Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Newark (New Jersey)

NEWARK, the largest city of New Jersey, and the county-seat of Essex co. It is on Newark Bay and extends to the mouth of the Passaic river. It is on the Pennsylvania, the Lehigh Valley, Central of New Jersey, Lackawanna, and the Erie railroads. The city has an area of about 24 miles. Surrounding it are a number of smaller suburban communities, including Belleville, Bloomfield, Montclair, the Oranges, Harrison, Irvington, and others. These are all connected with the city by trolley and steam railway lines. The city is pre-eminently a manufacturing center. There were in 1920 over 2,300 manufacturing establishments. The total capital invested in manufacturing was over $275,000,000. There were nearly 125,000 operatives employed. The total value of the raw material used in 1918 was $230,000,000 and the value of the finished product was $375,000,000. There were over 250 distinct lines of manufacture represented. In 1910 Newark ranked eleventh in the cities of the United States and in aggregate value of manufactured products. It is the chief city for the manufacture of fine jewelry in the United States. It produces the largest and best grades of leather for shoes, carriages, and upholstery. The first malleable iron produced was manufactured in Newark. Among the chief manufactures in addition to those mentioned are cut glass, celluloid, patent leather, chemicals, paints and varnish, and foundry products. Newark is a great insurance center. It has three large important insurance companies, which had a total income in 1918 of $252,542,844. There were in 1918 nine National banks, one city bank, 10 trust companies, 5 savings institutions. There were over 150,000 depositors in the savings banks. The total bank clearings in 1918 amounted to $950,000,000. There are 28 city banks and 6 county banks within the city limits. It has an excellent system of public schools. There were in 1918 67 of these. The value of school property was about $12,000,000. The number of pupils enrolled in the schools constituted 75,000. In addition there were 26 parish schools and 7 private schools. The water supply of the city is taken from the Pequanac river in the north Jersey hills. There are excellent hospital facilities in the city. Among the notable buildings are the home buildings of the life and fire insurance companies, banks, city buildings and a large number of handsome private residences. Newark is administered by the commission form of government which was brought about by referendum on Oct. 9, 1917. The city was first settled in 1666 by a number of Congregationalists from Connecticut. Pop. (1910) 347,469; (1920) 414,524.