TOPEKA, a city of Kansas, the county seat of Shawnee co. It is on the Kansas river and the Missouri Pacific, the Union Pacific, the Atchison, Topeka and Sante Fe, the Leavenworth and Topeka, and the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific railroads. It has an area of about 16 square miles. The city is laid out in unusually attractive lines and the streets are adorned with beautiful shade trees. The notable buildings include the State Capitol, the Kansas Memorial Building, public library. United States Government building, State Museum, county court house, city hill and an auditorium. It is the seat of Washington College, and also has a State insane asylum and a State reform school, as well as many important local and charitable institutions. The industries are chiefly those connected with the Santa Fe Railroad shops. There are also manufactures of machinery, lumber, boilers, woolen goods, etc. There is a considerable wholesale jobbing business. Topeka was founded in 1854 by eastern anti-slavery men following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill. In 1856 an antislavery convention adopted the Topeka Constitution and the Topeka Government was established. This, however, was soon broken up by United States troops. In 1857 it was chartered as a city and in 1861 became the capital of the State. Pop. (1910), 43,684; (1920), 50,022.