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DALYELL or DALZELL, Sir ROBERT sixth Earl of Carnwath (d. 1737), was the eldest son of Sir John Dalyell of Glenae, Dumfriesshire, by his wife Harriet, second daughter of Sir William Murray of Stanhope, bart. He was educated at the university of Cambridge, and like his other relations was a zealous supporter of the Stuarts. On the death of the fifth earl of Carnwath in 1703 he succeeded him as sixth earl; but the property of Carnwath had previous to this been sold by the fourth earl to Sir George Lockhart, lord president of the Court of Session. His brother, the Hon. John Dalyell, who was married to a daughter of Viscount Kenmure, on learning of the arrival of the Earl of Mar in 1715 resigned his commission as captain in the army, and set off immediately to the earl's residence at Elliock, to give the news and obtain the co-operation of the other Jacobite nobles of the south of Scotland. On 27 Aug. the Earl of Carnwath attended the so-called hunting-match convened by the Earl of Mar at Aberdeen, and being summoned to Edinburgh to give bail for his allegiance he disregarded the summons. He joined the forces which, under Viscount Kenmure, assembled at Moffat on 11 Oct., and on the arrival at Kelso William Irvine, his episcopalian chaplain, on 23 Oct. delivered the identical sermon he had preached in the highlands twenty-six years before, in the presence of Dundee. On their arrival at Langholm on 30 Oct. a detachment of two hundred horse, divided into squadrons commanded respectively by Lords Wintoun and Carnwath, were sent forward in advance to hold Dumfries; but learning at Ecclefechan that it was strongly defended, information was sent to Viscount Kenmure, who determined to abandon the intended attack, and led his forces into England. The Earl of Carnwath and his brother, the Hon. John Dalyell, were both taken prisoners at Preston on 14 Nov. The latter was tried by court-martial as a deserter, but was able to prove that he had resigned his commission before joining the rebels. The earl, along with Viscount Kenmure and the other leaders of the southern rebellion in Scotland, were impeached on 18 Jan. before the House of Lords for high treason, when he pleaded guilty and threw himself on the mercy of the king. He was condemned, with the other lords, to be beheaded, but was respited, until ultimately his life was protected by the indemnity. He was four times married: first, to Lady Grace Montgomery, third daughter of the ninth Earl of Eglinton, by whom he had two daughters; second, to Grizel, daughter of Alexander Urquhart of Newhall, by whom he had a son, Alexander, who succeeded to the estates; third, to Margaret, daughter of John Hamilton of Bangor, by DALYELL or DALZELL, THOMAS (1599?–1685), of Binns, general, was descended from a family which possessed the barony of Dalyell as early as the thirteenth century, and, having acquired the property of Carnwath about the end of the sixteenth century, was ennobled in the person of Sir Robert Dalyell, who was created Lord Dalyell 18 Sept. 1628, and Earl of Carnwath in 1639. The general's father, Thomas Dalyell, who acquired the property of Binns, Linlithgowshire, in 1629, was a second cousin of the first Earl of Carnwath, and his mother, Janet Bruce, was the daughter of the first Lord Bruce of Kinloss. He was born about 1599, and seems to have taken part in the Rochelle expedition in 1628 as captain in the Earl of Morton's regiment (State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1628–9, p. 323). In 1640 he was serving under Major Robert Monro at Aberdeen, and on 3 July was sent with fifty-eight musketeers to protect two Scottish barques which had been driven into the cove by a ship of war (Spalding, Memorials, i. 296). He accompanied Monro in his expedition to Ireland 8 April 1642, having obtained a commission as colonel to command 2,500 men (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. pt. ii. appendix, p. 236). For a considerable time he was in command at Carrickfergus, and on 1 Aug. 1649 received from Sir George Monro, who had succeeded his father, Robert Monro, as general, the management of the customs there (ib. 236). On the capitulation of Carrickfergus he obtained from Sir Charles Coote a free pass, dated 15 Aug. 1650, to go out of Ireland whither he pleased (ib. 236), but on 4 June had, with other prominent royalists, been banished the kingdom of Scotland on pain of death (Nicolls, Diary, 14; Balfour, Annals, iv. 42). He therefore remained some time in Ireland, and on 30 Dec. 1650 appealed against the order of banishment made in his absence and without hearing his defence (Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, vol. vi., pt. ii., p. 638). On 6 May following he was appointed by the king a general major of foot, and fought on 3 Sept. at Worcester, where his brigade, which had possessed themselves of St. Johns, without any great resistance laid down their arms and craved quarter (Boscobel Tracts, p. 34). Dalyell was taken prisoner, and on 16 Sept. committed to the Tower (State Papers, Dom. Ser., 1651, p. 432), five shillings a week being allowed for his maintenance (ib. 1651–2, p. 96). He escaped in the following May, and, although a committee was appointed 1 June to examine into the manner of his escape (ib. 1651–2, p. 272), and an order made to search for him (ib. 566), got clear off to the continent. In March 1654 he appeared off the northern coasts of Scotland, and assisted in the rebellion in the highlands in that year, being lieutenant-general of infantry under Middleton (Cal. Clarendon State Papers, ii. 305). He was specially excluded from Cromwell's act of grace, and on 4 May a reward of 200l. and a free pardon was offered by General Monck to any one who should deliver him, or any one of certain other prominent rebels, up to the English garrison dead or alive (Cal. Clarendon State Papers, ii. 365; Thurloe State Papers, ii. 261). He reached the continent again in safety, and there received from Charles a special letter of thanks dated Cologne 30 Dec. 1654. The royalist cause being for the time hopeless, Dalyell determined to enter foreign service, and received from Charles II, 17 Aug. 1655, a letter of recommendation to the King of Poland, another to Prince Radzivill, and also a general pass and recommendation (all printed in the Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. pt. ii. 235, from the originals at Binns). On the strength of these strong recommendations he was made a lieutenant-general by the Tsar Alexis, who had special use for the services of him and other Scotch officers, in introducing a more regular system of discipline into his army. After taking part in the wars against the Poles, Dalyell obtained the rank of full general, in which capacity he served in several campaigns against the Tartars and Turks. In 1665, at the request of Charles II, who was in need of his services in Scotland, he obtained permission from the czar to return ‘to his country,’ with a patent testifying that he was ‘a man of virtue and honour, and of great experience in military affairs’ (ib. 236). On 19 July 1666 he was appointed commander-in-chief in Scotland (ib. 237), with the special purpose of curbing the covenanters. A commission was also given him to raise a troop of horse in the regiment of which Lieutenant-general Drummond was colonel (ib. 236), and another making him colonel of ten companies of a regiment of foot (ib. 236). On 28 Nov. he dispersed the covenanters at Rullion Green in the Pentlands, taking many prisoners with him to Edinburgh. His forces were then ordered to lie in the west, ‘ where,’ says Burnet, ‘Dalyell acted the Muscovite too grossly. He threatened to spit men and to roast them,