Clinkenbeard v. United States
ERROR to the Circuit Court for the Southern District of Ohio; the case being thus:
The internal revenue law of July 20th, 1868,  in its twentieth section, which relates to distillers, after enacting that the assessor shall determine each month whether the distiller has accounted for all the spirits produced, and directing how the quantity shall be determined, thus enacts:
. . . 'In case the return of the distiller shall have been less than the quantity thus ascertained, the distiller, or other person liable, shall be assessed for such deficiency at the rate of fifty cents for every proof gallon, together with the special tax of $4 for every cask of forty proof gallons.
'But in no case shall the quantity of spirits returned by the distiller, together with the quantity so assessed, be for a less quantity of spirits than eighty per centum of the producing capacity of the distillery; as estimated under the provisions of this act.'
The twenty-second section of the same act, after providing that from an hour after he has given bond, 'every distiller shall be deemed to be continuously engaged in the production to distilled spirits in his distillery, except in the intervals when he shall have suspended work as hereinafter authorized or provided,' goes on thus to enact:
'Any distiller desiring to suspend work in his distillery may given notice in writing to the assistant assessor of his division, stating when he will suspend work; and on the day mentioned in said notice said assistant assessor shall, at the expense of the distiller, proceed to fasten securely the door of every furnace of every still or boiler in said distillery, by locks and otherwise, and shall adopt such other means as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue shall prescribe to prevent the lighting of any fire in such furnance or under such stills or boilers. No distiller, after having given such notice, shall, after the time stated therein, carry on the business of a distiller on said premises, until he shall have given another notice in writing to said assessor, stating the time when he will resume work; and at the time so stated for resuming work, the assistant assessor shall attend at the distillery to remove said locks and other fastenings, and thereupon, and not before, work may be resumed in said distillery.'
'When approved by the commissioner, a storekeeper will be assigned to such warehouse.
'Such warehouse must be established for each distillery before any spirits are distilled.'So far as to the enactments or regulations specially relating to distillers.
Certain statutes relating to the recovery of taxes wrongfully collected, and which apply to them as to other taxpayers, are as follows:
An act of June 30th, 1864,  enacts:
'SECTION 44. That the Commissioner of Internal Revenue . . . is hereby authorized, on appeal to him made, to remit, refund, and pay back all duties erroneously or illegally assessed or collected.'
Section nineteen of an act of July 13th, 1866,  however, provides:
'That no suit shall be maintained in any court for the recovery of any tax alleged to have been erroneously or illegally assessed or collected, until appeal shall have been duly made to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, . . . and a decision of said commissioner be had thereon,' &c.
These various statutes and regulations being in force, the United States sued Clinkenbeard, a distiller, and his sureties, in debt, on his bond given as a distiller, and dated 11th September, 1868.
Breach, that for the month of October, 1868, Clinkenbeard (the principal) distilled 38,901 proof gallons of spirits, and that there was a deficiency in his returns of 7977 gallons for that month; that the said deficiency was duly assessed, together with the special tax of $4 for every cask of forty proof gallons of said 38,901 gallons, as required by law, whch deficiency was still due and unpaid; 'nor has said Clinkenbeard . . . paid the tax which has been duly assessed upon the aggregate capacity of the said distillery for making and fermenting grain for the month aforesaid.'
Pleas non est factum and performance; on which pleas issue was taken.
The plaintiffs, at the trial, gave in evidence the assessment for deficiency referred to in the declaration. The defendants offered in evidence Clinkenbeard's tri-monthly returns, regularly made, on which he had paid the tax, and then offered to show that on the first four days for which taxes were assessed against him by said assessment of deficiency, he was unable to operate his distillery because no storekeeper had been assigned by the government to said distillery; and that for four other days, viz., from 8th to 12th October, he had, by reason of an unavoidable accident, been unable to operate said distillery; that he had given notice required by law of the accident (which notices were produced), and that the machinery during said time was securely fastened by an assistant assessor, and remained fastened, as required by law; and that said four days were included in said assessment for deficiency.
This evidence was overruled, and a verdict and judgment were rendered for $4000 against the defendants. A bill of exceptions was taken, and the question here was whether the defence offered by the defendants was competne or not.
Mr. G. H. Williams, Attorney-General, and Mr. S. F. Phillips, Solicitor-General, in support of the view that it was not, and of the action of the court below:
The breaches assigned in the declaration are, failure to pay certain taxes assessed, viz., (1) a deficiency tax on about eight thousand gallons of spirits, together with a special tax on about thirty-nine thousand gallons; and (2) a capacity tax on his distillery.
Upon the trial, the plaintiffs gave in evidence an assessment for a deficiency; and thereupon the defendants offered to show that for several days during the month for which such assessment had been made, his distillery had been idle.
This evidence was properly excluded.
1st. The case does not show that the assessment was upon the capacity of the distillery. It may be that the quantity of material returned by the distiller as actually used by him during the month warranted the assessment made, and that there was no need to apply the rule of the statute merely imputing 80 per cent. production. The assessment in question may amount to more than 80 per cent. We see nothing in the case to warrant the assumption in the brief of the learned counsel, that this was a mere capacity-tax.
If the assessment were because of material actually used, then the plaintiffs in error have no case.
2d. Supposing this were a mere capacity-tax, then the assessment is final against the principal, because of his failing to appeal therefrom to a commissioner. It is equally so with the sureties, the plea being as it is, joint. Unless the defence made out under it is good for all, it fails for all. 
Messrs. Hoadly and Johnson, contra, for the plaintiff in error.
Mr. Justice BRADLEY delivered the opinion of the court.
^1 15 Stat. at Large, 133.
^2 Series 5, No. 7; see also §§ 15 and 21 of the act of July 20th, 1868.
^3 Page 15, Series 5, No. 7.
^4 13 Stat. at Large, 239.
^5 14 Id. 152.
^6 United States v. Linn, 1 Howard, 104.