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CARDALE, JOHN BATE (1802–1877), first apostle of the Catholic Apostolic church, was born at 28 Lamb's Conduit Street, London, on 7 Nov. 1802. His father William Cardale, a solicitor, of 2 Bedford Row, London, possessed considerable property; he was born on 17 July 1777, and fied at Harrowgate in 1823, having married, in 1799, Mary Anne Bennett. The son, who entered. Rugby School on 9 Nov. 1815, was articled to father in 1818, end admitted a solicitor in Hilary term in 1824. For many years he was the head of the firm of Cardsdale, Iliffe, & Russell, of 2 Bedford Row, the solicitor to Gray’s Inn and Rugby School; but in 1834 he retired with a competence to devote his energies to other In 1830 the minds of many people were much exercised regarding a religious movement known as ‘speaking in the spirit in the unknown tongues,' which first manifested itself at Fernicarry, Roseneath, Scotland. In September Cardale, with other persons, went to Scotland to examine for himself into the truth of the reports. He returned to London fully convinced as to the reality of the ‘spiritual gifts,' and in October 1830 opened his own house for weekly prayer meetings for the ‘out-pouring of the spirit.' At length, on 30 April 1831, the first case occurred in London. Mrs. Cardale ‘spoke with great solemnity in a tongue and prophesied,' and others soon after not only spoke but also ‘sang in the spirit.' These events were notified to Baptist Noel, the ministy of St. John's, Bedford Row, with a request for his sanction to the proceedings. This he not only refused to give, but preached publicly against the gifts. Cardale and his family soon after commenced attending the ministration of Edward Irving [q. v.] in the Caledonian chapel; special services were held in this chapel, were soon after Edward Oliver Taplin begun ‘speaking in the spirit in an unknown tongue.' Irving at first doubted about permitting these utterances, but found it useless to offer any opposition. On Sunday, 16 Oct. 1831, at the morning service, in the presence of upwards of fifteen hundred people, Miss Hall ‘spoke in an unknown tongue,' caused a violent excitement. Cardale defended Irving before the London presbytery of the Scotch church, and after the verdict against him ordained him in Newman Street, 5 April 1883, to be the ‘angel' or minister of that chapel. At first the sect called themselves the Church or the Catholic Church, but the name was afterwards changed to the Catholic Apostolic Church; the general public, however, called it the Irvingite Church, and in some books it is called the Millennium Church. Edward Irving neither had nor claimed to have any hand in its foundation. Cardale entered on his office of apostle at Christmas 1832, and for nearly a year was the sole representative of the twelve apostles. After Mr. H. Drummond‘s appointment as an apostle, the seat of the central management of the church was fixed at Albury in Surrey, where he built a cathedral with a chapter-house annexed. On 14 July 1835 the twelve apostles, accompanied by seven prophets, retired to Albury, and spent two years and a half in consultation. In 1888 the parts of the world over which the church proposed to itinerate were divided into sections named after the tribes of Israel. England was called the tribe of Judah, the seat of a apostolic government; and was assigned to Cardale, ‘the pillar of the apostles.' Each of the appostles then entered on his special journey, remaining in England to overlook his tribe, and to a centre of communication between the dispersed labourers. In September 1842 a liturgy was adopted which was in great part the work of Cardale, and was compiled from ‘the law of Moses,' and from the liturgies of the Greek, Latin, and Anglican churches. Cardale continued for many years working hard for the benefit of the church, and visiting the oongregations throughout the United Kingdom. On 14 July 1877, on attending the forty-second commemoration of the ‘Separation of the Twelve’ in Gordon Square, he was taken ill, and after being removed to his house, Cooke’s Place, Albury, died on Wednesday, 18 Jul 1877, and was buried in Albury churchyard The loss to his church can hardly be estimated. His strength of will, calmness and clearness of judgment, and kindness of heart and manner, added to the prestige of his long rule, made him a tower of strength. He was indefatigable in labour, of which he accomplished a vast amount; besides Latin and Greek, he was a good French and German scholar, and late in life learnt Danish. He appears to have been quite sincere in his belief and oonfident in the fulfilment of his expectations. Besides being an apostle he was, like Henry Drummond, also a prophet. He married on 9 Sept. 1824 Emma, second daughter of Thomas William Plummer of Clapham. She died at Albury 31 March 1873.

He was the author of the following works, all of which are anonymous, and the majority of which were printed for private circulation only: 1. 'A Manual or Summary of Special Objects of Faith and Hops,' 1848. 2. ‘The Confession of the Church,' 1848. 3. ‘Readings on the Liturgy,’ vol. i. 1849-51, and vol. ii. 1852-78. 4. ‘A Discourse delivered in the Catholic Apostolic Church, Gordon Square on the occasion of the occasion of consecrating the Altar and opening the Church for Public Worship,' 1863. 5. ‘Letters on certain Statements contained in some late Articles in the “Old Church Porch,” entitled Irvingism,' 1855; reprinted, 1867. 6. ‘The Doctrine of the Eucharist as revealed to St. Paul, 1856;' second ed. 1878. 7. ‘Three Discourses on Miracles and Miraculous Power,’ 1856. 8. ‘A Discourse on Tithes,' 1858. 9. ‘ The Unlawfulness of Marriage with a Deceased Wife‘s Sister,’ 1859. 10. 'Ministry on All Saints,’ 1869. 11. ‘Note on Revelations,' 1860. 12. 'Two Disooursss at Albury on certain Errors,‘ 1860. 13. ‘The Duty of a Christian in the Disposal of his Income,'

1868. 14. ‘The Certainty of Final Judgment,' 1884; second ed. 1864. 15. ‘The Character of our present Testimony and Work,' 1885. 16. ‘Notes and Ministrison Office of a Coadjutor,’1865. 17. ‘Remarks on the Republication of Articles from the “Old Church Porch,"' 1867. 18. ‘A Discourse on the Real Presence,' 1867; second ed. 1868. 19. ‘Remarks on the Lambeth Conference,' 1868. 20. ‘The Church in this Dispensation, an Election,’ 1868. 21. ‘A Discourse on Holy Water, and on the Removal of the Sacrament on the Lord’s Day,' 1868. 22. 'A Discourse on Prophesying, 1868. 23. ‘Christ's Disciples must suffer Tribulation,' 1869. 24. ‘The Fourfold Ministry,' 1871. 25. ‘An Address to the Seven Churches,’ 1873. 26. ‘The Doctrine of the Incarnation,' 1873. 27. ‘A Short Sermon on War,' 1876. 28. ‘Four Discourses to Young Men.' According to the census of 1851 the Catholic Apostolic church had thirty congregations in England, and about 6,000 communicants. A calculation was made in 1877 that the members of the church in all countries amounted to 10,500, but there are no means of checking the accuracy of this statement. Miss Emily Cardale, sister of Cardale, and a prophetess of the Catholic Apostolic church, married Mr. James Hore, and died at Western Lodge, Albury, on 18 April 1879, aged 71.

[Mrs. Olipbant's life of Irving. 4th ed. pp. 356, 396, 398 ; Miller's Irvingism (1878), i. 68 &c., ii. 416; Baxter's Irvingism, its fate and Progress (1836) ; The Old Church Porch (1854), i. 87, 209; The Morning Watch (1830), n. 869-873 ; Law Times (1877), lxiiii, 372. 397 ; Saturday Review, 38 July 1877, pp. l04-5; Clement Boase's Catalogue of Books relating to Catholic Apostolic Church (1885), pp. 9-12 ; private information.]

G. C. B.