CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Malawi

CIA WFB Seal.png Malawi Flag of Malawi (2004 World Factbook).gif
Malawi-CIA WFB Map.png
Introduction Malawi
Background: Established in 1891, the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule under President Hastings Kamuzu BANDA the country held multiparty elections in 1994, under a provisional constitution, which came into full effect the following year. Current President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA, elected in May 2004 after the previous president was unable to amend the constitution to permit another term, has struggled to assert his authority against his predecessor, who still leads their shared political party. MATHARIKA's anti-corruption efforts have led to several high-level arrests but no convictions. Increasing corruption, population growth, increasing pressure on agricultural lands, and HIV/AIDS pose major problems for the country.
Geography Malawi
Location: Southern Africa, east of Zambia
Geographic coordinates: 13 30 S, 34 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 118,480 sq km
water: 24,400 sq km
land: 94,080 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries: total: 2,881 km
border countries: Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m
highest point: Sapitwa (Mount Mlanje) 3,002 m
Natural resources: limestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
Land use: arable land: 23.38%
permanent crops: 1.49%
other: 75.13% (2001)
Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: NA
Environment - current issues: deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note: landlocked; Lake Nyasa, some 580 km long, is the country's most prominent physical feature
People Malawi
Population: 11,906,855
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 46.8% (male 2,811,751; female 2,759,515)
15-64 years: 50.5% (male 2,978,406; female 3,029,735)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 130,600; female 196,848) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 16.4 years
male: 16.1 years
female: 16.7 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.14% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 44.35 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 23.01 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 104.23 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 99.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 108.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 37.48 years
male: 37.08 years
female: 37.88 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 14.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 900,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 84,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases: typhoid fever, malaria, plague, schistosomiasis
overall degree of risk: very high (2004)
Nationality: noun: Malawian(s)
adjective: Malawian
Ethnic groups: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuka, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European
Religions: Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 3%, other 2%
Languages: English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages important regionally
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 62.7%
male: 76.1%
female: 49.8% (2003 est.)
Government Malawi
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
conventional short form: Malawi
former: British Central African Protectorate, Nyasaland Protectorate, Nyasaland
Government type: multiparty democracy
Capital: Lilongwe
Administrative divisions: 27 districts; Balaka, Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Likoma, Lilongwe, Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Phalombe, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba
Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day (Republic Day), 6 July (1964)
Constitution: 18 May 1994
Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (since 24 May 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (since 24 May 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: 46-member Cabinet named by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 20 May 2004 (next to be held NA May 2009)
election results: Bingu wa MUTHARIKA elected president; percent of vote - Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (UDF) 35.9%, John TEMBO (MCP) 27.1%, Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA (MC) 25.7%, Brown MPINGANJIRA (NDA) 8.7%, Justin MALEWEZI (independent) 2.5%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (193 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 May 2004 (next to be held NA May 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MCP 56, UDF 49, Mgwirizano Coalition (MC) 25, independents 39, others 24
Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court (chief justice appointed by the president, puisne judges appointed on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission); magistrate's courts
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Chakufwa CHIHANA]; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [John TEMBO]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA]; Malawi Forum for Unity and Development or MAFUNDE [George MNESA]; Mgwirizano Coalition or MC (coalition of MAFUNDE, MDP, MGODE, NUP, PETRA, PPM, RP) [Gwandaguluwe Chakuamba]; Movement for Genuine Democratic Change or MGODE [Sam Kandodo BANDA]; National Democratic Alliance or NDA [Brown MPINGANJIRA]; National Unity Party or NUP [Harry CHIUME]; New Congress for Democracy or NCD [Hetherwick NTABA]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Aleke BANDA]; People's Transformation Movement or PETRA [Kamuzu CHIBAMBO]; Republican Party or RP [Gwandaguluwe Chakuamba]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Bingu wa MUTHARIKA] - governing party
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, ONUB, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMIL, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Paul Tony Steven KANDIERO
FAX: [1] (202) 265-0976
telephone: [1] (202) 797-1007
chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen BROWNING
embassy: Area 40, Plot 24, Kenyatta Road
mailing address: P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
telephone: [265] (1) 773 166
FAX: [265] (1) 770 471
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band
Government - note: the executive exerts considerable influence over the legislature
Economy Malawi
Economy - overview: Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounted for nearly 40% of GDP and 88% of export revenues in 2001. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. In late 2000, Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. In November 2002 the World Bank approved a $50 million drought recovery package, which is to be used for famine relief. The government faces strong challenges, e.g., to fully develop a market economy, to improve educational facilities, to face up to environmental problems, to deal with the rapidly growing problem of HIV/AIDS, and to satisfy foreign donors that fiscal discipline is being tightened. The performance of the tobacco sector is key to short-term growth as tobacco accounts for over 50% of exports.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.845 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.7% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 51%
industry: 21.8%
services: 27.2% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 12.3% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line: 55% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 4.5 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 90% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA (2003 est.)
Budget: revenues: $528.1 million
expenditures: $653.2 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2003)
Public debt: 235.7% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products: tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; groundnuts, Macadamia nuts; cattle, goats
Industries: tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods
Industrial production growth rate: -1.6% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production: 769.2 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 715.3 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 5,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Current account balance: $-58 million (2003)
Exports: $455 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities: tobacco 60%, tea, sugar, cotton, coffee, peanuts, wood products, apparel
Exports - partners: South Africa 23.3%, US 13.4%, Germany 11.3%, Egypt 5.7%, Portugal 4.8%, Japan 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2003)
Imports: $505 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities: food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
Imports - partners: South Africa 53.7%, India 4.9%, Tanzania 3.9% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $132 million (2003)
Debt - external: $3.026 billion (2003)
Economic aid - recipient: $540 million (1999)
Currency: Malawian kwacha (MWK)
Currency code: MWK
Exchange rates: Malawian kwachas per US dollar - NA (2003), 76.6866 (2002), 72.1973 (2001), 59.5438 (2000), 44.0881 (1999)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Communications Malawi
Telephones - main lines in use: 85,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 135,100 (2003)
Telephone system: general assessment: NA
domestic: system employs open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations
international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 5 (plus 15 repeater stations), shortwave 2 (plus a third station held in standby status) (2001)
Radios: 2.6 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (2001)
Televisions: NA
Internet country code: .mw
Internet hosts: 18 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2002)
Internet users: 36,000 (2003)
Transportation Malawi
Railways: total: 797 km
narrow gauge: 797 km 1.067-m gauge (2003)
Highways: total: 28,400 km
paved: 5,254 km
unpaved: 23,146 km (1999 est.)
Waterways: 700 km
note: on Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and Shire River (2003)
Ports and harbors: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Chilumba
Airports: 42 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 20 (2004 est.)
Military Malawi
Military branches: Army (including Air Wing and Naval Detachment), Police (including Mobile Force Unit)
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2001)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,691,881 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,381,607 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $11.5 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.7% (2003)

This page was last updated on 1 January 2003

This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005