leomum, 97.
limpan, st. v., happen, befall; pret. lomp, 1987.
ā-limpan, st. v., befall, occur, 622, 733.

be-limpan, st. v., befall, 2468.

ge-limpan, st. v., befall, happen, 76, 626 (be fulfilled), 929 (be given), etc.

ge-lumpen, pp. of limpan or gelimpan, “fulfilled,” 824.
lind, st. f., linden, shield (made of linden), 2341, etc.
lind-gestealla, w. m., shield-comrade, comrade in arms, 1973.
lind-habbend, st. m. (pres. part.), [linden-having] shield-warrior, 245, etc.
lind-plega, w. m., linden-play, battle, 1073, etc.
lind-wiga, w. m., linden-warrior, shield-warrior, 2605.
linnan, st. v., with gen. or dat., cease, depart, be deprived, 1478, 2443.
liss, st. f., favour, 2150.
list, st. f., cunning; dat. pl. adverbially, 781.
līðan, st. v., go; pp. liden, “traversed,” 233 (see eolet).
līðe, adj., gentle, mild, 1220.
līðost, superl., gentlest, mildest, 3182.
līðend, st. m. (pres. part.), [going] sailor, 221.
līð-wǣge, st. neut., stoup of drink (ale or cider?), 1982.
locen, see lūcan.
lōcian, w. v., look, 1654.
lof, st. m., praise, 1536.
lof-dǣd, st. f., praise-deed, deed worthy of praise, 24.
lof-georn, adj., yearning for praise,
lof-geornost, superl., most eager for praise, 3182.
lōg, see lēan.
lomp, see limpan.
lond, land, st. neut., land, 221, 2197, etc.
land-fruma, w. m., land-chief, ruler of a land, 31.

land-gemyrcu, st. neut. pl., land-marks, boundaries, 209.

land-geweorc, st. neut., land-work, stronghold, 938.

land-waru, st. f., land-people; pl. land-wara, “people of the land,” 2321.

land-weard, st. m., [land-ward] guardian of a country, 1890.
lond-buend, land-būend, st. m. (pres. part.), land-dweller, 95, 1345.
lond-rīht, st. neut., land-right, right of a citizen or freeholder, 2886.
long, lang, adj., long, 16, 2093, 3043, etc,
lengra, compar., longer, 134.
longe, lange, adv., long, 31, 1061, etc.
leng, compar., longer, 451, 974, etc. lengest, superl., longest, 2008, 2238.
long-gestrēon, st. neut., [long-possession] treasure of long ago, 2240.
long-sum, adj., [long-some] lasting long, 134, etc.
losian, w. v., escape, 1392, etc.
lūcan, st. v., lock, interlock, weave; pp. locen, gelocen, “locked, of interlocked rings,” 1505, 1890, 2769, 2995.
be-lūcan, st. v., lock, secure; pret. belēac, 1132, 1770.

on-lūcan, st. v., unlock; pret. onlēac, 259.

to-lūcan, st. v., destroy, 781.
lufen, st. f., hope, 2886.
lufian, w. v., love, 1982.
luf-tācen, st. neut., love-token, 1863.
lufu, w. f., love, 1728.
lungre, adv.:

(1) quickly, hastily, 929, 1630, etc.

(2) quite, 2164.
lust, st. m., [lust] pleasure, joy; acc. on lust, dat. pl. lustum, “with joy, with pleasure,” 618, 1653.
lȳfan, w. v.
ā-lȳfan, w. v., entrust, permit, 655, 3089. ge-lȳfan, w. v., believe in, trust for, rely on; with dat. pers. 909; with dat. rei, 440; with acc. rei, 608; þæt hēo on ǣnigne eorl gelȳfde fyrena frōfre (acc.), “that she believed in any earl for comfort from crime,” 627; him tō Anwaldan āre (acc.) gelȳfde, “believed in favour from the Almighty for himself,” 1272.
lyfatð, lyfde, see libban.
lyft, st. m. f. neut., [lift] air, 1375, etc.
lyft-floga, w. m., [lift-flier] flier in the air, 2315.
lyft-geswenced, adj. (pp.), wind-urged, driven by the wind, 1913.
lyft-wynn, st. f., [lift-joy] joy in the air, 3043.
lȳsan, w. v.
ā-lȳsan, w. v., loose, loosen, 1630.
lystan, w. v., impers., with acc. pers., list; pret. 1793.
lȳt, neut. adj. or n., indecl., few, 2365; with gen. 1927, 2150, 2882, 2832 (dat.).
lȳt, adv., little, 2897, 3129.
lȳtel, adj., little, 1748, 2097, etc.; acc. f. lȳtle hwīle, “but a little while,” 2030.
lȳt-hwōn, adv., little, 204.


mā, compar. adv., with gen., 504, etc.
mādmas, etc., see māð(ð)um.
mæg, see magan.
mǣg, st. m., kinsman, blood-relative, 408, etc.; pl. māgas, etc., 1015, etc.; dat. pl. māgum, 1178, etc., mǣgum, 2353.
mǣg-burg, st. f., [kin-burgh] family; gen. mǣg-burge, 2887.
mæge, see magan.
mægen, 2654, see magan.
mægen, st. neut., main, strength, 445, etc.
mægen-āgende, adj. (pres. part.), [main-owning] mighty, 2837.
mægen-byrðen, st. f., main-burden, great burden, 1625, etc.
mægen-cræft, st. m., main-craft, mighty strength, 380.
mægen-ellen, st. neut., main-strength, great courage, 659.
mægen-fultum, st. m., main-aid, strong help, 1455.
mægen-rǣs, st. m., [main-race] mighty onslaught, 1519.
mægen-strengo, st. f., main-strength; dat. 2678.
mægen-wudu, st. m., [main-wood] spear, 236.
mægð, st. f., maid, woman, 943, etc.
mǣg-wine, st. m., kinsman-friend; pl. 2479.
mǣl, st. neut., [meal]:

(1) time, occasion, 316, etc.

(2) sword, 1616, 1667.
mǣl-cearu, st. f., time-care, 189.
mǣl-gesceaft, st. f., [time-shaping] appointed time, 2737.
mǣnan, w v., [mean]:

(1) with acc., declare, proclaim, 857, 1067.

(2) trans. and intrans., moan, bemoan, mourn, lament, 1149, 2267, 3149, 3171.
-mænan, w. v.
ge-mǣnan, w.v., violate, 1101.
mænigo, see menigeo.
mǣre, adj., great, famous, notorious, 103, 762, 1301, 1474, 1598, etc.
mǣrost, superl., greatest, 898.
mǣrðo, mǣrðu, st. f., greatness, glory, fame, 504, 659, 678, etc.; greatness, great deed, deed of glory, exploit, 408, 2134, 2645; dat. pl. adverbially, gloriously, 2514.
msest, st. m., mast, 36, etc.
mǣst, see māra.
mǣte, adj., small.
mǣtost, superl., smallest, 1455.
maga, w. m., son, man, 943, 978, 1474, etc.
*magan, st.-w. v., may, can, be able; pres. sg. 1st and 3rd mæg, 277, etc., 2nd meaht, 2047; pres. subj. sg. mæge, 2530, etc., pl. mægen, 2654 ; pret. meahte, 542, 648, etc., mihte, 190, 308, etc., mehte, 1082, etc. With gān omitted, 754. Special passage: ne meahte, “it was not possible, no one could,” 2547.
māge, w. f., kinswoman, 1391.
mago, st. m., kinsman, son, 1465, etc.
mago-driht, st. f., kindred-troop, band of warriors, 67.
mago-rinc, st. m., kinsman-warrior, warrior, 730.
mago-þegn, magu-þegn, st. m., kinsman-thane, 293, 408, 1405, 1480, etc.
man(n), see mon(n).
man, st. neut., [moan] wickedness, crime, 110, 1055, etc.
mān-fordǣdla, w. m., wicked destroyer, 563.
manian, w. v., exhort, 2057.
manig, see monig.
man-līce, adv., in a manly way, 1046.
mān-sc(e)aða, w. m., wicked scather, deadly foe, 712, 2514, etc.
māra, compar. adj. (of micel), greater, mightier, 247, 518, 753, etc.; neut., with gen., māre, more, 136.
mǣst, superl., [most] greatest, 78, 2181, etc.; neut., with gen., 2645, etc.
maðelian, w. v., harangue, discourse, speak, 286, 2425, etc.
māðm-ǣht, st. f., owning of treasure, valuable possession, 1613, 2833.
māðm-gestrēon, st. neut., jewel-treasure, 1931.
māð(ð)um, st. m., thing of value, treasure, jewel, 169, 1528, etc.; pl. māðmas, mādmas, etc., 36, 385, 1048, 1784, 1867, 2788, etc.
māððum-fæt, st. neut., treasure-vat, costly vessel, 2405.
māððum-gifu, st. f., treasure-gift, 1301.
māððum-sigle, st. neut., treasure-jewel, costly sun-shaped ornament, 2757.
māððum-sweord, st. neut., treasure-sword, sword inlaid with jewels, 1023.
māððum-wela, w. m., [treasure-weal] wealth of treasure, 2750.
mē, pers. pron. (acc. and dat. of ic), me, to me, 446, 472, 541, etc.; dat. for myself, 2738.
meagol, adj., forceful, earnest, solemn, 1980.
meahte, meahton, see magan.
mēaras, etc., see mearh.
mearc, st. f., march, limit; dat. hīm þæt tō mearce wearð, “that was his [life’s] limit,” 2384.
mearcian, w. v., mark, stain, engrave, 450; pp. gemearcod, 1264, 1695.
mearc-stapa, w. m., march-stepper, march-stalker, 103, 1348.
mearh, st. m., [mare] horse; pl. mēaras, etc., 865, etc.
mearn, see murnan.
mec, pers. pron. (acc. of ic), me, 2089.
mēce, st. m., sword, 1938, etc.
mēd, st. f., meed, reward, 1178, etc.
medo, medu, st. m., mead, 2633; dat. 604.
medo-ærn, st. neut., mead-hall, 69.
medo-benc, medu-benc, meodu-benc, st. f., mead-bench, 776, 1067, 1902, etc.
medo-ful, st. neut., mead-cup, 624, etc.
medo-heal, meodu-heall, st. f., mead-hall, 484, 638.
medo-stīg, st. f., mead-path, path to the mead-hall, 924.
medu-drēam, st. m., mead-joy, 2016.
medu-seld, st. neut., mead-hall, 3065.
meodo-setl, st. neut., mead-settle, 5.

meodo-wong, st. m., mead-plain, plain or field where the mead-hall stood, 1643.

meodu-scenc, st. m., mead-draught, 1980.
mehte, see magan.
melda, w. m., informer, finder, 2405.
meltan, st. v., intrans., melt, 1120, etc.
ge-meltan, st. v., melt, 897, 2628, etc.
mene, st. m., collar, necklace, 1199.
mengan, w. v.:

(1) mingle; pp. gemenged, 848, 1593.

(2) mingle with, visit, 1449.
menigeo, mænigo, st. f., many, multitude, 41, 2143.
meodo-, meodu-, see under medo.
meoto, see met.
meotod-, see metod-.
mērcels, st. m., mark, aim, 2439. [Sievers § 159. 1.]
mere, st. m., mere, sea, 1130, etc.
mere-deor, st. neut., mere-deer, sea-monster, 558.
mere-fara, w. m., mere-farer, sea-farer, 502.
mere-fix, st. m., mere-fish, sea-fish, 549.
mere-grund, st. m., [mere-ground] bottom of a mere or sea, 1449, 2100.
mere-hrægl, st. neut., [mere-rail] sea-garment, sail, 1905.
mere-līðend, st. m. (pres. part.), [mere-going] sea-farer, sailor, 255.
mere-strǣt, st. f., [mere-street] way over the sea, 514.
mere-strengo, st. f., [merestrength] strength in swimming, 533.
mere-wīf, st. neut., [mere-wife] mer(e)-woman, 1519.
mergen, see morgen.
met, st. neut., thought; pl. meoto, 489 (see note).
metan, st. v., mete, measure, pass over, 514, 917, etc.
ge-metan, st. v., mete, traverse, 924,
mētan, w. v., meet, find, 751, etc.
ge-mētan, w. v., meet, find, 757, etc.; pret. pl. hȳ (acc.) gemētton, “met each other,” 2592.
Metod, st. m., Creator, God, 110, etc.
metod-sceaft, meotod-sceaft, st. f., appointed doom, eternity, 1077, 2815, 1180 (Creator’s glory?).
meðel, st. neut., council, 1876.
meðel-stede, st. m., meeting-place, 1082.
meðel-word, st neut., council-word, formal word, 236.
micel, adj., mickle, great, 129, etc.; gen. micles wyrðne, “worthy of much,” 2185.
micles, gen. used adverbially; tō fela micles, “far too much,” 694. micle, instr. used adverbially, by much, much, 1579, 2651; so swā micle, “by so much,” 1283.
mid, prep., with dat. and acc.:

(1) with dat., with, amid, among, 77, 195, 274, 902, 1217, 1313, 1868, 2308, etc.; following its case, 41, 889, 1625; of time, 126; with, by means of, through, 317, 438, 475, 574, 779, 1184, 1892, 2028, 2468, etc. Special passages: mid rihte, “by right,” 2056; mid gewealdum, “of his own accord,” 2221; mid him, “among themselves,” 2948.

(2) with acc., with, amid, among, 357, 879, 1128, 2652, etc.
mid, adv., with them, withal, therewith, 1642, 1649.
middan-geard, st. m., [middle-yard] world, earth, 75, etc.; gen. “in the world,” 504, etc.
midde, w. f., middle, 2705.
middel-niht, st. f., mid-night, 2782, etc.
miht, st. f., might, 700, etc.
mihte, see magan.
mihtig, adj., mighty, 558, etc.
milde, adj., mild, kind, 1172, etc.
mildust, superl., mildest, kindest, 3181.
mīl-gemearc, st. neut., mile-mark, measure by miles; gen. nis þæt feor heonon mīl-gemearces, “that is not many miles away,” 1362.
milts, st. f., mildness, kindness, 2921.
mīn, pers. pron. (gen. sg. of ic), of me, 2533, etc.
mīn, poss. adj. (gen. sg. of ic), mine, my, 255, etc.
missan, w. v., w. gen., miss, 2439.
missere, st. neut., half-year, 153.
mist-hlið, st. neut., mist-slope, misty hill-side; dat. pl. mist-hleoþum, 710.
mistig, adj., misty, 162.
mōd, st. neut.:

(1) mood, mind, etc., 50, etc.

(2) courage, 105, etc.; moody pride, fierceness, 1931.
mōd-cearu, st. f., mood-care, sorrow of mind or heart, 1992, 3149.
mōdega, mōdgan, etc., see mōdig.
mōd-gehygd, st. neut., mind-thought, 233.
mōd-geðonc, st. neut., mind-thought, 1729.
mōd-gīomor, adj., sad in mind or heart, 2894.
mōdig, adj., weak mōd(i)ga, mōdega; gen. m. mōd(i)ges; pl. mōd(i)ge: moody, brave, proud, 312, 502, 670, 1508, 1888, etc.
mōdig-līc, adj., [moody-like].
mōdig-līcra, compar., braver, prouder, 337.
mōd-lufu, w. f., [mood-love] heart’s love, 1823.
mōdor, st. f., mother, 1258, etc.
mōd-sefa, w. m., [mood-mind, -heart] mind, heart, courage, 180, 349, 1853, etc.
mōd-þracu, st. f., [mood-]daring, 385.
mon(n), man(n), st. m., weak manna; dat. sg. men(n); pl. men: man, 25, 1943, etc.; weak acc. sg. mannon, 577.
mon, man, indef. pron., one, they, people, 1172, 2355, etc.
mōna, w. m., moon, 94.
mon-cynn, man-cynn, st. neut., mankind, 110, 164, 196, 1955, 2181.
mon-drēam, man-drēam, st. m., [man-dream] human joy, 1264, 1715.
mon-dryhten, -drihten, man-dryhten, -drihten, st. m., [man-]lord, etc., 436, 1229, 1978, 2865, etc.
monig (moneg-), manig (maneg-), adj., many, 5, 75, etc.; nom. monig oft gesæt rīce tō rūne, “many a mighty one oft sat in council,” 171. Often absolutely, 857, etc.; and with dependent gen. pl. 728, etc.
mon-þwǣre, adj., [man-]gentle, kind to men, 3181.
mōr, st. m., moor, 103, etc.
morgen, mergen, st. m., dat. morgne, mergenne: morn, morning, morrow, 565, 837, 2484, etc.; gen. pl. morna, 2450.
morgen-ceald, adj., morning-cold, 3022.
morgen-lēoht, st. neut., morning-light, 604, etc.
morgen-long, adj., morning-long, 2894.
morgen-swēg, st. m., [morn-swough] morning-clamour, 129.
morgen-tīd, st. f., morning-tide, 484, etc.
mōr-hop, st. neut., moor-haunt, “sloping hollow on a moorside” (Skeat), 450.
morna, see morgen.
morð-bealu, st. neut., murder-bale, murder, 136.
morðor, st. neut., murder, 892, 1683, etc.
morðor-bealo, st. neut., murder-bale, murder, 1079, 2742.
morðor-bed, st. neut., murder-bed, 2436.
morðor-hete, st. m., murderous hate, 1105.
mōste, see motan.
*mōtan, st.-w. v., may, be to, must, 186, 2886, etc.; pret. mōste, 168, 2574, etc.; pret. pl. mōstan, 2247.
munan, st.-w. v.
ge-munan, st.-w. v., have in mind, remember; pres. gemon, geman, 265, 1185, etc.; pret. gemunde, 179, 1141, etc. on-munan, st.-w. v., remind; pret. onmunde ūsic mǣrða, “reminded us of glory, urged us on to great deeds,” 2640.
mund, st. f., hand, 236, etc.
mund-bora, w. m., [hand-bearer] protector, 1480, etc.
mund-gripe, st. m., hand-grip, 380, etc.
murnan, st. v., mourn, be anxious, reck, care, 50, 136, 1442, 1537, etc.
be-murnan, st. v., with acc., bemourn, mourn over, 907, etc.
mūða, w. m., mouth, 724.
mūð-bona, w. m., mouth-bane, one who slays by biting, 2079.
myndgian, w. v., call to mind:

(1) with gen., remember, 1105.
(2) remind, 2057.

ge-myndgian, w. v., bring to mind, remember; pp. gemyndgad, 2450.
myne, st. m.:

(1) wish, hope, 2572.

(2) love; acc. ne his myne wisse, “nor did he know his love,” 169.
mynian, w. v.
ge-mynian, w. v., mind, be mindful of, 659.
myntan, w. v., be minded, intend, 712, 731, 762.
myrce, adj., murky, 1405.
myrð, st. f., mirth; dat. mōdes myrðe, de gaieté de cœur, 810.


nā, neg. adv., never, not at all, not, 445, 567, etc.
naca, w. m., bark, craft, 214, 295, 1896; dat. 1903.
nacod, adj., naked, 539, etc.
næbben, 1850, = ne hæbben, see habban.
næfne, see nefne.
nǣfre, adv., never, 247, etc.
nǣgan, w. v., greet, accost, 1318.
ge-nǣgan, w. v., assail; pret. pl. genǣgdan, 2206; pp. genǣged, 1439.
nægl, st. m., nail, 985.
næglian, w. v., nail; pp. nægled, “nailed, riveted, studded,” 2023.
nǣnig (= ne ǣnig), adj.-pron., not any, none, no, 859, etc,; with gen. pl. 157, etc.
nǣre, nǣron, = ne wǣre, ne wǣron, see wesan.
næs, = ne waes, see wesan.
næs, neg. adv., not, not at all, 562, etc.
næs(s), st. m., ness, headland, 1439, etc.
næs-hlið, st. neut., ness-slope, head-land-slope; dat. pl. næs-hleoðum, 1427.
nāh, = ne āh, see āgan.
nalas, nalæs, nales, nallas, nalles, see nealles.
nam, see niman.
nama, w. m., name, 78, etc.
nāman, -nāmon, see niman.
nān (= ne ān), adj.-pron., none, no, 989; with gen. pl. 803.
nāt, = ne wāt, see witan.
nāt-hwylc (= ne wāt hwylc; cf. l. 274), adj.-pron., [wot not which] some, some one, a certain (one), 1513; with gen. pl. 2215, 2053, etc.
ne, neg. particle. not, 38, 1384, etc.; doubled, ne…ne, 182, 245–6, etc.; nōðer…ne, 2124; ne…nō, 1508. Special passage: 1604 (see note). Often found in composition with verbs, e.g. nāh, næbben, næs, nolde, nāt, etc., for which see āgan, habban, wesan, willan, witan; in composition with ā, ǣnig, etc., it forms the words nā, nǣnig, etc. (q. v.). Correlated with ne or another negative, not…nor, neither…nor, etc., 511, 1082–4, etc.; ne…ne…ne, 1100–1; no…ne, 168–9, 575–7, etc.; no…ne…ne…ne, 1392–4, 1735–7; nǣfre…ne, 583–4, 718; nalles…ne, 3015–6. Correlated with a doubled negative: ne……ne…nǣnig, 154–7; ne……nǣnig…nǣre, 858–60.
nēag, adj., nigh, near, 1743, 2728;

with dat. nēh, 2411.

nīehst, nȳhst, superl., [next] last, 1203, 2511.
nēah, adv., nigh, near, 1221, 2870;

with dat. 564, 1924, 2242.

nēar, compar., nearer, 745.
nealles, etc. (= ne ealles), adv., not at all by no means, 2145, etc.; nalles, 338, etc.; nallas, 1719, etc.; nales, 1811; nalas, 1493, etc.; nalaes, 43.
nēan, nēon, adv., from nigh, from near, near, 528 (at close quarters), 839, 3104, etc.
nearo, st. neut., [narrows] straits, distress, 2350, etc.
nearo, adj., narrow, 1409.
nearo-cræft, st. m., [narrow-craft] inaccessibility, 2243.
nearo-fāh, st. m., [narrow-foe] foe causing distress; gen. nearo-fāges, 2317.
nearo-þearf, st. f., [narrow-need] dire distress, 422.
nearwe, adv., narrowly, 976.
nearwian, w. v., [narrow] straiten, press; pp. genearwod, 1438.
nefa, w. m., nephew, 881, etc.; grandson, 1203, 1962.
nefne, næfne, nemne, conj.:

(1) unless, 250, 1056, 1552, etc.; except that, 1353.

(2) In elliptical sentences, with quasi-prepositional force, unless, save, 1934, 2151, 2533.

nēh, see nēah, adj.
nelle, = ne wille, see willan.
nemnan, w. v., name, call, 364, etc.
be-nemnan, w. v., swear, curse, 1097, 3069.
nemne, prep., with dat., except, 1081.
nemne, conj., see nefne.
nēod-laðu (= nīed-laðu), st. f., pressing (invitation) summons; dat. æfter nēod-laðu, “after the pressing summons (Beowulf had received),” 1320.
nēon, see nēan.
nēos(i)an, nīos(i)an, w. v., with gen., visit, revisit, attack, 115, 125, 2388, 2671, etc.; pres. 3rd nīosað, 2486.
nēotan, st. v., use, enjoy, 1217.
be-nēotan, bi-nēotan, st. v., with acc. pers. and dat. rei, deprive, 680, 2396.
neoðor, see niðer.
nēowol, adj., steep; pl. nēowle, 1411.
nerian, w. v., save, preserve, 572; pp. genered, 827.
nesan, st. v.
ge-nesan, st. v.:

(1) intrans. survive, escape, 999.

(2) trans. survive, escape (from), 1977, etc.; pp. genesen, 2397.
nēðan, w. v.:

(1) with acc., dare, encounter, 2350.
(2) with dat., risk, 510, 538.

ge-nēðan, w. v.:

(1) with acc. hazard, dare, venture on, brave, 888, 959, 1656, 1933, 2511.

(2) with dat. risk, 1469.
nicor, st. m., nicker (sea-monster), 422, etc.
nicor-hūs, st. neut., nicker-house, cavern of a sea-monster, 1411.
nīehst, see nēah, adj.
nigen, num., nine; inflected, 575.
niht, st. f., night, 115, 1334, etc.; gen. (m.) nihtes, 3044.
nihtes, gen. (m.) used adverbially, of a night, by night, 422, 2269, etc.
niht-bealu, st. neut., night-bale, evil at night, 193.
niht-helm, st. m., night-helm, night, 1789.
niht-long, adj., night-long, 528.
niht-weorc, st. neut., night-work, 827.
niman, st. v., take, seize; pres. 3rd, nimeð, nymeð, 441, 598, etc.; pret. sg., nam, nōm, 746, 1612, etc.; pret. pl. nāman, 2216; pp. (ge)numen, 1153, 3165.
be-niman, st. v., deprive; pret. benam, 1886.

for-niman, st. v., carry off; pret. fornam, -nāmon, 488, 2828, etc.

ge-niman, st. v., take, seize, take away, clasp; pret. genam, genōm, 1872, 2776, etc.
nīod, st. f., pleasure, delight, 2116.
nīos(i)an, see nēos(i)an.
nioðor, see niðer.
nīowe, see nīwe.
nīpan, st. v., darken, 547, 649.
nis, = ne is, see wesan.
nīð, st. m., envy, spite, malice, hate, violence, war, contest, conflict, struggle, 184, 827, 882, 2317,2350, 2397, 2680, etc.; affliction, 423. Gen. pl. used instrumentally, in fight, in war, by force, 845, 1439, 1962, 2170, 2206.
niðas, see niððas.
nīð-draca, w. m., [envy-drake] malicious dragon, 2273.
niþer, nyðer, nioðor, adv., [nether] down, downwards, 1360, 2699, 3044.
nīð-gæst, st. m., [envy-guest] malicious guest, 2699.
nīð-geweorc, st. neut., [envy-work] work of enmity, deed of violence, 638.
nīð-grim, adj., [envy-grim] maliciously grim or terrible, 193.
nīð-heard, adj., war-hard, hardy in war, 2417.
nīð-hēdig, adj., war-minded, 3165.
nīð-sele, st. m., hostile hall, 1513.
niððas, niðas, st. m. pl., men, 1005, 2215.
nīð-wundor, st. neut., dread wonder, 1365.
nīwe, adj., new, 783 (startling), 949, etc.; dat. weak nīwan, nīowan, stefne, “anew,” 1789, 2594.
nīwian, w. v., renew; pp. genīwod, genīwad, 1303, 2287, etc.
nīw-tyrwed, adj. (pp.), new-tarred, 295.
nō, adv.. not at all, not, 136, 168 (see ne), 541, 543, 1508 (see ne), etc.
nolde, =ne wolde, see willan.
nōm, see niman.
nōn, st. f., [noon] ninth hour, 3 p.m., 1600.
norð, adv., north, 858.
norðan, adv., from the north, 547.
nose, w. f., [nose] naze, cape, 1892, 2803.
nōðer ( = ne ā hwæðer), adv., nor, 2124.
nū, adv., now, 251, etc.
nū, conj., now, now that, seeing that, 430, etc.; correlative with nū, adv., 2743–5.
nȳd, st. f., need, compulsion, 1005, 2454 (pangs).
nȳdan, w. v., force, compel; pp. genȳded, 2680; inflected, genȳdde, 1005 (see gesacan).
nȳd-bād, st. f., [need-pledge] forced pledge, forced toll, 598.
nȳd-gestealla, w .m., need-comrade, comrade in or at need, 882.
nȳd-gripe, st. m., [need-grip] dire grip, 976.
nȳd-wracu, st. f., [need-wrack] dire ruin, 193.
nȳhst, see nēah, adj.
nyman, see niman.
nymðe, conj., unless, 781, etc.
nyt, adj., useful, of use, 794.
nytt, st. f., duty, office, service, 494, 3118.
nyttian, w. v., with gen.
ge-nyttian, w. v., with acc., use, enjoy; pp. genyttod, 3046,
nyðer, see niðer.


of, prep., with dat., from, 37, 56, 229, 710, 1108, 1138, 1571, 1892, 2083, 2743, 2769, etc.; of (after ūt), 663, 2557; out of, 419; off, 672. Special passage: ðā hē him of dyde, “then he doffed,” 671.
ofer, prep., over, with acc. (of motion, etc.) and dat. (of rest):

(1) with acc., over, 10, 46, 200, 217, 231, 239, 240, 311, 649, 859, 984, 1705, 1717, 2259, 2980, etc.; against, 2330, 2409, 2589; of, 2724; above, beyond, 2879; without, 685; of time, after, 736, 1781. Special passages: ofer eorðan, “on earth,” 248, etc.; ofer wer-þēode, “throughout the nations of men,” 899; ofer ealle, “so that all could hear,” 2899.

(2) with dat., over, 481, 1244, 1907, 2907, 2908, etc.
ōfer, st. m., bank, shore, 1371.
ofer-hygd, -hȳd, st. f. neut., contempt, pride, 1740, 1760.
ofer-mægen, st. neut., over-main, superior force, 2917.
ofer-māðum, st. m., [over-treasure] very rich treasure, 2993.
ofost, st. f., haste, 256, 3007; dat. ofoste, ofeste, ofste, 386, 1292, 2747, etc. [“Beiträge” x. 505.]
ofost-līce, adv., hastily, 3130.
oft, adv., oft, often, 4, 2029, 3019, etc.
oftor, compar., oftener, 1579. oftost, superl., oftenest, 1663.
ō-hwǣr, ō-wēr, adv., anywhere, 1737, 2870.
ombeht, ombiht, st. m., servant, officer, marshal, 287, 336.
ombiht-þegn, st. m., attendant-thane, 673.
ōmig, adj., rusty, 2763, etc.
on, an (677, 1247, 19S5), prep., on; with dat. and acc., usu. dat. of rest and acc. of motion, but instances of the acc. are common, as will be seen, in which there is no suggestion, or the merest suggestion, of motion:

(1) with dat., of place and time, on, in, 40, 53, 76, 409, 607, 609, 677, 702, 782, 847, 891, 926, 1041, 1292, 1352, 1544, 1581, 1618 (a-swimming), 1643, 1662, 1830 (with respect to), 1884, 2197, 2248, 2276, 2311 (upon), 2705, 3157, etc.; after its case, 1935, 2357, 2866; in, among, 1557; at, 126, 303, 575, 683, 3148; by, 1484.
(2) with acc., onto, into, 35, 67, etc.; on, in, 507, 516, 627, 635, 708, 996, 1095, 1109, 1297, 1456, 1675, 2132, 2193, 2690, 2650 (with regard to; cf. ll. 1830–1), etc.; of time, 484, 837, 1428, etc.; to, 1728, 2662, 1739 (according to); towards, 21.
Special passages: 873 (see spēd), 1579 (see ān), 1753 (see endestæf), 2799 (see feorh-legu), 2903 (see efn), 2962 (see wrecan); on gebyrd, “by fate,” 1074; an wīg gearwe, “ready for war,” 1247; on ryht, “rightly,” 1555; on unriht, “falsely,” 2739; on gylp, “for a boast, out of bravado,” 1749; on mīnne sylfes dōm, “at my own disposal, choice,” 2147; þe ic hēr on starie, “on which I am here gazing,” 2796.

on innan, see innan. on weg, away, 763, etc.
on, adv., on, 3084 (see note).
oncer-bend, st. m. f., anchor-band, anchor-chain, 1918.
on-cȳð(ð), st. f., distress, suffering, 830, 1420.
ond, conj., and, 39, 600, etc.
ond-long, and-long, adj., livelong, 2115, 2938; acc. m. ðā ic…gefrægn…andlongne eorl ellen cȳðan, “then I learnt that the earl displayed unceasing courage,” 2695.
on-drysne, adj., terrible, 1932.
ond-saca, w. m., adversary, 786, etc.
ond-slyht, st. m., back-stroke, return blow, 2929, 2972.
ond-swaru, st. f., answer, 354, 1493, 1840, 2860.
ōnettan, w. v., hasten; pret. pl. 306,1803. [“Beiträge” x. 487.]
on-gēan, prep., with dat., against, towards, at, 1034; after its case, 681, 2364 (see foran); without object, 747 (or adv. = forwards).
onlīc-nes, st. f., likeness, 1351.
on-mēdla, w. m., arrogance, 2926.
on-sǣge, adj., impending, fatal, 2483; nom. þær wæs Hondscīo hild onsæge, “there was battle impending over Hondscio,” 2076.
on-sȳn, an-sȳn, st. f., sight, appearance, form, 251, 928, 2772, 2834.
on-weald, st. m., [wielding] control, possession, 1043.
open, adj., open, 2271.
openian, w. v., open, 3056.
ōr, st. neut., beginning, origin, van, 1041, 1688, 2407.
orc, st. m., flagon, 2760, etc.
orcnē, st. m., sea-monster, 112.
ord, st. neut., point, front, van, 556, 2498, 2791.
ord-fruma, w. m., chief, prince, 263.
ōret-mecg, st. m., warrior, 332, 481, etc. [Sievers § 43, N. 4.]
ōretta, w. m., warrior, 1532, etc.
oreð-, see oruð.
or-feorme, adj., without food, famishing, destitute, 2385.
or-leahtre, adj., blameless, 1886.
or-leg, st. neut., battle, war, 1326, etc.
orleg-hwīl, st. f., battle-while, time of battle or war, 2002, etc.
or-þonc, or-þanc, st. m., [original thought] skill, 406; dat. pl. adverbially, skilfully, 2087.
oruð, st. neut., breath, 2557; gen. oreðes, 2523; dat. oreðe, 2839.
or-weaxde, adj., wardless, unguarded, 3127.
or-wēna, adj. (weak form), with gen., [weenless] hopeless, despairing, 1002, etc.
oð, prep., w. acc., until, 2399, etc.
oð þæt, conj., till, until, 9, etc.; once, oðð þæt, 66.
ōðer, num. adj.-pron., other, (the) one, (the) other, the second, another, 219 (see note), 503, 859, 1133, 1300, 1583 (see swylc), 1755, 2117, 2451, 2481, 2670, 2985, etc.; correl. ōðer…ōðer, “one…the other,” 1349–51. Neut. pl. ōðer, 870. Special passage: ealo-drincende ōðer sǣdan, “the ale-drinkers told another tale,” 1945.
oðð, see oð.
oððe, conj.:

(1) or, 283, 649 (see note), etc.

(2) and, 2475.
ōwēr, see ohwǣr.
ō-wiht, pron., aught; dat. a whit, 1822, 2432.


rǣcan, w. v., intrans., reach; pret. rǣhte,_747.
ge-rǣcan, w. v., trans., reach; pret. gerǣhte, 556, 2965.
rǣd, st. m., [rede] advice, counsel, help, benefit, gain, 172, 1201, 1376, 2027.
rǣdan, st. and w. v.:

(1) intrans., decide, decree, 2858.

(2) trans., possess, 2056.
rǣd-bora, w. m., [{{{1}}}er] counsellor, 1325.
Rǣdend, st. m. (pres. part.), Ruler (God), 1555.
rǣran, w. v.
a-rǣran, w. v., rear, raise, exalt, extol, 1703, 2983.
rǣs, st. m., race, rush, storm, onslaught, 2356, 2626.
rǣsan, w. v., race, rush, 2690.
ge-rǣsan, w. v., race, rush, 2839.
ræst, st. f., rest, resting-place, bed, 139, 1237, etc.
rǣswa, w. m., leader, 60.
rand, see rond.
rāsian, w. v., find, explore; pp. rāsod, 2283.
raðe, see hraðe.
rēafian, w. v., reave, rob, plunder; pret. rēafode, rēafedon, 1212, 2985, etc.
be-rēafian, w. v., bereave; pp., with dat., bereft, 2746, etc.
rēc, st. m., reek, smoke, 3155.
rēcan, w. v., with gen., reck, care; pres. 3rd, recceð, 434.
reccan, w. v., relate, tell, 91; dat. inf. reccenne, 2093; pret. rehte, 2106, 2110.
reced, st. neut., house, building, hall, 412, etc.
regn-heard, adj., [mighty-hard] wondrous hard, 326.
regnian, rēnian, w. v., prepare, adorn, 2168; pp. geregnad, 777.
rēn-weard (=regn-), st. m., mighty warden, mighty guard, 770.
rēoc, fierce, 122.
rēofan, st. v.
be-rēofan, st. v., bereave, deprive; pp., acc. sg. f., berofene, 2457, 2931.
reon, see rowan.
reord, st. f., speech, 2555.
reordlan, w. v., speak, croak, 3025.
ge-reordian, w. v., prepare a feast; pp. gereorded, 1788.
rēot, st. m. ? f. ?, revel, 2457.
rēotan, st. v., weep, 1376.
restan, w. v., rest, cease, 1799, 1857, etc.
rēþe, adj., fierce, furious, 122, etc.
rīce, st. neut., realm, 861, etc.
rīce, adj., rich, powerful, mighty, 172, 310, 399, etc.
ricone, adv., quickly, 2983.
rīcsian, rīxian, w. v., reign, rule, domineer, raid, 144, 2211.
rīdan, st. v., ride, 234, 1883, etc.; pret. pl. riodan, 3169.
ge-rīdan, st. v., with acc., ride over, 2898.
rīdend, st. m. (pres. part.), rider; pl. rīdend, 2457.
riht, st. neut., right, 144, 1700, etc.; acc. on riht, “rightly,” 1555; dat. æfter rihte, “in accordance with right,” 1049, etc.; acc. pl. ealde riht, “the old laws, the ten commandments,” 2330.
rihte, adv., rightly, 1695.
rīman, w. v., [rime] count, number; pp. gerīmed, 59.
rinc, st. m., man, wight, warrior, 399, 720, 741, etc.
riodan, see rīdan.
rīsan, st. v.
ā-rīsan, st. v., arise, 399, 2403, etc.
rīxian, see rīcsian.
rodor, st. m., sky, heaven, 310, 1376, 1555, 1572.
rōf, adj., strong, brave, renowned, 1793, 1925, 2538, 2690; with gen. 682, 2084.
rond, rand, st. m., shield, 231, 656, 2673, etc.
rand-wiga, w. m., shield-warrior, 1298, etc.
rond-hæbbend, st. m. (pres. part.), [shield-having] shield-warrior, 861.
rōwan, st. v., row, swim; rēon = rēowon, 512, etc.
rūm, st. m., room, space, 2690.
rūm, adj., roomy, spacious, ample, great, 278, 2461.
rūm-heort, adj., [room-heart] great-hearted, bountiful, 1799, 2110.
rūn, st. f., rune, council, 172.
rūn-stæf, st. m., rune-stave, runic letter, 1695.
rūn-wita, w. m., [rune-] wise man, councillor, 1325.
ryht, see riht.
rȳman, w. v.:

(1) make roomy, prepare; pp. gerȳmed, 492, 1975.
(2) make room, clear a way; pp. ðā him gerȳmed wearð, þæt hīe wael-stōwe wealdan mōston, “when the way was made clear for them so that they were masters of the field,” 2983; so 3088

ge-rȳman, w. v., make roomy, prepare, 1086.


sacan, st. v., strive, 439.
ge-sacan, st. v., gain by strife; inf. ac gesacan sceal…nȳde genȳdde niþða bearna…gearwe stōwe, “but he shall gain by strife the inevitable prepared place of the children of men,” 1004.

on-sacan, st. v.:
(1) with acc. pers. and gen. rei, attempt a person’s life: pres. subj. þætte freoðu-webbe fēores onsæce…lēofne mannan, “that a peace-weaver should assail the life of a dear man,” 1942.

(2) with acc. rei and dat. pers., refuse, dispute, 2954.
sacu, st. f., strife, 1857, 2472; acc. sæce, 154.
sadol, st. m., saddle, 1038.
sadol-beorht, adj., saddle-bright, with a bright or splendid saddle (cf. l. 1038), 2175.
sǣ, st. m. f., sea, 579, 507, 2394, etc.; dat. pl. sǣm, 858, etc.
sǣ-bāt, st. m., sea-boat, 633, 895.
sæce, st. f., strife, fight, contest, 953, 1977, 2029, etc.; gen. sg. secce, 600. Cf. sacu.
sæce, see sacu.
sǣ-cyning, st. m., sea-king, 2382.
sædan, see secgan.
sǣ-dēor, st. neut., sea-deer, sea-monster, 1510.
sǣ-draca, w. m., sea-drake, sea-dragon, 1426.
sægan, w. v., cause to sink, lay low; pp. gesǣged, 884.
sǣ-gēap, adj., sea-wide, spacious, 1896.
sǣ-genga, w. m., sea-goer, ship, 1882, 1908.
sǣgon, see seon.
sǣ-grund, st. m., sea-ground, bottom of the sea,
sæl, st. neut., hall, 307, etc.; acc. sel, 167.
sǣl, st. m. f.:

(1) time, season, occasion, opportunity, 622, 1008, etc.; acc. sg. sēle, 1135.

(2) happiness, joyance, bliss, 643, etc.; dat. pl. sālum, 607.
sǣ-lāc, st. neut., sea-booty, 1624; acc. pl. sǣ-lāc, “sea-spoils,” 1652.
sǣ-lād, st. f., sea-path, sea-voyage, 1139, 1157.
sǣlan, w. v., bind, tie, secure, 226, 1917; pp. gesǣled, “bound, twisted, interwoven,” 2764.
on-sǣlan, w. v., unbind; imperat. sg. onsǣl meoto, “unbind thy thoughts,” 489.
sǣlan, w. v., happen.
ge-sǣlan, w. v., often impers., befall, chance, happen, 890, 1250; pret. sg. me gesǣlde þæt, “it chanced that,” or “I succeeded in,” 574.
sæld, st. neut., hall, 1280.
sǣ-līðend, st. m. (pres. part.), sea-farer; nom. pl. sǣ-līðend, 411, etc.; sǣ-līðende, 377.
sǣlðe (?), 3152, see note on 3155.
sǣ-mann, st. m., sea-man, 329, 2954.
sǣ-mēðe, adj., sea-weary, 325.
sǣmra, compar. adj. (without pos.) worse, weaker, 953, 2880.
sǣ-næss, st. m., sea-ness, headland, 223, 571.
sǣne, adj.
sǣnra, compar., slower, 1436.
sǣ-rinc, st. m., sea-warrior, 690.
sǣl-sīð, st. m., sea-journey, 1149.
sǣ-weall, st. m., sea-wall, 1924.
sǣ-wong, st. m., sea-plain, shore, 1964.
sǣ-wudu, st. m., sea-wood, ship, 226.
sǣ-wylm, st. m., [sea-welling] sea-surge, 393.
-saga, see -secgan.
sāl, st. m., rope, 302, 1906.
sālum, see sǣl.
samod, see somod.
sand, st. neut., sand, 213, etc.
sang, st. m., song, 90, etc.
sār, st. f. neut., sore, pain, wound, 787, 975; nom. sīo sār, 2468; acc. sāre, “harm,” 2295.
sār, adj., sore, 2058.
sāre, adv., sorely, 1251, 2222, 2311, 2746.
sārig, adj., sorry, sad, 2447.
sārig-ferð, adj., [sorry-heart] sore at heart, 2863.
sārig-mōd, adj., [sorry-mood] in mournful mood, 2942.
sār-līc, adj., [sore-like] painful, sad, 842, 2109.
sāwl-berend, st. m. (pres. part.), [soul-bearing] being endowed with a soul, 1004.
sāwol, st. f., soul, 2820, etc.; acc. gen. sāwle, 184, 2422, etc.; gen. sāwele, 1742.
sāwol-lēas, sāwul-lēas, soulless, lifeless, 1406, 3033.
sāwul-drīor, st. neut., [soul-gore] heart’s blood, life’s blood, 2693.
scacan, st. v., pres. sg. sceaceð, 2742, pp. scacen, sceacen, 1124, 2306, etc.: shake, go, depart, hasten, 1136, 2254, etc. Special passages: inf. ðā cōm beorht scacan sunne ofer grundas, “then the bright sun came hastening o’er the plains,” 1802; pret. strǣla storm strengum gebǣded scōc ofer scild-weall, “the storm of arrows, sent by the strings, flew over the shield-wall,” 3118.
scādan, st. v.
ge-scādan, st. v., decide; pret. gescēd, 1555.
scadu-helm, st. m., [shadow-helm] shadow-covering, cover of night; gen. pl. scadu-helma gesceapu, “shapes of the shadows,” 650.
scami(g)an, w. v., be ashamed, 1026, 2850.
scaþa, see sceaþa.
sceacen, sceaceð, see scacan.
scead, st. neut., shade: acc. pl. under sceadu bregdan, “cast under the shades, i.e. kill,” 707.
scēaden-mǣl, adj., curiously inlaid (sword); absolutely, 1939.
sceadu-genga, w. m., shadoow-goer, prowler by night, 703.
sceal, etc., see sculan.
scealc, st. m., marshal, retainer, 918, 939.
scearp, adj., sharp, 288.
scēat, st. m., [sheet] corner, region, quarter, 96; gen. pl. sceatta, 752.
sceatt, st. m., money, 1686.
sceaþa, scaþa, w. m., scather, foe, warrior: nom. pl. scaþan, 1803, 1895; gen. pl. sceaþena, 4, sceaðona, 274.
sceaðan, st. v., with dat., scathe, injure; pret. scōd, 1887.
ge-sceaðan, st. v., with dat., scathe, 1502, 1587. Special passages: pret. sg. sē ðe him sāre gescēod, “who injured himself sorely,” 2222; bill ǣr gescōd…eald-hlāfordes þām ðāra māðma mund-bora wæs longe hwīle, “the old lord’s (Beowulf’s) sword had erewhile injured him that had been the protector of those treasures a long while,” 2777.
scēawere, st. m., explorer, spy, 253.
scēawi(g)an, w. v., with acc., [shew] espy, see, view, observe, 840, 843, 1391, etc.; pres. pl. subj. scēawian, 3008; pret. pl. scēawedon, 132, etc.; pp. gescēawod, 3075, 3084.
-scēd, see -scādan.
sceft, st. m., shaft, 3118.
scel, see sculan.
scencan, w. v., skink, pour out; pret. sg. scencte, 496.
scenne, w. f., sword-guard, 1694.
-scēod, see -sceaðan.
sceolde, see sculan.
-scēop, see -scyppan.
scēotan, st. v., shoot, 1744.
ge-scēotan, st. v., with acc.,

shoot or dart into, hurry to; pret. sg. hord eft gescēat, 2319.

of-scēotan, st. v., with acc., shoot off, kill; pret. sg. ofscēt, 2439.
scēotend, st. m. (pres. part.), shooter, warrior; pl. 703, 1154.
scepen, see scyppan.
sceran, st. v., shear, cut, 1287.
ge-sceran, st. v., shear, cut in two, 1526; pret. sg. gescer, 2973.
-scet, see -sceotan.
sceððan, w. v., usu. with dat., scathe, injure, 1514, 1524, etc. ; absolutely, 243.
ge-sceððan, w. v., with dat., scathe, injure, 1447.
scild-, see scyld-.
scile, see sculan.
scīnan, st. v., shine, 1517, etc.; pret. pl. scinon, 994, scionon, 303.
scinna, w. m., devil, 939.
scionon, see scīnan.
scip, st. neut., ship, 302, etc.; dat. pl. scypon, 1154.
scip-here, st. m., ship-army, naval force; dat. scip-herge, 243.
scīr, adj., sheer, bright, 322, 496, 979; weak gen. 1694.
scīr-ham, adj., bright-coated, with shining mail, 1895.
scōd, see sceaðan.
scolde, etc., see sculan.
scop, st. m., [shaper] maker, bard, etc., 90, etc.
scōp, see scyppan.
scota, w. m., shooter, warrior; dat. pl. scotenum, 1026 (see note).
scrīfan, st. v., [shrive] prescribe, pass sentence, 979.
for-scrīfan, st. v., with dat. pers., proscribe, 106. ge-scrīfan, st. v., prescribe: pret. sg. swā him wyrd ne gescrāf hrēð æt hilde, “as weird did not assign to him triumph in battle,” 2574.
scrīðan, st. v., stride, stalk, glide, wander, move, go, advance, 163, 650, 703, 2569.
scucca, w. m., demon; dat. pl. scuccum ond scinnum, “from demons and devils,” 939.
scūfan, st. v., with acc., shove, launch, 215, 918; pret. pl. scufun, 3131.
be-scūfan, st. v., witli acc., shove, cast, 184. wīd-scūfan, st. v., [wide-shove] scatter; pp. wēa wīd-scofen witena gehwylcne, “woe [had] scattered each councillor,” 936.
sculan, st.-w. v., pres. sg. 1st, 3rd sceal, 20, etc., scel, 455, etc., sceall, 2498, etc.; pres. subj. scyle, 2657, scile, 3176; pret. scolde, 280, etc., sceolde, 2586, etc.; 2nd sg. sceoldest, 2056; pl. scoldon, 41, etc., sceoldon, 2257: shall, be to, must, have to, be obliged, ought, 24, etc., pret. should, was to, etc., 230, 1067, 1260, etc.; sometimes expressing mere futurity, 384, etc. With foll. inf. omitted: unc sceal worn fela māþma gemænra [wesan], 1783; ūrum sceal sweord oncl helm…bām gemǣne, “to us both shall one sword and helmet [be] in common,” 2659; sceal se hearda helm…fǣtum befeallen, 2255; þonne ðū forð scyle [gongan], 1179; so, 2816. Special passage: hē gesēcean sceall hord on hrūsan, “it is his to seek the hoard in the earth,” 2275.
scūr-heard, adj., [shower-hard] hardened by being plunged into cold water, 1033. Cf. “the ice-brook’s temper,” Othello, v. 2. 253.
scyld, st. m., shield, 325, etc.
scild-weall, st. m., shield-wall, wall of shields, 3118.
scyldan, w. v., shield: pret. nymðe mec God scylde, “unless God had shielded me,” 1658.
scyld-freca, w. m., shield-warrior, 1033.
scyldig, adj., guilty; with dat., synnum scildig, 3071; with gen. 1683; ealdres scyldig, “having forfeited his life,” 1338, 2061.
scyld-wiga, w. m., shield-warrior, 288.
scyle, see sculan.
scyndan, w. v., hasten, 2570, 918.
scȳne, adj., sheen, beauteous, 3017.
scyp, see scip.
scyppan, st. v., shape, create, make, 78; pp. sceapen, 2230; wæs sīo wrōht scepen heard wið Hūgas, “the strife was made hard against the Hugs,” 2913.
ge-scyppan, st. v., shape, create, 97.
Scyppend, st. m. (pres. part.), shaper, Creator, 106.
scȳran, w. v., [make sheer] bring to light, 1939.
se, m., sēo, sīo, f., þæt, neut., demon, adj., the, that: m. se, 506, 2237, 2999; f. sēo, 1343; sīo, 2684, 2999, 3150; neut. þæt, 661; instr. neut. þȳ, 1664, 2028; gen. pl. þāra, 681, þǣra, 992. Following its noun: acc. m. þone, 2007, 2588, 2952, 2969, 3081; gen. pl. ðāra, 2734. Alliterating: dat. m. þǣm, 197, 790, 806; acc. f. sg. þā, 736, 1675; instr. neut. þȳ, 1797; gen. pl. þāra, 2033. Correl. withused as a relative pron.: se…sē, 2865, 3071–3; sēo…sīo, 2258. See also þe.
sē, m., sēo, sīo, f., þæt, neut., pron.

I. Demon. pron., that, that one, he, etc.: m. sē, 469, 2406, 2804; f. sīo, 2024, 2087; neut. þæt, 716, 734, 765, 1002 (see be-flēon); acc. m. þone, 3009; gen. m. and neut. þæs, 1774; ic ðæs ealles mæg…gefēan habban, “I can have joy of all that,” 2739; dat. m. and neut. þǣm, 12, þām, 137; acc. pl. þā, 3014; gen. pl. þāra, 1015 (see note). Immediately followed by the rel. particle þe (q. v.): nom. sē þe, 90, 441, 1497, 2222, 2292, 2864; acc. þone þe, 2295, 3003, 3034, 3116; dat. þām þe, 2601, 2861, 3055; gen. pl. þāra þe, 98, 878, 1196, 1461, 1578, 1625 (“of those things which”). With þe omitted: þām = þām þe, 2199, 2779. Correl. withused as a rel. pron.: sē…sē, 2406–7.
Particular usages:
(1) gen. neut. þæs, of that, of this, thereof, for that, for this, therefor, 7, 16, 114, 350, 588, 1145, 1692, 1778, 2032, 2239, 2335; therefore, 900, 1992. Correl. with þæt, conj., 2026–8, etc. See also þæs, adv.
(2) instr. neut. þȳ, þē, therefore, 1273, 2067. Correl. with þē, conj. (q. v.), 487, 1436, 2638. Often with comparatives, the: 821, 974, 1902, 2277, 2687, 2749, 2880; nō þȳ ǣr, “none the sooner,” 754, etc.
(3) instr. neut. þon; þon mā, “(the) more,” 504; æfter þon, “after that,” 724; ǣr þon, “ere,” 731; be þon, “by that,” 1722; tō þon, þæt, “until,” 2591, 2845. See also under tō.

II. Rel. pron., that, who, which, what; m. sē, 143, 370, 1610, 2407, 2865, etc.; sē for sēo, 2421 (see also þe); neut. þæt = “what,” 15, 1466, 1748; m. acc. þone, 1354, 2048, 2751; f. acc. þā, 2022; gen. neut. Gode þancode…þæs se man gespræc, “thanked God for what the man spake,” 1398; þæs ic wēne, “according to what I expect, as I ween,” 272; so, 383; dat. sing. m. and neut. þǣm, 310, 374, 1363, 1688; þām, 2612; pl. þā, 704, etc. See also þǣs, adv.

þæs þe, see under þæs.
sealde, etc., see sellan.
sealma, w. m., sleeping-place, couch, chamber, 2460.
sealt, adj., salt, 1989.
searo, st. neut., armour, 329, 419 (battle), etc.; dat. pl. adverbially, searwum, “cunningly, curiously,” 1038, 2764.
searo-bend, st. m. f., cunning band, 2086.
searo-fāh, adj., cunningly or artistically coloured, variegated, 1444.
searo-geþræc, st. neut., heap of treasures of cunning work, 3102.
searo-gimm, st. m., cunning gem, jewel of artistic workmanship, 1157, 2749.
searo-grim, adj., [cunning-grim] cunningly fierce, or fierce in battle, 594.
searo-hæbbend, st. m. (pres. part.), [armour-having] armour-bearer, warrior, 237.
searo-net, st. neut., [cunning- or armour-net] coat of mail, 406.
searo-nīð, st. m., armour-strife, hostility, 582, 3067; cunning-hatred, wile, plot, 1200, 2738.
searo-þonc, st. m., cunning thought, 775.
searo-wundor, st. neut., [cunning-wonder] rare wonder, 920.
seax, st. neut., hip-sword, dagger, 1545.
sēcan, sēcean, w. v., 664, 187; dat. inf. tō sēceanne, 2562; pres. pl. (fut.) sēceað, 3001; pret. pl. sōhton, 339, sōhtan, 2380: seek in its various meanings; visit, go to, strive after; 756, 1379, 2738, 2380 (of a friendly visit). Intrans. 2293, 3001 (of a hostile attack); þonne his myne sōhte, “than his wish (hope) sought,” 2275. Special passages: sāwle sēcan, “kill,” 801; so, sēcean sāwle hord, 2422.
ge-sēc(e)an, w. v., 684, etc.; dat. inf. tō gesēcanne, 1922; pret. pl. gesōhton, 2926, gesōhtan, 2204: seek in its various meanings as above, 692, 1839, etc.; often of hostile attack, 2515, etc. ofer-sēc(e)an, w. v., overtax, test too severely; pret. sg. sē ðe mēca gehwane…swenge ofersōhte, “which with its swing overtaxed every sword,” 2686.
sece, see sæcc.
secg, st. m., man, etc., 208, 213, 249, 402, 980, 2863, etc.; of Grendel’s mother, 1379.}}
secg, st. f., sword, 684.
secgan, w. v., 273, 590, 532, 1809, etc.; dat. inf. tō secganne, 473, 1724; pret. pl. sægdon, 377, etc., sǣdan, 1945 ; pp. gesægd, gesǣd, 141, 1696: say, speak. Imperf. with partitive gen. swā se secg hwata secgende wæs lāðra spella, 3028.
ā-secgan, w. v., say out, declare, 344. ge-secgan, w. v., say, 2157; imperat. sg. gesaga, 388.
sefa, w. m., mind, soul, heart, 49, 278, 473, etc.
sēft, compar. adv. (of sōfte), softer, more easily, 2749.
-sēgan, see -sēon.
segen, see segn.
segl, st. neut., sail, 1906.
segl-rād, st. f., sail-road, sea, 1429.
segn, st. m. neut., sign, banner, 1204; acc. segn, 2767, 2776, segen, 47, 1021; nom. sg. þā wæs ǣht boden Swēona lēodum, segn Higelāces, “then was pursuit offered to the Swedes’ people, Hygelac’s standard [raised],” 2958 (see note). From L. signum.
-sēgon, see -sēon.
-sēh, see -sēon.
sel, see sæl.
sēl, compar. adv. (no positive, cf. sēlra), better, 1012, 2687, etc.
seldan, adv., seldom, 2029.
seld-guma, w. m., hall-man; nom. sg. nis þæt seld-guma, “that is no mere retainer,” 249.
sele, st. m., hall, 81, 713, etc.; of the dragon’s cave, 3128.
sēle, see sǣl.
sele-drēam, st. m., [hall-dream] hall-joy (in heaven?), 2252.
sele-ful, st. neut., hall-beaker, hall-cup, 619.
sele-gyst, st. m., hall-guest, 1545.
sele-rǣdend, st. m. (pres. part.), [hall-counsellor] hall-ruler, 51, 1346.
sele-rest, st. f., hall-rest, bed in a hall, 690.
sēlest, etc., see under sēlra.
sele-þegn, st. m., hall-thane, chamberlain, 1794.
sele-weard, st. m., [hall-ward] guardian of a hall, 667.
self, reflex, adj.; nom. sg. self, 594, 920, etc., sylf, 1964; weak selfa, 29, 1924, etc., seolfa, 3067, sylfa, 3054, etc.; acc. sg. m. selfne, 2875, etc., sylfne, 1977; gen. sg. m. selfes, 700, etc., sylfes, 2013, etc.; f. selfre, 1115; nom. pl. selfe, 419, sylfe, 1996; gen. pl. sylfra, 2040: self, etc. Often absolutely 2222, 419, etc.; on mīnne sylfes dōm, 2147. Sometimes agreeing with the nom. instead of with the oblique case next to ivhich it stands: þū þē (dat.) self, 953; þǣm þe him selfa dēah, 1839.
sēlla, see sēlra.
sellan, syllan, w. v., [sell] give, give up, 2160, 1370, 1482, etc.
ge-sellan, w. v., [sell] give, 1029, 1052, etc.
sel-līc, syl-līc (=seld-līc), adj., rare, strange, 2086, 2109, 1426.
syl-līcra, compar., stranger, 3038.
selra, compar. adj. (no positive), better, 860, 1384, 1468, etc.; nom. sg. m. sēlla, 2890. Absolutely þæt sēlre, 1759.
sēlest, superl., best, 146, 256, etc. Weak form reced sēlesta, 412; and often after the def. art. se, 1406, etc.
semninga, adv., forthwith, straight-way, suddenly, 644, 1640, 1767.
sendan, w. v., send, 13, 471, 1842.
for-sendan, w. v., send away, 904. on-sendan, w. v., send away, send off, 382, 452, 1483; with forð, 45, 2266.
sendan, w. v., feast, 600.
sēo, see se, sē.
sēoc, adj., sick, “sick unto death,” 1603, 2740, 2904.
seofon, seven, 517; acc. seofan, 2195; inflected syfone, 3122.
seolfa, see self.
seomian, siomian, w. v.:

(1) rest, ride, lie, stand, 302, 2767.

(2) enfetter, fetter; pret. sg. seomade, 161.
sēon, st. v., see, look, 387, 336, etc.; inf. þǣr mæg…sēon, “there it is possible to see, there may one see,” 1365; pret. pl. sægon, 1422.
ge-sēon, st. v., see, 229, 1485, etc.; pres. sg. 3rd gesyhð, 2455, etc.; pret. pl. gesāwon, 221, etc., gesēgon, 3128, gesēgan, 3038; subj. pret. pl. gesāwon, 1605.

geond-sēon, st. v., see throughout, see over; pret. sg. geondseh, 3087.

ofer-sēon, st. v., oversee, survey, look on, 419.

on-sēon, st. v., look on, look at, 1650.
seonu, st. f., sinew; nom. pl. seonowe, 817.
sēoðan, st. v., with acc., seethe, brood over; pret. sg. mǣl-ceare, mōd-ceare…sēað, 190, 1993.
seoððan, see siððan.
sēowian, w. v., sew, link; pp. sēowed (of a byrny), 406.
sess, st. neut., seat, 2717, 2756.
sētan, see sittan.
setl, st. neut., settle, seat, 1232, 1289, etc.
settan, w. v., set, set down, 325, 1242; pp. geseted, 1696.
ā-settan, w. v., set, set up, 47; pp. āseted, 667.

be-settan, w. v., beset, set about, 1453.

ge-settan, w. v.:
(1) set, 94.

(2) set at rest, 2029.
sib(b), st. f., peace, relation, kinship, friendship, 949, 1164, 1857, etc.; uninflected acc. sibb, 2600; dat. sibbe ne wolde wið manna hwone, “would not out of compassion to any man,” 154.
sib-æðeling, st. m., kindred-atheling, 2708.
sibbe-gedriht, st. neut., kindred-band, band of kindred-warriors, 387 (see note), 729.
sīd, adj., wide, broad, large, ample, great, 149, 1291, 1726, etc.; weak forms 1733, 2199, 2347.
sīde, adv., widely, 1223.
sīd-fæðme, adj., [wide-fathomed] broad-bosomed, 1917.
sīd-fæðmed, adj. (pp.), [wide-fathomed] broad-bosomed, 302.
sīd-rand, st. m., broad shield, 1289.
sīe, see wesan.
siex-benn, st. f., hipknife-wound, 2904. From seax.
sig, see wesan.
sigan, st. v., sink, march down, 1251, 307.
ge-sīgan, st. v., sink, fall, 2659.
sige-drihten, st. m., victory-lord, victorious lord, 391.
sige-ēadig, adj., victory-happy, rich in victories, victorious, 1557.
sige-folc, st. neut., victory-folk, victorious people, 644.
sige-hrēð, st. m. neut., victory-fame, presage of victory, confidence or exultation in victory, 490.
sige-hrēðig, adj., victory-exultant, exulting in victory, 94, 1597, 2756.
sige-hwīl, st. f., victory-while; gen. sg. þæet þām þēodne wæs sīðast sige-hwīle, “that was for the king the last hour of victory,” 2710.
sigel, st. m. neut., sun, 1966.
sige-lēas, adj., victory-less, of defeat, 787.
sige-rōf, adj., victory-famed, victorious, 619.
sige-þēod, st. f., victory-nation, victorious people, 2204.
sige-wǣpen, st. neut., victory-weapon, 804.
sigle, st. neut., sun-shaped ornament, jewel, brilliant, necklace, 1200, 1157; acc. pl. siglu, 3163.
sigor, st. neut., victory, 1021, 2875, 3055.
sigor-ēadig, adj., victory-blessed, rich in victories, victorious, 1311, 2352.
sīn, poss. adj., his, 1507, 1960, etc.; her, 1934.
sinc, st. neut., treasure, jewelry, gold, silver, prize, 81, etc.
sinc-fæt, st. neut., treasure-vat, costly vessel, casket, 1200, etc.; acc. pl. sinc-fato, 622.
sinc-fāg, adj., treasure-variegated, bedecked with treasure; weak acc. sg. neut. sinc-fāge, 167.
sinc-gestrēon, st. neut., treasure-possession, costly treasure, 1092, 1226.
sinc-gifa, sinc-gyfa, w. m., treasure-giver, 1012, 1342, 2311.
sinc-māððum, st. m., treasure-jewel (sword), 2193.
sinc-þego, st. f., treasure-taking, receiving of treasure, 2884.
sin-gal, adj., continuous, 154.
sin-gala, adv., continually, 190.
sin-gales, syn-gales, adv., continually, always, 1135, 1777.
singan, st. v., pret. song, sang: sing, sound, 496, 1423; pret. sg. hring-īren scīr song in searwum, “the bright iron rings jingled in the mail,” 323.
ā-singan, st. v., sing, sing out, 1159.
sin-here, st. m., [continuous army] army drawn out, very strong, immense; dat. sin-herge, 2936.
sin-niht, st.f.: acc. or dat. sg. sin-nihte, “night after night,” 161.
sint, see wesan.
sīo, see se, sē.
sioloð, st. m.?, still water?; gen. pl. oferswam ðā sioleða bigong sunu Ecgðēowes, “then E.’s son swam over the expanse of still waters,” 2367.
siomian, see seomian.
sittan, st. v.; pret. pl. sǣton, 1164, sētan, 1602; pp. geseten, 2104: sit, 489, 641, 2906, etc.; inf. ēodon sittan, “went and sat,” 493.
be-sittan, st. v., [sit by] besiege, 2936.

for-sittan, st. v., fail; pres. sg. 3rd, ēagena bearhtm forsiteð ond forsworceð, “eyes’ brightness will fail and grow dim,” 1767.

ge-sittan, st. v.:
(1) intrans. sit, sit together, 171, 749, 1977, etc.
(2) trans, sit down in, 633.

ofer-sittan, st. v., with acc., abstain from, refrain from, 684, 2528.

of-sittan, st. v., with acc., sit upon, 1545.

on-sittan, st. v., with acc., dread, 597.

ymb-sittan, st. v., with acc., sit about, sit round, 564.
sīð, st. m.:

(1) way, journey, expedition, undertaking, adventure, 3058, 765, 532, 2532, 318, 872 (exploit), 908 (way of life), 1971 (return), 2541 (way), 2586 (course), 3089 (passage), etc.

(2) time, repetition, 716, 1579, 2049, etc.
sīð, compar. adv. (pos. sīð); ǣr ond sīð, “earlier and later,” 2500.
sīdest, sīðast, superl. adj. (no pos., except the adv.), latest, last; with gen. 2710; absolutely, æt sīðestan, “at latest, at the last,” 3013.
sīð-fæt, st. m., expedition, 202; dat. sīð-fate, 2639.
sīð-from, adj., [journey-forward] ready for a journey, 1813.
sīðian, w. v., journey, 720, 808, 2119.
for-sīðian, w. v., [journey amiss] perish, 1550.
siððan, syððan, seoððan, adv., [sithence] since, after, afterwards, 142, 470, 1875, etc. Special passage: ǣr ne siððan, “before nor since,” 718. Correl. with syððan, conj., 2201–7.
siððan, syððan, seoððan, conj., [sithence] since, after, when, 106, 115, 413, 850, 1148, 1204, 1689, 1775, etc. With pret.=pluperf. 1978, etc. With pret. and pluperf. syððan mergen cōm, ond wē tō symble geseted hæfdon, 2103–4.
slǣp, st. m., sleep, 1251, 1742.
slǣpan, st. v., sleep; pres. part., acc. sg. m. slǣpendne, 741, uninflected, 2218; acc. pl. 1581.
sleac, adj., slack, 2187.
slēan, st. v., pret. sg. slōh, slōg.:

I. intrans. strike, 681, 1565, 2679.
II. trans.:
(1) strike, 2699.
(2) slay, 108, 1152, 2050, etc.

ge-slēan, st. v., with acc:

(1) fight out, 459.
(2) gain by fighting; pret. pl. hīe ðā mǣrða geslōgon, “they gained glory by fighting,” 2996.

of-slēan, st. v., slay, 574, 1665, 3060.
slītan, st. v., slit, tear to pieces, 741.
slīðe, adj., savage, hurtful, dangerous, 184, 2398.
slīðen, adj., dire, deadly, 1147.
smið, st. m., smith, 406; nom. wǣpna smið, “weapon-smith,” 1452.
smiðian, w. v.
be-smiðian, w. v., make firm by smith’s work, 775.
snell, adj., brisk, prompt, keen, bold; weak nom. sg. m. snella, 2971.
snel-līc, adj., brisk, prompt, keen, bold, 690.
snotor, snottor, adj., wise, prudent, 190, etc.; pl. snotere, 202, snottre, 1591; weak nom. sg. m. snottra, 1314, etc., snotra, 2156, etc.; absolutely, 1786, etc.
snotor-līce, adv.
snotor-līcor, compar., more wisely, more prudently, 1842.
snūde, adv., quickly, 904, etc.
snyrian, w. v., hasten, 402.
snyttru, st. f., wisdom, prudence, 1726, 942, 1706.
snyttrum, dat. pl. used adverbially, wisely, 872.
snyðian, w. v.
be-snyðian, w. v., deprive, 2924.
sōcn, st. f., persecution; dat. þǣre sōcne, “from that persecution,” 1777.
somod, samod, adv., together, 1211, 2196, etc.; with ætgædere, 387, etc.
somod, samod, prep., with dat.; somod (samod) ǣr-dæge, “at dawn,” 1311, 2942.
sōna, adv., soon, 121, etc.
song, see singan.
sorg-, see sorh-.
sorgian, w. v., sorrow, care, 451, 1384.
sorh, st. f., sorrow, 473, 149, etc.; obl. sg. sorge, 119, 2004, etc.; dat. sorhge, 2468.
sorh-cearig, sorg-cearig, adj., [sorrow-careful] sorrowful, heartbroken, 2455, 3152.
sorh-ful(l), adj., sorrowful, 512, 1278, 1429, 2119.
sorh-lēas, adj., sorrowless, free from sorrow, 1672.
sorh-lēoð, st. neut., sorrow-lay, lamentation, 2460.
sorh-wylm, st. m., [sorrow-welling] surge of sorrow or care, 904, 1993.
sōð, st. neut., sooth, truth, 532, etc.; dat. tō sōðe, “for sooth,” 51, etc.
sōð, adj., [sooth] true, 1611, 2109.
sōð-cyning, st. m., [Sooth-king] God, 3055.
sōðe, adv., [soothly] truly, 524.
sōð-fæst, adj., soothfast, just, 2820.
sōð-līce, adv., [soothly] truly, 141, etc.
specan, speak, see sprecan.
spēd, st. f., speed, success; acc. on spēd, “with good speed, successfully,” 873.
spel(l), st. neut., spell, story, tale, tidings, 2109, 2898, etc.; acc. pl. spel gērade, “skilful tales,” 873.
spīwan, st. v., spew; inf. glēdum spīwan, “to vomit forth gleeds,” 2312.
sponnan, st. v.
on-sponnan, st. v., unspan, loosen; pret. his helm onspēon, 2723.
spōwan, st. v., impers., with dat. pers., speed, succeed; pret. sg. him wiht ne spēow, “he had no success,” 2854; hū him æt ǣte spēow, “how he sped at the eating,” 3026.
sprǣc, st. f., speech, 1104.
sprecan, specan, st. v., speak, say, 531, 643, 1171, 1476, etc.; with foll. clause, gomele ymb gōdne on geador sprǣcon, þæt hig, “old men spake together about the hero, [saying] that they,” 1595.
ge-sprecan, st. v., speak, 675, 1398, etc.
springan, st. v., pret. sprong, sprang: spring, 18 (spread), 1588 (gape), 2582 (shoot), 2966 (spurt).
æt-springan, st. v., spring forth; pret. sg. ætspranc, 1121.

ge-springan, st. v., pret. gesprong, gesprang: spring forth, arise, 884, 1667.

on-springan, st. v., spring apart, 817.
stǣl, st. m., place, stead, 1479. [Sievers § 202, N. 2.]
stǣlan, w. v.:

(1) institute, carry on; pp. ge-stǣled, 1340.

(2) avenge, 2485.
stān, st. m., stone, rock, 887, 2288, etc.
stān-beorh, st. m., stone-barrow, barrow or cave of rock, 2213.
stān-boga, w. m., [stone-bow] stone-arch, arch of rock; acc. sg. 2545, nom. pl. 2718.
stān-clif, st. neut., stone-cliff, cliff of rock; acc. pl. stān-cleofu, 2540.
standan, see stondan.
stān-fāh, adj., [stone-variegated] paved or inlaid with stones of various colours, 320.
stān-hlið, st. neut., stone-slope, rocky slope; acc. pl. stān-hliðo, 1409.
stapol, st. m., [staple]:

(1) column; dat. pl. ðā stān-bogan stapulum fæste, “the stone-arches firm on columns,” 2718.

(2) threshold?, staple?; dat. sg. Hrōðār…stōd on stapole, geseah stēapne hrōf golde fāhne ond Grendles hond, 926. [Heyne translates: “stand an der hölzernen Mittelsäule Heorots.” But on stapole will not bear this meaning, which further implies that Grendel’s hand was up among the rafters, whereas there can be no doubt that it was set up as a trophy outside the hall. See l. 983; cf. the stoep of houses at the Cape; and see Earle’s note, “Deeds of Beowulf,” p. 139.]
starian, w. v., pres. sg. 1st starige, starie, 3rd starað, pret. starede, staredon: stare, gaze, 996, 2796, etc. Special passage: þæt hire an dæges ēagum starede, “that he should stare on her by day with his eyes,” 1935.
stēap, adj., steep, towering, tall, 222, 2566, etc.
stearc-heort, adj., [stark-heart] stout-hearted, 2288, 2552.
stede, st. m., stead, place; gen. pl. wæs steda nægla gehwylc stȳle gelīcost, “each of the places of the nails was most like to steel,” 985.
stefn, st. m., stem (of a ship), 212.
stefn, st. m., time, repetition; dat. sg. nīwan (nīowan) stefne, “a-new,” 1789, 2594.
stefn, st. f., voice, 2552.
stellan, w. v.
on-stellan, w. v., institute, set on foot, 2407.
stēpan, w. v., exalt, 1717.
ge-stēpan, w. v., exalt, support; pret. sg. folce gestēpte…sunu Ohteres, “he supported the son of Ohthere with an army,” 2393.
steppan, st. v., step, march; pret.

stōp, 761, 1401.

æt-steppan, st. v., step up;

pret. forð nēar ætstōp, 745.

ge-steppan, st. v., step; pret.=pluperf. gestōp, 2289.
stīg, st. f., path, 320, 2213; acc. pl. stīge, 1409.
stīgan, st. v., [sty] go, ascend, descend, 212, 225, etc.; pret. þā hē tō holme stāg, “when he went down to the sea (to swim),” 2362.
a-stīgan, st. v., ascend, arise, 1373; pret. āstāg, 782, āstāh, 1160, 3144; gūð-rinc āstāh, 1118. ge stīgan, st. v., [sty] go; pret. þā ic on holm gestāh, “when I went onto the sea (into the ship),” 632.
stille, adj., still, 301, 2830.
stincan, st. v., [stink] sniff, snuff; pret. stonc, 2288.
stīð, adj., stiff, stout, 1533.
stīð-mōd, adj., [stiff-mood] stout-hearted, 2566.
stondan, standan, st. v., stand, 2760, 411, 726 (come), 783 (arise), 2227, 1037 (lie), etc.; pret. pl. stōdon, 328, stōdan, 3047. Special passages: līxte se lēoma, lōoht inne stōd, “the beam shone forth, light filled the place,” 1570; stōd eldum on andan, “came forth for a mischief to men,” 2313.
a-stondan, st. v., stand, stand up, 759, 1556, 2092.

æt-stondan, st. v., stand (in), 891.

for-stondan, for-standan, st. v., withstand, avert, defend, 1549 ; inf. hēaðo-līðendum hord forstandan, “defend his hoard against the ocean-farers,” 2955; pret. subj. him…wyrd forstōde, “averted weird from them,” 1056.

ge-stondan, st. v., stand, 358, 2596, etc.
stōp, see steppan.
storm, st. m., storm, 1131, 3117.
stōw, st. f., place, 1006, 1372, 1378.
strǣl, st. m. f., arrow, shaft, 1746, 3117.
strǣt, st. f., street, road, 320, 916, 1634.
strang, see strong.
strēam, st. m., stream, flood, 212, etc.
stregdan, w. v., strew; pp. strēd, 2436.
streng, st. m., string, 3117.
strengel, st. m., strong chief, 3115.
strengest, see strong.
strengo, st. f., strength; acc. dat. strenge, 1270, 1533, dat. strengo, 2540.
strong, strang, adj., strong, 153, 2684; with gen. mægenes strang, “strong in might,” 1844.
strengest, superl., strongest, 1543; with gen. or dat. mægenes, mægene, strengest, 196, 789.
strūdan, st. v., spoil, plunder; subj. pret. strude, 3073, 3126.
strȳnan, w. v.
ge-strȳnan, w. v., obtain, acquire, 2798.
stund, st. f., time, hour; dat. pl. adverbially, stundum, “from time to time,” 1423.
stȳle, st. neut., steel; dat. 985.
stȳl-ecg, adj., steel-edged, 1533.
stȳman, w. v.
be-stȳman, w. v., besteam, wet, 486.
styrian, w. v., stir, disturb, 1374, 2840; handle, treat, 872.
styrman, w. v., storm, 2552.
suhter-gefæderan, w. m. pl., uncle and nephew, 1164.
sum, adj., some, one, a certain, 2156, 3124. Although sum always has the inflections of an adj. (see l. 1432), it is more often used substantively, or as an indef. pron., 1251, 1432, 400, etc.; neut. ne sceal þǣr dyrne sum wesan, “there shall be naught secret,” 271. Often with partitive gen. 675, 713, 1499, etc.; esp. with gen. of numerals and adjs. of quantity: fīftēna sum, “one of fifteen, i.e. with fourteen others,” 207; so 3123, 1412, 2091; sumne fēara, “one of a few, i.e. some few,” 3061. In a few cases sum appears to have a certain demon. force, 248, 314, 1312, 2279.
sund, st. m., swimming, 507, 517, 1436, 1618; sound, channel, sea, 213, 1510, etc.
sund-gebland, st. neut., [sound-blend] welter of the sea, tumult of the waves, 1450.
sund-nytt, st. f., [swimming-use]; acc. sund-nytte drēah, “swam through the sea,” 2360.
sundor-nytt, st. f., special service, 667.
sundur, adv., asunder, 2422.
sund-wudu, st. m., [sound-wood] ship, 208, 1906.
sunne, w. f., sun, 94, etc.
sunu, st. m., son, 268, etc.; dat. suna, 1226, etc., sunu, 344.
sūð, adv., south, southwards, 858.
sūðan, adv., from the south, 606, 1966.
I. adv. of manner and degree, so, thus, 347, 1142, 1843, 3069, etc. Special passage: leng swā wel, “the longer the better,” 1854.

II. conjunctive adv., as in its various meanings, 29, 490, 881, 3098, 1667 (when), 2184 (since), etc.; in elliptical sentences, 2622; eft swā ǣr, 642; correl. with swā I., 594, 1092–3, etc. Special passage: swā mē Higelāc sīe…mōdes blīðe, “as may H. be gracious to me, on condition that H. be gracious to me,” 435.

III. = rel.pron.; wlite-beorhtne wang, swā wæter bebūgeð, “the beauteous-bright plain, which water encompasses,” 93.

IV. conj., so that, 1508, 2006.

swā þēah, swā ðēh, however, 972, 2967, etc.; redundant after hwæðre, 2442.

swā hwæðere……swā, whichsoever, 686-7.

swā hwylc…swā, with gen., whichsoever, 943, 3057.
swǣlan, w. v.
be-swǣlan, w. v., scorch, 3041.
swǣs, adj., dear, own dear, 29, 520, etc.
swǣslīce, adv., gently, 3089.
swancor, adj., [swank] slender, 2175.
swan-rād, st. f., swan-road, sea, 200.
swāpan, st. v.
for-swāpan, st. v., sweep away, sweep off, 477, 2814.
-swarian, w. v.
ond-swarian, and-swarian, w. v., answer, 258, 340.
swāt, st. m., [sweat] blood, 1286, etc.
swāt-fāh, adj., [sweat-stained] blood-stained, 1111.
swātig, adj., [sweaty] bloody, 1569.
swāt-swaðu, st. f., [sweat-track] blood-track, 2946.
swaðrian, w. v., subside; pret. pl. swaðredon, 570.
swaðu, [swath] st. f., track, 2098; acc. him sīo swīðre swaðe weardade hand, “his right hand showed where he had been,” 2098.
swaðul, st. m. neut.?, smoke, 782.
sweart, adj., swart, black, dark, 167, 3145.
swebban, w. v., send to sleep, kill, 679; pres. sg. 3rd, swefeð, 600.
ā-swebban, w. v., put to sleep, appease, kill; pret. part. pl. āswefede, 567.
swefan, st. v., sleep, sleep the sleep of death, 119, 1008, etc.; pret. pl. swǣfon, 703, swǣfun, 1280.
-swefede, see -swebban.
swefeð, 600, see swebban.
swēg, st. m., sound, noise, 89, 644, etc.
swegel, st. neut., sky, 860, 1078, etc.
swegle, adj., bright, clear, 2749.
swegl-wered, adj., ether-clad, radiant, 606.
swelan, st. v., [sweal] burn, 2713.
swelgan, st. v., swallow; pret., with dat., swealh, 743, swealg, 3155; pret. subj., absolutely, swulge, 782.
for-swelgan, st. v., swallow up, 1122, 2080.
swellan, st. v., swell, 2713.
sweltan, st. v., die, 1617, etc.; with cognate dat. morðre, -dēaðe, 892, 2782, 3037.
swencan, w. v., molest, oppress, 1510.
ge-swencan, st. v., strike, bring low, 2438. ge-swenced, pp. (of swencan or geswencan), made to toil, harassed, harried, pressed, 975, 1368.
sweng, st. m., swing, stroke, 1520, etc.
sweofot, st. m., sleep, 1581, 2295.
sweoloð, st. m., flame, 1115.
-swēop, see -swāpan.
sweorcan, st. v., grow dark, 1737.
for-sw(e)orcan, st. v., grow dim, 1767. ge-sweorcan, st. v., lour, 1789.
sweord, swurd, swyrd, st. neut., sword, 487, 539, 2610, etc.; pl. sweord, 2638, swyrd, 3048.
sweord-bealo, st. neut., sword-bale, death by the sword, 1147.
sweord-freca, w. m., sword-wolf, sword-warrior, 1468.
swyrd-gifu, st. f., sword-giving, 2884.
sweotol, adj., clear, 817, 833; nom. swutol, 90; weak dat. sweotolan, 141.
swerian, st. v., swear, 472, 2738.
for-swerian, st. v., with dat., forswear, 804.
sweðrian, w. v., wane, lessen, 901, 2701.
swīcan, st. v., fail, disappear, escape, 966, 1460.
ge-swīcan, st. v., weaken, fail, 1524, etc.
swīfan, st. v.
on-swīfan, st. v., swing up, raise, 2559.
swift, adj., swift; weak, 2264.
swīge, adj., silent.
swīgra, compar., silenter, 980.
swīgian, w. v., be silent; pret. sg. swīgode, 2897, pl. swīgedon, 1699.
swilce, see swylce.
swimman, swymman, st. v., swim, 1624.
ofer-swimman, st. v., over-swim, swim over; pret. oferswam, 2367.
swīn, swȳn, st. neut., swine, image of a boar on a helmet, hence helmet, 1111, 1286.
swincan, st. v., swink, toil, 517.
swingan, st. v., swing, 2264.
swīn-līc, st. neut., swine-shape, image of a boar, 1453.
swioðol, st. m. neut.?, smoky glow, or the clear vapour just above the flame (?), 3145 (see note).
swīð, swȳð, adj., strong, severe; nom. swȳð, 191.
swīðra, compar., stronger; nom. fem. sīo swīðre hand, “the right hand,” 2098.
swīðan, st. and w. v.
ofer-swȳðan, st. and w. v., over-power, overcome, 279, 1768.
swīðe, swȳðe, adv., strongly, greatly, very, 597, 1926, 2170, 2187, etc.
swīðor, compar., more greatly, more, more especially, rather, 960, 1139, 1874, 2198.
swīð-ferhð, swȳð-ferhð, adj., strong-souled, stout-hearted, 173, 493, 826, 908.
swīð-hicgende, adj. (pres. part.), [strong-thinking] bold-minded, stout-hearted, 919, 1016.
swīð-mōd, adj., [strong-mood] stout-hearted, 1624.
swōgan, st. v., sound; pres. part. 3145.
swōr, see swerian.
-sworcan, see -sweorcan.
swulces, see swylc.
swurd, see sweord.
swutol, see sweotol.
swylc, adj.-pron., such, such as, as.
I. ( = L. talis) such:

(1) adj. 582, 1347, etc.
(2) pron. 299 (with gen.), 996; gen. swulces, 880 (see hwā); acc. ōðer swylc ūt offerede, “carried out and off another such [batch],” 1583.

II. ( = L. qualis) such as, 1156 (with gen.), 1797, 2869; acc. eall gedælan…swylc him God sealde, “deal out all that God gave him,” 72.

III. ( = L. talis…qualis) swylc…swylc, “such…as,” 1249 (with gen.), 1328–9, 3164.
I. adv., as well as, likewise, 113, 293, 2258, etc.; once swilce, 1152. II. conjunctive adv., as, 757.
swylt, st. m., death, 1255, 1436.
swylt-dæg, st. m., death-day, 2798.
swymman, see swimman.
swȳn, see swīn.
swynsian, w. v., resound, 611.
swyrd, see sweord.
swȳð, see swīð.
-swȳðan, see -swīðan.
swȳðe, see swīðe.
sȳ, see wesan.
syfan-wintre, adj., seven winters old, 2428.
syfone, see seofon.
-syhð, see -sēon.
sylf(a), see self.
syll, st. f., sill, base, floor, 775.
syllan, see sellan.
syllīc, see sellīc.
symbel, st. neut., feast, banquet, 564, 2431, etc.; dat. symble, 119, 2104, symle, 81, etc.
symbel-wynn, st. f., feast-joy, joy in feasting, 1782.
sym(b)le, adv., always, 2450, 2497, 2880.
symle, n., see symbel.
syn-bysig, adj., [sin -busy] guilt-haunted, troubled by guilt, 2226.
syn-dolh, st. neut., ceaseless wound, incurable wound, 817.
syndon, see wesan.
syngales, see singales.
syngian, w. v., sin; pp. gesyngad, 2441.
synn, st. f., sin, crime, injury, hatred, struggle, 975, 1255, 2472, 3017.
syn-scaða, w. m., ceaseless scather, perpetual foe, 707, 801.
syn-snǣd, st. f., [ceaseless bit] huge bit, 743.
synt, see wesan.
syrce, w. f., sark, shirt of mail, 226, etc.
syrwan, w. v., ensnare, 161.
be-syrwan, w. v., ensnare, 713; contrive, 942.
syððan, w. v., avenge, 1106.
syððan, see siððan.


tācen, st. neut., token, 833; dat. tācne, 141, 1654.
tǣcan, w. v.
ge-tǣcan, w. v., teach, indicate, assign, 313, 2013.
talian, w. v., tell, 532, 594; count, reckon, 677, 2027; pres. sg. 1st wēn ic talige, “I reckon it a thing to be expected,” 1845.
tēar, st. m., tear, 1872.
tela, adv., well, 948, etc.
telge, see tellan.
tellan, w. v., tell, reckon, deem, 794, 2184; pres. sg. 1st telge, 2067. Special passage: ac him wæl-bende weotode tealde, “but [if he did] he might reckon death-bands prepared for himself,” 1936.
teoh, st. f., band, troop; dat. sg. teohhe, 2938.
teohhian, w. v., assign, 951; pp. geteohhod, 1300.
tēon, st. v., tug, draw, 1036, 553, 1288 (of a sword), etc.; travel: pret. sg. brim-lāde tēah, “travelled the ocean-way,” 1051; so eft-sīðas tēah, 1332.
ā-tēon, st. v., [tug] take; pret. sg. þæt wæs gēocor sīð, þæt (for þe) se hearm-scaþa tō Heorute ātēah, 766.

gē-tēon, st. v., tug, draw, 1545, 2610; deliver, 1044. Special passages: imperat. sg. nō ðū him wearne getēoh ðīnra gegn-cwida, “do not thou give them a refusal of thy replies,” 366; pret. sg. hē him ēst getēah mēara ond māðma, “he honoured him with the horses and treasures,” 2165.

of-tēon, st. v., tug off or away, withhold; with gen. rei and dat. pers., 5; with dat. rei, 1520; with acc. rei, 2489.

þurh-tēon, st. v., [tug through] bring about, 1140.
tēon, w. v., with acc., make, adorn, provide, 1452; pret. pl. tēodan, 43.
ge-tēon, w. v., do, 2295; appoint, 2526.
tīd, st. f., tide (i.e. time), time, 147, 1915.
tīdan, w. v.
ge-tīdan, w. v., bctide, 2226.
til(l), adj., good, 61, 1250, 2721, etc.
tilian, w. v., with gen., [till] gain, 1823.
timbran, w. v., timber, build, 307.
be-timbran, w. v., [betimber] build; pret. pl., betimbredon, 3159.
tīr, st. m., glory, 1654.
tīr-ēadig, adj., [glory-blessed] glorious, happy in fame, 2189.
tīr-fæst, adj., [glory-fast] glorious, 922.
tīr-lēas, adj., gloryless; gen. sg. absolutely, 843.
tīðian, w. v., impers., with gen., grant; pp. wæs…bēne getīðad, “(of) the boon (it) was granted,” 2284.
tō, prep., with dat., to, at, for, 28, 1578, 1983, etc.: for, as, esp. in predicative dats., 14, 51, 95, 460, 910, 2998, etc.: for (with personal object), 525; at, 374, 2892; at (time), 26; in, 188, 647 (at); on, 1138–9; by, 641; from, 1272, 2922; with, 601, 1207 (from). Special usages:

(1) for, in adverbial phrases of time: tō aldre, 955, 2005, 2498; tō life, 2432; tō wīdan fēore, 933.
(2) to, with gerunds, 1008, etc.; rarely with infs., 316, 2556.
(3) Following its case: him tō, “to it,” 313; 1396 (see wēnan); þe þū hēr tō lōcast, “on which thou lookest here,” 1654; þe ūs sēceað tō Swēona lēoda, “for which the peoples of the Swedes will come against us,” 3001.

tō hwan, see hwā, hwæt.

tō þæs, adv., so, 1616.

to þæs þe, conjunctive phrase, to (the point) where, thither whence, 714, 2410, 1967; to the point (degree), that, 1585.

tō þon, adv., to that degree, so, 1876.

tō þon, þæt, until, 2591, 2845; see sē.
to, adv.:

(1) = preposition without expressed object (cf. the particles of separable verbs in German): thereto, to him, to it, 1785, 2648, 1755; on, 1422.

(2) too, before adjs. and advs., 133, 137, 191, etc. Special passages: tō fela micles, “far too much,” 694; hē tō fortð ge-stōp, “he had stepped too far forth,” 2289.

tō-gædre, adv., together, 2630.
to-gēanes, tō-gēnes, prep., with dat., following its case. towards, against, 666, 1542 (at), 1626 (to meet). Special passage: gōdum tōgēnes, “to where the good man lay dead,” 3114.
tō-gēanes, adv.: grāp þā togēanes, “then she clutched at [him],” 1501.
tō-middes, adv., in the midst, 3141.
torht, adj., bright, clear, 313.
torn, st. neut., anger, rage, 2401; insult, distress, 147, 833, 2189.
torn, adj.
tornost, superl., bitterest, 2129.
torn-gemōt, st. neut., [wrath-meeting] angry meeting, encounter, 1140.
to-somne, adv., together, 2568.
tredan, st. v., with acc., tread, 1964, 1352, etc.
treddian, tryddian, w. v, intrans., trad, go, 725, 922.
trem, st. neut.: acc. sg. adverbially, fōtes trem, “a foot’s breadth or space,” 2525.
trēow, st. f., troth, truth, good faith, 1072, 2922.
trēowan, w. v., with dat., trow, trust: pret. sg. gehwylc hiora his ferhþe trēowde, “each of them trusted Unferth’s heart,” 1166.
trēow-loga, w. m., troth-liar, troth-breaker, 2847.
trod, st. f., track, 843.
trum, adj., strong, 1369.
trūwian, w. v., with gen. or dat., trow, trust, believe, 669, 1993, etc.
ge-trūwian, w. v.:

(1) with gen. or dat., trow, trust; with gen., 2322, 2540; with dat., 1533.

(2) with acc., confirm; pret. pl. getrūwedon, 1095.
tryddian, see treddian.
trȳwe, adj., true, 1165.
twā, see twēgen.
twǣfan, w. v.
ge-twǣfan, w. v., usu. with acc. pers. and gen. rei, divide, sever, separate, restrain, 479, etc.; pp. getwǣfed, “ended,” 1658.
twǣman, w. v.
ge-twǣman, w. v., with acc. pers. and gen. rei, sever, cut off, 968.
twēgen, m., twā, f. and neut., num., twain, two, 1163, 1095, etc.; gen. twēga, 2532; dat. twǣm, 1191.
twelf, num., twelve; gen., twelfa, 3170.
twēonum, dat. pl. of distrib. numeral: be (bī) sǣm twēonum, “by the twin seas, i.e. between the seas,” 858, 1297, 1685, 1956.
tydre, adj., unwarlike, 2847.
tyhtan, w. v.
on-tyhtan, w. v., entice, 3086.
tȳn, ten, 3159; inflected tȳne, 2847.

Þ, Ð.


I. adv., then, 3, 331, 461, 465, 536, 657, etc.

II. rel. adv. or conj., with indic., when, as, since, seeing, 201, 402, 539, 632, 706, 1103, 1291, 1598, 1813, etc.; correl. with þā above, 723, 2756, etc.
þā, adj.-pron., see se, sē.
þǣem, them, see se, sē.

I. adv., there, 32, 331, 493, etc.; unemphatic (like mod. there with impers. verbs) 271, 440, etc. For ðǣr on innan, 71, 2089, etc., see innan.

II. rel. adv., where, 286, 420, 1007, 1079, 1394, etc.; (to) where, 356, 1313, etc.; if, 2730, 1835 (?). With swā following: ðǣr…swa, “wheresoever,” 797; “if so be that,” 2730.

þǣra, þǣre, see se, sē.
þæs, adj.-pron., see se, sē.
þæs, adv.:

(1) therefore, 900, 1992; see sē.
(2) so, 773, 968, 1367.

þæs þe, conj.:

(1) as, 1341, 1350, 3000.
(2) because, 108, 228, 626, 1628, 1751, 1998, 2797; correl. with preceding þæs, 1779.

tō þæs þe, see tō.
þæt, adj.-pron., see se, sē.
þæt, conj., that, so that, 62, 1367, 1664, etc.; until, 84, 1318 (?), 1911, 1939 (?); in that, 3036; often correl. loith the demon, neut. pron. þæt or þæs (see sē), 778–9, 1591–3, 1598–9, etc.; repeated 2864–5–71.
þæt þe, conj., that, 1846.
þætte (=þæt þe), conj., that, 151, etc.
þafian, w. v., with acc., consent to, submit to, 2963.
-þah, see -þicgan.
þām, see se, sē.
þanan, see þonan.
þanc, st. m.:

(1) with gen. rei, thanks, 928, 1997, etc.

(2) content?, favour?; dat. sg. þā ðe gif-sceattas Gēata fyredon þyder tō þance, 379.
þanc-hycgende, adj. (pres. part.), [thought-thinking], thoughtful, 2235.
þancian, w. v., thank, 625, 1397; pret. pl., þancodon, 1626, þancedon, 227.
þanon, see þonan.
þāra, see se, sē.
þās, see þes.
þe, rel. particle, indecl., who, that, which, etc.

(1) Alone, 192, 500, etc.; 355, 2182; dat. sg. 2400, 3001; nom. pl. 45, etc.; acc. pl. 2490, 2196; gen. pl. 950; þe gē þǣr on standað, “in which ye stand there,” 2866; so 1654. Special passages: hēo þā, fǣhðe wræc, þe þū gystran niht Grendel cwealdest, “she avenged the feud, in which thou killedst Grendel yesternight,” 1334; mid þǣre sorhge, þe him sīo sār belamp, “with the sorrow, where-with that blow befell (afflicted) him,” 2468.
(2) Immediately preceded by redundant sē, sēo, þæt, etc.; sē þe, 103, 1260, 1342, 1449, 1462 (antec. ǣngum); sē þe for sēo þe, 1344, 1887, 2685; sēo þe, 1445; ðone þe, 1054, 1298, 2056, 2173; pl. þā þe, 1592. Correlatives: se…sē þe, 506 (followed by verb in 2nd pers.); sēo hand …sē þe, 1343–4; sīo hond…sē þe, 2684–5; þæt ys sīo fǣhðo ond se fēond-scipe…þe ūs sēceað tō Swēona lēoda, “that is the feud and the enmity for which the peoples of the Swedes will come against us,” 2999–3001.
N.B. After þāra þe the verb is often in the sg.: 843, 996, 1051, 1461, 2130, 2251, 2383.
(3) Followed by redundant hē: acc. sg. m. þe hine dēað nimeð, “whom death will take,” 441.

þæes þe, see þæs, adv.

þæt þe, see þæt, conj.

þēah þe, see þēah.

forðon þe, see forþam.

tō þæs þe, see tō.
þē, pers. pron. (acc. and dat. of þū), thee, to thee, etc., 417, 523, 525, etc. With a comparative, than thou, 1850.
þē, demon, pron., see sē.
þē, conj.:

(1) because, correl. with a preceding þȳ, þē (see sē), 488, 1436, 2641.
(2) that, so that, 242 (? possibly dat. of the rel. particle þe, “because of which,” antecedent ǣg-wearde).

-þeah, see -þicgan.
þēah, conj., usu. with subj., rarely with indic.: though, although, 203, 2855, 2467, etc.; once þēh, 1613; þēah ic eal mæge, “although I may,” 680.
þēah þe, conj., usu. with subj., though, although, 1167, 1716, 2481, 2838, etc.
þēah, adv., though, yet, however, 1508.
swā þēah, see swā.
þearf, st. f., need, 201, 1477, 1797, etc.; acc. fremmað gēna lēoda þearfe, “fulfil still the people’s need,” 2801.
þearf, v., see þurfan.
þearfa, w. m., n. or adj.: ærnes

þearfa, “shelterless,” 2225.

(ge-)þearfian, w. v., necessitate, render necessary; pp. geþearfod, 1103.
þearle, adv., severely, hard, 560.
þēaw, st. m., [thew] custom, 178, etc.; dat. pl. “in good customs,” 2144.
þec, pers. pron. (archaic acc. of þū), thee, 947, etc.
þeccean, w. v., [thatch] cover, enfold, 3015; pret. pl. þehton, 513.
þegn, st. m., thane, 194, 400, 1230, etc.; used of Beowulf, 194, etc., Hengest, 1085, Wiglaf, 2721, etc.
þegn-sorg, st. f., thane-sorrow sorrow for one’s thanes, 131.
þēgon, þēgun, see þicgan.
þēh, see þēah.
þehton, see þeccean.
þenc(e)an, w. v., think, intend: usu. with following inf., 355, 448 (fut.), 739, etc.; with dependent clause, 691; absolutely, 289, 2601 (see onwendan).
ā-þenc(e)an, w. v., think out, intend, 2643. ge-þenc(e)an, w. v., with acc., think, think of, 1474; inf. his…ende geþencean, “think of the end thereof,” 1734.
þenden, adv., yet a while, 1019.
þenden, conj., with indic. or subj., while, whilst, 30, 1224, 2985, etc.
þengel, st. m., prince, king, 1507.
þēnian (=þegnian), w.v., with dat., serve, 560.
þēod, st. f., people, nation, 643, 1705, etc.
þēod-cyning, -kyning, þīod-cyning, st. m., nation-king, king of a people, 2, 2144 (Hrothgar), 2579 (Beowulf), 2963 (Ongentheow), etc.
þēoden, þīoden, st. m., prince, king, 34, 797, 2336, 2656, etc.; dat. þēodne, 345, etc., þēoden, 2032; pl. þēodnas, 3070.
þēoden-leas, adj., prince-less, without one’s chief, 1103.
þēod-gestrēon, st. neut., nation-treasure, national possession, 44, 1218.
þēod-kyning, see þēod-cyning.
þēod-sceaða, w. m., nation-scather, national foe, 2278, 2688.
þēod-þrēa, st. f., national misery, 178.
þēof, st. m., thief, 2219.
þēon, st. v., thrive, succeed, 8; pret. sg. hūru þæt…lȳt manna þāh, “this indeed has prospered with few men,” 2836.
ge-þēon, st. v., thrive, 25, 910; imperat. sg., 1218. on-þēon, st. v., thrive; pret. sg. hē þæs ǣr onþāh, “he therefore throve erewhile,” 900.
þēon (=þȳwan), w. v., oppress, 2736.
þēos, see þes.
þēostre, adj., dark, 2332.
þēow, st. m., slave, 2223.
þes, þēos, þis, demon, adj., this, 411, 484, etc.; inst. neut. þȳs, 1395; acc. sg. m., þisne, 75, þysne, 1771; gen. sg. m. and neut. þisses, 1216, þysses, 790, 806; dat. sg. neut. þissum, 1169, þyssum, 2639; dat. pl. þyssum, 1062, 1219.
þicg(e)an, st. v., with acc., seize, take, partake of, eat, 736, 1010; pret. pl. indic. þēgun, 2633, subj. þēgon, 563.
ge-þicgan, st. v., with acc., take, receive, 1014; pret. sg. ge-þeah, 618, 628; geþah, 1024.
þīn, poss. adj., thine, thy, 267, 2131, etc.
þinc(e)an, see þyncan.
þing, st. neut., thing, matter, affair, 409, 426; gen. pl. ǣnige þinga, “by any means, in any way, on any condition, at all,” 791, 2374, 2905.
þingan, w. v., determine, appoint, 1938; pp. wiste tō þǣm ahlǣcan…hilde geþinged, “knew that battle was in store for the monster,” 647.
ge-þingan, w. v., with refl. dat., take service; pres. gif him þonne Hrēþrīc to hofum Gēata geþingeð, “if then Hrethric enters into service at the Geats’ court,” 1836.
þingian, w. v.:

(1) address, speak, 1843.

(2) compound, settle, allay, 156, 470.
þīod-, see þēod-.
þīoden, see þēoden.
þis, demon, adj., see þes.
þis, demon, pron. neut., this, 290.
þolian, w. v., [thole] endure:

(1) trans. 832, 1525, etc.
(2) intrans. 2499.

ge-þolian, w. v., [thole]:

(1) trans., endure, 87, 147; dat. inf. tō geþolianne, 1419.

(2) intrans., wait patiently, 3109.
þon, pron., see sē.
tō þon, adv., to that degree, so, 1876. tō þon, þæt, until, 2591, 2845; see sē.
þon, adv., then, 2423.
þonan, þonon, þanan, þanon, adv., thence, 819, 520, 1265, 1292, etc.; sometimes of personal origin, 1960, etc.
þone, see se, sē.
þonne, adv., then, 377, etc.; repeated, 1104–6. See þonne, conj.
þonne, conj.:

(1) when, while, with indic. and subj., 23, 573, etc.; in elliptical sentence, brēac þonne mōste, “enjoyed [him or them] while I might,” 1487. Correl. with þonne, adv.: 484–5, 2032–4; swā bið gēomorlīc…þonne hē gyd wrece…þonne his sunu hangað, “so will it be sad, [that] he should then utter a dirge, when his son is hanging,” 2446–7.

(2) than, after compars.: 44, 248, etc. With compar. omitted: medo-ærn micel…þonne yldo bearn ǣfre gefrūnon, “a great mead-hall, [greater] than the children of the age ever heard of,” 70.
þonon, see þonan.
þorfte, see þurfan.
þrāg, st. f., time; acc. sg. of duration of time, 54, 87, 114; nom. sg. þā hyne sīo þrāg becwōm, “when the time (of battle) came upon him,” 2883.
þrēa-nēdla, w. m., [throe-compulsion] the compulsion of oppression or misery; dat. sg. for þrēa-nēdlan, “compelled by oppression or misery,” 2223.
þrēa-nȳd, st. f., [throe-need] dire need, oppression, misery, 284; dat. pl. þe hīe…for þrēa-nȳdum þolian scoldon, “which they through dire compulsion had to endure,” 832.
þrēat, st. m., troop, band, 4, 2406.
þrēatian, w. v., threaten, press; pret. pl. mec…þrēatedon þearle, “pressed me hard,” 560.
þrec-wudu, st. m., [onset-wood] spear, 1246.
þrēo, þrīo, num. neut. (of þrīe), three, 2278, 2174.
þreottēoþa, ord. num., thirteenth, 2406.
þridda, ord. num., third, 2688.
þringan, st. v., intrans., throng, 2960; pret. sg. þrong, 2883.
for-þringan, st. v., snatch, protect, 1084. ge-þringan, st. v., throng, bound, 1912.
þrīo, see þrēo.
þrīst-hȳdig, adj., bold-minded, 2810.
þrītig, þrittig, st. neut., with gen., thirty, 123, 2361; gen. sg. 379.
þrong, see þringan.
þrōwian, w. v., suffer, 2605, etc.; pret. sg. þrōwode, 2594, þrōwade, 1589, 1721.
þrym(m), st. m., might, force, 1918; glory, 2; dat. pl. adverbially, þrymmum, “powerfully,” 235.
þrym-līc, adj., mighty, glorious, 1246.
þrȳð, st. f., strength; dat. pl. þrȳðum dealle, “proud in their strength,” 494.
þrȳð-ærn, st. neut., mighty house, noble hall, 657.
þrȳð-līc, adj., excellent, picked, 400, 1627.
þrȳð-līcost, superl., most excellent; acc. pl. 2869.
þrȳð-swȳð, st. neut.?, great distress, pain, anxiety, 131, 736.
þrȳð-word, st. neut., choice or mighty word, excellent talk, 643.
þū, pers. pron., thou, 352, etc.; acc. sg. þec, þē (q. v.).
þungen, ge-þungen, adj. (pp.), [thriven] mature, distinguished, excellent, 624, 1927. Cf. þēon.
þunian, w. v., thunder, rattle, groan, hum; pret. þunede, 1906.
ge-þuren, pp. (isolated; Sievers § 385, N. 1), forged, 1285.
þurfan, st.-w. v., need: pres. þearf, þearft, 445, 595, etc.; subj. þurfe, 2495; pret. þorfte, 157, etc.; pret. pl. hrēmge þorfton, “needed [to be] exultant,” 2363.
þurh, prep., with acc., through, local, causal, and instrumental, 2661, 267, 276, 278, 558, etc.
þus, adv., thus, 238, 337, 430.
þūsend, st. neut., thousand, 3050; pl. þūsenda, 1829. Without following noun of measure: gen. pl. hund þūsenda landes ond locenra bēaga, 2994. Even without a dependent gen.: acc. pl. ond him gesealde seofan þūsendo, 2195.
þȳ, see se, se.
þȳ lǣs, conj., lest, 1918.
þyder, adv., thither, 379, 2970, 3086.
þyhtig, adj., doughty, strong, 1558.
þyle, st. m., spokesman, 1165, 1456.
þyncan, þincean, w. v., with dat. pers., seem, 1341,368, 687, etc.; sometimes impers., 2653.
of-þyncan, w. v., displease, 2032.
þyrs, st. m., giant, 426.
þȳs, see þes.
þys-līc, adj., [thuslike] such; nom. sg.f., þyslicu, 2637.
þysne, þysses, þyssum, see þes.
þȳstru, st. f., darkness, 87.
þȳwan, w. v., oppress; pres. pl. egesan þȳwað, “oppress with dread,” 1827. From þēow.


ufan, adv., from above, above, 1500, 330.
ufera, compar. adj., later; dat. pl. uferan, 2392, ufaran, 2200.
ufor, compar. adv., higher, upwards, on to higher ground, 2951.
ūhte, w. f., dawn, twilight, 126.
ūht-floga, w. m., twilight-flier, 2760.
ūht-hlem, st. m., twilight-uproar, din or crash in the twilight, 2007.
ūht-sceaða, w. m., twilight-scather, twilight-foe, 2271.
umbor-wesende, adj. (pres. part.), being a child, 46, 1187.
un-blīðe, adj., unblithe, joyless, 130, 2268, 3031.
un-byrnende, adj. (pres. part.), unburning, without being burnt; nom. sg. absolutely 2548.
unc, pers. pron. (dat. and acc. dual of ic), to us two, us two, 540, 545, 2137, etc.
uncer, pers. pron. (gen. dual of ic), of us two, 2532; coupled with the gen. of a proper name, uncer Grendles, “of Grendel and me,” 2002.
uncer, poss. adj. (see above), our (dual); dat. pl. uncran, 1185.
un-cūð, adj., uncouth, unknown, evil, 1410, 2214, 276; gen. sg. absolutely, 960 (Grendel), 876 (what is unknown).
under, prep., under:

(1) with dat. (of rest), 1163, 1204, 1209, etc.; during, with, 738.

(2) with acc. (of motion, expressed or implied), 403, 887, 1551, etc. To denote extent: under swegles begong, “under the sky’s expanse,” 860, 1773; under heofones hwealf, 2015.
under, adv., under, beneath, 2213.
undern-mǣl, st. neut., [undern-meal] morning-time, 1428.
un-dyrne, un-derne, adj., unsecret, manifest, 127, 2000, 2911.
un-dyrne, adv., unsecretly, openly, 150, 410.
un-fǣcne, adj., unguileful, sincere, 2068.
un-fǣge, adj., [unfey] undoomed, not fated to die, 573, 2291.
un-fæger, adj., unfair, not beautiful, 727.
un-flitme, adj., incontestably, 1097; without strife, 1129.
un-forht, adj., [unafraid] fearless, 287.
un-forhte, adv., fearlessly, 444.
un-frōd, adj., not old, young, 2821.
un-from, adj., inert, not bold, unwarlike, 2188.
un-gēara, adv., not of yore:

(1) but now, 932.

(2) erelong, 602.
un-gedēfelīce, adv., improperly, unnaturally, 2435.
un-gemete, adv., [unmeetly] immeasurably, 2420, 2721, 2728.
un-gemetes, adv. (gen. of adj. un-gemet, unmeet), immeasurably, 1792.
un-gyfetðe, adj., not granted, 2921.
un-hǣlo, st. f., [unhealth] destruction; gen. sg. wiht unhǣlo, “the wight of destruction,” 120.
un-hār, adj., (un- intensive) very hoar, very gray, 357.
un-hēore, un-hīore, un-hȳre, adj., uncanny, monstrous, 2120, 2413; nom. sg. f. unhēoru, 987.
un-lēof, adj., [unliefJ not dear, unloved; acc. p;. absolutely 2863.
un-lifigende, un-lyfigende, adj. (pres. part.), unliving, lifeless, dead, 468, 744, 1308; dat. sg. m. þæt bið driht-guman unlifgendum æfter sēlest, “that will be best for the noble warrior after death,” 1389.
un-lȳtel, adj., [unlittle] no little, 498, 833, 885.
un-murnlīce, adv., unmornfully, with sorrow, 449, 1756.
unnan, st.-w. v., grant, will, wish, own, 503, 2874; pres. sg. 1st, an, 1225; subj. pret. 1st, ūþe ic swīþor, þæt ðū hine selfne gesēon mōste, “I would rather that thou mightst have seen himself,” 960; 3rd, þēah he ūðe wel, “how much soever he wished,” 2855.
ge-unnan, st.-w. v., grant, 346, 1661.
un-nyt, adj., useless, 413, 3168.
un-riht, st. neut., unright, wrong, 1254, 2739.
un-rihte, adv., unrightly, wrongly, 3059.
un-rīm, st. neut., [unrime] countless number, 1238, 2624, 3135.
un-rīme, adj., [unrimed] countless, 3012.
un-rōt, adj., [unglad] sad, 3148.
un-slāw, adj., [unslow] not slow; nom. sg. ecgum unslāw, “not slow of edge,” 2564 (see note).
un-snyttro, st. f., unwisdom; dat. pl. his unsnyttrum, “in his unwisdom,” 1734.
un-sōfte, adv., [unsoftly] with difficulty, 1655, 2140.
un-swīðe, adv.
un-swīðor, compar., less strongly, 2578, 2881.
un-synnig, adj., unsinning, guiltless, 2089.
un-synnum, adv. (dat. pl. of *un-synn), “sinlessly,” 1072.
un-tǣle, adj., blameless, 1865.
un-tȳder, st. m., evil progeny; nom. pl. untȳdras, 111.
un-wāclīc, adj., [unweaklike] firm, strong, 3138.
un-wearnum, adv., unawares, 741.
un-wrecen, adj. (pp.), unwreaked, unavenged, 2443.
ūp, adv. , up, 128, 224, 782.
ūp-lang, adj., [uplong] upright, 759.
uppe, adv., up, 566.
upp-riht, adj., upright, 2092.
ūre, pers. pron. (gen. pl. of ic), of us, 1386.
ūre, poss. adj. (see above), our, 2647.
ūrum, pers. pron. (anoyn. form of the dat. pi. of ic, used here for unc), to us, 2659.
ūs, pers. pron. (dat. pl. of ic), to us, 345, 382, etc.; for us, 2642.
ūser, pers. pron. (=ūre, gen. pl. of ic); ūser nēosan, “to visit us,” 2074.
ūser, poss. adj. (see above), our; acc. sg. m. ūserne, 3002; gen. sg. neut. usses, 2813; dat. sg. m. ussun, 2634.
ūsic, pers. pron. (acc. pl. of ic), us, 458, 2638, etc.
usses, ussum, see ūser, poss. adj.
ūt, adv, out, 215, etc.
ūtan, adv., from without, without, 774, etc.
ūtan-weard, adj., outward, the outside of, 2297.
ūt-fūs, adj., outward bound, ready to start, 33.
uton, see wutun.
ūt-weard, adj., [outward] outward bomd, moving outwards, 761.
ūðe, see unnan.
ūð-genge, adj., escaping; nom. sg. wæs Æschere…feorh ūð-genge, “life was ready to depart from Æschere,” 2123.


wā, adv. (Grein), woe; wā bið þǣm…wel bið þǣm…, 183, 186.
*wacan, st. v., wake, arise, spring, come, be born, 1265, 1960; pret. pl. wōcun, 60.
*on-wacan, awake, 2287; be born, arise, spring, 56, 111.
wacian, w. v., watch; imperat. sg. waca, 660; pres. part., nom. sg. m. wæcceude, 708, acc. sg. m. wæccendne, 1268, wæccende, 2841.
wadan, st. v., wade, go; pret. sg. wōd, 714, 2661; pp. gewaden, 220.
on-wadan, s. v., assail; pret. sg. hine fyren onwōd, “him (Heremod) crime assailed.” þurh-wadan, st. v., wade through, pierce, penetrate, 890, 1567.
wado, etc., see wæd.
wæcnan, w. v., intrans., waken, arise, 85.
wæd, st. n., flood, sea, wave; nom. pl. wado, 546; wadu, 581; gen. pl. wada, 508.
wǣfre, adj., wavering, about to die, expiring, 1150, 2420; wandering, 1331.
wǣg-bora, w. m., wave-bearer, wave-traverser, wave-tosser (of a sea-monster), 1440.
wǣge, st. neut., stoup, flagon, tankard, 2253, 2282.
wǣg-holm, st. m., the billowy sea, 217.
wǣg-līðend, st. m. (pres. part.), wave-farer, sea-farer, 3158.
wægnan, w. v.
be-wægnan, w. v., offer, 1193.
wǣg-sweord, st. neut., wave-sword, sword with a wavy pattern, 1489.
wæl, st. neut., slaughter, the slain, corpse, 448, etc.; nom. pl. walu, 1042.
wæl-bedd, st. neut., slaughter-bed.
wæl-bend, st. m. f., slaughter-bond, death-band, 1936.
wæl-blēat, adj., [slaughter-pitiful]; acc. f. wunde wæl-blēate, “his deathly pitiful wound,” 2725.
wæl-dēað, st. m., slaughter-death, death by violence, 695.
wæl-drēor, st. neut., slaughter-gore, 1631.
wæl-fǣhð, st. f., slaughter-feud, deadly feud, 2028.
wæl-fāg, adj., slaughter-stained, 1128.
wæl-feall, -fyll, st. m., slaughter-fall, violent death, 3154; dat. sg. gewēox hē…to wæl-fealle…Deniga lēodum, “he sent many of the Danes to a violent death,” 1711.
wæl-fūs, adj., ready for, expecting, (a violent) death, 2420.
wæl-fyll, see wæl-feall.
wæl-fyllo, slaughter-fill, fill of slaughter, 125.
wæl-fȳr, st. neut., slaughter-fire, death-bringing fire, 2582; corpse-fire, pyre, 1119.
wæl-gæst, st. m., slaughter-guest, murderous stranger, 1331, 1995.
wæl-hlem, st. m., slaughter-crash, terrible blow, 2969.
wæll-seax, st. neut., slaughter-knife, deadly short-sword; dat. sg. (with uninflected adjs.) wæll-seaxe gebræd biter ond beadu-scearp, “drew his keen and battle-sharp short-sword,” 2703.
wǣlm, see wylm.
wæl-nīð, st. m., slaughter-hate, slaughter-strife, deadly enmity, 85, 2065, 3000.
wæl-rǣs, st. m., [slaughter-race] deadly strife, mortal combat, 2947, 824, 2531.
wǣl-rāp, st. m., [whirlpool-rope] icicle, 1610 (see note).
wæl-rēaf, st. neut., slaughter-spoil, battle-booty, plunder, 1205.
wæl-rēc, st. m., slaughter-reek, deadly exhalation, 2661.
wæl-rēow, adj., slaughter-fierce, fierce in strife, 629.
wæl-rest, st. f., [slaughter-rest] bed of (violent) death, 2902.
wæl-sceaft, st. m., slaughter-shaft, deadly spear, 398.
wæl-steng, st. m., slaughter-pole, spear, 1638.
wæl-stōw, st. f., slaughter-place, battle-field, 2051, 2984.
wǣn, st. m., wain, wagon; acc. sg. 3134.
wǣpen, st. neut., weapon, 1660, 1467, 1664, etc.; acc. pl. wǣpen, 292.
wǣpned-mon(n), st. m., weaponed man, man, 1284.
wǣr, st. f., compact, treaty, 1100; keeping, protection, 27, 3109. [“Beiträge” x. 511.]
wǣran, etc., see wesan.
wæstm, st. m., growth, form; dat. pl. on weres wæstmum, “in man’s form,” 1352.
wæter, st. neut., water, the sea, 93, etc.; dat. wætere, 1425, 1656, 2722, wætre, 2854; instrumental gen. hē hine eft ongon wæteres weorpan, “he began again to sprinkle him with water,” 2791.
wæter-egesa, w. m., water-terror, the terrible mere, 1620.
wæter-ȳð, st. f., water-wave, 2242.
wāg, st. m., wall, 1662, 995.
wala, w. m., wale, “wreath” (in heraldry), a protecting rim or roll on the outside of the helmet (Skeat); nom. sg. ymb þæs helmes hrōf hēafod-beorge wīrumbewunden wala ūtan hēold, “round the helmet’s crown the ‘wreath,’ wound about with wires, gave protection for the head from the outside,” 1031.
Waldend, see Wealdend.
wald-swæð, st. neut., or
wald-swaðu, st. f., [wold-swath] forest-track, forest-path; dat. pl.wald-swaðum, 1403.
walu, see wæl.
wan, v., see winnan.
wan, adj., see won.
wang, see wong.
wanian, w. v.:

(1) intrans., wane, diminish, 1607.

(2) trans., diminish, curtail, decrease, 1337; pp. gewanod, 477.
wānigean, w. v., bewail, lament; inf. gehȳrdon gryre-lēoð galan Godes ondsacan, sige-lēasne sang, sār wānigean helle hæfton, “heard God’s adversary singing his terror-lay, his victory-less song, hell’s captive bewailing his sore,” 787.
warian, w. v., guard, inhabit, 1253, 1265, 2277 (guards); pres. pl. warigeað, 1358.
waroð, st. m., [warth] shore, 234, 1965.
wat, etc., wot, see witan.
wē, pers. pron. (pl. of ic), we, 1, 260, etc.
wēa, w. m., woe, 936, 191, etc.; gen. pl. wēana, 148, etc.
weal(l), st. m., gen. wealles, dat. wealle, acc. weal, 326: wall in its various meanings; rampart, burgh-wall, 785, etc.; wall of a building, 326, 1573; natural wall of rock, sometimes the side of a barrow or den, 2307, 2759, 3060, etc.; wall of cliff, 229, etc.
wēa-lāf, st. f., [woe-leaving] wretched remnant (of either army after the battle in which Hnæf fell), 1084, 1098.
wealdan, st. v., with dat., gen., or absolutely, wield, rule, rule over, govern, possess, control; prevail; 442, 1859, 702, 2051, etc. Special passages: þenden wordum wēold wine Scyldinga, “while the friend of the Scyldings still had power of speech,” or “ruled with his word,” 30; ðǣr hē þȳ fyrste…wealdan mōste, “if he at that time was to prevail,” 2574; wæl-stōwe wealdan, “to be masters of the field,” 2984.
ge-wealdan, st. v., with gen., dat., or acc. wield, control, possess, bring about, 1509, 1554, 2703.
Wealdend, Waldend, st. m. (pres. part.), the Wielder, God, 1693, etc.; often with dependent gen., 17, etc.; gen. Wealdendes, 2857, Waldendes, 2292, 3109; dat. Wealdende, 2329.
weall, see weal.
weallan, st. v., well, boil, be agitated, literally and figuratively; pret. wēoll, 2138, 2113, etc.; wēol, 518, etc.; pres. part. weallende, 847, weallinde, 2464; nom. pl. neut. weallende, 546, weallendu, 581. Special passages: Ingelde weallað wæl-nīðas, “in Ingeld’s breast deadly hatred wells up,” 2065; hreðer ǣðme wēoll, “his breast swelled with breath,” 2593.
weall-clif, st. neut., wall-cliff, sea-cliff, 3132.
weard, st. m., [ward] warden, warder, guardian, owner, 229, 1741, 2524, etc.
weard, st. f., ward, watch, 305, 319.
weardian, w. v., ward, guard, indwell, 105, 1237, 2075. Especially in the phrase lāst or swaðe weardian: inf. hē his fohne forlēt…lāst weardian, “he left his hand behind to mark his track,” 971; so pret. weardade, 2098; pret. sg. for pi. in subordinate clause, þæt þām frætwum fēower mēaras…lāst weardode, “that four horses followed the armour,” 2164.
wearn, st. f., refusal, 366.
wēa-spell, st. neut., woe-spell, tidings of woe, 1315.
weaxan, st. v., wax, grow, 3115, 1741, 8.
ge-weaxan, st. v., wax, grow, become, 66, 1711.
web, st. neut., web, tapestry; nom. pl. 995.
wecc(e)an, w. v., wake, rouse, stir

up, 2046, 3024; pret. wehte, 2854. Special passage: bǣl-fȳra mǣst…weccan, “to kindle the greatest of funeral piles,” 3144.

tō-weccan, w. v., wake up, stir up; pret. pl. tō-wehton, 2948.
wedd, st. neut., pledge, 2998.
weder, st. neut., weather, 546; nom. pl. weder, 1136.
weg, st. m., way; only in on weg, “away,” 264, 1382, etc.
wēg, st. m., wave, 3132. Cf. wǣg-.
wegan, st. v., bear, wear, wage, 3015, 2252, 2464, etc. Special passage: mōd Ðrȳðo waeg,…firen ondrysne, “Thrytho bore moodiness or fierceness, [committed] terrible crime,” 1931.
æt-wegan, st. v., bear away, carry off, 1198. ge-wegan, st. v., engage, fight, 2400.
wēg-flota, w. m., wave-floater, ship, 1907.
wehte, see weccan.
wel(l), adv., well, rightly, much, 186, 289, 1792, 2570, 2855; usual form wel, but well, 2162, 2812.
wel-hwylc, indef. adj. and pron.

I. Pron.:
(1) with gen. wel-hwylc witena, “well nigh every councillor,” 266.
(2) neut. absolutely, everything, 874.

II. Adj. almost every, 1344.
welig, adj., wealthy, rich, 2607.
wēn, st. f., weening, expectation, hope, 734, 383, etc. Special passages: wēn ic talige, “I reckon it a thing to be expected,” 1845; dat. pl. bēga on wēnum, ende-dōgores ond eft-cymes lēofes monnes, “in expectation of both, the day of death and the return of the dear man” (i.e. expecting one or the other), 2895.
wēnan, w. v., with gen., infin. clause, or absolutely: ween, expect, hope, 157, 1184, etc.; pres. sg. 1st wēn, 338, 442. Special passages: þæs ic wēne, “as I hope,” 272; swā ic þē wēne tō, “as I expect from thee,” 1396; with inf. ic ǣnigra mē wēana ne wēnde…bōte gebīdan, “I expected not to abide the remedy of any of my woes,” 933; with gen. and clause, hig þæs æðelinges eft ne wēndon, þæt hē…cōme, “they expected not the atheling again, that he would come,” 1596.
wendan, w. v., intrans., wend, turn, 1739.
ed-wendan, w. v., intrans., turn back, desist, cease, 280.

ge-wendan, w. v., trans. and intrans., turn, change, 315, 186.

on-wendan, w. v., trans., turn aside, set aside, avert, 191. Special passage: sibb ǣfre ne mæg wiht onwendan, þām ðe wel þenceð, “naught can ever set aside kinship, to a right-minded man,” 2601.
wenian, w. v., honour, 1091.
be-wenian, bi-wenian, w. v., entertain, attend on; pret. subj. sg. for pl., dryht-bearn Dena du-guða biwenede, 2035 (see note); pp. pl. bewenede, 1801.
weorc, st. neut., work, deed, trouble, 74, 1656, etc.; gen. pl. worda ond worca, 289; dat. pl. wordum ne worcum, 1100. Special passages: he þæs gewinnes weorc þrōwade, “he suffered trouble for that strife,” 1721; dat. pl. adverbially, weorcum, “with difficulty,” 1638.
weorce, adj., grievous, painful, 1418.
weorod, see werod.
weorpan, st. v., [warp]:

(1) with acc. rei, throw, 1531.
(2) with acc. pers. and gen. rei, sprinkle, 2791.

(3) with dat., spew, cast forth, 2582.
for-weorpan, st. v., throw-away; pret. subj. forwurpe, 2872. ofer-weorpan, st. v., stumble, 1543.
weorð, st. neut., worth, price, pay, 2496.
weorð, adj., worthy, honoured, dear; nom. sg. m. weorð Denum æþeling, “the atheling dear to the Danes,” 1814.
weorþra, compar., worthier, 1902.
weorðan, st. v., become, be, befall, happen, come, 2526, 414, 2731, etc.; inf. wurðan, 807; pres. pl. wurðað, 282; pret. sg. hē on fylle wearð, “he fell,” 1544; pp. geworden, “happened, arisen,” 1304, 3078. Often with predicative dat. governed by tō, and dat. pers.: ðū scealt tō frōfre weorðan…lēodum þīnum, hæleðum tō helpe, “thou shalt be for a comfort to thy people, a help to the heroes,” 1707; so also 460, 587, etc.
ge-weorðan, st. v.:

(1) intrans., become, be, happen, 3061.
(2) trans., agree about, settle; inf. þæt ðū…lēte Sūð-Dene sylfe geweorðan gūðe wið Grendel, “that thou wouldst let the South Danes themselves settle their war with Grendel,” 1996.

(3) impers., with gen., and following clause in apposition, appear, seem, seem good; pret. þā ðæs monige gewearð, þæt, “then it appeared to many that,” 1598; pp. hafað þæs geworden wine Scyldinga…þæt, “this had seemed good to the friend of the Scyldings, that,” 2026.
weorð-full, adj.
weorð-fullost, superl., [worth-fullest], worthiest, 3099.
weorðian, w. v., worthy (“Lear” ii. 2. 128), honour, adorn, 2096, 1090, etc.; pp. geweorðod, 2175; geweorðad, 250, 1450, 1959; gewurðad, 331, 1038, 1645; weorðad, 1783.
weorð-līce, adv.
weorð-līcost, superl., most worthily, 3161.
weorð-mynd, st. f., worship, honour, glory, 8, 65, 1559, etc.; dat. pl. tō worð-myndum, “for honour, for honour’s sake,” 1186.
weotena, see wita.
weotian, w. v., prepare, etc.: pp. acc. pl. wælbende weotode, “death-bands prepared, appointed, destined,” 1936.
be-weotian, be-witian, w. v., observe, etc.: pres. pl. þā, ðe syngales sēle bewitiað, “those [weathers, days] which continually observe the season,” 1135; bewitigað sorhfulne sīð, “make a journey full of woe,” 1428; pret. sg. ealle beweotede þegnes þearfe, “attended to all the thane’s needs,” 1796; hord beweotode, “watched over a hoard,” 2212.
wer, st. m., man, 105, 1352, 216, 1256, etc.; gen. pl. wera, 120, etc.; weora, 2947.
wered, st. neut., beer, mead, 496.
werede, etc., see werod.
were-fyhte, w. f., defensive fight, fight in defence, 457.
werga (weak form of werig), adj., cursed; gen. sg. wergan gāstes, 133 (Grendel), 1747 (the devil).
wērge, etc., see wērig.
wergend, st. m. (pres. part. of werian), defender, 2882.
wērgian, w. v., weary; pp. gewergad, 2852.
werhðo, st. f., curse, damnation; acc. sg. werhðo, 589.
werian, w. v., guard, defend, protect, 453, 1327, etc.; reflex., 541; pp. nom. pl. 238, 2529.
be-werian, w. v., defend; pret. subj. beweredon, 938.
wērig, adj., with gen. or dat., weary, 579; dat. sg. wērgum, 1794; acc. f. sg. or pl. wērge, 2937.
wērig-mōd, adj., weary of mood, 844, 1543.
werod, weorod, st. neut., troop, band, 651, 319, 290, etc.; dat. werede, 1215; weorode, 1011, 2346; gen. pl. wereda, 2186; weoroda, 60.
wer-þēod, st. f., [man-nation] people; acc. pl. ofer wer-þēode, “throughout the nations of men,” 899.
wesan, irreg. v., be, 272, etc.; pres. sg. 3rd is, 256, 1761, etc.; ys, 2910, 2999, 3084; pres. pl. sint, 388; synt, 260, 342, 364; syndon, 237, 257, etc.; pres. subj. sg. sīe, 435, etc.; sȳ, 1831, etc.; sig, 1778, etc.; pret. pl. wǣron, 233, etc.; wǣran, 2475; imperat. sg. wes, 269, etc., wæs, 407. Negative forms: pres. sg. 3rd nis, 249, etc.; pret. sg. 1st and 3rd næs, 2141, 134, etc.; pret. pi. nǣron, 2657; pret. subj. sg. nǣre, 860, etc.

Special passages:
(1) Omission of infin. 617, 1857, 2363, 2497, 2659; also 992, 2256.

(2) Forming, with a pres. part., an imperf. tense: secgende wæs, “was saying,” 3028.
wēste, adj., waste; ace. sg. m. wēstne, 2456.
wēsten, st. neut., waste, 1266; dat. wēstenne, 2298.
wīc, st. neut., [wick] dwelling, 821, etc.; often in pl., 125, etc.; dat. pl. wicun, 1304.
wīcan, st. v.
ge-wīcan, st. v., intrans., weaken, give way, 2577, 2629.
wicg, st. neut., horse, steed, 1400, 286, etc., pl. wicg, 2174.
wīc-stede, st. m., [wick-stead] dwelling-place, 2462, 2607.
wīd, adj., wide, extended, long, of space and time, 935, 877, 1859, 2014, etc.
wīd-cūð, adj., [wide-couth] widely known, 1256, etc.; gen. absolutely, wīd-cūðes (i.e. Hrothgar), 1042.
wīde, adv., widely, 18, 2135, 2913, 3099, etc.; qualifying a superlative, wīde mǣrost, “the greatest far and wide, greatest of all,” 898.
wīdre, compar.; wīdre gewindan, “to flee away more widely, escape further,” 763.
wīde-ferhð, st. m., [wide-life] ever, only used as acc. of time, 702, 937; ealne wīde-ferhð, “for all time to come,” 1222.
wīd-floga, w. m., wide-flier (the dragon), 2830, 2346.
widre, see wīde.
wīd-scofen, see under scūfan.
wīd-weg, st. m., wide-way, highway; acc. pl. geond wīd-wegas, “along the highways,” 840, “far and wide,” 1704.
wīf, st. neut., wife, woman, 2120, 1284, 2028, 993, etc.
wīf-lufu, w. f., wife-love, love for one’s wife, 2065.
wīg, st. m.:

(1) war, battle, 23, 65, 1084, etc.; dat. wigge, 1656, 1770, 1783.

(2) war-prowess, valour, might, 350, 1042, 2323, etc.
wiga, w. m.., warrior, 629, 1543, 2395. [“Beiträge” x. 511.]
wīgan, st. v., war, fight, 2509, 599.
wīg-bealu, st. neut., war-bale, the evils of war, 2046.
wīg-bil, st. neut., war-bill, war-sword, 1607.
wīg-bord, st. neut., [war-board] war-shield, 2339.
wīg-cræft, st. m., war-craft, war-might, 2953.
wīg-cræftig, adj., war-crafty, mighty in battle, 1811.
wīgend, st. m. (pres. part.), warrior, 3099, 1125, 429, etc.
wīg-freca, w. m., war-wolf, warrior, 1212, 2496.
wīg-fruma, w. m., war-chief, 664, 2261.
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