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CONTENTS

OF THE SECOND PART.

FIRST BOOK.

INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRACY ON THE PROGRESS OF OPINION IN THE UNITED STATES.


CHAPTER I. Page
Philosophical method among the Americans 1
CHAPTER II.
Of the principal source of belief among democratic nations 8
CHAPTER III.

Why the Americans display more readiness and more taste for general ideas than their forefathers the English

14
CHAPTER IV.

Why the Americans have never been so eager as the French for general ideas in political matters

20
CHAPTER V.

Of the manner in which religion in the United States avails itself of democratic tendencies

22
CHAPTER VI.
Of the progress of Roman Catholicism in the United States 33
CHAPTER VII.
Of the cause of a leaning to Pantheism amongst democratic nations 35
CHAPTER VIII.

The principle of equality suggests to the Americans the idea of the indefinite perfectibility of man

37
CHAPTER IX.

The example of the Americans does not prove that a democratic people can have no aptitude and no taste for science, literature, or art

40
CHAPTER X.

Why the Americans are more addicted to practical than to theoretical science

47
CHAPTER XI.
Of the spirit in which the Americans cultivate the arts 56
CHAPTER XII.

Why the Americans raise some monuments so insignificant and others so important

63
CHAPTER XIII.
Literary characteristics of democratic ages 65
CHAPTER XIV.
The trade of literature 72
CHAPTER XV.

The study of Greek and Latin literature peculiarly useful in democratic communities

73
CHAPTER XVI.
The effect of democracy on language 76
CHAPTER XVII.
Of some of the sources of poetry amongst democratic nations 85
CHAPTER XVIII.
Of the inflated style of American writers and orators 93
CHAPTER XIX.
Some observations on the Drama amongst democratic nations 95
CHAPTER XX.
Characteristics of historians in democratic ages 102
CHAPTER XXI.
Of Parliamentary eloquence in the United States 107




SECOND BOOK.

INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRACY ON THE FEELINGS OF THE AMERICANS.

CHAPTER I.
Why democratic nations show a more ardent and enduring love of equality than of liberty 113
CHAPTER II.
Of individualism in democratic communities 118
CHAPTER III.
Individualism stronger at the close of a democratic revolution than at other periods 121
CHAPTER IV.
That the Americans combat the effects of individualism by free institutions 123
CHAPTER V.
Of the use which the Americans make of public associations in civil life 128
CHAPTER VI.
Of the relation between public associations and newspapers 134
CHAPTER VII.
Connexion of civil and political associations 138
CHAPTER VIII.
The Americans combat individualism by the principle of interest rightly understood 145
CHAPTER IX.
That the Americans apply the principle of interest rightly understood to religious matters 150
CHAPTER X.
Of the taste for physical well-being in America 153
CHAPTER XI.
Peculiar effects of the love of physical gratifications in democratic ages 156
CHAPTER XII.
Causes of fanatical enthusiasm in some Americans 159
CHAPTER XIII.
Causes of the restless spirit of the Americans in the midst of their prosperity 161
CHAPTER XIV.
Taste for physical gratifications united in America to love of freedom and attention to public affairs 166
CHAPTER XV.
That religious belief sometimes turns the Americans to immaterial pleasures 170
CHAPTER XVI.
That excessive care of worldly welfare may impair that welfare 176
CHAPTER XVII.
That in times marked by equality of conditions it is important to remove to a distance the object of human actions 178
CHAPTER XVIII.
That amongst the Americans all honest callings are honourable 182
CHAPTER XIX.
That almost all the Americans follow industrial callings 184
CHAPTER XX.
That aristocracy may be engendered by manufacturers 190




THIRD BOOK.

INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRACY ON MANNERS, PROPERLY SO CALLED.

CHAPTER I.
That manners are softened as social conditions become more equal 195
CHAPTER II.
That democracy renders the habitual intercourse of the Americans simple and easy 201
CHAPTER III.
Why the Americans show so little sensitiveness in their own country, and are so sensitive in Europe 204
CHAPTER IV.
Consequences of the three preceding chapters 209
CHAPTER V.
How democracy affects the relation of masters and servants 211
CHAPTER VI.
That democratic instititutions and manners tend to raise rents and shorten the terms of leases 222
CHAPTER VII.
Influence of democracy on wages 226
CHAPTER VIII.
Influence of democracy on kindred 229
CHAPTER IXI.
Education of young women in the United States 237
CHAPTER X.
The young woman in the character of a wife 240
CHAPTER XI.
That the equality of conditions contributes to the maintenance of good morals in America 243
CHAPTER XII.
How the Americans understand the equality of the sexes 251
CHAPTER XIII.
That the principle of equality naturally divides the Americans into a number of small private circles 256
CHAPTER XIV.
Some reflections on American manners 259
CHAPTER XV.
Of the gravity of the Americans, and why it does not prevent them from often committing inconsiderate actions 264
CHAPTER XVI.
Why the national vanity of the Americans is more restless and captious than that of the English 268
CHAPTER XVII.
That the aspect of society in the United States is at once excited and monotonous 271
CHAPTER XVIII.
Of honour in the United States and in democratic communities 274
CHAPTER XIX.
Why so many ambitious men, and so little lofty ambition, are to be found in the United States 290
CHAPTER XX.
The trade of place-hunting in certain democratic countries 298
CHAPTER XXI.
Why great revolutions will become more rare 301
CHAPTER XXII.
Why democratic nations are naturally desirous of peace, and democratic armies of war 317
CHAPTER XXIII.
Which is the most warlike and most revolutionary class in democratic armies 325
CHAPTER XXIV.
Causes which render democratic armies weaker than other armies at the outset of a campaign, and more formidable in protracted warfare 330
CHAPTER XXV.
Of discipline in democratic armies 335
CHAPTER XXVI.
Some considerations on war in democratic communities 337




FOURTH BOOK.

INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRATIC OPINIONS AND SENTIMENTS ON POLITICAL SOCIETY.

CHAPTER I.
That equality naturally gives men a taste for free institutions 345
CHAPTER II.
That the notions of democratic nations on government are naturally favourable to the concentration of power 347
CHAPTER III.
That the sentiments of democratic nations accord with their opinions in leading to concentrate political power 351
CHAPTER IV.
Of certain peculiar and accidental causes which either lead a people to complete centralization of government, or which divert them from it 356
CHAPTER V.
That amongst the European governments of our time the power of governments is increasing although the persons who govern are less stable 363
CHAPTER VI.
What sort of despotism democratic nations have to fear 378
CHAPTER VII.
Continuation of the preceding chapters 385
CHAPTER VIII.
General survey of the subject 396
Appendix 401


DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA.



BY

ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE,


TRANSLATED BY

HENRY REEVE, Esq.


A NEW EDITION,

WITH AN INTRODUCTORY NOTICE BY THE TRANSLATOR.


IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.


LONDON:

LONGMAN, GEEEN, LONGMAN, AND ROBERTS.

1862.

JOHN EDWARD TAYLOR, PRINTER,

LITTLE QUEEN STREET, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS.