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Introduction Indonesia
Background: The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; the islands were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to relinquish its colony. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state. Current issues include: alleviating widespread poverty, preventing terrorism, continuing the transition to popularly-elected governments after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing reforms of the banking sector, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, and resolving armed separatist movements in Aceh and Papua.
 
Geography Indonesia
Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map references: Southeast Asia
Area: total: 1,919,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries: total: 2,830 km
border countries: East Timor 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Coastline: 54,716 km
Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use: arable land: 11.32%
permanent crops: 7.23%
other: 81.45% (2001)
Irrigated land: 48,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires
Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note: archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
 
People Indonesia
Population: 238,452,952 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.4% (male 35,635,790; female 34,416,854)
15-64 years: 65.5% (male 78,097,767; female 78,147,909)
65 years and over: 5.1% (male 5,308,986; female 6,845,646) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 26.1 years
male: 25.7 years
female: 26.6 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.49% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 21.11 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 6.26 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 36.82 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 42.09 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.26 years
male: 66.84 years
female: 71.8 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 110,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,400 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%
Religions: Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)
Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.9%
male: 92.5%
female: 83.4% (2002)
 
Government Indonesia
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies
local long form: Republik Indonesia
Government type: republic
Capital: Jakarta
Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Irian Jaya Barat, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note - with the implementation of decentralization on 1 January 2001, the 357 districts or regencies became the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
Independence: 17 August 1945 (independence proclaimed); 27 December 1949 (Netherlands recognizes Indonesian independence)
National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch: chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004) and Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
elections: president and vice president were elected by direct vote of the citizenry
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004) and Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4%
Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats; members serve five-year terms); House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions; People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) has role in inaugurating and impeaching President and in amending constitution; consists of popularly-elected members in DPR and DPD; MPR does not formulate national policy
elections: last held 5 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - Golkar 21.6%, PDI-P 18.5%, PKB 10.6%, PPP 8.2%, PD 7.5%, PKS 7.3%, PAN 6.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party - Golkar 128, PDI-P 109, PPP 58, PD 55, PAN 53, PKB 52, PKS 45, others 50
note: because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the number of votes received by parties
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature); a separate Constitutional Court or Makhama Konstitusi was invested by the president on 16 August 2003; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights
Political parties and leaders: Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Democratic Party or PD [Subur BUDHISANTOSO, chairman]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA, chairman]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Alwi SHIHAB, chairman]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [MAHFUD, acting chairman]; United Development Party or PPP [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, CP, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador SOEMADI Brotodiningrat
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador B. Lynn PASCOE
embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 385-7189
consulate(s) general: Surabaya
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
 
Economy Indonesia
Economy - overview: Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, faces economic development problems stemming from recent acts of terrorism, unequal resource distribution among regions, endemic corruption, the lack of reliable legal recourse in contract disputes, weaknesses in the banking system, and a generally poor climate for foreign investment. Indonesia withdrew from its IMF program at the end of 2003, but issued a "White Paper" that commits the government to maintaining fundamentally sound macroeconomic policies previously established under IMF guidelines. Investors, however, continued to face a host of on-the-ground microeconomic problems and an inadequate judicial system. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, building up the confidence of international and domestic investors, and strong global economic growth.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $758.8 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.1% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 16.6%
industry: 43.6%
services: 39.9% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 19.7% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line: 27% (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.7% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 37 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.6% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 105.7 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.7% (2003 est.)
Budget: revenues: $40.91 billion
expenditures: $44.95 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt: 72.9% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production: 95.78 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 89.08 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production: 1.451 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 1.045 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves: 7.083 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production: 69 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 36.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 32.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.549 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance: $7.336 billion (2003)
Exports: $63.89 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners: Japan 22.3%, US 12.1%, Singapore 8.9%, South Korea 7.1%, China 6.2% (2003)
Imports: $40.22 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Japan 13%, Singapore 12.8%, China 9.1%, US 8.3%, Thailand 5.2%, Australia 5.1%, South Korea 4.7%, Saudi Arabia 4.6% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $36.25 billion (2003)
Debt - external: $135.7 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $43 billion Indonesia finished its IMF program in December 2003 but still receives bilateral aid through the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), which pledged $2.8 billion in grants and loans for 2004. (2003 est.)
Currency: Indonesian rupiah (IDR)
Currency code: IDR
Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 8,577.13 (2003), 9,311.19 (2002), 10,260.8 (2001), 8,421.77 (2000), 7,855.15 (1999)
Fiscal year: calendar year; note - previously was 1 April - 31 March, but starting with 2001, has been changed to calendar year
 
Communications Indonesia
Telephones - main lines in use: 7.75 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 11.7 million (2002)
Telephone system: general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
international: country code - 62; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
Radios: 31.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 41 (1999)
Televisions: 13.75 million (1997)
Internet country code: .id
Internet hosts: 62,036 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 24 (2000)
Internet users: 8 million (2002)
 
Transportation Indonesia
Railways: total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (125 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2003)
Highways: total: 342,700 km
paved: 158,670 km
unpaved: 184,030 km (1999 est.)
Waterways: 21,579 km
note: Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km (2004)
Pipelines: condensate 850 km; condensate/gas 128 km; gas 8,506 km; oil 7,472 km; oil/gas/water 66 km; refined products 1,329 km (2004)
Ports and harbors: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Makassar, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya
Merchant marine: total: 718 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,192,847 GRT/4,319,739 DWT
by type: bulk 47, cargo 398, chemical tanker 13, container 57, liquefied gas 6, livestock carrier 1, passenger 10, passenger/cargo 13, petroleum tanker 128, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 15, short-sea/passenger 9, specialized tanker 12, vehicle carrier 7
registered in other countries: 109 (2004 est.)
foreign-owned: France 1, Germany 1, Greece 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 2, Japan 3, Malaysia 1, Monaco 2, Panama 1, Philippines 2, Singapore 12, Switzerland 1, United Kingdom 2, United States 1
Airports: 661 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 154
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 49
under 914 m: 44 (2004 est.)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 44
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 513
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
under 914 m: 480 (2004 est.)
914 to 1,523 m: 27
Heliports: 22 (2003 est.)
 
Military Indonesia
Military branches: Indonesia Armed Forces (TNI): Army (TNI-AD), Navy (TNI-AL, including Marines, Naval Air arm), Air Force (TNI-AU)
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2002)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 66,458,805 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 38,728,029 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 2,196,424 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1 billion (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY98)
This page was last updated on 1 January 2003



This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005