Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography/Athe'nae 3.

ATHE'NAE (Άθήναι; in Hom. Od. vii. 80, Άθήνη: Eth. Άθηναίος, fem. Άθηναία, Atheniensis), the capital of Attica.

I. Situation.

Athens is situated about three miles from the sea-coast, in the central plain of Attica, which is enclosed by mountains on every side except the mouth, where it is open to the sea. This plain is bounded on the NW. by Mt. Parnes, on the NE. by Mt. Pentelicus, on the SE. by Mt. Hymettus, and on the W. by Mt. Aegaleos. In the southern part of the plain there rise several eminences. Of these the most prominent is a lofty insulated mountain, with a conical peaked summit, now called the Hill of St. George, which used to be identified by topographers with the ancient Anchesmus, but which now admitted to be the more celebrated Lycabettus. This mountain, which was not included within the ancient walls, lies to the north-east of Athens, and forms the most striking feature in the environs of the city. It is to Athens, as a modern writer has aptly remarked, what Vesuvius is to Naples or Arthur's Seat to Edinburgh. South-west of Lycabettus there are four hills of moderate height, all of which formed part of the city. Of these the nearest to Lycabettus, and at the distance of a mile from the latter, was the Acropolis, or citadel of Athens, a square craggy rock rising abruptly about 190 feet, with a flat summit of about 1000 feet long from east to west, by 500 feet broad from north to south. Immediately west of the Acropolis is a second hill of irregular form, the Areiopagus. To the south-west there rises a third hill, the Pnyx, on which the assemblies of the citizens were held; and to the south of the latter is a fourth hill, known as the Museium. On the eastern and western sides of the city there run two small streams, both of which are nearly exhausted by the heats of summer and by the channels for artificial irrigation before they reach the sea. The stream on the east, called the Ilissus, was joined by the Eridanus close to the Lyceium outside the walls, and then flowed in a south-westerly direction through the southern quarter of the city. The stream on the west, named the Gephissus. runs due south, at the distance of about a mile and a half from the walls. South of the city was seen the Saronic Gulf, with the harbours of Athens.

The Athenian soil and climate exercised an important influence upon the buildings of the city. They are characterized by Milton in his noble lines: —

"Where on the Agean shore a city stands
Built nobly, pure the air, and light the soil."

The plain of Athens is barren and destitute of vegetation, with the exception of the long stream of olives which stretch from Mt. Parnes by the side of the Cephissus to the sea. "The buildings of the city possessed a property produced immediately by the Athenian soil. Athens stands on a bed of hard limestone rock, in most places thinly covered by a meagre surface of sdil. From this surface the rock itself frequently projects, and almost always is visible. Athenian ingenuity suggested, and Athenian dexterity has realized, the adaptation of such a soil to architectural purposes. Of this there remains the fullest evidence. In the rocky soil itself walls have been hewn, pavements levelled, steps and seats chiselled, cisterns excavated and niches scooped; almost every object that in a simple state of society would be necessary either for public or private fabrics, was thus, as it were, quarried in the soil of the city itself." (Wordsworth, Athens and Attica, p. 62.)

The surpassing beauty and clearness of the Athenian atmosphere naturally allowed the inhabitants to pass much of their time in the open air. Hence, as the same writer remarks, "we may in part account for the practical defects of their domestic architecture, the badness of their streets, and the proverbial meanness of the houses of the noblest individuals among them. Hence certainly it was that in the best days of Athens, the Athenians worshipped, they legislated, they saw dramatic representations, under the open sky." The transparent clearness of the atmosphere is noticed by Euripides (Med. 829), who describes the Athenians as άεί διά λαμπροτάτου βαίνοντες άβρώς αίθέρος. Modern travellers have not failed to notice the same peculiarity. Mr. Stanley speaks "of the transparent clearness, the brilliant colouring of an Athenian sky; of the flood of fire with which the marble columns, the mountains and the sea, are all bathed and penetrated by an illumination of an Athenian sunset." The epithet, which Ovid (Art. Am. iii. 389) applies to Hymettus — "purpureos colles Hymetti," is strictly correct; and the writer, whom we have just quoted, mentions "the violet hue which Hymettus assumes in the evening sky in contrast to the glowing furnace of the rock of Lycabettus, and the rosy pyramid of Pentelicus." (Stanley, in Classical Museum, vol. i. pp. 60, 61.)

We draw upon another intelligent traveller for a description of the scenery of Athens. "The great national amphitheatre of which Athens is the centre, possesses, in addition to its beauty, certain features of peculiarity, which render it the more difficult to form any adequate idea of its scenery, but from personal view. The chief of these is a certain degree of regularity, or rather oi symmetry, in the arrangement of the principal parts of the landscape, which enables the eye the better to apprehend its whole extent and variety at a single glance, and thus to enjoy the full effect of its collective excellence more per fectly than where the attention is distracted by a less orderly accumulation even of beautiful objects. Its more prominent characteristics are: first, the wide extent of open plain in the centre; secondly, the three separate ranges of mountain, — Hymettus, Pentelicus, and Parnes, — to the eye of nearly the same height, and bounding the plain at unequal distances on three sides, to the south-east, north-east, and north-west; thirdly, the sea on the remaining side, with its islands, and the distant mainland of Pelopannesus: fourthly, the cluster of rocky protuberances in the centre of the plain, the most striking of which either form part of the site of the city, or are grouped around it; and fifthly, the line of dark dense olive groves, winding like a large green river through the heart of the vale. Any formality, which might be expected to result from so symmetrical an arrangement of these leading elements of the composition, is further interrupted by the low graceful ridge of Turcovouni, extending behind the city up the centre of the plain; and by a few more marked undulations of its surface about the Peiraeeus and the neighbouring coast. The present barren and deserted state of this fair, but not fertile region, is perhaps rather favourable than otherwise to its full picturesque effect, as tending less to interfere with the outlines of the landscape, in which its beauty so greatly consists, than a dense population and high state of culture." (Mure, Tour of Greece, vol. ii. p. 37.)

II. History.

It is proposed to give here only a brief account of the history of the rise, progress, and fall of the City, as a necessary introduction to a more detailed examinatioan of its topography. The political history of Athens forms a prominent part of Grecian history, and could not be narrated in this place at sufficient length to be of any value to the student. The city of Athena, like many other Grecian cities, was originally confined to its Acropolis, and was afterwards extended over the plain and the adjacent hills. The original city on the Acropolis was said to have been built by Cecrops, and was hence called Cecropia (Κεκροπία) even in later times. (Strab. ix. p. 397; Eurip. Stuppl. 658, El. 1289.) Among his successors, the name of Erechtheus I., also called Erichthoniaus, was likewise preserved by the buildings of Athens. This king is said to have dedicated to Athena a temple on the Acropolis, and to have set up in it the image of the goddess, made of olive wood, — known in later times as the statue of Athena Polina, the most sacred object in all Athens. Erechtheus is further said to have been buried in this temple of Athena, which was henceforth called the Erechtheium. In his reign the inhabitants of the city, who were originally Pelasgians and called Cranai, and who were afterwards named Cecropidae from Cecrops, now received the name of Athenians, in consequence of the prominence which was given by him to the worship of Athena. (Herod, viii. 44.) Theseus, the national hero of Attica, is still more celebrated in connection with the early history of the city. He is said to have united into one political body the twelve independent states into which Cecrops had divided Attica, and to have made Athens the capital of the new state. This important revolution was followed by an increase of the population of the city, for whose accommodation Theseus enlarged Athens, by building on the ground to the south of the Cecropia or Acropolis. (Comp. Thuc. ii. 15.) The beautiful temple — the Theseium — erected at a later time in honour of this hero, remains in existence down to the present day. Homer mentions the city of Athens, and speaks of the temple of Athena in connection with Erechtheus. (Hom. Il. ii. 546, seq.) It was during the mythical age that the Pelasgians are said to have fortified the Acropolis. Their name continued to be given to the northern wall of the Acropolis, and to a space of ground bekow this wall in the plain. (Paus. i. 28. § 3; Thuc. ii. 17.)

In the historical age the first attempt to embellish Athens appears to have been made by Peisistratus and his sons (B.C. 560 — 514). Like several of the other Grecian despots, they erected many temples and other public buildings. Thus we are told that they founded the temple of Apollo Pythius (Thuc. vi. 54), and commenced the gigantic temple of the Olympian Zeus, which remained unfinished for centuries. (Aristot. Pol. v. 11.) In B.C. 500, the Dionysiac theatre was commenced on the south-eastern slope of the Acropolis, in consequence of the falling of the wooden construction in which the early dramas had been performed; but the new theatre was not completely finished till B.C. 340, although it must have been used for the representation of plays long before that time. (Paus. i. 29. § 16; Plut. Vit. X. Orat. pp. 841, 852.)

A new era in the history of the city commences with its capture by Xerxes, who reduced it almost to a heap of ashes, B.C. 480. This event was followed by the rapid development of the maritime power of Athens, and the establishment of her empire over the islands of the Aegean. Her own increasing wealth, and the tribute paid her by the subject states, afforded her ample means for the embellishment of the city; and during the half century which elapsed between the battle of Salamis and the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, the Athenians erected those masterpieces of architecture which have been the wonder and admiration of all succeeding ages. Most of the public buildings of Athens were erected under the administration of Themistocles, Cimon, and Pericles. The first of these celebrated men could do little towards the ornament of Athens; but Cimon and Pericles made it the most splendid city of Greece. The first object of Themistocles was to provide for the security of Athens by surrounding it with fortified walls. The new walls, on which we shall speak below, were 60 stadia in circumference, and embraced a much greater space than the previous walls; but the whole of this space was probably never entirely filled with buildings. The walls were erected in great haste, in consequence of the attempts of the Spartans to interrupt their progress; but though built with great irregularity, they were firm and solid. (Thuc. i. 93.) After providing for the security of the city, the next object of Themistockes was to extend her maritime power. Seeing that the open roadstead of Phalerum, which had been previously used by the Athenians, was insecure for ships, he now resolved to fortify the more spacious harbours in the peninsula of Peiraeeus. He surrounded it with a wall, probably not less than 14 or 15 feet thick; but the town was first regularly laid out by Hippodamus, of Miletus, in the time of Pericles.

Under the administration of Cimon the Theseium was built, and the Stoa Poecilé adorned with paintings by Micon, Polygnotus, and Pantaenus. Cimon planted and adorned the Academy and the Agora; and he also built tbs southern wall of the Acropolis, which continued to be called by his name.

It was to Pericles, however, that Athens was chiefly indebted for her architectural splendour. On the Acropolis, he built those wonderful works of art, the Parthenon, the Erechtheium, and the Propylaea; in the city he erected a new Odeium; and outside the walls he improved and enlarged the Lyceium. The completion of the Erechtheium appears to have been prevented by the outbreak of the Peloponnesian war; but the Parthenon, the Propylaea, and the Odeium, were finished in the short space of 15 years. He also connected Athens with Peiraeeus by the two long walls, and with Phalerum by a third wall, known by the name of the Phaleric wall.

The Petopomie^an war put a stop to any farther public buildings at Athens. On the capture of the city in B.C. 404, the long walls and the fortifications of the Peiraeeus were destroyed by the Lacedaemonians; but they were again restored by Conon in B.C. 393, after gaining his great naval victory over the Lacedaemonians off Cnidus. (Xen. Hell. iv. 8. § 10; Diod. xiv. 85.) The Athenians now began to turn their thoughts again to the improvement of their city; and towards the close of the reign of Philip, the orator Lycurgus, who was entrusted with the management of the finances, raised the revenue to 1200 talents, and thus obtained means for defraying the expenses of public buildings. It was at this time that the Dionysiac theatre and the Stadium were completed, and that further improvements were made in the Lyceium. Lycurgus also provided for the security of the city by forming a magazine of arms in the Acropolis, and by building dock-yards in the Peiraeeus. (Plut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 841, seq.)

After the battle of Chaeroneia (B.C. 338) Athens became a dependency of Macedonia, — though she continued to retain her nominal independence down to the time of the Roman dominion in Greece. It was only on two occasions that she suffered materially from the wars, of which Greece was so long the theatre. Having sided with the Romans in their war with the last Philip of Macedonia, this monarch invaded the territory of Athens; and though the walls of the city defied his attacks, he destroyed all the beautiful temples in the Attic plain, and all the suburbs of the city, B.C. 200. (Liv. xxxi. 26.) Athens experienced m still greater calamity upon its capture by Sulla in B.C. 86. It had espoused the cause of Mithridates, and was taken by assault by Sulla after a siege of several months. The Roman general destroyed the long walls, and the fortifications of the city and of Peiraeeus; and from this time the commerce of Athens was annihilated, and the maritime city gradually dwindled into an insignificant place.

Under the Romans Athens continued to enjoy great prosperity. She was still the centre of Grecian philosophy, literature and art, and was frequented by the Romans as a school of learning and refinement Wherever the Grecian language was spoken, and the Grecian literature studied, Athens was held in respect and honour; and, as Leake has remarked, we cannot have a more striking proof of this fact than that the most remarkable buildings erected at Athens, after the decline of her power, were executed at the expense of foreign potentates. The first example of this generosity occurred in B.C. 275, when Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, built a gymnasium near the temple of Theseus (Paus, i. 17. § 2). About B.C. 240 Attalus, king of Pergamus ornamented the south-east wall of the Acropolis with four compositions in statuary. (Paus i. 25. § 8.) In honour of these two benefactors, the Athenians gave the names of Ptolemais and Attalis to the two tribes, which had been formed by Demetrius Poliorcetes on the liberation of Athens from Cassander, and which had been named Demetrias and Antigonis in honour of Demetrius and his father Antigonus. (Paus. i. 5. § 5, 8. § 1.)

About B.C. 174 Antiochus Epiphanes commenced the completion of the temple of Zeus Olympius, which had been left unfinished by the Peisistratidae, but the work was interrupted by the death of this monarch. Soon after the capture of Athens by Sulla, Ariobarzanes II., king of Macedonia, repaired the Odeium of Pericles, which had been partially destroyed in the siege. Julius Caesar and Augustus contributed to the erection of the portico of Athena Archegetis, which still exists.

But Hadrian (A.D. 117—138) was the greatest benefactor of Athens. He not only completed the temple of Zeus Olympius, which had remained unfinished for 700 years, but adorned the city with numerous other public buildings, — two temples, a gymnasium, a library and a stoa, — and gave the name of Hadrianopolis to a new quarter of the city, which he supplied with water by an aqueduct (Comp. Paus. i. 18.) Shortly afterwards a private individual emulated the imperial munificence. Herodes Atticus, a native of Marathon, who lived in the reigns of Antoninus and M. Aurelius, built a magnificent theatre on the south-western side of the Acropolis, which bore the name of his wife Regilla, and also covered with Pentelic marble the seats in the Stadium of Lycurgus.

Athens was never more splendid than in the time of the Antonines. The great works of the age of Pericles still possessed their original freshness and perfection (Plut. Pericl. 13); the colossal Olympieinm — the largest temple in all Greece, — had at length been completed; and the city had yet lost few of its unrivalled works of art It was at this epoch that Athens was visited by Pansanias, to whose account we are chiefky indebted for our knowledge of its topography. From the time of the Antonines Athens received no further embellishments, but her public buildings appear to have existed in undiminished glory till the third or even the fourth century of the Christian era. Their gradual decay may be attributed partly to the declining prosperity of the city, which could not afford to keep them in repair, and partly to the fell of paganism and the progress of the new faith.

The walls of Athens, which had been in ruins since the time of their destruction by Sulla, were repaired by Valerian in A.D. 258 (Zosim. i. 29); and the fortifications of the city protected it from the attacks of the Goths and the other barbarians. In the reign of Gallienus, A.D. 267, the Goths forced their way into the city, but were driven out by Dexippus, an Athenian. In A.D. 396 Alaric appeared before Athens, but not having the means of taking it by force, he accepted its hospitality, and entered it as a friend.

Notwithstanding the many edicts issued against paganism by Theodosius, Arcadius, Honorius, and Theodosius the younger in the fourth and fifth centuries, the pagan religion continued to flourish at Athens till the abolition of its schools of philosophy by Justinian in the sixth century. It was probably at this time that many of its temples were converted into churches. Thus the Parthenon, or temple of the Virgin-goddess, became a church consecrated to the Virgin-Mother; and the temple of Theseus was dedicated to the warrior St. George of Cappadocia. The walls of Athens were repaired by Justinian. (Procop. de Aedif. iv., 2.)

During the middle ages Athens sunk into a provincial town, and is rarely mentioned by the Byzantine writers. After the capture of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, Boniface, Marquis of Montferrat obtained the greater part of northern Greece, which he governed under the title of king of Thessalonica. He bestowed Athens as a duchy upon one of his followers; and the city remained in the hands of the Franks, with many alternations of fortune, till its incorporation into the Turkish empire in 1466. The Parthenon was now converted from a Christian church into a Turkish mosque. In 1687 the buildings of the Acropolis suffered severe injury in the siege of Athens by the Venetians under Morosini. Hitherto the Parthenon had remained almost uninjured for 5,000 years; but it was now reduced to a ruin by the explosion of a quantity of powder which had been placed in it by the Turks. "A few years before the siege, when Wheler, Span, and De Nointel visited Athens, the Propylaea still preserved its pediment; the temple of Victory Apterus was complete; the Parthenon, or great temple of Minerva, was perfect, with the exception of the roof, and of the central figures in the eastern, and of two or three in the western pediment; the Erechtheium was so little injured that it was used as the harem of a Turkish house; and there were still remains of buildings and statues on the southern side of the Parthenon. If the result of the siege did not leave the edifice of the Acropolis in the deplorable state in now see them, the injury which they received on that occasion was the cause of all the dilapidation which they have since suffered, and rendered the transportation of the fallen fragments of sculpture out of Turkey their best preservative from total destruction. (Leake, Topography of Athens, p. 86.) Spon and Wheler visited Athens in 1675; and have left an account of the buildings of the Acropolis, as they existed before the siege of Morosini. In 1834 Athens was declared the capital of the new kingdom of Greece; and since that time much light been thrown upon the topography of the ancient city by the labours of modern scholars, of which an account is given in the course of the present article.

III. Divisions of the City.

Athens consisted of three distinct parts, united within one line of fortifications. 1. The Acropolis or Polis (ή Άκρόπολις, Πόλις), From the city having been originally confined to the Acropolis, the latter was constantly called Polis in the historical period. (Thuc. ii. 15.) It is important to bear this fact in mind, since the Greek writers frequently use the word Polis, without any distinguishing epithet to indicate the Acropolis. (Aesch. Eum.687, Dind.; Aristoph. Lysistr.. 759, 911 ; Arrian, Anab. iii. 16.) Hence the Zeus of the Acropolis was surnamed Πολιεύς and the Athena Πολιάς. At the same time it must be observed that Polis like the word City in London, was used in a more extended significa- tion. (Leake, p. 221, note.) 2. The Asty (τό Άστυ), the upper town, in opposition to the lower town of Peiraeens (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 10), and therefore, in its widest sense, including the Polis. Sometimes, however, the Asty is called the Lower City (ή κάτω πόλις), in opposition to the Acropolis or Upper City. To prevent confusion we shall confine the term of Polis to the Acropolis, and Asty to the Upper City as distinguished from the Peiraeens. 3. The Port-Towns, Peiraeeus, including Munychia and Phalerum. Peiraeeus and Munychia were surrounded by the same fortifications, and were united to the Asty by the Long Walls. Phalerum, the ancient port-town of Athens, was also united for a time to the Asty by the Phaleric wall, but was not included within the fortifications of Peiraeeus. The topography of these three divisions of Athens will be given in succession, after describing the walls and gates, and making some remarks upon the extent and population of the city.

IV. Walls.

The true position of the Walls of the Asty was first pointed out by Forchhammer, in his able essay on the Topography of Athens (published in the Kieler philologische Studien, Kiel, 1841). He successfully defended his views in the Zeitschrift fur die Alterthumswissenschaft (1843, Nos. 69, 70), in reply to the criticisms of Curtius; and most modern scholars have acquiesced in the main in his opinions. The accompanying map of Athens, taken from Kiepert, gives the direction of the walls according to Forchhammer's views; but as Leake, even in the second edition of his Topography, has assigned a more limited extent to the walls of the Asty, the matter must be examined at some length, as it is one of great importance for the whole topography of the city.

It is in the direction of the western and southern portion of the walls that Forchhammer chiefly differs from his predecessors. Leake supposes that the walls built by Themistocles ran from the gate Dipylum across the crest of the hills of the Nymphs, of the Pnyx, and of the Museium, and then north of the Ilissus, which would thus have flowed outside the walls. This view seems to be supported by the fact that across the crest of the hills of Pnyx and Museium, the foundations of the walls and of some of the towers are dearly traceable; and that vestiges of the walls between Musieum and Enneacrunus may also be distinguished in many places. Forchhammer, on the other hand, maintains that these remains do not belong to the walls of Themistocles, but to the fortifications of a later period, probably those erected by Valerian, when the population of the city had diminished. (Zoeim. i. 29.) That the walls of Themistocles must have included a much greater circuit than these remains will allow, may be proved by the following considerations.

Thucydides gives an exact account of the extent of the fortifications of the Asty and the Harbours, including the Long Walls, as they existed at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war. He says (ii. 13) "the length of the Phaleric Wall (τό Φαληρικόν τείχος) to the walls of the Asty was 35 stadia. The part of the walls of the Asty which was guarded was 43 stadia. The part that was left unguarded lay between the long wall and the Phaleric. Now the Long Walls (τά μακρά τείχη), running down to the Peiraeeus, were 40 stadia in length, of which

the outer one (τό έξωθεν) was guarded. The whole circumference of Peiraeeus, with Munychia, was 60 stadia, but the guarded part was only half that extent." It is clear from this passage that the Asty was connected with the port-towns by three walls, namely the Phaleric, 35 stadia long, and the two Long Walls, each 40 stadia long. The two Long Walls ran in a south-westerly direction to Peiraeeus, parallel to, and at the distance of 550 feet from one another. The Phaleric Wall appears to have ran nearly due south to Phalerum, and not parallel to the other two; the direction of the Phaleric Wall depending upon the site of Phalerum, of which we shall speak under the port-towns. (See plan, p. 256.)

The two Long Walls were also called the Legs (τά Σκέλη, Strab. ix. p. 395; Polyaen. i. 40; Brachia by Livy, xxxi. 26), and were distinguished as the Northern Wall (τό Βόρειον τείχος, Plat. de Rep. iv. p. 439) and the Southern Wall (τό Νότιον, Harpocrat. s. v. Διαμέσου; Aeschin. de Fals. Leg. § 51). The former is called by Thucydides, in the passage quoted above, the Outer (τό έξωθεν), in opposition to the Inner or the Intermediate wall (τό διαμέσ ου τείχος, Harpocrat l. c.; Plat. Gorg. p. 455), which lay between the Phaleric and the northern Long Wall.

The northern Long Wall and the Phaleric Wall were the two built first They are said by Plutarch to have been commenced by Cimon (Plut. Cim. 13); but, according to the more trustworthy account of Thucydides they were commenced in B.C. 457, during the exile of Cimon, and were finished in the following year. (Thuc. i. 107, 108) There can be no doubt that their erection was undertaken at the advice of Pericles, who was thus only carrying out more fully the plans of Themistocles to make Athens a maritime power and to secure an uninterrupted communication between the city and its harbours in time of war. Between B.C. 456 and 431 , — the commencement of the Pelopoonesian war, — the Intermediate wall was built upon the advice of Pericles, whom Socrates heard recommending this measure in the assembly. (Plat Gorg. p. 455; comp. Plut. Per. 13; Harpocrat s. v.) The object of building this intermediate wall was to render the communication between the Asty and Peiraeeos more secure. The distance between the northern Long Wall and the Phaleric was considerable; and consequently each of them required the same number of men to man them as the two Long Walls together, which were separated from one another by so small an interval. Moreover, the harbour of Phalerum was no longer used by the Athenian ships of war; and it was probably considered inexpedient to protect by the same fortifications the insignificant Phalerum and the all-important Peiraeeus.

After the erection of the Intermediate Wall, the Phaleric wall was probably allowed to fall into decay. When the Lacedaemonians took Athens, we find mention of their destroying only two Long Walls (Xen. Hell. ii. 2), since the communication of the Asty with the Peiraeeus depended entirely upon the Long Walls. There can be no doubt that when Conon rebuilt the Long Walls after the battle of Cnidus (B.C. 393), he restored only the Long Walls leading to Peiraeeus (Xen. He;;. iv. 8. § 10 ; Paus. i. 2. § 2); and it is very probable that in their restoration he used the materials of the Phaleric Wall. From the end of the Pelopoonesian war, we find mention of only two Long Walls. (Comp. Lys, c. Agorat. pp. 451, 453 ; Aeschm. de Fait. Leg. § 51; Liv. xxxi. 26.)

Between the two Long Walls, there was a carriage road (άμαξιτός) leading from the Asty to Peiraeeus (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 10) ; and on either side of the road there appear to have been numerous houses in the time of the Peloponnesian war, probably forming a broad street between four and five miles in length. This may be inferred from the account of Xenophon, who relates (Hell. ii. 2. § 3) that when the news of the defeat of the Athenian fleet at Aegospotami reached Peiraeeus, "a sound of lamentation spread from the Peiraeeus through the Long Walls to the Asty, as each person announced the news to his neighbour." Moreover, it appears from a passage of Andocides (de Myst. p. 22, Reiske) that there was a Theseium within the Long Walls, which most be distinguished from the celebrated temple of Theseus in the Asty. In describing the stations assigned to the infantry, when the Boeotians advanced to the frontiers, Andocides says (l. c.), that the troops in the Asty were stationed in the Agora; those in the Long Walls, in the Theseium; and those in Peiraeeus, in the Hippodameian Agora. It is worth noticing that Andocides calls the Long Walls the Long Fortress (τό μακόον τείχος), as one of the three great garrisons of Athens.

The Long Walls were repaired more than once after the time of Conon. A long and interesting inscription, originally published by Müller (De Mumimentis Athenarum, Gött. 1836), and reprinted by Leake, contains a register of a contract entered into by the treasurer of the state for the repair of the walls of the Asty and Peiraeeus, and of the Long Walls. It is probable that this contract was made about B.C. 335, in order to continue the repairs which had been commenced by Demosthenes after the battle of Chaeroneia (B.C. 338). But between this tune and the invasion of Attica by Philip in B.C. 200, the walls had fallen into decay, since we read of Philip making an irruption into the space between the ruined walls ("inter augustias semiruti muri, qui brachiis duobus Piraeum Athenis jungit," Liv. xxxi. 26). Sulla in his siege of Athens (B.C. 87 — 86) used the materials of the Long Walls in the erection of his mounds against the fortifications of Peiraeeus. (Appian, Mithr. 30.) The Long Walls were never repaired, for Peiraeeus sank down into an insignificant place. (Strab. ix. p. 395.) The ruins (έρείπια) of the Long Walls are noticed by Pausanias (i. 2. § 2). Their foundations may still be traced in many parts. "Of the northern the foundations, which are about 12 feet*in thickness, resting on the natural rock, and formed of large quadrangular blocks of stone, commence from the foot of the Peiraic heights, at half a mile from the head of Port Peiraeeus, and are traced in the direction of the modern road for more than a mile and a half towards the city, exactly in the direction of the entrance of the Acropolis. The southern Long Wall, having passed through a deep vegetable soil, occupied chiefly by vineyards, is less easily traceable except at its junction with the walls of Peiraeeus (not Phalerum, as Leake says), and for half a mile from thence towards the city. Commencing at the round tower, which is situated above the north-western angle of the Munychian (not the Phaleric) bay, it followed the foot of the bill, along the edge of the marsh, for about 500 yards; then assumed, for about half that distance, a direction to the north-eastward, almost at a right angle with the preceding: from hence, as far as it is traceable, its course is exactly parallel to the northern Long Wall, at a distance of 550 feet from it" (Leake, p. 417.)

The height of the Long Walls is nowhere stated; but we may presume that they were not lower than the walls of Peiraeeus, which were 40 cubits or 60 feet high. (Appian, Mithe.r. 30.) There were towers at the usual intervals, as we learn from the inscription already referred to.

We now returm to the Walls of the Asty. It is evident that the part of the walls of the Asty, which Thucydides says needed no guard, was the part between the northern Long Wall and the Phaleric Wall. The length of this part is said by the Scholiast in Thucydides to have been 17 stadia, and the circumference of the whole wall to have been 60 stadia. Thus the circuit of the Asty was the same as the circuit of Peiraeeus, which Thucydides estimates at 60 stadia. The distance of 17 stadia between the northern Long Wall and the Phaleric has been considered much too large; but it may be observed, first, that we do not know at what point the Phaleric wall joined the Asty, and, secondly, that the northern Long Wall may have taken a great bend in joining the Asty.

la addition to this we have other statements which go to show that the circuit of the Asty was larger than has been generally supposed. Thus, Dion Chrysaostom says (Orat, vi. p. 87), on the authority of Diogenes of Sinope, "that the circuit of Athens is 200 stadia, if one includes the walls of the Peiraeeus and the Intermediate Walls (i.e. the Long Walls), in the walls of the city." It is evident that in this calculation Diogenes included the portions of the walls both of the Asty and the Peiraeeus, which lay between the Long Wails; the 60 stadia of the Asty, the 60 stadia of Peiraeeus, the 40 stadia of the northern Long Wall, and the 40 stadia of the Southern Long Wall making the 200 stadia. Other statements respecting the extent of the walls of Athens are not so definite. Dionysius of Halicarnaesns (iv. 13, ix. 68) compare the walls of Athens with those of Rome, and Plutarch (Nic. 17) with those of Syracruse; the walls of Borne being, according to Pliny (iii. 5), 23 miles and 200 paces, about 185 stadia; and those of Syracuse, according to Strabo (vi. p. 270), 180 stadia.

There are good grounds for believing that the walls of Thermistocles extended from the gate called Diplylum, along the western descent of the hills of Pnyx and Museium, including both of these hills within their circuit; that they then crossed the Ilissus near the western end of the Museium, and ran the heights on the left of the river, including Ardettus and the Stadium within the city; after which, making a turn to the north, they again crossed the Ilissus, and leaving Mt. Lycabettus on the esst, they ran in a semicircular direction till they rejoined the Dipylum. (See the plan of Athena.) According to this account, the Acropolis stands in the middle of the Asty, as Strabo states, while Leake, by carrying the walls across the crest of the hills of Pnyx and Museium, gives the city too great an extension to the east, and places the walls almost under the very heights of Lycabettus, so that an enemy from the slopes of the latter might easily have discharged missiles into the city.

It is important to show that the Museium was within the city walls. This hill is well adapted for a fortress and would probably have been chosen for the citadel of Athens, if the rode of the Acropolis had not been more suitable for the purpose. Now we are told that when Demetrius Poliorcetes delivered Athens from the tyranny of Lacharea in B.C. 299, he first kept possession of the Peiraeeus, and after he had entered the city, he fortified the Museium and placed a garrison in it (Paus. i. 25. § 8; Plut. Demetr. 34.) Pausanias adds (l. c.), that "the Museium is a hill within the ancient walls, opposite the Acropolis." Now if the Museium stood within the walls, a glance at the map will show that the western slopes of the Pnyx hill must also have been included within them. Moreover, we find on this hill remains of cisterns, steps, foundations of houses, and numerous other indications of this quarter having been, in ancient times, thickly inhabited, a fact which is also attested by a passage in Aeschines (περί τών οίκήσεων τών έν τή Πυκνί, Aesch. in Timarch. p. 10, Steph. § 81, Bekk.). There is likewise a passage in Plutarch, which cannot be understood at all on the supposition that the ancient walls ran across the crest of the Pnyx hill. Plutarch says (Them. 19), that the bema of the Pnyx had been so placed as to command a view of the sea, but was subsequently removed by the Thirty Tyrants so as to face the land, because the sovereignty of the sea was the origin of the democracy, while the pursuit of agriculture was favourable to the oligarchy. The truth of this tale may well be questioned; but if the people ever met higher on the hill (for from no part of the place of assembly still remaining can the sea be seen), they could never have obtained a sight of the sea, if the existing remains of the walls are in reality those of Themistocles.

It is unnecessary to discuss at length the direction of the walls on the south and south-eastern side of the Asty. Thucydides says (ii. 15) that the city extended first towards the south, where the principal temples were built, namely, that of the Olympian Zens, the Pythium, and those of Ge and of Dionysus; and he adds, that the inhabitants used the water of the fountain of Callirrhoë, which, from the time of the Peisistratidae, was called Enneacrunus. A southerly aspect was always a favourite one among the Greeks; and it is impossible to believe that instead of continuing to extend their city in this direction, they suddenly began building towards the north and north-east. Moreover, it is far more probable that the walls should have been carried across the hills on the south of the Ilissus, than have been built upon the low ground immediately at the foot of these hills. That the Stadium was within the walls may be inferred from the splendour with which it was fitted up, and also from the fact that in all other Greek cities, as far as we know, the stadia were cituated within the walls. Is it likely that the fountain Callirrhoë, from which the inhabitants obtained their chief supply of water, should have been outside the walls? Is it probable that the Heliastic judges, who were sworn at Ardettus (Harpocrat. s. v.), had to go outside the city for this purpose?

That no traces of the walls of Themistocles can be discovered will not surprise us, when we recollect the enormous buildings which have totally disappeared in places that have continued to be inhabited, or from which the materials could be carried away by sea. Of the great walls of Syracuse not a vestige remains; and that this should have been the case at Athens is the less strange, because we know that the walls facing Hymettus and Pentelicus were built of bricks baked in the sun. (Vitruv. ii. 8; Plin. xxxv. 14.)

V. Extent and Population.

In estimating the extent of Athens, it is not sufficient to take into account the circuit of the walls; their form must also be borne in mind, or else an erroneous opinion will be formed of the space enclosed. Athens, in fact, consisted of two circular cities, each 60 stadia, or 7) miles, in circumference, joined by a street of 40 stadia, or 4^ miles, in length With respect to the population of Athens, it is difficult to assign the proportions belonging to the capital and to the rest of the country. The subject has been investigated by many modern writers, and among others by Clinton, whose calculations are the most probable.

The chief authority for the population of Attica is the census of Demetrius Phalereus, taken in B.C. 317. (Ctesicles, ap. Athen. yi. y. 272, b.) According to this census, there were 21,000 Athenian citizens, 10,000 metoeci (μέτοικοι), or resident aliens, and 400,000 slaves. Now we may assume from various authorities, that by the term citizens all the males above the age of 20 years are meant. According to the population returns of England, the proportion of males above the age of twenty is 2430 in 10,000. The families, therefore, of the 21,000 citizens amounted to about 86,420 souls; and reckoning the families of the metoeci in the same proportion, the total number of the free population of Attica was about 127,000 souls. These, with the addition of the 400,000 slaves, will give 527,000 as the aggregate .of the whole population.

The number of slaves has been considered excessive; but it most be recollected that the agricultural and mining labour of Attica was performed by slaves; that they served as rowers on board the ships; that they were employed in manufactures, and in general represented the labouring classes of Modern Europe. We learn from a fragment of Hypereides, preserved by Suidas (s. v. άπεψηφίσατο), that the slaves who worked in the mines and were employed in country labour, were more than 150,000. It appears from Plato (de Rep. ix. p. 578, d. e) that there were many Athenians, who possessed fifty slaves each. Lysias and Polemarchus had 120 slaves in their manufactory (Lys. c. Eratosth. p. 395); and Nicias let 1000 slaves to a person who undertook the working of a mine at Laurium. (Xenoph. de Vectig. 4.) There is therefore no good reason for supposing that the slaves of Attica are much overrated at 400,000, which number bean nearly the same proportion to the free inhabitants of Attica, as the labouring classes bear to the other classes in Great Britain.

If we go back from the time of Demetrius Phalereus to the flourishing period of Athenian history, we shall find the number of Athenian citizens generally computed at about 20,000, which would give about half a million as the total population of Attica. Twenty thousand were said to have been their number in the time of Cecrops (Philochorus, ap. Schol. ad Pind. Ol. ix. 68), a number evidently transferred from historical times to the mythical age. In B.C. 444 they were 19,000; but upon a scrutiny undertaken by the advice of Pericles, nearly 5000 were struck off the lists, as having no claims to the franchise. (Pint. Pericl. 37; Philoch. ap. Scho;. ad Aristoph. Vesp. 716.) A few years afterwards (B.C. 422) they had increased to 20,000 (Aristoph. Vesp. 707); and this was the number at which they were estimated by Demosthenes in B.C. 331. (Dem. c. Aristog. p. 785.)

That the population of Attica could not have been much short of half a million may be inferred from the quantity of corn consumed in the country. In the time of Demosthenes the Athenians imported annually 800,000 medimni, or 876,302 bushels, of corn. (Dem. c. Leptim. p. 466.) Adding this to the produce of Attica, which we may reckon at about 1,950,000 medimni, the total will be 2,750,000 medimni, or 3,950,000 bushels. "This would give per head to a population of half a million near 8 bushels per annum, or 5½ medimni, equal to a daily rate of 20 ounces and 7-lOths avoirdupois, to both sexes, and to every age and condition. The ordinary full ration of corn was a choenix, or the forty-eighth part of a medimnus, or about 28½ ounces."

It is impossible to determine the exact population of Athens itself We have the express testimony of Thucydides (ii. 14) that the Athenians were fond of a country life, and that before the Peloponnesian war the country was decorated with houses. Some of the demi were populous: Acharnae, the latest, had in B.C. 431, 3000 hoplites, implying a free population of at least 12,000, not computing slaves. Athens is expressly said to have been the most populous city in Greece (Xen. Hell. ii. 3. § 24; Thuc. i. 80, ii. 64); but the only feet of any weight respecting the population of the city is the statement of Xenophon that it contained more than 10,000 houses. (Xen. Mem. iii. 6. § 14, Oeoon. 8. § 22.) Clinton remarks that "London contains 7½ persons to a house; but at Paris formerly the proportion was near 25. If we take about half the proportion of Paris, and assume 12 persons to a house, we obtain 120,000 for the population of Athens; and we may perhaps assign 40,000 more for the collective inhabitants of Peiraeeus, Munychia and Phalerum." Leake supposes the population of the whole city to have been 192,000; and though no certainty on the point can be attained, we cannot be far wrong in assuming that Athens contained at least a third of the total population of Attica.

The preceding account has been chiefly taken from Clinton (F. H. vol. ii. p. 387, seq., 2nd ed.) and Leake (p. 618), with which the reader may compare the calculations of Böckh. (Public Econ. of Athens, p. 30, seq., 2nd ed.) The latter writer reckons the population of the city and the harbours at 180,000.

VI. Gates.

Of the gates of the Asty the following are mentioned by name, though the exact position of some of them is very doubtful We begin with the gates on the western side of the city.

1. Dipyhum (Δίπυλον), originally called the Thriasian Gate (Θριασίαι Πόλαι), because it led to Thria, a demus near Eleusis (Plut. Per. 30), and also the Ceramic Gate (Κεραμεικαί Πύλαι), as being the communication from the inner to the outer Cerameicus (Philostr. Vit. Soph. ii. 8; comp. Plut. Sull. 14), was situated at the NW. comer of the city. The name Dipylum seems to show that it was constructed in the same manner as the gate of Megalopolis at Messene, with a double entrance and an intermediate court. It is described by Livy (xxxi. 24) as greater and wider than the other gates of Athens, and with corresponding approaches to it on either side; and We know from other authorities that it was the most used of all the gates. The street within the city led directly through the inner Cerameicus to the Agora; while outside the gate there were two roads, both leading through the outer Cerameicus, one to the Academy (Lit. l. c.; Cic. de Fin. v. 1; Lucian, Scyth. 4), and the other to Eleusis. [See below, No. 2.] The Dipylum was sometimes called {{DGRG Greek|}Δημιάόες Πύλαι}, from the number of prostitutes in its neighbourhood. (Lucian, Dial. Mer. 4. § 3; Hesych. s. vv. Δημιάόες, Κεραμεικός; Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit.. 769.)

It is exceeding improbable that Pausanias entered the city by the Dipylum, as Wordsworth, Cortias, and some other modern writers suppose. [See below, No. 3]

2. The Sacred Gate (αί Ίεραί Πύλαι), S. of the preceding, is identified by many modern writers with the Dipylum, but Plutarch, in the same chapter (Sull. 14), speaks of the Dipylum and the Sacred Gate as two different gates. Moreover the same writer says that Sulla broke through the walls of Athens at a spot called Heptachalcon, between the Peiraic and the Sacred Gates; a description which could scarcely have been applicable to the Heptachalcon, if the Sacred Gate had been the same as the Dipylum. [See the plan of Athens.] The Sacred Gate must have derived its name from its being the termination of the Sacred Way to Eleusis. But it appears that the road leading from the Dipylum was also called the Sacred Way; since Pausanias says (i. 36. § 3) that the monument of Anthemocritus was situated on the Sacred Way from Athens to Eleusis, and we know from other authorities that this monument was near the Dipylum or the Thriasian Gate. (Plut. Per. 30; Hesych. s. v. Άνθεμόκριτος). Hence, we may conclude that the Sacred Way divided shortly before reaching Athens, one road leading to the Sacred Gate and the other to the Dipylum. The street within the city from the Sacred Gate led into the Cerameicus, and joined the street which led from the Dipylum to the Agora. We read, that when the soldiers penetrated through the Sacred Gate into the city, they slew so many persons in the narrow streets and in the Agona, that the whole of the Cerameicus was deluged with blood, which streamed through the gates into the suburbs. (Plut. Sull. 14.)

3. The Peiraic Gate (ή Πειραίκή, Plut. Thes. 27, Sull. 14), S. of the preceding, from which run the άμαξιτός or carriage road between the Long Walk, from the Asty to the Peiraeeus. It has been already remarked that the άμαξιτός lay between the two Long Walls, and the marks of carriage wheels may still be seen upon it. It was the regular road from the Asty to the Peiraeeus; and the opinion of Leake (p. 234), that even during the existence of the Long Walls, the ordinary route from the Peiraeeus to the Asty passed to the southwards of the Long Walls, has been satisfactorily refuted by Forchhammer (p. 396, seq.).

The position of the Peiraic Gate has been the subject of much dispute. Leake places it at some point between the hill of Pnyx and Dipylum; but we nave no doubt that Forchhammer is more correct in his supposition that it stood between the hills of Pnyx and of Museium. The arguments in favour of their respective opinions are stated at length by these writers. (Leake, p. 225, seq., Forchhammer, p. 296, seq.) Both of them, however, bring forward convincing arguments, that Pausanias entered the city by this gate, and not by the Dipylum, as Wordsworth and Curtius supposed, nor by a gate between the Hill of the Nymphs and the Dipylum, as Ross has more recently maintained. (Ross, in Kunstblatt, 1837, No. 93.)

4. The Melitian Gate (αί Μελιτίδες Πύλαι), at the SW. comer of the city, so called from the demos Melite, to which it led. Just outside this gate were the Cimonian sepulchres, in which Thucydides, as well as Cimon, was buried. In a hill extending westwards from the western slope of the Museium, on the right bank of the Ilissus, Forchhammer (p. 347) discovered two great sepulchres, hewn out of the rock, which he supposes to be the Cimonian tombs. The valley of the llissus was here called Coele (Κοίλη), a name applied as well to the district within as without the Melitian Gate. This appears from a passage in Herodotus (vi. 103), who says that Cimon was buried before the city at the end of the street called διά Κοίλη, by which he clearly means a street of this name within the city. Other authorities state that the Cimonian tombs were situated in the district called Coele, and near the Melitian Gate. (Marcellin. Vit. Thuc. §§ 17, 32, 55; Anonym. Vit. Thuc. sub fin.; Paus. i. 23. § i; Plut. Cim. 4, 19.)

Müller erroneously placed the Peiraic Gate on the NE. side of the city.

On the southern side:—

5. The Itonian Gate (αί Ίτωνίαι Πύλαι), not far from the Ilissus, and leading to Phalerum. The name of this gate is only mentioned in the Platonic dialogue named Axtochus (c. 1), in which Axiochus is said to live near the gate at the monument of the Amazon; but that the gate led to Phalerum is clear from Pausanias, who, in conducting his reader into Athens from Phalerum, says that the monument of Antiope (the Amazon) stood just within the gate. (Paus. i. 2. § 1.)

On the eastern side: —

6. The Gate of Diochares (αί Διοχάρους Πύλαι) leading to the Lyceium, and near the fountain of Panops. (Strab. ix. p. 397; Hesych. s. v. Πάνοψ)

7. The Diomeian Gate (αί Διόμειας Πύλαι), N. of the preceding, leading within the city to the demus Diomeia, and outside to the Cynosarges. (Steph. B. s. v. Διόμειας, Κυνόσαργες; Diog. Laërt. vi. 13; Plut. Them. 1.)

On the northern side: —

8. The Herian Gate (αί Ήρίαι Πύλαι), or the Gate of the Dead, so called from ήρία, a place of sepulture. (Harpocrat. s. v.) The site of this gate is uncertain; but it may safely be placed on the north of the city, since the burial place of Athens was in the outer Cerameicus.

9. The Acharnian Gate (αί Άχαρνικαί Πύλαι, Hesych. s. v.), leading to Acharnae.

10. The Equestrian Gate (αί Ίππάδες Πύλαι, Plut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 849, c), the position of which is quite uncertain. It is placed by Leake and others on the western side of the city, but by Kiepert on the NE., to the north of the Diomeian Gate.

11. The Gate of Aegeus (αί ΑίγέωςΠύλαι, Plut. Thes. 12), also of uncertain site, is placed by Müller on the eastern side; but, as it appears from Plutarch (l. c.) to have been in the neighbourhood of the Olympieium, it would appear to have been in the southern wall.

There were several other gates in the Walls of the Asty, the names of which are unknown

VII. General Appearance of the City, Houses, Streets, Water, &c.

The first appearance of Athens was not pleasing to a stranger. Dicaearchus, who visited the city in the fourth century before the Christian era, describes it "as dusty and not well supplied with water; badly laid out on account of its antiquity; the majority of the houses mean, and only a few good." He adds that "a stranger, at the first view, might doubt if this is Athens; but after a short time he would find that it was." (Dicaearch. Βίος τής Έλλάδος, init., p. 140, ed. Fuhr.) The streets were narrow and crooked; and the meanness of the private houses formed a striking contrast to the magnificence of the public buildings. None of the houses appear to have been of any great height, and the upper stories often projected over the streets. Themistocles and Aristeides, though authorised by the Areiopagus, could hardly prevent people from building over the streets. The houses were, for the most part, constructed either of a frame-work of wood, or of unburnt bricks dried in the open air. (Xen. Mem. iii. 1. § 7 ; Plut. Dem. 11; Hirt, Baukunst der Alten, p. 143.) The front towards the street rarely had any windows, and was usually nothing but a curtain wall, covered with a coating of plaster (κονίαμα: Dem. de Ord. Rep. p. 175; Plut. Comp. Arist. et Cat. 4); though occasionally this outer wall was relieved by some ornament, as in the case of Phocion's house, of which the front was adorned with copper filings. (Plut. Phoc. 18; Becker, Charikles. vol. i. p. 198.) What Horace said of the primitive worthies of his own country, will apply with still greater justice to the Athenians daring their most flourishing period: —

"Privatos illis census erst brevis,
Commune magnum."

(Mure, vol. ii. p. 98). It was not till the Macedonian period, when public spirit had decayed, that the Athenians, no longer satisfied with participating in the grandeur of the state, began to erect handsome private houses. "Formerly," says Demosthenes, "the republic had abundant wealth, but no individual raised himself above the multitude. If any one of us could now see the houses of Themistocles, Aristeides, Cimon, or the famous men of those days, he would perceive that they were not more magnificent than the houses of ordinary persons; while the buildings of the state are of such number and magnitude that they cannot be surpassed;" and afterwards he complains that the statesmen of his time constructed houses, which exceeded the public buildings in magnitude. (Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 689, Olynth. iii. pp. S5, 36; Böckh, Publ. Econ. of Athens p. 64, seq., 2nd ed.; Becker, Charikles, vol. i. p. 188.)

The insignificance of the Athenian houses is shown by the small prices which they fetched. Böckh (Ibid. p. 66) has collected numerous instances from the orators. Their prices vary from the low sum of 3 or 5 minas (12l. 3s. 9d. and 20l. 6s. 3d.) to 120 minas (487l. 10s.); and 50 minas (203l. 2s. 6d.) seem to have been regarded as a considerable sum for the purchase of a house. Athens was inferior to Rome in the pavement of its streets, its sewers, and its supply of water. "The Greeks," says Strabo (v. p. 235), "in building their cities, attended chiefly to beauty and fortification, harbours, and a fertile soil. The Romans, on the other hand, provided, what the others neglected, the pavement of the streets, a supply of water, and com- mon sewers." This account must be taken with some modifications, as we are not to suppose that Athens was totally unprovided with these public conveniences. It would appear, however, that few of the streets were paved; and the scavengers did not keep them clean, even in dry weather. The city was not lighted (Becker, Charikles, vol. ii. p. 211); and in the Wasps of Aristophanes we have an amusing picture of a party at night picking their way through the mud, by the aid of a lantern (Vesp. 248); and daring a period of dry weather, as further appears from their own remarks. It would seem, from several passages in Aristophanes, that Athens was as dirty as the filthiest towns of southern Europe in the present day; and that her places of public resort, the purlieus of her sacred edifices more especially, were among the chief repositories of every kind of nuisance. (Aristoph. Plut. 1183, seq., Nub. 1384, seq., Eccles. 320, seq., Vesp. 394; from Mure, vol. ii. p. 46.)

We have not much information respecting the supply of water at Athens. Dicaearchus, as we hare already seen, says that the city was deficient in this first necessary of life. There was only one source of good drinking water, namely, the celebrated fountain, called Callirhoë or Enneacrunus, of which we shall speak below. Those who lived at a distance from this fountain obtained their drinking water from wells, of which there was a considerable number at Athens. (Paus. i. 14. § 1.) There were other fountains in Athens, and Pausanias mentions two, both issuing from the hill of the Acropolis, one in the cavern sacred to Apollo and Pan, and another in the temple of Aescolapius; but they both probably belonged to those springs of water unfit for drinking, but suited to domestic purposes, to which Vitruvius (viii. 3) alludes. The water obtained from the soil of Athens itself is impregnated with saline particles. It is, however, very improbable that so populous a city as Athens was limited for its supply of drinkable water to the single fountain of Callirhoë. We still find traces in the city of water-courses (ύδρορρόαι) channelled in the rock, and they are mentioned by the Attic writers. (Aristoph. Acharn. 922, &c.) Even as early as the time of Themistocles there were public officers, who had the superintendence of the supply of water (έπισταταί τών ύδάτων, Plut. Them. 31). It may reasonably be concluded that the city obtained a supply of water by conduits from distant sources. Leake observes, "Modern Athens was not many years ago, and possibly may still be, supplied from two reservoirs, situated near the junction of the Eridanus and Ilissus. Of these reservoirS one was the receptacle of a subterranean conduit from the foot of Mt Hymettus; the other, of one of the Cephissus at the foot of Mt. Pentelicum. This conduit, which may be traced to the north of Ambelópilo, in proceeding from thence by Kato Marusi to Kifisia, where a series of holes give air to a canal, which is deep in the ground, may possibly be a work of republican times. One of these in particular is seen about midway between Athens and Kifisia, and where two branches of the aqueduct seem to have united, after having conducted water from two or more fountains in the streams which, flowing from Parnes, Pentelicum, and the intermediate ridge, form the Cephissus." Among the other favours which Hadrian conferred upon Athens was the construction of an aqueduct, of which the whole city probably reaped the benefit, though nominally intended only for the quarter called after his own name. There stood in the time of Stuart, at the foot of the south-eastern extremity of Mt. LyoniHai, tiw raniniB of ui arch, wbadx wu part of Iti riMlii|«iifiii rf ■ iMfii- nil nf Ihin nirlrt Ths jpanttaatJ tbaan^wi of thit tquidoctan idll BtiA pitiealarif lo lbs tutmti i£ ths tiUsj^ of £Wv(>MfB, Bnis liz miln to tbeDorthof Athena. (Leake, p. 202, and Appendix XIII, "On the Supply of Water at Athens.")

VIII. Topography of the Acropolis or Polis.

Tie AcFopfihA, M m hars alreadj remained, is a •fUn <negT nicl^ riaing almijAl; about 150 fast, ■id 1 hi nunmit 1^ ahoat 1,000 feet fnm eart to ■M, lij 500 feet broad from wnh to soalh. It ii bi B Mfci tJa (B all ndca, except the weat, where it ia — j afad bj a ateep alope. It waa at ooe aod tiie

■B rflba atj. Althoogh Ui Ik hnao wan, and wai t p f iop i t Ud to the iror- Mf d AtbcDk and the c4lur gDudiao deitiea of Eha 07. It waa ana gnat aaiietaaij, and it therefore called bf Aristopbanee JUorsr 'AlcpifinAir, Ufiw ti/imu (Jl^itMr. 481; oo(ap.T>BB.deFiiii,Lrg. p. 428, bi|f iBinii f(^ rqi 'AjcpowdAmi.) Bf the artiata of the age of Peiidea ita platibmi wu which additiom mntlnned to be made in succeeding agn. The lanctoaiy thus became a tDDBeam; and in order to fbnn a proper idea of it, we tnust imagiQ* the gomaut of the rock Rtripped of ererj tluQg ex- cept temples and itatna, the whole ftmniog one vast corapoaitioD of archilKtore, ecolptnre, and laiiitiiig, the dsjLiling whiteness of the marble nliered ij brilliant oolonra, and glittering in the traoiipartat clfamcaa at the Atheniaa atmcaphere^ It waa hora that Alt achieved her grateattriampfas; andthon^ in the prcaent daj a scene of deaolatiai and min, ita miiiB ani seme of the most precicpos reliqius of Iba ancient world.

The Acropdis Moed in Ibe csntie of the citf. Hence it was the heart (f Athens, as Athens was the heait of Greec« (AiisL Panatk. L p. 9S, Jebb); and Pmdar no doabt alluded to it. when be ipaka of IffTMt ifL^atJit Avitit it rau Itpali 'AMnui. (.Frag. p. 2SS, IMsMO.) b was lo this saciad nek

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The Acropolis Restored.

that the magnificent procession of the Panathnue fabtal took place ence in ftmr jean. The chief •tgect rf thia pneeaticn waa lo canj Uie Peplui, or (■badned robd, of Athena to her temple m the Aocfiik. (Diet o/AnL aft Pmatlimata.') In ■—■ — Iri^ with thia inlgect it i* impertaot to dia. ti^oUi bstwHD the Oraa diSanrt Alhma* of th«  Ampsfa. (Scboi. odArMi. p. 330, IfjOoA) The Int ns the Athana PoGas, the nnst andent of all, nade i£ ahte wood, and nid to hara Ulcn finm waa the EiKhlbeiiun. The hiBze, also tba work cS Phsdiaa, ataoding erect, widi hdmat, spear, and shield. Of thoe tlvee sla- laa we shall spak man tally hermtter; bot it lasA be bom in mital that Che Pephii of the Pa- ■rihoaic pn»DOD waa carried to the anoent sta- tttrfAtlHaaP<^Ba,aiid ant to the Athena ef the Parthnn. (Wosdawarth, p. 1S3, seq.)

The three goddoaca are allnded to in the follow- lig rsDufcaUa ^a«H cf the Knighta ( 1 1 6S , seq. ) <f ArittopbiDea, which we snlgoin, with Wordsworth's comments:-

KA. Hal) ^pn OBI r^rti fui(iinn|t 4yti. AAA. iyii It fuwrlAu luiuierAtifUna bwi rfii 3»t! Tg x'V^ '^ iKi^arrlir^.' AH. <l> fi^rar dfi' f Ix'l, ' *i^i«, i^ MjttiAw. KA. iyiir fmi 71 rlainr tifxp" *al iie^ir. tripvn T oM' i^ HoAAikf 4 IlfiUu/idxei-t AAA i aijft' irofr/At fi ^ii a irirrKon^, ■al wvr brtp^xit <r«r x^Tpa>' fw^ev wAior. KA. t(rtI -riftax^* tToCSmnn it ^ottiriFrpdeni. AAA. i^ r HpifunArpa -f i^t U fw/uE Kfin vol X^^itn Itfiffrpot/ re uI •yoffrpis rifutir. AH. uiff y iwolijfft TBu WrAau ti^firttfUni.^

  • L e. The chcTulrphaatine ttatae of the gnd'

d«a in the FafthsnoD, the bands of which neia f L e. The broDia colossal itatue of Atheoa Pio- machns, standing near the Propylaea (tltXaiiiax"')- Ber shield and spcai are here lodkroiuly coaTerled into a x^^ and TOp^. Her gigantic farm ia ei- this h dtdicattd Co her.

1. Walls of the Acropolis.

Being a citadd, the Acropolis was fortified. The ancient fortifications are ascribed to the Pelasgians, who are said to have lex'elled the Bamniit d[ the rock, and to have boilt a wall around it, called the Pelasffie Wall or Fortress. (UtXajyuclnt ruxoSf Herod, v. 64; rtixurfia UeKapyuch^f Gallimach. ap. Schol. ad Aristoph. Av. 832 ; Hecataeus, ap. Herod. vi. 137; Mjrsilas, ap. Dionys. i. 28; Gleidemns, ap. Suid. s. w. AirifSo, ^eSi^ov.) The approach on the western side was protected by a S3r8t«m cf works, comprehending nine gates, hence called ivvtintvXov rh HtXaryiMv, (Cleidem. /. c.) These fbrtiflca* ti(Mis were snfiiciently strong to defy the Spartans, when the Peisistratidae took refuge in the Acropolis (Herod, v. 64, 65);, but after the expulsion of the family of the despot, it is not improbable that they were partly dismantled, to prevent any attempt to restore the former state of things, since the seizure of the citadel was always the first step towards the establishment of despotism in a Greek state. When Xerxes attacked the Acropolis, its chief fortifications consisted of palisades and other works constructed of wood. The Persians took up their p(»ition on the Aneiopagus, which was opposite the western side of the AcropoUs, just as the Amazons had done when they attacked the dty of Cecrops. (Aesch. Ewn, 685, seq.) From the Areiopagus the Persians dis- chai*ged hot missiles against the wooden defences, which soon took fire and were consumed, thus leav- ing the road on the western side open to the enemy. The garrison kept tiiem at bay by rolling down large stones, as they attempted to ascend t^ road; and the Persians only obtained possession of the citadel by scaling the precipitous rock on the north- em side, close by the temple of Aglanms. (Herod, viii. 52, 53.) It would seem to foUow from this narrative that the ehiborate system of works, with its nine gates on the western side, could not have been in existence at this time. After the capture of the Acropolis, the Persians set fire to all the build- ings upon it; and when they visited Athens in the following year, they destroyed whatever remained of the walls, or houses, or temples of Athena. (Herod, viii. 53, ix. ^) 1 1^ « 

The foundations rf the ancient walls no doubt re- nuuned, and the name of Pekugic continued to be applied to a part of the fortifications down to the latest times. Aristophanes (^Av. 832) speaks of rijf ir^Xc«r rh IleAapyijriJv, which the Scholiast ex- plains as the " PeUugic wall on the Acropolis;** and Pansanias (i. 28. § 3) says that the Acropolis was surrounded by the Pelasgians with walls, except on the side fortified by Gimon. We have seen, however, from other authorities that the Pelasgians fbrtified the whole hill; and the remark of Pansanias pro- bably only means that in his time the northern wall was called the Pelasgic, and the southern the Gimo- m'an. (Gomp. Pint. Cim. 13.) When the Athe- nians returned to thmr city after its occupation by the Persians, they commenced the restoration of the walls of the Acropolis, as well as of those of the Asty ; and there can be little doubt that the northern wall had been rebuilt, when Gimon completed the southern wall twelve years after the retreat of the Persians. The restoration of the northern wall may be ascribed to Themistodes; for though called apparently tibe Pelasgic wall, its remains show that the greater part of it was of more recent origin. In the middle of it we find courses of masonry, formed of pieces of Doric columns and entablature; and as we know IVom Thucydides (L 93) that the ruins of former build* ings were much employed in rebuildmg the walk of tlie Asty, we may conclude that the same was the case in rebuilding those of the Acropolis.

The Pdasgicum signified not only a portion of the wallsof the Acropolis, but also a spaceof ground below the latter (rh UtKwryuchv KoKovfieifw rh Mi fifr ^AKpSiroKiy^ Thuc. ii. 17.) That it was not a widl is evident from the account of Thucydides, who says that an oracle had enjoined that it should ranain uninhabited; but that it was, notwithstanding this prohibition, built upon, in consequence of tiie num- ber of people who flocked into Athens at the com* mencement of the Pelopoonesian war. Lucian {Pu- cator. 47) represents a person sitting upon the wall of the Acropolis, and letting down his hook to angle for philosophers in the Pelasgicum. This spot is said to have been originally inhabited by the Pe- lasgians, who fbrtified the Acropolis, and firam which t^ey were expelled because they platted against the Athenians. (Schol. ad Thuc, iL 17; PhUochonu, ap. Schol. ad Lucian. Catapl 1 ; Paus. i. 28. § 3.) It is placed by Leake and most other authorities at the north-western angle of the Acropolis. A recent traveller remarks that " the story of the Pelasgic settlement under the north side of the Acropolis in- evitably rises before us, when we see the black shade always falling upon it, as over an accursed spot, in C(mtrast with the bright gleam of sunshine which always seems to invest the Acropolis itself; and we can imagine how naturally the gloom of the steep precipice would conspire mih the remembrance of an accursed and hateful race, to make the Athenians dread the spot** (Stanley, Claas, Mus, vol. i. p. 53.)

The rocks along the northern side of the Acropolis were called the Long Rocks (Moucpa/), a name under which they are frequently mentioned in the Ion cf Euripides, in connection with the grotto of Pan, and tiie sanctuary cf Aglaurus:

%yBa irpoirBSf^vs wirpas UaXKdJios irtf ^X^V "^^ *dri¥oi»¥ x^onhf MaxfAs KoKoviTi yijs &ywcTes *Ar0i2of.

(Eurip. /on, 11, seq.; oomp. 296, 606, 953, 1*413.) This name is explained by the fact that the length of the Acropolis is much greater than its width; bat H might have been given with equal propriety to the rocks on the southern side. The reason why the soath- em rocks had not the same name appears to have been, that the rocks on the northern side could be seen from the greater part of the Athenian phun, and finom almost all the demi of Mt. Paraes; while those on the southern side were only visible from the small and more undulating district between Hymettusj the Long Walls, and the sea. In the dty itself the rocks of the Acropdis were for the most part concealed from view by houses and public buildings. (Forch- hammer, p. 364, seq.)

The surface of the Acropolis appears to have been divided into platforms, communicating with one an- other by steps. Upon these platforms stood the temples, sanctuaries, or monuments, which occupied all the summit. Before proceeding to describe the DKmuments of the Acropolis, it will be adviseable to give a description of Uie present condition of the walls, and of the recent excavations on the platfcxm of the rock, for which we are indebted to ^Ir. Pen- rose's impcniant work. (^An Investigation of the Principles of Athenian Architecture, by F. C. Fen- rose; London, 1851.)


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Ground Plan of the Acropolis and the Innediate Neighbourhood.


On the ascent to the Acropolis from the modern town Mir Bnt Mtcntkn ia ailed Eo the ingle of Uie Kdtonc <rall, w«t of the aoithera fiag of the Pro- ITiva. It i* pnbible that this nil foniKd the •iwriic defence of the Acropohi at this point. FoU lanBg ttia <raO nocthnrda, ytt axne to ■ bwitinn, Wh abmt the jax 1833 h; (He Greek generkl OtjmBOM bo defeiHl Ml anHent w«ll, Ut which there if ILCew within the baslicn bj an antique passage Bd Mvti gf Hme length cat in the rork. Turning oatmrda nnnd the cccner, m come to two cava, MB i£ which ia aappoaed Is hate been dedicated to Flai; ID than cavea an tmcea of tableti let into the iwk. Lttfing tbeae a,tn we cane to ■ Urge hntna, after which Ibe wall mna ofOi the edge <tf tba DeaHj vertical rock. On ["""g nnnd ■ afimt aofle, when La a amall hnttnu, we find a BcBJr itnught liu of wall for abont 310 feet; then > ihiwt bend to the south- oasl ; afiErvsrds a farther ■loi^ RBcb for about 130 feet, ntmrlj' parallel to the fams-. Tbeee two linn o( mi contain the m- wtiat af Doric crJninDa and entaUMaR, to iriiich wfatUiO hw alreatdj beoi made. A mediaeval hatna about 100 feet from tha angle of the Ench- tfaoinliinna the tenninatioD of thb second leachcf ■alL Pnm heua to the DOth-east angfle of the AatifciBt, when liien ie a lower apparentl; Tnrkiah, •ecnr Kraal hige square atooes, which also appear (D have belonged to aome earlj temple. The wall, Ins which these, aa well aa the before mentioned fiagmmta, aie built, seem) to be of Hellenic ori^. The eastern bee of the wall appears to have been •Mirdj boih in the Middle Ages on the old fbonda- tioia. jU the aonth-eaat angle we God the Hellenic ■asenrj of Ibe Sontheni or Ciflxmian wall. Atthi) CM eeom* nmain. makiiig a haght (t 4S feet, twird of ttaia poijiit tha wall hM bean alnxst enic wall te It 30 feet high, which ia s entirelj cased in mediseral and nee further luppoited bj 9 batlressea, which, a> well ax thoee OD the north and east eidee, appear to be me- diaeviL Bat the Hellenic masonrf of the Cimoninn wall can be traced all along ai far ai the Propylaea ._... .!_ _..•__ ft. 1 . fjg^ g[ J]|, siolid tower lonnled bj the nnahielded aide of anj troope approaching the gate, which, there it good itason to beUere, was m the same poaition aa the present en- tnoce. After passing through the gate and proceed- ing Dorthwarda underneath the west face of the tower, we rxtaa to the Propjiaea. The edect t£ emerging from the dark gale and narrow passage to the mag- nificent marble staircaae, TO leet bnad, annzuonted bf the Prop; laea, must have been eiceediDgl7 grand. A email portion of the anoent Petasgie wall alill ra- miune near the Kmth-eaet angle of the aoulhem wing of the Propyls™, now occnpied by a ]aflj mediaevJ tower. AAcT passing the gotewajs of the Propylaea ve come upon the ana cf the AcRipolia, of which con- itdeiabl} mon than half haa been excavated ander the auBpices of the Greek gorenunenL Upon enter- ing the encloanre of the A^poUa the coloosal statoa of Athena Promschus wss aeen a little to the left, and tfieParthsion to the right; both ofering angular views, according to the uauaJ custom of the Gneks In arranging the approaehce to thdr public buildings. The road leading upwards in the direction cf ^e Parthenon ia slightly worked out of the rock; it is at first of cta^udcrable breadth, and afterwards he- tbe right hand, aa we lave < the road itself, are tiacee of which ia dedicated to Atheiia Hygieia. Fnriher m, to the left of the road, is the site of the statue of Athena Promachus. Northwards of this statue, we come to a staircase close to the edge of the rock, partly built, partly cut out, leading to the grotto of Aglaurus. This staircase passes downwards through a deep deft in the rock, nearly parallel in its direction to the outer wall, and opening out in the face of the cliff a little below its foundation. In the year 1845 it was possible to creep into this passage, and ascend into the Acropolis; but since that time the entrance has been closed up. Close to the Parthenon the original soil was formed of made ground in three layers of chips of stone; the lowest being of the rock of the Acropolis, the next of Pentelic marble, and the uppermost of Peirăic stone. In the extensive excavation made to the east of the Parthenon there was found a number of drums of columns, in a more or less perfect state, some much shattered, others apparently rough from the quarry, others partly worked and discarded in consequence of some defect in the material. The ground about them was strewed with marble chips; and some sculptors* tools, and jars containing red colour were found with them. In front of the eastern portico of the Parthenon we find considerable remains of a level platform, partly of smoothed rock, and partly of Peirăic paving. North of this platform is the highest part of the Acropolis. Westwards of this spot we arrive at the area between the Parthenon and Erechtheium, which slopes from the former to the latter. Near the Parthenon is a small well, or rather mouth of a cistern, excavated in the rock, which may have been supplied with water from the roof of the temple. Close to the south, or Caryatid portico of the Erechtheium, is a small levelled area on which was probably placed one of the many altars or statues surrounding that temple.

Before quitting the general plan of the Acropolis, Mr. Penrose calls attention to the remarkable absence of parallelism among the several buildings. "Except the Propylaea and Parthenon, which were perhaps intended to bear a definite relation to one another, no two are parallel. This asymmetria is productive of very great beauty; for it not only obviates the dry uniformity of too many parallel lines, but also produces exquisite varieties of light and shade. One of the most happy instances of this latter effect is in the temple of Nike Apteros, in front of the southern wing of the Propylaea. The façade of this temple and pedestal of Agrippa, which is opposite to it, remain in shade for a considerable time after the front of the Propylaea has been lighted up; and they gradually receive every variety of light, until the sun is sufficiently on the decline to shine nearly equally on all the western faces of the entire group." Mr. Penrose observes that a similar want of parallelism in the separate parts is found to obtain in several of the finest mediaeval structures, and may conduce in some degree to the beauty of the magnificent Piazza of St. Marc at Venice.

2. The Propylaea.

The road up the western slope of the Acropolis led from the agora, and was paved with slabs of Pentelic marble. (Ross, in the Kunstblatt, 1836, No. 60.) At the summit of the rock Pericles caused a magnificent building to be constructed, which might serve as a suitable entrance (Προπύλαια) to the wonderful works of architecture and sculpture within: — Όψεσβε δέ καί γάρ άνοιγνυμένων ψόφος ήδη τών Προπυλαίων.
'Αλλ' δλολύξατε φαινομέναισιν ταίς άρχαιαίσα Άθήναις,
Καί ζαυμασταίς καί πολυύμνοις, ίν ό κλείνος Δήμος ένοικεί.
(Aristoph. Equit. 1326.)

The Propylaea were considered one of the masterpieces of Athenian art, and are mentioned along with the Parthenon as the great architectural glory of the Periclean age. (Dem. c. Androt. p. 597, Reiske; Philostr. Vit. Apoll. ii. 5.) When Epaminondas was urging the Thebans to rival the glory of Athens, he told them that they must uproot the Propylaea of the Athenian Acropolis, and plant them in front of the Cadmean citadel. (Aesch. de Fals. Leg. p. 279, Reiske.)

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Ground Plan of the Proptlaka.

The architect of the Propylaea was Mnesicles. It was commenced in the archonship of Euthymenes, B.C. 437, and was completed in the short space of five yeanrs. (Pint. Pericl. 13.) It cost 2000 talents (Harpocrat. s. v. Προπίαια)^ at 460,000l. The building was constructed entirely of Pentelic marble, and covered the whole of the western end of the Acropolis, which was 168 feet in breadth. The central part of the building consisted of two Doric hexastyle porticoes, covered with a roof of white marble, which attracted the particular notice of Pausanias (i. 22. § 4). Of these porticoes the western faced the city, and the eastern the interior of the Acropolis; the latter, owing to the rise of the ground, being higher than the former. They were divided into two unequal halves by a wall, pierced by five gates or doors, by which the Acropolis was entered. The western portico was 43 feet in depth, and the eastern about half this depth ; and they were called Propylaea from their forming a vestibule to five gates or doors just mentioned. Each portico or vestibule consisted of a front of six fluted Doric columns, supporting a pediment, the columns being 4½ feet in diameter, and nearly 29 feet in height. Of the five gates the one in the centre was the largest, and was equal in breadth to the space between the two central columns in the portico in front. It was by this gate that the carriages and horsemen entered the Acropolis, and the marks of the chariot wheels worn in the rock are still visible. The doors on either side of the central one were much smaller kdi in hdeht and breadth, and dejgned for the ■i*""^*^* c( loot pusengen enlj. Tlie roof of the wnleni portico was anpported bj two rows of Ihiee loic oolmnitt each, between wliich was the road to Aeootnl gate.

Tbe cmlnl jmtt of the buildiDg which we liaTe iia dcKiibing, wta S8 feet in bnadth, and caiM- qnmtlj did not corer the whole width of the rock : 0» mniiider was occnpied bf two wings, which jngund 36 fleet in front of Ilis weitetn puitico. Kich of these winga was built in the form cf Doric tanpln, and cmmnunicated with the adjdning angle <£ tbe gnat portioix In the iwrtheni wing ((Oi the ]A liaod to a person ascending the Acrapoliu) a path al 13 liMt in depth condoclad into a chamber of 35 feet by 80, ninally called the IHmteotAtca, Irom its walls being coveted with paintioga (_albnaa IX" "IP'^, Paoa. L 33. § 6). The soDthem wiiig (on the right hand to a peiwm ascending the Aero, polis) consialed onlj rf ■ porch or open gallery of S6 teet b; IT, which did not coidnct into any chamber behind. On the w«tera front cf thia BoDthem wing stood the small temple of Nike Apte- IDS (Nlmj'AiTtfiiir), theWingless Victorj. (Psua. i. 2S. § 4.) The spot Dccnpi«l hj this temple com- msnds a wide proepect of the sea, and it was here that A^ena is said to have watched bis aon^s re- turn from Crate. (PaDB. I. c.) From thia pan of the rock be throw himself, when he saw the black sul on the mast of Theseus. Later wiileis, in order to acconnt fiir the name of the Aegacao an, relate that Aegons threw hiznself from the Acropolis into the sea, which is three milm oB.

There are etiU considenhia remsins of lbs Pn>- pytaea. The eastern portico, together with the ad- jacent parts, was thrown down about 1656 bj an eiplosiDn of gmipowder which had besn depodled in that pla(«i but the inner wall, with its five gale- WBJs, alill exista. The northeni wing is tolerablj perfect J bat the southern is ahnoat entirelj deatrojed : two coluDUiB of the ktter are seen imbedded in the at^acent walls of the mediaeral tower.

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The Propylaea Restored.


The TempU of Nikt Aplav requires a few VKds. In the time of Pericles, Nike or Victory wss ^nrrd aa a joimg fenule with golden wings (NJicij rtrexM irtpwTDi* xjnwai, Aj^stoph. Jo. 574); bat tbe mon anciait etaluet of the goddess an said lohsTebetp without wings. {ScM. ad AriiUiph. It) Sike Apteros was identified with Athena, and m calkd Nike Athena. (NLn) 'K»^m, fleliodor. ^ Harpocrat^ Siad. s. p.) Standing as she did at Ibe eiit froEO the A«4opolis, her aid was naturally Bifigred by persrau starting on a dsngerons enter- piK. (Nlm T* 'AftfH ncXAt, 1) iriifii fi' &•(, Si[k. PUIoet. 134.) Hence, the opponents of J.y- utrita, upoD naching the (op of the ascent to the irnfobt, invoke Kike (St'owoi™ NIin| (ii-ffiyai'), Wae aboee temple they were itanding. (AriWoph. fjsiBr.SlSjfromWordBworlh.p. 107,Mq,) This teple was sljU in existence when Spon and Whda visited Athens In 1676; but in 1751 nothing n- mained d it bnl some traces of the (bundatian and fragmenta of masoniy lying in tlie nei^bonrhood of its fbnner site. There were also finuid in a ongh- bonring wall four slabs of Ita sculplnied frieze, wluch are now in the British Hoseiim. It seemed that this temple had perished ullerlyj but the stonea of which it was built were discovered irtheeicavaliona of the year 183S, and It has bKQ rebuilt with the original materials nnder the Bll9pi(«s of Rosa and Schaubert. The greater put of ite frieie was also discovered at the same time. The temple now stands on its original die, and nt a distance looks very much like a new building, with ita white marble colmijna and walls glittering in the sun.

This temple ia of The cljtss called Amphipro- stylus Tettas^lua, consisting of a cclla with four Iciiic colnmna at either front, but with nine oi

tiM aido. It is niaed apoo a rtirio^ale of 3 IM, M>d la 17 (aet ia lon^ fnm nut ta mat, and tS ttiet in breadth. Tbo ccJmniu, iiidtidiii^ the bus and tha apita), ars 13^ feet ]vfh, ud Uia total beigfat of lbs Ufnpk to tbs apex of ths psdi- nuot, iadadh^ tba nj-lobnte, ia 33 feet. The fiine, which nina round the whole of the exterior of tba boildin^ is 1 fool G iachos high, and ia adimHl with scnlptom in high relief, ItoiiginaUyasudsted of tburlHn pieces of bMds, of which IwelTe, «- the fragments of Eweln, now remain. Several of tfaeiie an H mntjliled that it ia difficult to maks oat the subjsct ; but Hans of them svidentlj lepteaeut a battle between Greeks and Psniana, or other Orientil bartMriaue. It Le (appoasd that the two Icng sides wen jccuped with conbitt of bmsemm, aod that ths wealem eul repnaentsd a battle of fiwt soldiBrs. Thii bnilding most have been erected after the battle of Salamis, noes it oDuld not have escaped tbe Per- aiaos, vben Ihej destroj^ 8*0; thii^ upon the Acropolisj and the Btj'le of art ebowa tbst it ooold not ban beat lata' than ths age of Periolca. Bot, aa it is Dever mentJODed among ths bnili^Qgi of thi& Btatoman, it is gcnsrallj sscribsd ta Cinvn, who piobablj built it at (he earns tiras as ths sootheni wall of tbe AenpoUa. Its seulptaiee wen inbaUj Greeks over the Penisns. (Di* Airopoiu «eis AAtn.- Ablh.DerT<mp<ddirNib:Ap4avt,vm Boss, Scfaanbert und Hsnses, Beri. 1839; Leaka, p. SS9, uq.)

PtdeiUd of Agrippa. — On tbe westsm front of tbe northern wing 1^ the Pn^flaea tbm ataods at present a loftf pedeatal, about 13 fast sqoanaud 87 high, which eapportad acme Ggnrs iff Qgnreo, aa ia clear fnm the holes for atanduons on its summit Moreover we may cenclode from the die cpf the ps.- dsatal that the figure or figurea cei its summit ware coloaaal or e^neatriao. Paiuauial, In dcKiihlllg tb«  Prop7laea, apeaka of ibe ststuee of osrtain boranoeo, rtepnning which he was Id doubt whether thej wera



ttrtpiiriuai); aiid •■ in the next danae hs to speak of the temple of Nike on Ibe right soathem wing) of ths Propjlaea, ws may that theas slalnn elcod in froot of the wing. (Pans. i. 33. g4.) Now, it baa flbsemd by Leake, that tbs donbt d Fau- I to ths pencos fbr whom the equestrian en intended, could ttot have been siocers; we may ooociude that sqnestmn atatiufl and THodoms, the two sons of XenophoD, in iOBcrip- ne of M, in hia third conialship; and it may be that Roman was Augustas himaelf, who was ths LB flf Agrippa in his third consalship. It ' St both al^itaes stood on the same pedestal, Ij they are 10 repreesuted in the aocon- ■ - '•t Piopjlaea.

3. The Parthenon.

The Parthenon ( i.e. the Virgin's House) was the great glory of the Axcropolis, and the most perfect production of Grecian architecture. It derived its name from its being the temple of Athena Parthenos ('Aftin ni^ms), or Athena the Virgin, a nanM Riven to her as the mviadble goddsss of war. It was Use called Htcalot^tdot or Eecatomptdom, the Temple of One Hundnd Feet, frm ita breadth ('EjcaT^i*tii(, BC *tiit, 'EnaT^wsSur, Etym. U. p. 321,31; Harpocrat. Snid. (. B.)i and sometimca AifCtoua Hteatomftdet. (Pint Perid. 13, da ^7.) Jtw I bnilt u tntico of Pericka, and was ccoipleled in B. c. 438. (Philochar.ap.&:jtoj:aif.i4rut(^Piic.6<H.} Wa do not know when it was oammeiiced ; bat tutwith- stacding the rapidity with which all tbe works of Pericles were Biecuted (Flat, to.), its erection could not have occupied leas than eight yaira, since the Propylaea occupied five. Tbs architects, according to Plutarch (L c), wsn Calhciates and Ictinns: otherwrilera generallymeutionlctiiiusalcaie. (Strab. ii. p. 39G I Pans. viiL 41. S 9.) Ictinas wrote a work npiB the temple. (Vicruv. viL Praif.) Tbs general saperintendenoe of the ereclioa of tbe wtwle boilding was entrusted to Pbradias.

The FarthsDOD was {nbsUr bnilt od the nte cf sn eariier temfde destn^ed by the Perdans. This ia ezpnaalj iseened by an ancient gnmmarian, who

italsthat tlw FutlvDOQ WW 50 ftat giMtar llun [ha tanpla bnnit b^ tha Panitot (U«>Teb. i. «. lonJiiaitoi), k mcunn whjcb miut liaTa ntenmt to ibe bmdtli at tbe laafie, aod not to ita ba^. TIk odIj muon for qtuatiming thia stalHDOit i> Hk tikoia of tba uideaC wiitera napnting in earlier f^itlHun, and the aUlcment of HarodHns (tu. 93) Ibai the PeraiAna aet fire to tha Acntpolia, after liwdsiiC the tampla (ri Ipiv), is if than had beeo oelj oe; which, in that caae, mnat haye beea the EffirhthfinTTi, cr temple cf Atbena t'oliaa. Bat, on Ik ither bud, we fioi nnJer the atjlobate of the peant Partbexum the fonulatiuiia of aDother and nch eUrr building (Pemoce, p. 73); and to this laae aocicDt templ4 pnimblj beiociged the poitiotla rf the odonms inserted ia the DWthem nail of tha AcTofdia. of uliich we hare almd; apokec. TIk Pulhenon stood on the highcat part of tha Arni]i]|ie. Its sn;hilectan was of the Doric onlar, Bsl li' the point kind. It was boilt etitiitl}' of Fmalk muUe, and realed npon a nutk tmsement tf vdiDaij Gmestone. The contrast betweea Uw bEhttne tt the Wonent and the aplouUd marble <f lb* n^cntructnre eohmctd the beuilj (d the latter. Upon the baaement stood tba Mjkilale n etform, built rf Pentelio mwble, five feet and a f in height, and compoaed of three ateps. The temple was ndead ao high above the entrann to the Acn>palis, both bf ila site and bf these artificial meuH, that the |aremeat of the periatjle wu oearlj en ■ level with the summit of the Propjian. Tha dimmaions of the Psrtbetiixi, t^en jrom the upper step of the atflobito, wen about SS8 leet iu length, 101 feet m breadth, and G6 feet in height lo the top of the pedimest. It couaisted of a FifKAi or calls, surromided bj a perietjle, which had Qght colamus at either front, and uveuton at either lude (reckonijig the oonMr colomiH twice), thns Dootsining fortj->ii oolanina in all. Tbwe oo- hunns were G feet 2 iuchea in diameter at the bate, and 34 feet in hmght. Within the peristjie at either } feet in diameter, etsuding before the end cf tha ilia, and fbrming, with the pnlonged walla of tha dla, an nputownt before the door. These interior oellai, an nputownt bi colamni were on a level with tl Tlv celLi wat divided )i floor of tha cella, from the periatvla. eqialaJM^ of which tbc Eailcni chamber or naosv^aa


■ioil 9B tett, and the Weelem chamber or ops- tbedonnu about 43 feet.* The coUi^ of both due cbaoiben was supported hj inner ruwa of co- hana, Kn the eastern chsmber then were twentj- tkne eolnsnns, of the Doric order, in two Etorica, one ■KB tha other, ten on each aide, and three on the weOm netnn: the diameter (t tbeae colunuB was Ant thn« feet aod a half at the baae. In the Fnart, OB the nwet rtcp Fhak . - - - LaglhoftlteeetUiDtbeDpperatep - Bnadth of the cells on the upper ilrp, ■namnd in tha Optsthodomns - Uagthoftb* Kaoa within the walls • Bnahh of the Kaoa witUn the walli - UDflh of the OpiathodiinDS irithin the ■alii • ri'830. -09S. 63-01. western chamber there were four columns, the podtion of which i> marked bj four brge slabs, ejna- meliically placed in the [avenient. Tbaac colnmns wen abont four feet in diameter, and wen pmbabl)' of tha Ionic order, as in the Propylaea. Tochnicallj the temple ia called Peripteral Oclastjie. " Snch was the aimple alructure rf thia raagni- ficeut building, which, bj its united nceUenciea i^ perfect ever executed. Its dimensions of SSS feet by 101, with a bright of 6G feet to tha top of the pediment, were snfficienllj great to give a appear ance of grandenr aitd Bublirnltj; and thia impieaaion was not diatnrbad bj anj obtm£iva subdivijuou of parte, eucb u is found to dimiruAb the eScct of msnj Isrger modern bnildings, where the asme n of design is not apparent. In the Psr- there was nothing to divert the ipectator's cODtempUtion from the eimplicily and tnajeat]' of roass aiid onlline, which fbnns the first and in«t le- nurksble object of admuvtion in a Greek temple; tbr the statues <d the pedlmenta, the im]y decoration which was very conspicuous by its magnitude and position, having been inclosed within frames which formed an essential part of the designs of either front, had no more obtrusive effect than an ornamented capital to an unadorned column." (Leake, p. 334.) The whole building was adorned within and without with the most exquisite pieces of sculpture, executed under the direction of Pheidias by different artists. The various architectural members of the upper part of the building were enriched with positive colours, of which traces are still found. The statues and the reliefs, as well as the members of architecture, were enriched with various colours; and the weapons, the reins of horses, and other accessories, were of metal, and the eyes of some of the figures were inlaid.

Of the sculptures of the Parthenon the grandest and most celebrated was the colossal statue of the Virgin Goddess, executed by the hand of Pheidias himself. It stood in the eastern or principal apartment of the cella; and as to its exact position some remarks are made below. It belonged to that kind of work which the Greeks called chryselephantine; ivory being employed for those parts of the statue which were unclothed, while the dress and other ornaments were of solid gold. This statue represented the goddess standing, clothed with a tunic reaching to the ankles, with her spear in her left hand, and an image of victory, four cubits high, in her right. She was girded with the aegis, and had a helmet on her head, and her shield rested on the ground by her side. The height of the statue was twenty-six cubits, or nearly forty feet. The weight of the gold upon the statue, which was so affixed as to be removable at pleasure, is said by Thucydides (ii. 13) to have been 40 talents, by Philochorus 44, and by other writers 50: probably the statement of Philochorus is correct, the others being round numbers. (Wesseling, ad Diod. xii. 40.) It was finally robbed of its gold by Lachares, who made himself tyrant of Athens, when Demetrius was besieging the city. (Paus. i. 25. § 5.) A fuller account of this masterpiece of art is given in the Dictionary of Biography, [Vol. iii. p. 250.]

The sculptures on the outside of the Parthenon have been described so frequently that it is unnecessary to speak of them at any length on the present occasion. These various pieces of sculpture were all closely connected in subject, and were intended to commemorate the history and the honours of the goddess of the temple, as the tutelary deity of Athens. 1. The Tympana of the Pediments (i. e. the inner flat portion of the triangular gable-ends of the roof above the two porticoes) were filled with two compositions in sculpture, each nearly 80 feet in length, and consisting of about 24 colossal statues. The eastern or principal front represented the birth of Athena from the head of Zeus, and the western the contest between Athena and Poseidon for the land of Attica. The mode in which the legend is represented, and the identification of the figures, have been variously explained by archaeologists, to whose works upon the subject a reference is given below. 2. The Metopes, between the Triglyphs in the frieze of the entablature (i. e. the upper of the two portions into which the surface between the columns and the roof is divided), were filled with sculptures in high relief. Each tablet was 4 feet 3 inches square. There were 92 in all, 14 on each front, and 32 on each side. They represented a variety of subjects relating to the exploits of the goddess herself, or to those of the indigenous heroes of Attica. Those on the south side related to the battle of the Athenians with the Centaurs: of these the British Museum possesses sixteen. 3. The Frieze, which ran along outside the wall of the cella, and within the external columns which surround the building, was sculptured with a representation of the Panathenaic festival in very low relief. Being under the ceiling of the peristyle, the frieze could not receive any direct light from the rays of the sun, and was entirely lighted from below by the reflected light from the pavement; consequently it was necessary for it to be in low relief, for any bold projection of form would have interfered with the other parts. The frieze was 3 feet 4 inches in height, and 520 feet in length. A large number of the slabs of this frieze was brought to England by Lord Elgin, with the sixteen metopes just mentioned, and several of the statues of the pediments: the whole collection was purchased by the nation in 1816, and deposited in the British Museum. (On the sculptures of the Parthenon, see Visconti, Mem. sur les Ouvrages de Sculpture du Parthenon, Lond. 1816, Wilkins, On the Sculptures of the Parthenon, in Walpole's Travels in the East, p. 409, seq.; K. O. Müller, Commentatio de Parthenonis Fastigio, in Comm. Soc. Reg. Gott. rec. vi. Cl. Hist. p. 191, foll., and Ueber die erhobenen Bildwerke in den Metopen und am Friese dee Parthenon, in Kleine Schriften, vol. ii. p. 547, seq.; Leake, Topography of Athens, p. 536, seq.; Welcker, On the Sculptured Groups in the Pediments of the Parthenon, in the Classical Museum, vol. ii. p. 367, &c, also in German, Alte Denkmäler, erklärt von Welcker, vol. i. p. 67, seq.; Watkiss Lloyd, Explanation of the Groups in the Western Pediment of the Parthenon, in Classical Museum, vol. v. p. 396, seq., in opposition to the previous essay of Welcker, who defended his views in another essay in the Classical Museum, vol. vi. p. 279, seq.; Bronsted, Voyages et Recherches en Grèce, Paris, 1830.

Among the many other ornaments of the temple we may mention the gilded shields, which were placed upon the architraves of the two fronts beneath the metopes. Between the shields there were inscribed the names of the dedicators. The impressions left by these covered shields are still visible upon the architraves; the shields themselves were carried off by Lachares, together with the gold of the statue of the goddess. (Paus. i. 25. § 5.) The inner walls of the cella were decorated with paintings; those of the Pronaos, or Prodoms, were partly painted by Protogenes of Caunus (Plin. xxxv. 10. s. 36. § 20); and in the Hecatompedon there were paintings representing Themistocles and Heliodorus. (Paus. i. 1 . § 2, 37. § 1.)

We have already seen that the temple was sometimes called Parthenon, and sometimes Hecatompedon; but we know that these were also names of separate divisions of the temple. There have been found among the ruins in the Acropolis many official records of the treasurers of the Parthenon inscribed upon marble, containing an account of the gold and silver vessels, the coin, bullion, and other valuables preserved in the temple. (Böckh, Corp. Inscr. No. 137—142, 150—154.) From these inscriptions we learn that there were four distinct divisions of the temple, called respectively the Pronaos (Παρθενών, Προνήίον),the Hecatompedon (Έκατόμπεδον), the Parthenon (Παρθενών), and the Opisthodomus (Όπισβόδομος).

Respecting the position of the Pronaos there can be in doubt, as it was the name always given to the hall or ambulatory through which a person passed to the cells. The Pronaoe was also, though rarely, called Prodonas. ([IpMswi. Ptailoetr. fit. ApoO,

fi. 10.) Bat u to tbe C^niModiMIM tinn ' ' ■■" ' ' ' Then amot.

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Ground Plan of the Parthenon.

good nuoa tat bcBniag thit ths Gntka owd the wad Opistkdnniia to aignifj a ovnspoiidiiig hall in the b«k-fitot of a temtie ; aod that aa PriitaoM, at n vda m u, autmnd lo the L*^ (M ft' oM t a, so t^HidoiiiHaw naa eqninlent to Uw Latin poi (inHii. m wfi [to! »)■<«] v,Nl&v>ai, ml ri xiItiitif irMMtofUt, Pollni, i. 6; omp. ^v tsEi vpsKdiit ■■1 TM dvurMMfUNi, Diod. dt. 41.) Ladui (Btrod. I) daoibca Uandotna u nading his his- tarj b> IIm ■unrlilnil Gnelu at OljmpB from the

ball or ambolaloi; 

Imdinjf out of tbo back pcrtko, th« dncripdoii ii inUlUgihle, aa tbo grrmi crowd of auditorfl might tbm lute btea anonblsd in tha portico and on the rtep below J tsd wo an baidl j imagiua that Ludau coidd haiB axiearei Ibe Oiuthodomua to be as [niim,n might be addnced 10 {rore that tbe 0]hs- tbodimna ia tbe Gnek temples ordiiiarij)' bore tbe Moaa we bun giiai lo it (coiop. Fios. t. 13. g 1, 16. { l)i anl we bebera that the OpUtbodcmui of Ibe FWtbenn ongiBaU; indioUad the same part, tbongh ai a lal«r time, aa sn MO pnamtlj, it waa naeo m a oinerBai ngnifieatica.

The Seratompedim mnat baTe been the eutern or prinpjpul chamber of the colla. Thia fbltowi ban ita name ; for as tbe whole tomple vaa called Heo- tompedm. from ils bdng 100 f»t bread, ao the eaatem chambn was called bj tbe aame oamo haa ila bemg 100 feet kmg (its exact length ia 98 feet 7 indue)- Tbia waa the nana, or jooper sbrine if the temple ; and hen aooordinglr wai placed tbe GoloeBal italae b; Pheidiaa, Id the reoordg of tbe tnumta of the temple tbe Hecatompedon colained a gdita crown placed upon the head of tbe utatue of Mike, or Victory, which atood npon tbe baud of the great natne i^ Athena, therebj plainlj thowbg that the latter mnat have been placed is thia divieioo of tbe temple. Then bai beea CMuiderable diipnta reepectiBg the diipodUou of Ibe coliunnt m the in- tarior of thia chamber; bat tbe nmoial of Ibe Tnriciah Ueaqna aod otber innunbnncee from the paTement baa now pot an aid to all doobt xipaa tbe anbjecL It baa alnad; beea il>l«d that tboe wer* 10c(>]nmnameachaide,BixJ3 on Che western return; and that npon Ihem there was an Dpper rowof the same nnmber. The« colmnus were thrown down bj the mpknioD in 1687, but tbey were still atandiog when Spcn and Wbslu riaited Athena. Wbeler aaja, " ai both aidea, and towiida tbe door, is a kind cf gallery made with two lanki ef pillaia, a2 bdow and 33 aborck The odd pillar b orer Om arch rt tbe entrance which waa Idt fia: the pasaage." The oentml colnnm of the loiier row bad eridoitlr been nnnoTcd in order to eEect an entranoe &om tbe wrat, and the " arch of the entrance " had beem anlstitated ftr it. Whelet aaja a " kind of gallery," became it was probably an architrave supporting the rank of columns, and not a gallery. (Pennee, p. 6.) Re- cent obaerrations bare proied that Ibese cdiunns were Doric, and not Corinthian, as some writors bad supposed, in conaeqaence of the discovery of tba fiagment of a capiliil of that order in thia chamber. fiat it has been coojectured, that althoogh all tbe otber oolumns were Doric, tbe cenbal ednmn of tba western return, which would have been hidden from tbe Pmnaoa by tbe atatoe, might have been Corinlbiau. since tbe central coluum Ot tbe retam of the temple at Banae aaams to hare been CointhiaiL (Ponroae, p. 5.)

If the pneeding distribution of the other parta of the tempte is eoiiect, the Parthentm mnst have been the w ea ter p or smaller chamber of the ccIIl Judg- ing from the name alone, we ebould have naturally cooclnded that tbe Parthenon waa the chamber cm- tjuoing the alatue of tbe virgin goddess; but tkeie appear to have been two leasous why Uiis uaioe ms not given to tbe eastern chamber. First, tbe kogtb of the latter naturally suggested the appropriation to it of tbe name of Uecatompedon; and secondly, the eastern chamber occupied the ordinary poaitioi t£ the adytum, containing tbe statue of the deity, and may therefore have been called fiom thia cirenm- stance Ibe Viigiu's-Chamber, though ui leahty it waa not the abode of tbe godditas. It appean, from tbe ioKriptions ah'eady referred to, tliat the Far- thenon tnu used in the Pclopoiineeian war as the public tnainry; for while ne fhid in tbe Hecalom- pedoo anch Inaaursa as would serve for tbe psipoee of omamait, Iha Parthenon contained bullion, and a great many miscallaneoua articles which we caimot BU|^ioae to have been placed in tbe shrine alongside of Che sCatna of the goddess. But we know from 274 ATHENAE.

-y^/^ L.. later aathorittes that the tresATuy in the temple was r called Oj^sthojjagg^ (Harpocrat., Stud., Etvm. M.,

M V, 'Owiffmifios; Schol. ad Arittoph. Plut. 1 193 ;

Bockh, Inter. Na 76); and we may therefore con- clude, that as the Parthenon was the name of the whole bnilding, the western chamber ceased to be called bj this name, and acquired that of the Opi- sthodomos, which was originally the entrance to it It appears farther from the wordb of one of the Scho- liasts (ad Aristoph, tc."), as well as from the ex- 1 isting remains of the temple, that the eastern and western chambers were separated by a wall, and

that there was no direct commnnicatian between 
them. Hence we can the more easily understand

I the account of Plutarch, who relates that the Athe- ,' nians, in order to pay the greatest honour to De-

metrius Poliorcetes, lodged him in the Opisthodomna 

of the Parthenon as a guest of the goddess. (Plut Demttr. 23.) In the centre of the pavement of the Hecatom- pedon there is a ploM covered with Peiraic stone, and not with marble, like the rest of the pavement It has been usually supposed that this was the foun- dation on which the statue of the goddess rested; but this has been denied by E. F. Hermann, who maintains that there was an altar upon this spot There can however be little doubt that the oomm<» opinion is correct, since there is no other place in the building to which we can assign the position of the statue. It could not have stood in the western chamber, since this was separated by a wall from the eastern. It oould not have stood at the western extremity of the eastern chamber, where Ussing places it, because this part cf the chamber was occu- pied by the western return of the interior columns (see ground-plan). Lastly, supposing the spot covered with Peiraic stone to represoit an altar, the statue could not have stood between this spot and the door of the temple. The only alternative left is placing the statue either upon the above-men- tioned spot, or else between it and the western return of the interior colmnns, where there is scarcely suf- ficient space left ilor it There has been a great cantroversy among mo- dem scholars as to whether any part of the roof of the eastern chamber of the Parthenon was hy- paethral, or pierced with an opening to the sky. Most English writers, following Stuart, had arrived at a conclusion in the affirmative; but the diBcusdon has been recently reopened in Germany, and it seems impossible to arrive at any definite conclusion uprai the subject. (Comp. K. F. Hermann, Die HypcUhrai Tempd des Alterthunu^ 1844; Ross, Keine Hy- pdthral Tempel mehTf in his ffdlenika^ 1846, to which B9tticher replied in Dw Hypatkral Tempel auf Grund dee Vi^ruviecken ZeugnisseSf 1847.) We know that, as a general rule, the Grecian temples had no windows in the walls ; and conse- quently the light was admitted dtber through some opening in the roof, or through the door alone. The latter appears to have been the case in smaller tem- ples, which could obtain sufficient light from the open door; but larger temples must necessarily have been in comparative darkness, if they received light from no other quarter. And although the temple was the abode of the deity, and not a place of meet- ing, yet it is impossible to believe that the Greeks left in comparative darkness the beautiful paintings and statues with which they decorated the interior of their temples. We have moreover express evi- dence that light was admitted into temples through ATHENAE. the roof. This appears to have been dene in two ways, dther by windows or openings in the tiles of the roof, or by leaving a large part of the latter open to the sky. The former was the case in the temple of Eleuss. (Plut. Per, 13, Waiav ScyoicA^r Iko- (nitpwff*: comp. Pollux, ii. 54, bweSov ol 'Arrorol tV KtpafMa iKoXow^ 9i t^ Miw efx*!'.) There can be little doubt that the naos or eastern chamber of the Parthencm must have obtained its light in one or other of these ways; but the testimony of Vitru- vius (iiL 1) cannot be quoted in fiivour of the Par- thenon being hypaethral, as there are strong reasons for believipg ihe passage to be corrupt* If the Parthenon was really hypoetliral, we must place the opening to the sky between the statue and the east- ern door, since we cannot suppose that such an ex< quisite work as the chryselepliiuitine statue of Athens was not protected by a covered roof. Before quitting the Parthenon, there ia one inter- esting point connected with its construction, which must not be passed over without notice. It has been discovered within the last few years, that in the Par- thenon, and in some others of the purer specimens of Grecian architecture, there is a ^tematK deviatioD from ordinaiy rectilinear constmcdoiL Instead of the straight lines in ordinaiy architcctore, we find various delicate curves in the Parthenon. It is ob- served that " the most unportant curves in point of extent, are those which form the horizontal Hnes of the building where they occur ; such as the edges of the steps, and the lines of the entablature, which are usually considered to be straight levd lines, but Id the steps of the Parthenon, and scone other of the best examples of Greek Doric are convex curves, lying in vertical plains ; the lines of the entablature being also curves nearly parallel to the steps and in vertioiil plains." . The existence of curves in Greek buildings is mentioned by Vitruvius (iii. 3), but it was not until the year 1837, when much of the rubbish which encumbered the etylobate of the Par- thenon had been removed by the operations carried on by the Greek government, that the curvature was discovered by Mr. George Pennethome, an Engli&h architect then at Athens. Subsequently the curves

  • The words of Vitruvius in the usual editions

are : — " Hypaethros vero decastylos est in pronao et postico : reliqua omnia habet quae dipteros, Md interi- ore parte columnas in altitudine duplices, remotas a parietibus ad drcuitionem nt portions peristylionim. Medium autem sub divo est sine tecto, aditusque valvarum ex utrinqne parte in pronao et postico. Hujus autem exemplar Bomae non est, sed Athenis octastylos et in templo Olympic." Now, as the Parthenon was the <»ily octastyle at Athens, it is supposed that Vitruvius referred to this temple as an example of the Hypaethros, more especially as it had one of the distinguishing characteristics of his hypaethros, namely, an upper row of interior co- lumns, between which and the walls there was an ambulation like that of a peristyle. (Leake, p. 562.) But it seems absurd to say "■ Hypaethros decastylos est," and then to give an octastyle at Athens as an example. It has been conjectured with great proba- bility that the " octastylos " is an interpolation, and that the latter part of the passage ought to be read :

    • Hijus autem exemplar Romse non est, sed Athenis

in templo Olympic." Vitruvius would thus refer to the great temple of Zeus Olymptus at Athens, which we know was a complete example of the hypaethros of Vitruvius, •^ /> ' >fM ^ v* n^ ^-- ^^m^h^i^ 9 f ^^'4:t^ ATHENAE. were noticed bj Messrs^ Hofer and Schaubert, Qer- maii architects, and oommmiicated by them to the

    • Wiener Baiueitaii^.'* More recently a fhll and

daborate aceoant of these cnxres has been giyen bj Mr. Penrose, who went to Athens under the pa- tranage of the Sodety of Dilettanti for the purpose of JnTertigating this subject, and who published the results o£ his researches in the magnificent work, to which we b«re already so often referred. Mr. Pen- rose remarks thai it is not surprising that the curves were not sooner diaeorered from an inspection of the building, since the amoont of curvature is so exqui- sitely managed that it is aot perceptible to a stranger standing opposite to the front ; and that before the excavations the steps were so much encumbered as to have prevented any one looking along their whole length. The curvature may now be easily remarked by a person who places his ^e in such a position as to look along the lines of the step or entablature from end to end, which in architectunl language is called ATHENAE. 275 For all architectural details we refer to Mr. Pen- rose's work, who has done fer more to explain the ooostmction of the Parthenon than any pre- vious writer. There are two excellent models of the Ftethenon by Mr. Lucas, in the Elgin Soom at the British Museum, one a restoration of the temple, and the other its ruined aspect. (Comp. Laborde and Paccard, /« PartMnon, Docaments poor aervir h iMe AMtoro^um, Paris, 1848 ;Ussi^, DeParthenone tgmaque pctrHbut Disputatio^ Hauniae, 1849.)^ It has been already stated that the Parthenon was ooDverted into a Christian church, dedicated to the Yixgin-Mother, probably in the sixth centuiy. Upon the conquest of Athens by the Turks, it was changed into a mosque, and down to the year 1687 the build- iqg remained almost entire with the exception of the roof. Of its condition before tiiis year we have more than one account. In 1674 drawings of ite sculp- tures were made by Carrey, an artist employed for this purpose by the Marquis de Nointel, the French ambai«ador at ConstantinoiJe. These drawings are stiD extant and have been of great service in the re- storation of the sculptures, especially in the pedi- ments. In 1676 Athens was visited by Spon and ¥rhder, each of whom published an account of the Parthenon. (Spon, Voyage du Leva$Uy 1678 ; Whe- ler. Journey into Greece^ 1682.) In 1687, when Athena was besieged by the Venetians under Moro- rini, a shell, felling into the Parthenon, inflamed the gimpowder, which had been pbiced by the Turks in the eastern chamber, and reduced the centre of the JE^srthcoon to a heap of ruins. The walls of the eastern chamber were thrown down together with all the interior columns, and the adjoining columns of the peristyle. Of the northern side of 'the peristyle eight eolumns were wholly or partially thrown down ; and of the southern, six columns ; while of the pronaos only one column was left standing. The two fronto esoiped, together with a portion of the w«tem chamber. Morosini, after the capture of the oity, attempted to cany off some of the statues in the western pediment; but, owing to the unskilfulness of the Venetians, they were thrown down as they were being lowered, and were dashed in pieces. At the begimiing of the present centuiy, many of the finest sculptures of the Parthen(»i were removed to England, as has been mentioned above. In 1827 the Parthenon received finesh injury, from the bom- bardment of the dity in that year; but even in its present state of desoktion, the magnificence of ite ruins still strikes the spectator with astonishment and admiration. 4. The Erech theiunu ^ The Erechtheium (*Ep«xOc(oi') was the most re- vered of all the sanctuaries of Athens, and was closely connected with the earliest l^ends of Attica. Erechtheus or Erichthcnius, for the same person is agnified under the two names, occupies a most im- portant position in the Athenian religion. His story is related variously; but it Is only necessary on the present occasion to refer to those portions of it which serve to iUustrate the following account of the building which bears his name. Homer represento Erechtheus as bom of the Earth, and brought up by the goddess Athena, who adopts him as her ward, and instals him in her temple at Athens, where the Athenians offer to him annual sacrifices. (Hom. //. ii. 546, Od. vii. 81.) Later writera call Erechtheus Or Erichthcnius the soa of Hephaestus and the Earth, but they also rekte that he was brought up by Athena, who made him her com- panion in her temple. According to one form of the legend he was placed by Athena in a chest, which was entrusted to the charge of Aglaurus, Pandro- sus, and Hecse, the daughters of Cecrops, with strict orders not to open it; but that Aglaurus and Heree, unable to control their curiosity, disobeyed the com- mand; and upon seeing the child in the form of a serpent entwined with a serpent, they Were seized witii madness, and threw themselves down from the steepest part of the Acropolis. (ApoIIod. iii. 14. § 6; Hygin. Fab. 166; Pans. i. 18. § 2.) Another set of traditions represented Erechtheus as the god Poseidon. In the Erechtheium he was worshipped under tiie name of Poseidon Erechtheus; and one of the family of the Butadae, which traced their de- scent from him, was his hereditary priest (ApoI- Iod. iii. 15. I 1; Pint. ViL X. Orat p. 843; Xen. Sympot. 8. § 40.) Hence we may infer with Mr. Grote {Hitt. of Greece^ vol. I p. 264) that " the first and oldest c<mception of Athens and the sacred Acropdis places it under the special protection, and represente it as the settlement and favourite abode of Athena, jointly with Poseidon ; the latter being the inferior, though the chosen companion of the farmer, and therefore exchanging his divine appel- . lation for the cognomen of Erechtheus." The foundation of the Erechtheium is thus con- nected with the origin of the Athenian religbn. We have seen that according to Homer a temple of Athena existed on the Acropolis before the birth of Erechtheus; but Erechtheus was usually regarded as the founder of the temple, since he was the chief means of establishiag the religion of Athena in At- tica. This temple was also the place of his inter- ment, and was named after him. It contained sevei-al objecte of the greatest interest to every Athenian. Here was the most ancient statue of Athena Polias, that is, Athena, the guardian of the dty. This statue was made of olive-wood, and was said to have fallen down from heaven. Here was the sacred olive tree, which Athena called forth firom the earth in her contest with Po^idon for the poesessicm of At- tica; here aUo was the i-ell of salt water which Poseidon produced by the stroke of his trident, the impression of which was seen upon the rock ; and here, lastly, was the tomb of Ceerops as well as that of Erechtheus. The building also contained a separate sanctuary of Athena Polias, in which the statue of the goddess was placed, and a separate V^'^ "C^ T 2 'y .V'^.J 276 ATHENAE. sanctuary of PandrosuB, the only one of the mBten who remained fiuthfhl to her trust The more nsoal name of the entire stractore was the Erechtheiam, which consisted of the two temples of Athena Polias and Pandrosos. Bnt the whole bnilding was also frequently called the temple of AUiena Polias, in consequence of the importance attached to this part of the edifice. In the ancient inscription mentioned below, it is simply called the temple which con- tained the ancient statue (6 f^s 4y 4 ^ ipx"^^ 6ya?ifta). The original Erechtiieium was burnt by the Per- sians; but the new temple was built upon the an- dent site. This could not have been otherwise, since it was impossible to remove either the salt well or .the olive tree, the latter of which sacred objects had been miraculously spared. Though it had been burnt along with the temple, it was found on the second day to have put forth a new sprout of a cubit in length, or, according to the subsequent improvement of the stoiy, of two cubits in length. (Herod. viiL 55 ; Pans. i. 27. § 2.) The new Erechthdum was a singularly beautiful building, and one of the great triumphs dT Athenian architecture. It was of the Ionic order, and in its general appearance formed a striking contrast to tiie Parthenon of th^ Doric order by its side. The rebuilding of the Erechthdum appears to have been delayed by the detenninatkm of the people to erect a new temple exdusivdy de- voted to thdr goddess, and of the greatest splendour and magnificence. This new temple, the Parthenon, which absorbed the public attention and means, was followed by the Propylaea ; and it was probably not till the completion of the latter in the year beforo the Pdoponnesian war, that the rebuilding of the Erechthdum was commenced, or at least continued, with energy. The Pdoponnesian war would natu- rally cause the works to proceed slowly until they were quite suspended, as we learn from a very in- teresting inscription, bearing the date of the archon- ship of Diodes, that is, b. c. 409-8. This inscrip- tion, which was discovered by Chandler, and is now in the British Museum, is the report of a commission appointed by the Athenians to take an account of the unfinished parts of the building. The commisdon consisted of two inspectors {hntrrdrai)^ an architect {&PXiit4ictvp) named Philocles, and a scribe (ypofi- /iarcJs). The inscription is printed by BJJckh (/fwcr. No. 160), Wilkins, Leake and others. It appears from this inscription that the prindpal parts of the building were finished; and we may condude that they had been completed some time before, since Herodotus (viii. 55), who probably wrote m the early years of the Peloponnesian war, describes the temple as oontdning the olive tree and the salt well, without making any alludon to its being in an in- oomplete state. The report of the commisdon was probably followed by an order for the completion of the work; but throe years afterwards tiie temple sustained condderable damage from a fire. (Xen. Hell. L 6. § 1.) The troubles of the Athenians at the close of the Pdoponnesian war must again have withdrawn attention firom the building; and we therefore cannot place its completion much before B. a 393, when the Athenian^after the restoration of the Long Walls by Gonon, had b^un to turn their attention agdn to the embellishment of their dty. The words of Xenophon in the passage quoted above, — &irakaubs r^s 'Miiyas f€ui>s, — ^have created difiiculty, because it has been thought that it could not have been called the old temple of Athena, m- ATHENAE. asmuch as it was so new as to be yet unfinished. But we know that the *^ dd temple of Athena ** was a name commonly given to the Erechthdum to dis- tinguish it from the Parthenon. Thus Stnbo (iz. p. 396) calls it, 6 i^atos rcibr 6 rrjs TloXtdios, The Erechthdum was dtuated to the north of the Parthenon, and dose to the northern wall of the Acropolis. The existing ruins leave no doubt as to the exact form and appearance of the exterior of the building; but the arrangement of the interior is a matter of great uncertainty. The interior of the temple was converted into a Byzantine church, which is now destroyed; and the inner part of the building presents nothing but a heap of ruins, be- longing partiy to the andent temple, and partiy to the Byzantine church. The difficulty of understand- ing the arrangement of the interior is also increased by the obscurity of the description of Pausanias. Hence it is not surprising that almost every writer upon the subject has di&red from his predecessor in his distrilmtion of some parts of the bnilding; though there are two or three important paints in whi(£ most modem scholars are now agreed. The building has been frequently examined ud described by architects; but no one 1ms devoted to it so much time and careful attention as 11 Tetaz, a French architect, who has published the results of his per- sonal investigations in the Bevue Ar^tSologique far 1851 (parts 1 and 2). We, therefore, follow If. Tetaz in his restoration of the interior, with one or two slight alterafions, at the same time reminding our readers that this arrangement must after all be regarded as, to a great extent, conjectural. The walls of tiie ruins, according to the measurement of Tetaz, are 20*034 French metres in length fron east to west, and 11'215 metres in breadth fitm north to south. The form of the Erechthdum difiers frnm every other known example of a Grecian temple. Usually a Grecian temple was an oblong figure, with two porticoes, one at its eastern, and the other at its western, end. The Erechthdum, on the co^tFary, though oblong in shape and having a portico at the eastern front, had no portico at its western end ; but from dther dde of the latter a portico projected to the north and south, thus forming a kmd of tran- sept. Consequentiy the temple had three portiooeB, called itpovrAffHs in the inscription above men- tioned, and which noay be distinguished as the eastern, the northern, and the southern protUuii, or portico. The irreigularity of the building is to be accounted for partiy by the difference of the levd of the ground, the eastern portico standing upon ground about 8 feet higher than the northern ; but still more by the neoesdty of preserving the di£forent sanctuaries and Religious objects bdonging to the ancient temple. The skill and ingenuity of the Athenian ardiitects triumphed over these difficulties, and even converted them into beauties. The eastern portico stood before the prindpal entrance. This is proved by its &dng the east, by its greater height, and also by the dicjpodtion of its colunms. It oonsiBted of six lomc cdunms standing in a single line before the wall of tiie oella, the ex- tremities of which are adorned with antae oppodte to the extreme columns. Five of these columns are still standing. The northern portico, called in the inscription il rp6arairts ^ ir^s -rov bvf>6fuiroSf or the portico before the thyroma, stood before the other chief en- trance. It also consisted of six Ionic columns, but ATHENAE. nlj fov of tbrnt m in frcnt; llw two Ubm ve pUod, ooB in CAch Bink, befbn ■ comspoDdinff uia LnlhevaUflDdlhBrBidflof thttdwr. TheflB cxdoiiuu ■n all itBoding. Tb«j un aboDt 3 feet liigber, and ntuij G mclm gmXa in diMDetar, tlun thnM in n tlut the Borthenl for' It n; fflmd han tha cimunflta •Ulan tos; mma tbelbnna tfpeutei inferior fnm iti ^—^i"; (a lomr gronod. Eieb <f tbei* poiti- eoM tUnd beftn twu 1*^ docn ccDunented witli ptat magrdficenca. Tbe louthem portico, CIiDagh aldo called pnatasja in tbe ioacriptian, wai of an entii«1j difTeroit cha- nctar. Ita nnf ni inpporled bj >ii Cujatides, or eohimns, cf obich tbe abaft* reprcwnt«d fonng ATHESAE. 877 four in fnnt, and me on either anttk Tbej Bland □poc a baaement eight feet above tbe exterior lerelj tba mat wbich tb^ lapport is fiat, and abont 19 feet abOTe tbe Boor of tbe bnildisg. The entire height of the portioo, including tbe bwement, na little mon than half the height cf the {ilcbed roof of the temple. There appeaia to bare been no a^ ceu to Uua portdoo from the ateiior of the build- ing. Tlien waa do door in tbe wail behind thia pnrtiooi and the only acoeu to it from tbe interior if tbe boiMing waa bj ■ onall Sight of atepa leading ont into the basement of the portico between the Caijatid and the anta en the eastern Sank. All thtse eteps mt,j alill be tiued, and twa of them are atill in their place. At the bottom of them, CD the floor of the building, there ia a docc oppotite the great door of the nortbeni porch. It ia evident, fhm this arrangement, that thia sontlieTn portico formed meriilj an appendage of that {wt dier gan acetu. A few jean ^o tlie whole of thii pcitioo wai in a slate t^ mine, bnt in IS46 it na mtond bj H. Piscalofj, then the Froicb am- 1^a■a^n^ in Gmecc Foot df the Caijatida wen ■tin ttauiing; the Eflh, winch waa fooikd in an ei- caralkai, waa mtond to ila former place, and a new fignre waa made in place of the siith, which waa, aod ia, in the Biitiah Mnaeun. Tl» wHtem eul of the biuJding had no portioo Tbe wall at thie end cooaiatad of a • height, opoD which were anpporting an entablature. Time four colnmni had half their diamet«Ta en- pgtd in the wall, thoa forming, with tlia two antae at iIe oonen,GTeintereolamniatic<ia, eorreaponding to Um tnxU of tbe principa] portioo. The wall be- t,h^ waa pennl with three window* in the ipacca betwem the engaged cohmmi in tbe cenbe. Hie friaaa of t^ bniUing waa cooipiMd of black Elenanian marble, adinied with fignrea in low relief in white marUe; bnt of thia frieie only thn« por- tkmi are itiU in their plac* in tbe (■item portico. With rtapect to the interior of the bnildbg, it appewa fma an examinaliaii of the eiieting re- mains that it waa divided bj two tranniBne vralla into three compaitmenli, of which the eastern and tbe middle waa about 34 feet each from east to west, and the wutem about 9 feet The laat was coue- qnoitlj a panage along the wntem wall of tba building, at one end of which was the gnai door of tlie ucrtliaru portico, and at the other end tbe doer of the staircase leading to tbe poitico of the Caija- tidei. There can, tberetbie, be little dcrabt that tbia jaaaage served aa the pnmace of the central com- partment. It, Iherefbre, appeiira from the ruina themeelTH that the Erecblbeitim attained onlj two prindpa] chambers. This is in accordann wiUi tlie statement ofPauaamas, who Baj.(i.a6. §5)tliatth. Erecbtheiumwaa a donble buildingtlnr^JHw lAnifia). S7B ATHENAE. He fuillMr atitn [lut the temple of ittuched ta thit of Atheni Poliu (t# rof rqi 'AfrgrSi Itortfifoinr rail irvn;)^), i. S7. § 3). Now bIdoo HnodMiu *nd otlier Mithon mentiiHi ■ temple of Erechtheua. it wu inIerT«d bj Stiuut and olheri tlut tbe bniidiiig contsiwd three tempta — one of ErecbthenSf t Aecond of Atheni Folus, and » thud of Puidmiaii. Bat, u vre have remarked Kbnvc, (he Erechlheiom wu the name of the whole bluldiaK.uid it dost not eppnt llut Erechtheiu had an; Aline pecoliir to himaelf. Thus the aKve tree, which ii placed bj Hendntiu (vUi. SS) in the tem- ple of Eiwhtheo", iJ B«id bj other writers to have stood in Che temple of Pandrosnii. (Apollod. lii. 14. § 1 ; Philochoms, ap. Diimnt. de Deinarck. i.) Wemaj thenfore safelj condode that the two tem- plee, of which the Eiwhthdam coDioElal, were these of Athena PoUas and (f Pindragiu, to wbich there wu accen bj the eastern aod the ixnbeni portioMB Tespactiielj. That the eaatem chambo' wu the temple of Athena Poliu foUowi from the eiiteni portiao bung tbe more unportast rf tbe (wo, ai we have a1re«dj ahown. The difference of levd betWMD the Aoora of the two temples wodd seem to ehow that there wu no direct comraimicatiDn betneen them. That then wu,howeTer,BamB means of cutmnanieatian between them appean fram in occorreiKe remnled by Phi lochonia (ap. DionfM. L c), who relates that a dog entered the temple of Polias, and having penetrated (Siira) from thenoe into that of Pandnwu, there Uf down at the altar of Zeoa HeroaoB, which wia nnder tbe olivo tree. Tetai aapposea that tbe Ism pie of PoltBi *aa ee^eiTated from the two lateral walk of the building bj two walls parallel to iba latter, by mcaaa of which a puaage wu fbrmed on eithCT aide, one (H) on the leyel of the floo of the temple of Poliu, and the other (G) on tbe level of the fknB" of the PandrosBom; the former onnnianicating between the two templee hja fligh ef3lepa<l), and tbe latter leading to the aontena ni of tbe bnilding. A porUuB tl tbe bnilding waa called the Cecro- pnm. Anliacbna, who wnte abont B.C. iS3 [aee Diet.o/Biafr.'nA.i. p. 195], related that Cern^ waa buried in anne [•it of the temple of Athena Polias (iuclnding under that name die whole edi- fioe). (Xlofi rqv n^ioajfoy aitrljr, Atitiocli. ^ Theodont TWqpeitf. S, iv. p. 908, Schntze ; CaiL Ahx. Cohort, ad Gtmt. p. 13, Sjlbotg; " in Minervio, Amob. odb. Cent vL p.6G,ItaDe, IMS; quoted bj Leake, p. 580.) In the iDBcription also ttie CeciD]num is meoliened. Pansaniu makes no mention of anj sepulchral moDiunenti either of Ceerops or of Erechthens. Hence it ma; be in- feired that none such edited; and that, u in the case of Theseus in Che Thcsanm. the tradition of thdr intennent wu preserved bj the namta of Erechtheiom and Cecropinm, the former hai-g a|^ pUed to the whole bniidiiig, and the latter to a por- tion of it. The pcsilioD of the Cecropiom is deter- mined bj the inHTJptiau, whicb speaks of the ■outhem prtetasia, or portico of Carjatidee, u i) w^Tota i Tifit rf RiKpawlf, The narthetn prtieo ia described u rphs tai SupufuiTot. From the wpit governing a di^rent case in these two in- stances, it bu been justly infcirBd bj Wordgworth (p. 133), that in the fbrrner, the datJTe case U|nii- fiea that the Carfatid porlica was a part of, and at- tached to, the Cecmpiom; while, in the latter, the genitiie indicates that the nrstbem portico wu mlj ATUENAE in the direction of or lomrdi the ponal. In i-ldi- tion to this there is no otlier [wt of the Pan- droseinm to which the Ceanfinm can be assigned. It cannot bive been, u gone writers have aopposed, the western companment, — a passage between the northern and southern porticob, — dnce Ihia wu a part of the temple of Pindrosns. u we kam frran the inacription, which describes the western wall u the wall before the Pandresriam (« To7xof 6 wpi'i Ttv naripurtlnu'), StU3 less couM it have been the centnd apartment, which wu undonbtedlj the oella of the FandinBeinln. We maj, therefore, con- clude that the Caryatid portico, with the cijpt below, wu the Cecropnm. or sepulchre of Ceempa. It is evident that this building, whiib had no accea ATHENAE. «n a^anet, or a chapel of the Pandroedtim, intended fbr aome piorticiUar porpoee, as Leake has obeenred. We maj Dovr proceed to examine the different ob- jectB in the boilding and connected with it. First, as to the temple of Athena Polias. In front of the portico was the altar of Zens Hypatns (a), which Pansanias describes as situated before the entrance (vph TTis iaHav). In the portico itself (^(rcAtfovo-i, Paas.]L were altars of Poseidoi-Erechtheus, of Bates, and of Hephaestus (6, e, <!.). In the cella (iy r^ Ki^), probably near the western wall, was the Palla^ diam (e), or statue of the goddess. In front of the latter was the golden lamp (A), made by Callima- chus, which was kept burning both day and night; it was filled with oil only once a year, and had a wick of Carpasian flax (the mineral Asbestus), whence the lamp was called d 6a€wros xyos, (titrab. iju p. 396.) It is mentioned as one of the of- fences of the tyrant Aristlon, that he allowed the fire of this lamp to go out daring the siege of Athens by SoUa. (Dion Cass. Frag. 124, p. 51, Reimar.: Plat Aiwn. 9.) Pausanias says, that a brazen palm tree rising above the lamp to the roof carried off the smoke. In cri^er parts of the cella were a wooden Hermes, said to hare been presented by Gecrops, a folding chur made by Daedalos, and spnls taken from the Persians. The walls of the temple were covered with pictores of the Batadae. The statue of Athena Polias, which was the most sacred statue of the goddess, waa made of olive wood. It is said to have fallen down from heaven, and to have been a common ofiering of the demi many yean before they were united in the dty of Athens. It was emjdiatically Uie ancient statue; and, as Wordsworth has remarked, it had, in the tim^of Aeschylus, acquired the character df a pro> per name, not requiring to be distinguished by the definite article. Hence Athena says to Orestes (Aesch. EuM. 80.): t(w woAoibv AyxaBtv Ku6i» fipens. It has been observed above [p^ 265] that the Panathenaio peplos was dedicated to Athena Polias, and not to die Athena of the Parthenim. This aj^tears from the following passage of Aris- t<^>hanoi {Av. 826), qaoted by Wordsworth: — ET. rls 8dl 9fhs IIsAiovxof lirrai; r^ ^ewovfitp rhw vlirAor; IIEL ri V o&K *A<h|ya(ar iAfttP UoXtdia; Upon which passage the scholiast remarks: rp

  • A09rf IloKidAt 00017 wcvAos tyitfero woforolKiXos

tw ire^ffKir iv t§ woforf r&p lUwvBififvdmif. The statue of Athena seems to hare been covered with the peploa. A Teiy ancient statue of Athena, which was discovered a fbw years back in the Aglaorium, is supposed by K. 0. Mtiller to have been a copy of the dd Athena Polias. A description of this statue, with three views of it, is given by Mr. Scharf in the ifMSMN of Claukal AnttqMei (vol i. pi 190, aeq.). *' It is a sitting figure, 4 feet 6 inches in he^ht. It has a very archaic character; the pos- tnre is formal and angolar; the knees are dose to- gether, but the left foot a little advanced; the head and anns are wanting." With respect to the otgects in the Pandroseiam, the first thing is to determine, if possible, the poaitkn of the olive tree and tiie salt welL That both of these were in the Pandroeeium cannot admit of doubt. Two authors already qaoted (Apollod. ill 14. § 1 ; Philochor. ap, DUmgs. de J)emarck,S} ez|nsfily state that the dive tree stood in the temple of PandroBOs; and that such was tiie case with the ATHENAE. 279 salt well, also, appears from Pausanias (i. 26. § 5), who, after stating that the building is twofold, adds: " in the inner part is a well of salt water, whicii is remarkable for sending forth a sound like that of waves when the wind is from the sonth. There is, also, the figure of a trident npon the rock: these are said to be evidences of the contention of Po6eid<xi (with Athena) for Attica." This salt well is usually called Bd€ur(rci *Zp€x0ritf, or simply BdKaa&a (ApoUod. iii. 14. § 1 ; Herod, viii. 55) ; and other writers mention the visible marks of Poseidon's tri- dent. ('O/M* T^v ijcp&troXuf Kol rh rtfA r^r r/Mo/nir lx« t< orifittoy, Hegesias, op. Strab, iz. p. 396.) Leake supposed that both the well and the olive tree were in tlie Cecropium, or the soathem portico, on the ground that the two were probably near each other, and that the southern portico, by its peculiar plan and construction, seems to have been intended ezpreesly fer the olive, since a wall, fifteen feet high, protected the trunk from injury, while the air was freely admitted to its foliage, between the six statues which supported the roof. But this hypothesis is disproved by the recent investi- gations of Tetaz, who states that tJie foundation of the floor of the portico is formed of a continnous mass of stones, whidi could not have received any v^etadon. The olive tree could not, therefore, have been in the southern portico. M. Tetaz places it, with much probability, in the centre of the cella of the Pandro- seium. He imagines that the lateral walls of the temple of Polias were continued under the form of columns in the Pandroeeium, and that the inner space betweoi these columns formed the cella of the temple, and was open to the sky. Here grew the olive-tree (o) under the altar of Zeus Herceius (p), according to the statement of Philochorus (ap. JHo- mfs, I c). The description by Vii^gil (Am. ii. 512) of the altar, at which Priam was slain, is applicable to the spot hetcan us :

    • Aedibus in mediisj twdogve sub aetheris axe

Ingens ara fait, juxtaque veterrima hurtu Incumbent ante atque umbra complexa Penates." The probable position of the salt well has been determined by Tetaz, who has discovered, under the northern portioo, what appear to be the marks of Poseidon's trident Upon the removal, in 1846, of the remains of a Turkish powder magazine, which encumbered the northern portico, Tetaz observed three holes sunk in the rock; and it is not unlikely that this was the very spot shown to devout persons, and to Pausanias amraig the number, as the memorial of Poseidon's contest with Athena. A drawing of them is given by Mr. Penrose, which we subjoin, with his description. ^ They occur upon the surface of the rock of the Acropolis, about seven feet below the level of the pavement These singular traces consist of three holes, partly natural and partly cut in the rock; that lettered a in tlie plan is close to the eastern anta of the portico; it is very irregular, and seems to form part of a natural fissure; 6 and c, near the surface, seem also to have been natural, but are hol- lowed into a somewhat cylindrical shape, between 2 and 3 feet deep and 8 and 9 in diameter; da a, receptacle, as may be pn^sttmed, for water, cut TO deep in the rock, and connected with the holes b and c by means of a narrow channel, also aboot 1*0 deep. The channel is produced for a short distance in the direction of a, but was perhaps discontinued , on its being discovered that, owing to natural cre- T 4 ^80 ATHENAE. Tioes, it would not hold water. At the bottam of b and c were found firngments of ordinaiy ancient potteiy. There appears to have been a low and narrow doorway through the foundation of the wall, dividing this portico &om the temple, to the under- ground space or ciypt, where these holeB occur, and also some oommunication from above, through a slab rather difierent from the rest, in the pavement of the portico immediately over them." Paosanias has not expressly mentioned any other objects as being in the Pancbnoeeium, but we may presume that it contained a statue of Pandroeus, and an altar of Thallo, one 'of the Home, to whom, he informs us elsewhere (ix. 35. § 1), the Athe- oiani paid divine haoours jointly with Pandroeus. He has also omitted to notice the oUovpos 5^f , cr TUS SALT-WELL OF THE ERECHTHEIUM. Ereehthonian serpent, whose habitation in the Ereoh«  theium was called ipduccatkoty and to whom honey cakes were presented every montli. (Aristoph. Ly- tittr, 759; Herod, viii. 41; Pint. Them. 10, Bern. S6; Hesych. $. v. OXWovpov; Soph. op. EtymoL M. «. o. Apd<cai;Aos.) We have no means of determin- ing the position of this SfMbcovXor. The Erechthaum was surrounded on meet sides by a Temenos or sacred indosure, separated from the rest of the Acropolis by a wall. This Temenos was on a lower level than the tonple, and the descent to it was by a flight of steps close to the eastern portioo. It was bounded on the east by a wall, extending from this portioo to the wall of the Acropolis, of which a part is still extant On the north it was bounded by the wall of the Acropolis, and on the south by a wall extending from the southern portioo towards the left wing of the Pro- pylaea. Its limits to the west cannot be ascertained. In the Temenos, there were several statues men- tioned by Pausanias, namey, that of the aged priestess Lysimacha, one cubit high (oomp. Plin. xxxir. 8. s. 19. § 16); the colossal figures in brass of Ereditheus and Eumolpus, ready to engage in ATHENAE. combat; some ancient wooden statoes of Athena in the half burnt state in which they had been left by the Persians; the hunting of a wild boar; Cycnus fighting with Hercules ; Theseus finding the slippers and swoand of Aegeus under the rock; Theseus and the Marathonian bull; and Cykm, who attempted to obtain the tyranny at Athens. In the Temenos, also, was the habitatian of two of the four maidens, called Arrephori, with their sphaersstra, or place for playing at ball. These two maidens re- mained » whole year in the AcropoUs; and on the approach of the greater Panethenaea they received from the priestess of Polias a burden, the contents of which were unknown to themsdves and to the priestess. With this burden they descended into a subtenraneoua natural cavern near the temple of Aphrodite in the gardens, where they deposited the burden thsfy brought, and carried back another burden covered up. (Pans. i. 27. § 3; Plut FtJC X. OroL p. 839 ; Harpocr., Suid., $. v. Acnryo^^i.) It is probable that tiie Arrephori passed through the Aglaurium in their descent to the cavern above mentioned. The steps leadipg to the Aglaniium issued from the Temenos; and it is not impoesible, considering the close connexion of the wonhip of Aglaurus with that of her sister Pandroeus, that the Aglaurium may have been considered as a part of the^emenos (rf" the Erechtheium. (Respecting the Erechtheium in genersl, see Leake, p. 574, seq. ; Wordsworth, p. ISO, seq.; MMler, Dt Minervae Poliadit aacrit et aedej Gotting. 1820 ; Wilkins, Probuumea ArekUecto- fucae^ part I. ; Bockh, Ifucr. vol. i. p. 261 ; Inwood, The Erechtheion of Athens, Lendon, 1827; Von Qnaest, Das Erechtheum eu Athen, nach dem Werk des Hr. Inwood mit VeH>ess. fc.^ Berlin, 1€40 ; Forchhammer, Eellenika, p. 31, seq. ; ThierBch, Uber das Erechtheum au/der AkropoHs zu Atken, Munich, 1849, in which it is nuuntained that the Erechtheum was the domestic palace of King Erechtheus; BStticher, Jkr PoUastempd als IToAm- hoMs des KSnigs Erechtheus nach der Annahme von Fr. Thierschj Berlin, 1851, a reply to the pre- ceding work; Tetaz, in Revue ArdUohgique, for 1851, parts 1 and 2.) 5. Other MoKuments on Ike AeropoUs, The Propylaea, the Parthenon and the Erech- theium were the three chief buildings <« the Acro- polis ; but its summit was covered witi^ other temples, altars, statues and works of art, the number of which was BO great as almost to excite our astonishment that space could be found for them aU. Of these, however, we can only mention the most important. (i.) The Statue of Athena Promachua, one of the most celebrated works of Pheidias, was a colossal bronze figure, and represented the goddess armed and in the very attitude of battie. Hence it was distinguished from the statues ei Athena in the Parthenon and the Erechtheium, by the epthet of Promachus. This Athena was also called " The Bronze, the Great Athena" (il X"^^^ ^ f*fy^V 'A^iyya, Dem. de Fab, Leg. p. 428.) Its position has been already described. It stood in the open air nearly opposite the Propylaea, and was one of the first objects seen after passing through the gates of the latter. It was of gigantic size. It towered even above the roof of tiie Partiieoon; and the point of its spear and the crest of its helmet were visible off the promontory of Sunium to ships approaching Athens. ATHENAE. (P»ii.LS8.§S;oonip.Herod.y.77.) With its pedffital it nnist ham stood about 70 feet Ugh. Its position and ooloasa] proportions an shown in an ancient coin of Athens %arad bdow [pi 286], containing a rode reprasentation of the Acropolis. It was still stand- ing in a. d. 395, and is said to have frightened awaj Akric when he came to sack the Acropolis. (Zosim. ▼. 6.) The exact site of this statue is now well ascertained, since the foundations of its pedestal hare been disoorend. (iL) A hrann Quadriga, dedicated from the spoils of Chalds, stood on tibe kft hand of a person, as he entered the Acropolis through the Propjlaea. (Herod. ▼. 77; Pans. i. 28. § 2.) j^ (iiL) The GiffatUoniachiaj a composition in scttlptaR^ stood upon the southern or Cimonian wall, and just above the Dionysiao theatre ; for Plutarch relates that a violent wind precipitated into the Dioaysiac theatre a Dionysus, whidi was one of the figures of the Gigantomachia. (Pans. L 25. § 2 ; Plut Ant. 60.) The Gigantomachia was one of four composttions, each three feet in height, dedicated by Attains, the other three repre- senting the battle of the Athenians and Amasons, the battle of Marathon, and the destruction of the Gauls by Attains. (Paus. /. c.) If the Giganto- machia stood towards the eastern end of the southern wall, we may conclude that the three other com- poaitions were langed in a similar manner upon the wall towards the west, and probably extended as far aa opposite the Parthenon. Mr. Penrose relates that south-east of the Parthenon, there has been dis- covered upon the edge of the Cimonian wall a plat- fivm of Piraic stone, containing two plain marble slabs, which are perhaps,^ connected with these scnlptare8*Sc«>^h^^ f^^tf^t^A^, nttl. (iv.) Ten^de o/^Artemia Brauroma, standing between the Propylaea and the Parthenon, of which the fbnndations have been recently discovered. (Paus. L 23. § 7.) Near it, as we learn from Pausanias, was a braxen statue of the Trojan horse (Tinror Mp€ios)f tnm which Menestheus, Teucer and the SODS of Theseus were represented looking out (pr*p- afa vi pm/ i). From other authorities vre leam that spean pngected from this hone (Uesych. a, v, 8o6- ftot %wTos oompi doctor fmroi, Kpvwr^ ifi- irtffx^ 96pv, Eurip. Troad. 14) ; and also that it was of ookMsal size (hrmv 6r^«y ijJy^Ooa icor 6 te^jpier, Aristoph. Av, 1128; Hesych. a, v. Kpios ictXySnipttt). The basis of this statue has also been discovered with an inscription, from which we leam that it was dedicated by Chaeredemus, of Coele (a quarter in the dty), and that it was made by Strongylion. (Xatpidftifios EweyyiKov 4k KotKiis iafi^€w. ^pcyyuXimp hrohifftp ; Zeiiachrift/ur dU AUarthmuwiaaenaekqft, 1842, p. 832.) (y.) ranpfe of Borne and Afiguatiia, not men- tiooed by Pausanias, stood about 90 feet before the eastern front of the Parthenon. Leake observes (p. 353, seq.) thai from a portion of its architrave still in existence, we may infer that it vras circular, 23 feet in diameter, of the Ionic or Corinthian order, and about 50 feet in height, exclnsiye of a basement. An inscription found upon the site informs us that it was dedicated by the Athenian people bt^ *P^fiii nU SctfooT^ Kalaapu It was dedioited to Borne and Augustus, because this emperor forbade the provinces to raise any temple to him, except in con- junction with Rome. (Suet. Avff. 52.) In feUowing Pausanias through the Acropolis, we must suppose that he turned to the right after ATHENAE. 281 pQsring through the Propylaea, and went straight to the Parthenon; that fitnn the Parthenon he pro- ceeded to the eastern end of the Acropolis ; and re- turned along the northern side, passing the Erech- theium and the statue of Athena Promachus. IX. TOFOOBAPHT OF THX ASTT. Befbre accompanying Pausanias in his route through the city, it will be convenient to notice the various places and monumento, as to the site of which there can be little or no doubt These are the hills Areiopagus, Pnyz, of the Nymphs and Museinm; the Dionysiac theatre, and tiie Odeium of Herodes on the southern side of the Acropolis ; the cave of Apollo and Pan, with the fountain Clep- sydra, and the cave of Aglaurus cm the northern side ef the Acropolis; the temples of Theseus and of Zeus Olympius; the Horologium of Andronicns Cyrrhestes; the Choragic monument of Lysicrates; the Stadium; the gateway and the aqueduct of Ha- drian; and, lastly, the Agora and the Cerameicus. A. Plaoea and MowummUa, aa to the aite of whidi there ia Utile or no doubt 1. 7^ Areiopagua, The Areiopagus (6 "Apfiof vdr/os), or Hill of Ares, was the rocky heoght opposito the western end of the Acropolis, from which it was separated only by some hollow ground. Of ito site there can be no doubt, both from the description of Pausanias, and from the account of Herodotus, who relates that it was a height over against the Acropolis, from which the Persians assailed the western extremity of the Acropolis. (Pnus. i. 28. § 6; Herod, viii. 52 ; see above, p. 266, a.) According to tradition it was called the Hill of Ares, because Ares was brought to trial here before the assembled gods by Poseidon, on account of his murdering Halirrhothius, the son of the latter. The spot is memorable as tiie place of meeting of the Council of Ai^opagus (i^ 4y 'Apci^v w«E7y /SouX^), frequently called the Upper Council (^ 5m» 0ovKli)f to distinguish it from the Council of Fiye Hundred, vriiich held ite sittings in the valley below the hill. The Council of Areiopagus met on the south-eastern sununit of the rock. There are still sixteen stone steps cut in the rock, leading up to the hill from the valley of the Agora; and im- mediately above the steps is a bench of stones ex- cavated in the rock, fonning three sides of a quad- rangle, and feeing the south. Hero the Areiopagites sat, as judges, in the open air (^AwaiBpun dducd^ (em, Pollux, viiL 118). On the eastern and western sides is a raised block. Wordsworth sup- poses these blocks to be the two rude stones which Pausanias saw here, and which are described by Eurijndes as assigned, the one to the accuser, the other to the criminal, in the causes which were tried ID this court: — &t S* c^f "Ap^ioy 6%^^^ ^*^^^ '^ Sffciyr r' thmf¥, lyit ftkv ddrtpoy KaSii>y 0dBpov, th 8* Hxija w(>4a€€ip* Ijwtp Ijy *Epiy{wy. (Eurip. Iph, T. 961.) Of the Council itself an ac- count has been given elsewhere. (Diet, of AnL a, V.) The Areiopagus possesses peculiar interest to the Christian as the spot frtnn which the Apostle Paul preached to the men of Athens. At the foot of the height on the north-eastern side there are S8> ATHENAK ruiiu of t. nnall chnrob, dedicated Co S. Dionjnaa the Arno^a^te, and comXDancratinK hit convertion here by SL P«nl. (AeL Apott. ini. 3<.) At IJh oppoaita or eoatli-asteni mcffla of the bill, ii ot 30 jirda dlatwC fnni Uib atefs, tbere is a wide cbasm in the rockA, leading to a giootnj recen, within whicfa tfaeie is & foimliiii d tBi7 d«rk water. TIub «u the eaDCtiiarr of die En- memdes, oonuacoly odled bj the Atheniwii the jSemiKK (al 2*/wa0i '»^ Venenbte Goddessea. (Pane. L ie. §6: <iTi>|i<n|iifo tit3iinAt Brit it 'Uptiif mt/v, Din»rch. e. ilew. p. 35, Baeke.) The cavera it&elf fbrmed the temple, witli prubablj an artificial mutnctifBi in front. Its poeition u freqnentlj ro- hmi to b; tbe Tragic poete, vbo also apeak of the duam t£ tbfl eaith (T^Tof Tap' oXnhr x^^y^ ^^ rorrw x^'i'i ^ai- El<«t. IS71), and the anbter- nuean chamber (dJAo/iot .... iutA y^t, Aeocb. Ermen. 1004, eeq.). It wu pobablf in CODae- qnence of the soblaranno nuton of Ibe aanctnaiy of theee goddesaei that lorchea wen emplojed in their ceremonia. " Ae<chj]iu imagined the pro. cnuion nbicb eecorled the Eomenida to thii thdr temple, u dooendbg the nxkj steps above de- acribed from the platfenn of the Areiopagna, then winding round the eaalem angle of that hill, and eonducting them with the aonnd of mnaie and the glare of torchea a1«ig thia rock^ ivrine to tbia dark (Ddognre." (Wordaworth.) Within the aacred en- chnare wu the moonmeot of Oedipna. (Pans. L S8.§7.) Between the niMtnai7 of the Senmae and the bwcit gate of the Acn^lii alood tbe beronm of Heajeboa, to whom a nun waa immolated before the ■Krifion to tba EnmmidH. (Schot. ad Soph. Oed. Cal 489.) Hia dscoidanla, the Heajchidae, wen Hi* bereditaiy prints of thcu godderaea. (Comp, HHDer, Emaaudet, p. 206, esii., Engl. Tiana.) Near tbe auna apot waa the monnment tf Cjlm, enctad ou the iplt when be wu ilain. (Leake, ju ;.x». j^«:-/u.^ tbe Fjijim^^r}^kitC Meem'bly S tbe Athenian people, fbitned pwt of the aurface of low rocky hill, at the distance of a qoaiter of a mile fran the oentre of the Areiopagna hilL '■ The Pnji maf be beat described aa an ana fbnned bj the aqment of a dicle, which, aa it ia very nearly eqnal to a aemiciicle, for the aake of condaenass, we aball aasume aa each. The ndina of thia aemidrtle variee Gram aboot 60 to 80 yaida. It ia nt a aloping gnnmd, •rbich aheliea down Tery eently toward the hollow of the ancient agont, which waa at its foot OD the NE. Tbe chord of this semicircle is the bigbett [art (f this elope ; the middle cf ita arc is the lowesti and this laat pant ti the curve is cased by a tenai wall of huge pdygonal blocka, and of abont IS feet in depth at tlw ceolie; tbia tema wall prevents the aal of the slope fiom lapaing down into the Taller of the agon beneath it The chord of this aemiciiele ia fbnmd b; a line of rock, rerli- callj hewn, ao aa to jHeaent to the epectatm', stand- Ing in the area, the bee if a Sat wall.* In tbe middle point of thia wall of rock, and projerting from, ai^ applied t« it, ia a solid lectangokr block.

  • Hence it ia aptly compared by Mnre to a tbodre,

the shell of which, instad of curving upwards, ■lopes downwards from the orchestra. ATHENAE. hewn from the same rod." (Wordsworth.) TUa is the celebrated Bema (Bima), or pnliat, <Aen called " the Staae * (J XfOor, comp. if i^yop^ wpbt Tp hie^, PluL Salon, 25), from whince the ontom addrMHd the moltitnde in the eemionnlar area be- fora them. The bema locb lowaida tbe NE, that ia, towards the agora. It ia 1 1 feet btoad, risng from a graduated basu : tbe Bommit ia brokBi ; bnt the present height is aboat 3D feet. It waa acces- sible m tbe right and iefl of the orator by a flight of atepa. Aa tbe dostinies of Athena were swayed by tbe oraton from this pulpit, the term " tba ■tone' ia famiUarly oaad n k figure of the gorem- B. Ser msnt of tbe stale : and the " master of the stone" indicates tbe ruling ataleaman of the day (SirriT ■poTii rvr TeS MAiv rei! 'y vf n«rl, Arisl<^ Pas, 680; eomp. Adum. 683, Theiinopk. 528, seq.) Tbe positian cf the bema cammauded a view of the Propylaca and the other iuagni£ca>C edifices of the Acropolis, while beaeatb it wu the cjtj itself alndded with monnments cf Athenian glory. Tbe Athenian ontna frequently roiued tbe national feelings of thdr audience by pdnting to " that Prepjlaea there,' and to the other a[^did bnild- ingB, which they had in view from Ibe Pnyx. (IlpoiruXaia TiwTci, Heaycb, i. v.; Dem. c. AmAvL pp S97, GI7 ; Aesch. ds FaU. Leg. p. 253.) The podtioa and form of the remains that have been just described agree so perfectly with the statements of andent writers rwpecling tbe Pnyi (see auth«iti(a quoted by Leake, p. 1T9), that it is Bnrpriuug that there ahoold ever bare been any doubt of their identity. Yet Spon look them for those of the Areiopagna. Wheler waa m doubt whether they belonged to the Aredopagos or the Oddum, and Stuait regarded tbem u those of the tbeatie of Begilla. Thdr Irne identity iru fint I pointed out bj Chandler j and no subsequent writer -^ bu entertained any doubt on the sul^ect The Puyi appsui to have been under the csjecial pntection of Zeua. In the wall of rook, oa dther side of the bema, are aeiend niches for lodve offeriugs. In dealing away the earth below, several of these ofleringB were diamverod, conBiBtingofbaB-ielie& re- presenting diS^nt [arts of the body in white marble, und dedicated to Zciu the Suprnne (Alt' 'T^Wfi). (Lake, p. ISS; Dodwdl, Td. i. ]>. 40!.} Tbe am of tb« Pdtx contained sboat 13,000 •qoan jvdi, ud conld tiKrefan cuUj Rccamno- daCfl tbfl nhdit of Llifi AUienivi dtiune. The n- ■tnEtal with the siiaplidtj of mncieat timn (icvri rV nAiub siX^nrrB, Pdloi, viiL 133), it borne out bj Um eutCing renwini. We know mano^er that it iras Dot prorided HitL Mats, with (be eicep- tHO of a Itv wooden bencbea in llw firat too. (Aristoidi. Aciar*.25.') Hence the anonbled dd- XQB Hlivr stood or ut on the b&re rock (^cofuo/, Ariitoph. Vup. 43) ; and accradinglj the Saouge- BtUer, vhen lie aRka to undermino tlie populantj of CksD, ofleia a eOBhim to the demni. (Aiiitoph EjaiL 7S3.) It vu not prerided, (ike the theotio, with anj ipedu of awning to ptolect Um uaemhl^ fron tlie nji rf tiie aim; and thia waa doabtlaia en roLHi whj the aoemblj wai held at daj-bnak. (Hon, ToL ii. p. 63.) It lua been lemaiked that a travellei wtw monnts the bema of the Fnyx maj lafel; gaj, what perhaps cannot be said with equai certunt; of anj other spet, and of anj Mber bolj of gieat men in aatiqnitj : Ucn bare stood Denustbenee, Pericka, Themialodee. Ariitida, and 6«kn. Thia nmaik, bowerar, wonM not be tnw in ita fitU extent, if wo wen to give cre- ATHBNAE. ass denee to a ^usage of E^ntarch (7%em. 19), to which aliuion hu beoi almdr made. Plntarch relata that the benu originallj looked towards iJie sea, and that jt wafl afterwBida removed bj the Thirty Tj.. rants so as to face the land, became the toVBRigntj of the sea wis the origin of the dcmociicy, while the pniinit of Bgricultunwiu favourable to the oligarchy. Bat baa no part of the [neent Pnji couM tlie lea be Men, and it is erident, trnm the eiisting remains, that it Le of much more ancient dale than the age of the Thirty Tyrants. Uoreover, it is quite incndiblB that a work c^ sncb gigantic proportions should have been erected by the Thirty, who never even snm- moned an assemblr of the citjiens. And even if they had cfiected euch a change in the jiire of meeting; fee- the dtiiena, wonld not the latter, in the mtorttion of the democracy, have returned to the fonur site t Wa have Iherefbie DO hesitatica in rejecting the whole stoij aling with Forchbanuner and More, and of legaidlng it with tlie latter writer as one of the many anecdotes of what may be called the mnal and political mythology of Greece, invented to give leet to the narrative of interesting events, a the Bcticai and cbanutere of illnstrions men. Word«w(*th, however, accepts Plntanh's stoiy, and points cot nmains which he eensiders to be tboea of the ancient Pnyr a little behind the pnaent bema. It ta tme that there ia behind the eiiitiDg bema, and ea As mmnut of Qie rod, m oplanade and tnrace, rineh has evidently been artificially levelbd; and near one of its eitmnities are appeaiancte en the gieimd which have bem snppoaed to betoken the eiistBHM of a fbnna bema. It has been naoally ■taltd, in refDt^imi of this hypotbeas, that not even (ran Ifaia higbn apo( maid Oia na be aeea, becaiiaa lU city wan ran acnaa tlie t^ of tbe bill, and woold h»« eSactnallj btennptad an; new rf the sea I bnt this answv is not rafflaent, ance m bars bniight farward nwooa fbr believing that this waa not the dinctinaftheiMeiaitwalL This esplanade, bow- ets, ia 00 amcb smaller than the pieeeot Pnyr, that it ia impOMibk to believe that it conid ever have beta need as the ordinary assembly d the dtuens ; nd it i« much more probable that it served fbr pnr- tnat* connected with the great assembly in the l^yi below, bong psihapa ommd in part with bnildings or booths fv the coarenieme of the Prytanee, scribes, and oths- pnbhc fanctionariea. Man calls attention to a pattage in Aristophanes, when alioucai is made to each ^pendaga (rJjr IKoxi wSffn* aal rii „tKvir nl Tit tiMavi luBf/^ai. Tfutn. 65S); and Ihoogb the Pnyi ia hen used in borksqae ^pGcation to Uw Tbeannpbiainm, where the female ssBiiiiblim wsn held, dua cinmmslance dose not destroy the pout of the aliamon. (Hoie, vol. IL p. 319.) TIm wbola nek ef the Pnyi was thickly inba- ■" '« flattened and cue in all dinctJOES. We bare already bad oeca^on to point oat [see above, p. 361, b.] that even the ireet- >m aide c( the hill waa covi^ed with bouses. 3 BOlofAtNiptpht. This biU, wlucb Uy a little to the NW. of tbe Pnyi, naed to be idenC^ with the celebrated Ly»- bettns, which waa ntnated on the other side of the dlj, outside tin walla ; bnt ita proper name baa been leattrsd to it, fnan an inacriptiin] fband on ill smnmit. (Bilc^b, Inter, iul 453; Bees, in KuiM- Ubtt,lB37, p. 391.) 4. ThtMutdm. The Mnaeium (rh MowtToi-) waa the hill to the SW. of the Acropolia, from which it is separated by an intervening valley. It Is cnly a tittle lower than the Acropolis itself. It ia described by Panaaniaa (i. as. § S) as a bill within the city walls, opposite the Acnpolis, when the poet Mosaena was buiied. «^ f/L >H"J> Syrian, whoes name Pannnias does not mentinn. There are atQl remains d thia mamment, fpxa the inacripticna apon wbich we learn that it was the monament of Pbilofappna, the grandsMl of Anti^ choa, who, having been depused by Vespuian, came to Home with his two aona, Epphanee and Callini- cns. [Dicl. of Bmgr. vol. 1. p. 194.] Epiphanea was the lather of Philopippna, who had b«»nie an Attic dtiien of the demus Bcaa, and be is evidenJy m ATHEKAE. tbg Spixa to utran i "ThiB tinrardi Um front, lbs ebmd of Uia dure mia about 30 feM in lengtli : in boat it frcMotcd tlirw nicba betmen faar pluten; tho ccotnl mche wm widn tlun tlM tiro iitonl ODU, ccnoiTg md witli ■ •■nii- drcolu topi tha othcn wm qwdnogiilu'. A Hatoi status In tbo caitral mdiB wu obrunuif that tf tin foaaa to Tbom tha mmiiiiait vaa eractod. An infcripti«l htkm tba uioha ihon that bo ni named Philopippaa, m rf Epiphaim, of iLa dtmna B«(a (*(X4in*m 'Enfibmit Bifriu* Jt). On Iho right hand of this atalua waa a iiag Antiochna, ko of a king Antiochna, aa wc Icam baa tha inaciip- tion baloir it (flBjriX^ut 'An-loX"' BaaiXtrnt 'Arrii- Xov}. In tlM iiiebs oo tbe otlMT aide wu ssated SdoDOna Nleabx (_0aaAtbt aiXiixoi 'Amdx» Hucinv)' On tb« palasta- to the right of Pbik- pajpu <k B«a ia the inscriptian c.ivijva O-F.tab (L «. Caina JoUna, Caii filing, Falni) aktiochvb FHiLoriUrrva, ooa. rsiTBS arvaus, allbcttvi tnTSB raAKTOBioa ab inf. luEautB sebta TRAIAKO OPIYMO ATOTSTO OERIUnOO DACIOO. On that to tha left of Philtfnpiiiia wai iBKiiM BorAiii 'AitI*x** *iX^>ra**or, AwlAaaf lin- fj*«w(, TsS 'AtTi^xw- Between the ni^Mi and the bua (f dM maMunnit, thne ia a i^RWDtatkD in hifEh a^d of the triamnh rf a Boimui wipow eimilai to that ThspaM if the if the ccntial ami eutem nichn, of the twopliMoeoo that tlda of the centra. The atatuea in two of the niches atill remain, but wilhmit lieada, and otherwiae impeifect; the fignna cf the triomph, in tba lower oompaitoiaiit, are nM much better presemd. Tbia mainnient ippeart, baa Spm and Wheler, to hare been neari; in Che mna atate in 1676 aa it la at preaent^ and it ia tn Ciriaco d'Ancona, who vluted Athena twn csitnrica earlier, that we are indebted for a knowledge of the deficieDt parte cf tho monnnwDt." (Leake, p. 491, aeq.j oomp. Stoait, vol. iii. c. 5i Ptiketcii, J)mhi!irtlig- ieatat, Tol. ii. p.S83j Biidch, /nacr. no. 362 ; Orelli, Iiucr. no. BOO.) Of the iixtreeB,which DemelrinaPoliorceta ereoted on the Unadnm in n.c. £39 (Pane. L SS. g 8; Plat. Dtmttr. 34), all true has diaappeared. Then MiiieiDv, fir the wi n ude of the hill ia d w)th t ATHENAE. n the rocka, — amthar proof that the aodent atj wall did not nm akng the tc^ of thii hilL [See above, p.3GI.l There ara «]>a toond m this apot BrXM vralli and ditenii c£ oircnlar Ann, hdLowed out in the rock, and mlar^g towarda the baae. At the ti«teni foot of the hill, oppoaite the Acropolia. then are three ancient excavaliouB in the rock ; that in tba an eleren feet sqnan. One of Ihem leads towarda another anbtemneoDa chamba <f a dnolar form, twahe feat m diameter at tba baae, and dinumahing towards the top, in the ibipa oif a bell. Tbeee caJled anoent hatha, and H cf them i* laid to bavs S. The IHongtiae Thtatn. Tbe atccie theatre tf Dionjana waa ccounenced in H. c. SOO, but waa not completelj Snisbad till b. o (Pane. L as, § 16 : Flat. CitXOnK. pp.841, 852.) A theatre, bowerv, might, aa a Qothic chnrth, ba used Air cflntnria without being qnite finiahed; and them can be no donbt that it waa in the stone theatie that all the great pntdnctiona cf the Gndaa drama vren perfixmed. This theatre laj boMalli tbe Boathem wall of tbe Acjcfralia, near its eaat- sm axtramitj. The middle <^ it was ezcarsted ont of the rock, and ita eitmnilies w<re rappcfled bj solid pteia of mascairj. 'Hie rows of leata were In the fimu of corrca, riaing one abofe another ; of scMa at the top tf the theatie ais now vinble ; bnt tha rest are omcealod by tha accmnnlatioD of soU. The accDTSte dimensiona <£ the theatie cannot t the SI is evident ; but to what extent it desoended into the Tallej cannot be baced. From tba aommit o the hollow below, which maj, however, be higher than the andent orcheetra, the ebpe ia about 300 leet in length. Then can be no qneetlon that it moat have been loffldentl; large to have accom- modittd tbe whole bod; of AtSeman citjians, aa well aa tha atrangera who Socked to tba Dionjnaro festiTaL It baa been supposed from a fusage of Piato, that tho Ihealje waa capable of containing more than 30,000 epectatras, aince Socnles speaking of Agatbon's diamatic victcoj in the thcabe saja that " hia gloiir vai manifested in the presence of more than three mjriada of Greeks" (if4^o»J(- iyiim h liifmnri rSr 'EMjpmr rAto t) rpia- iuip'"t. Plat, Spiip. p. ITS, s.) It maj, however, ba doobted whether these norda are to be taken liteiallj, since the term " three mjciads " appears to have been naed as a round number to aigni^ Iba whole bodj of adnlt Athenian dtiiens. Thus He- rodr^na (t, 97) saja that Aristagoras dccaved three mjriads of Athenians, and Ariatophanea (£ccl. 1 1 39) einplojs tbe words 'oft£v vktua ^ rptatajpUn/ ex.- actlj in the aama sense. The magnificence of the (bcatie ia attested bv Dicaearchns, who deactibea it aa " the most ban- tiful tbeatra in the world, wortbj of mention, grrat and wonder^" (SS« i|i' tut ir rf autov/itrp itd- • irrron fiarpar, iiiiAayar, fiiyo aol Baviiiurrir, ■ — ■ t3i 'EAArfJot, p. 140.) • Tba spectators sat in the open air, but probably protected from the rays of the sun by an awning, and f thdr Bknied KBli th^ hai ■ diitiDct Tiav cf •ea and (f Uh pcuksd hilla of Gdlwnja in th* liiiri Above tbem nae Um Putbeoon, ind tbs a bmldingi </ tbe AeropoGa, n that tbej ut m tin ihaikOT of the ucotn] goda of their ami Tha positka of the spcctaton, as mtliug nudsr Umpla of Athou, and tlw sUtiu irf tbe Zmi of Ciudd (Zfii noifl)i, Paiu. i. 24. § i), is doMlj aDoded U> b; Anchylna (fwioi. 697, a Id wbkh pwmiga Wordiworih has dincted attention: — IWtiv V"" ^'i noflj'roii ^Ol ^lAoi noAAiiitDT f Arb irrr^T Oral ifirai

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Monument of Thrabyllus.

tberai) Bmce it ii niuallj called tbe of Thiujlliu. Within th« c&- df Apollo and Arttmii doatroTlng (f Niobe ; aod apoD Ibe CDtablatun of ras a eokiHal figure of Kmjsiu. This ow b tbe British Museum; bat it baa bat udanna. PaoaniM (i. 21. §3), in his I if tbt caTon, apeaks of a tripod ab»n it, MDtkmng th« tUtns of DiimjHns; bat boJeaDDkmtbeUpcflheitatiie.iiii " at ia eiceedniglj imiro- Ubk, becaoae Od« trere FBI? rare in GraKe at the time irimlKcaeanhDswTote. Tliewd^inaj hare been btndnced bytbe exctTT^or to indicate that the theatn dneribed b^ Kcacarchna ma not in eiiiten

was probably inserted the tripod. The ctutom of aopporting bipoda bj itat«aa vaa not uncmniDon. (Leake, p. IBS; Vaoi, Antiq. in Sritiik Mtuttm, p. lU.) Thi. cayem waa mbesqnentlj conTmteti into the cbnich of Pana^hfa Sjilidlima, or theHolj Virgin cf tbe Grotto; tiad ma used as anch wbai Dodwell Tiaitad Athena. It ia now, honenr, a idniple cave; and the lam^de and the cborch ani both in mine. A laige ftagmeiit rf the architiwe of the temple, with a pait of the inacriptJOD apm it, ia Dow lying upon tbe alope of the theatre : H baa been hewn into a diiukiiig lixnigh. (Wordawcvth, p. 9a) The cave is about S4 feet in length, with Ml avenge breadtb of 20 feet. Tbe eatin height of the mcoument i£ Thnuyllna !■ SS feet S inebee. (Stnart)

Above the Monument are two columns, which evidently did not form part of the building, Their triangular anmmita supported tripods, dedicated by choragi who had gained prizes in the theatre below. A little to the west of the cave is a large re , in which do doubt a atatoe coce stood.

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Theatre of Dionysus, from Coin

Britlab MoaeiuD tinctly aeen, together with the Cimoniaa wall uf the Afwopolia ; and above, the PaitheDim in the oentre, with tbe Pnpjlac* CO the left. The artist has also ffipmental Uw cuve betwe«i the theatre and the Halt (rf tbe Actopolii, dewaibed above, tc^elher with other iMaller excavaticua, of whicb treoea atilt exist. The same subject is also represented on a vase found at Aulia, on which appear the theatre, the monument of TbiwjUna, tbe tnpodiil columus, and above then the polygoual willa 1^ llie Aoopt^i, dvwned 1? lb*

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Theatre of Dionysus, from a Vase


PuUKDon. It esrana th*t ttiu pinnt of vbw me pratij Admired b7 the uKimtJL XHcaeftrrhua illudM to tWa TJBw, when ha spaks (t e.) of " the mipii- ficmt tmpla of Athena, ailed the PutbeDOO, noDg (ban the theatre, and itiildiig the spectator with admintioo. (Leake, f. 183, Mq.) Dodwdl, ToL L p. 399 i Wordawvth, p. SS, Mq.) e. TkeOdoKmofBerodaorlttgaia. The Oiluiim (r Kon^thatre* of BegiQa iln Uj lem wall of the / .7, It was bnill AotoDiDee bj Herudce Atticos, OdBum of B^lla in hoaotir of his deceased wifs. It is not mentiimed bj Fiosuiias in his deseriptioc of Athena, who eifJiins the omlssim in a anbrnqneat part rf his woric bj the remsik that it was not com- DMOiced at the time hewTote his first book. (Pans.Tii, SO. I 3.) Paouiuai remaiks (I. c.) that it iiupaised all other Odoa in Qieece, as well in dijnansioiu ae ID other respects; sad its roof of cedar wood was particolirlj admired. (Philostr. Fil.So^.ii. ). §S.) The length of its dlsmeler within Che walls was abont 240 feet, and it is nlcalaled to hare hr- nishedaccoDunodalian for aloot 6000 peisona. There an still considerable renuins of the Imilding; hat, ■' in spile of tlieir eitenC, good prescnation, and the ma:^ve mitenal of which thej are compwed, Ihej have a poor appeiuance, owing to the defects of the Boman s^ls of architectare, cBpedslly of the rews of small and apparently nseleas arches with which the more solid portions of the masoaij an per- forated, and the conseqneat nnmbei of iosignificnnt parts into which it is thas sahdiTidsd." (Mare, toL ii. p. 91.) It is sarpiising that Stoait ehoald have supposed the remains of tins osnpaTstirelj gnutll Bfflnan building to be those of the great Dionjsiiu theatre, in which the dramas of the Athenian poets were perfonaed. 7. Com of Apollo and Pan, md Fomtaia of Ciepigdra. The Cave of Apollo and Fan, more osuall; cdled the Cave of Fan, laj at the base of the NW. angle of the Acnqulis. It is described b? Ha- Todotus (vl lOS) as dtnated below the Acropolis, and hj Fausanias (i. 38. § 4) as a little below the Proj^lara, with a spring of water war it. The wonbip of Apolio in this oive was prebabl; of great ■ ^l^tj. lentlj.. " Ion " of E

Earip. Ion, 506, 9SS, it) The wor-

■bip of Pan in this cave was not introdiiced till alter the tattle of Marathon, in cooseqaence of the services which he rendered to the Athenians on that occasiaD. His ststae nas dedicated by Mlltiads, and Simmides wrote the inscription fiir it. (Simonid. Stliga. p. 176, ed, Schneidcwin.) AslatnoofPi * ' pnblic libmj at Cambridge, was dii garden a little below the ave, and maj

  • An Odeitun (^iSfioir) w,

rangements, veij similar to it differed diieflj b; bi «, in its form and ar- a theatre, liom which ?ing roofed over, in order

appears to haio been ori-

ginallj designed ihieflj for mnaical rehearsals, in snbardinntioa to the great choral performanoes in the thatie, and ooosequcntt} a mnch smaller space was required for the audience. ATEENAE. the identical flgnis dedicated bj Mltiadea. Tiie cave mtunre* sboot IB feet in length, SO in height, ud IS in depth. Then are two eicaiated le^es cot in the rock, tn which we may suppose statota of the twv di ities to have stood, and also nameniu nicbss and hoka fas the receplicsi of votive ofiaingL The foontain near the caie, of which Faassaiss does not mentioo the nsme, was called Clefejdia (KAsfnSllM), nKnancisitljEmpedo(V>><^). It deritBd the name cf Clepsydra from its being sop- witb the barbonr c£ Fhalerum. (Aiistoi^ Lysistr. 912, SchoLodbc. ad F1191. 853, Av. 1694; Ho. Bych.).vc. KAe^-iSpa, K^rf-lfpinay, nOm.) " TIm only access to this fbtmtain is Irao the eacloeed platform of the AuopoUs above it The approach to it is at the north of the Dorthem wing of Uie Propy- Isea. Here we bif;in to dcecsud a flight of fbi^- seven stepi cat in the rock, bnt partially oued with slabs of marble. The descent is arebed over with with niches cnt in its sides. In the chapel is a well, inrmonntcd with a peiistaniaai it msible: below which is the water now at a distance cf about 30 feet.* (Wordsworth.) This flight of ste[« is sun in the anneisd cdn from the British Unseam, in which tlje cave of Pan is repreaeated at the foot, add the etaCaa of Athena Fromachos and the Fartheoon at the he obverse is the aiie cf the oian : the e sanctnuy of Aglaniiu, one of the three daugh- f Cocropa, was also a cavern Mlnated in the northern bee rf the Acropolis. It is evident {r«n several passages in the /o« of Enripid« (S, 396, 506, 953, U13)that the Aglaoriam was in some part of the predpkes called the Lcog Bocks, which mo ATHEHAE. eastward of the grotto of Pan. [See above, p. 266, b.] It is said to have been the spot from which Aglanros and her sister Herse threw themselves from the rocks of the Acnypdis, npon opening the chest which con- tained Erichthonios (Pans. L 18. § 2); and it was also near this sanctuary that the Persians gained access to the Acropolis. (Herod, viii. 35.) We learn from Fansanias that the cave wss situated at the steepest part tif the hill, which is also described by Herodotns as predpitoos at this point. At the dis- tance of aboat 60 yaids to the east of the cave of Pan and at the base of a precipice is a remarkable cavern; and 40 yards fbrther in the same direction, there is another cave much smaller, immediately nnder the wall of the citadel, and only a few yards distant from the northern portico of the Erechtheimn. In the latter there are thirteen niches, which prove it to have been a consecrated spot; and there can be no donbt that the larger was also a sanctuary, thoogh niches an not equally apparent, in oonsequoice of the snr- ftfoe of the rock not being so well preserved as in the amaUer cavern. One of these two caves was un- doubtedly the Aglaurinm. Leake conjectured, from the account of a stratagem of Peisistratus, that there was a communication from the Aglaurium to the platferm of the dtadeL After Peisistratus had adzed the dtadd, his next object was to disarm the Athenians. With this view he summoned the Atli»frian« in the Anacdum, which was to the west of the Aglaurium. While he was addressing them, thqr laid down their arms, which were sdzed by the partisans of Peisistratus and OHiveyed into the Agknrium, apparently with the view of bdng carried into the dtadel itself. (Polyaen. i. 21.) Now this oonjeetnre has been confirmed by the discovery of an andent flight of stairs near the Erechthdum, leading into the cavern, and from thence passing downwards through a deep cleft in the rock, nearly paralld in its Section to the outer wall, and opening out in the fine of the cfiflf a little below the foundation. [See above, p. 268, a.] It would therefiore appear that this cave, the smaller of the two above mentioned, was the Agraalium, the access to which from the Acro- polis was close to the northern portico of the Erech- thdum, which led into the sanctuary of Pandrosus, tile only one of the three daughters (tf Gecrops who remained faithful to her trust. Leake conjectures that the Aglaurium, which is never described as a temple, but only as a sanctuary or sacred endosure, was used in a more extended dgnification to com- prehend both caves, one bdng more especially sacred to Aglanms and the other to her sister Herse. The position of the Aglaurium, as near the cave of Pan, and in fitmt of the Erechtheinm and Parthenon (wph UaWdios ¥auv is clesrly shown in the following pasBsge of Euripides (/on, 506, seq.), where the fivx^cci /uucpai probably refer to the flight of sti^: — 2 TloMhs baiefinara Ktd wapwXi^awra r4Tpa Xra xop^^ irr§l€ova't wo^iif ^Aypavkov xSpai rpiyovot rriiita x^ofpi vpb UaXXdSios vwv^ Wordsworth (p. 87) conjectures, with some proba- bility, that it may have been by the same liecret eommunication thiat the Persians got into the Acropolis. Aoeoniing to one tradition Aglaurus predpitated henelf frum the Acropolis, as a sacr^oe, to saVe ATHENAE. 287 her country ; and it was probably on this accoimt that the Athenian ephebi, on recdving thdr first suit of armour, were accustomed to take an oath in the Aglaurium, that they would defend thdr country to the last. (Dem. de FdU. Leg. p. 438 ; PoUux, viii 105; PhOostr. ViL ApolL iv. 21; Hermann, Ch^iech, StaattaUerth. § 123. n. 7.) 9. The TheteimiL The Thesdum (Oiytrcioy), or tomple of Theseus, is the best preserved of all Uie monuments of andent Athens. It is dtuated on a hdght in the NW. of the dty, north of the Areiopagns, and near the gym- nadum of Ptolemy. (Paus. i 17. § 2; Pint. Tka. 36.) It was at the same time a temple and a tomb, having been built to recdve the bcoies of Theseus, which Cunon had brought from Scyroe to Athens in B. a 469. (Thuc. i. 98 ; Plut Cun, 8, Thes. 36; Died. iv. 62 ; Pans. L c) The temple appears to have been commenced in the same year, and, al- lowing five years for its completion, was probably finished about 465. It is, therefore, about thirty years older than the Parthenon. It possessed the privilege of an asylum, in which runaway daves, in particular, were accustomed to take refoge. (Diod. L c; Plut. Thes. I c, de ExiL 17; Hesych., Etym. M. s. V, Bi^ciby.) Its sacred endosure was so large as to serve sometimes as a place of militaiy assem- bly. (Thuc. vi. 61.) The Temple of Theseus was built of Pentelic marble, and stands upon an artificial foundation formed of large quadrangular blocks of limestone. Ite architecture is of Ihe Doric order. It is a Peripteral Hexastyle, that is, it is surrounded with columns, and has six at each front There are thirteen cdumns on each of the flanks, induding those at the angles, which are also reckoned among those of the front, so that the number of columns surrounding the temple b thirty-four. The stylobate is two feet four inches high, and has only two steps, instead of three, a fact which Stuart accounts for by tile feet of the temple being an heroum. The total length of the temple on the upper step of the stylobate is 104 feet, and its total breadth 45 feet, or more accuratdy 104*23 and 45011 respectively. (Penrose.) Ite hdght from the bottom of the sty- lobate to the summit of the pediment is 33| feet. It consiste of a oella having a ]»onaos or prodomus to the east, and an opisthodomus or poeticum to the west. The pranaos and opisthodomus were each separated fnm the ambulatory of the peristyle by two colunms, and perhaps a railing, which may have united the two columns with one another, and with the antae at the end of the prolongation ik the walls of the cells. The oella is 40 feet in length, the prouaos, induding the eastern portico, 33 feet, and the ojnsthodomus, including the western portico, 27 feet. The ambuUtory at the sides of the temple is six feet in breadth. The columns, both of the peristyle and in the two vestibules, are three feet four inches in diameter at the base, and nearly nineteen feet high. The eastern fWmt of the temple was the prindpal one. This is shown not only by the depth of the pnmaos, but still more decisively by the sculptures. The ten metopes of the eastern front, with the four adjoining on dther dde, are exdndvely adorned with sculpture, all the other metopes having been plain. It was not till the erection of the Parthenon that sculpture was employed to decorate the entire S88 ATHENAE. frieze of the peristyle. The two pediments of the porticoes were also filled with scnlptareB. On the eastern pediment there are traces in the marble of metallic fastenings for statues : it is nsnallj stated that the western pediment did not contain any figures, but Penrose, in his recent examination of the temple, has disoorered dear indications of the positions which the sculptures occupied. Besides the pediments, and the abo?e-mentioned metopes, the only other parts €i the tunple adorned with sculpture are the firiezes over the columns and antae of Ihe pranaos and opisthodomus. These friezes stretch across the whole breadth of ^the oeUa and the ambulatory, and are 38 foet in length. GROUND-PLAir OF TUB THESBIUM. Although the temple itMlf is nearly perfect, the sculptures hare sustained great injury. The figures in Uie two pediments have entirely disappeared; and the metopes and the frieze have been greatly mutiUited. Enough, however, remains to show that these sculptures bdong to the highest style of Grecian art The relief is bold and salient, approaching to the proportions of the entire statue, the figures in some instances appearing to be only slightly attached to the table of the marble. The sculptures, both of the metopes and of the friezes, were painted, and still preserve remains of the colours. Leake observes that " vestiges of brazen and golden-ooloured arms, of a blue sl^, and of blue, green, and red drapery, are still very apparent A painted foliage and maeander is seen on the interior cornice of the peristyle, and painted stars in the Uumnaria." In the British Museum there are casts of the greater portion of the friezes, and of three of the metopes fitan the northern side, being the first, second, and fourth, commencing from the north-east angle. They were made at Athens, by direction of the Earl of Elgin, fiiom the sculptures which then existed upon the temple, where tiiey still remain. The suljects of the sculptures are the expldts of Theseus and of Hercules; for the Theseium was not only the tomb and heroum of Theseus, but also a monument in honour of his friend and companion ATHENAE. Hercules. The intimate friendship of these two heroes is well known, and is illustrated by the state- ment of an ancient writer that, when Theseus had been delivered by Hercules from the chains of Ai- doneus, king of tiie Molossi, he conducted Hercules to Athens, that he might be purified from the murder of his children : that Theseus then not only shared his property with Hercules, but resigned to the latter all the sacred places which had been given him by the Athenians, changing all the Theseia of Attica, except four, into Herscleia. (Philochorus, ap, PkU, Tkes. 35.) The Hercules Furens of Eu- ripides seems, like the Theseium, to have been intended to celebrate unitedly the deeds and glory of the two friends. Hence this tragedy has been called a Temple of Theseus in verse. Euripides probably refened to this Theseium, among other buildings of Athens, in the passage beginning {Here. Fur, 1323):— eirov ifA* ii/jM^ irp6s itSXtffiM TUiKkiZos, ixti x^P^* ^^ SeyrUras fudirfurros. In the sculptural decorations of his temj^e The- seus yielded to his friend the most conspicuous place. Hence the ten metopes in front of the temple are occupied by the Labours of Hercules, while those on the two flanks, only eight in all, relate to the ex- ploits of Theseus. The fineze over the opisthodomus represents the combat of the Centaurs and Lapithae, in which Theseus took part; but the subject of the frieze of the pranaos cannot be made out, in conse- quence of the mutilated condition of the sculptures. Stuart (voL iiL p. 9) supposes that it represents part of the battie of Marathon, and espedaUy the phantom of Theseus rushmg upon the Persians; Mfiller {Denkmaler der aUen Kmtty p. 11), that the subject is the war of Theseus with the Pallan- tidae, a race of gigantic strength, who are said to have contended with Theseus for the throne of Athens ; Leake (p. 604), that it represented the battie of the giants, who were subdued mainly by the help of Hercules. Leake urges, with great probability, that as the ten metopes in finont of the building were devoted to the exploits of Hercules, and ei^t, less conspicuously situated, to those of Theseus; and that as the frieze over the qpisthodo- mus referred to one of the most celebrated exploits of Theseus, so it may be presumed that the oone- sponding panel of the pranaos related to some of the exploits (rf" Hercules. The Theseium vras far many centuries a Chris- tian church dedicated to St George. " When it was converted into a Christian church, the two in- terior cohunns of the pronaos were removed to make room for the altar and its semknrcular enclosure, customary in Greek churches. A large door vras at the same time peroed in the wall, which separates the oella frx>m the opsthodomus; when Athens was taken by the Turks, who were in the habit of riding into the churches on horseback, this door was closed, and a small one was made in the southern wall. The roof of the cella is entirely modem, and the greater part of the ancient beams and lacunaria of tiie peristyle are wanting. In other respects the temple is complete." (Leake.) The building is now converted into the national Museum of Athens, and has been restored as nearly as possible to its original condition. The vaulted roof of the oella has been replaced by one in aooovdanoe with the original design of the building. ATHENAE. The Uin« intniw •r)dh of Ihe ThnoDin wen dmrntcd with ptictiDgs bj Micon. (Pins. I. c.) Thfl JitDMA apon which thej wm paJjited ia BtiU ■pjKnnC, and showi thai «ch punting corend the (Dlin wmll frran the roof la two f«t nine incha ■hon of the pavemstit. (Luke, p. SIS.) The idcDt^citioii el the church at St. G«arge with th» temple nf Thaeni hu ilwsjB been contidered one of ^ m«t certain poinlii in Alheniin topo- gnphf; bat it hal been attacked bj Bom, in a funphlet WTiatn in nudem Greek (rh Sqsfiiu' ml i iv^T Tai 'UptMS, Athen. 1S38), in which it is tnainlained that the bnilding naoalij calicd the The- Kinni ia in rea]itj the temple at Aies, mentioned bj Panuniu (i. S. | 4). Roei upia, 1. I'bat the tnnple of Theseus i> described bj Plutarch u eitn- Med in the centie of the dtj (Ir /tir^ if w6. yAefc 36), whmM the eiiating temple ia near tl watem eitremit; of the aocient citj. 3. That appiars, fmn the t»limoof of Cjriacna of Aneona, who lisnlled in Gr«e<« in 1436, that at that time the edific« boa the unn of the temple of Art*. 3. That ibere hwe been discc ATHENAE. SSS below the bniUiff a tdw ef marble statOM or Cai;- atida, lepineuting fanman florae, with serpents' tuls for their lower eitieinilies, Hbich Koaa mo- dden to be the tponymons hersee of the Attic tribes mentioned bj Pamiamas u in the immediate netgh- bonrhood of the lemple <tf Ares. 4. The &rt of the BcnlptluH at the lemple repnaenting the eiploHa of Theseiu and Hercules Roes does not consider euf- firient to pDve that it was the Thesaonii eince tbe expliota of theae two hemea are eiactl; the tabjtcU which the Athenians would be likelj to select as the most appropriate decoration! of the temple of the Mure (toI. I.ii. n.3l6)>i sr, vol ili, p. a is giten b; n (in Jahlr'a 342); bat as his hypetheeis naa Deen generally rejected by acholare, it ia nnne- ceesarj lo enter inio any refulation of iC (Comp. PittBkis,in^(Vii..jn;Ai!oJ:Zet(»9,l83e,Febr.and Harcb; Gerhard, Hail. LU. Zeit. 1839, No. 1G9; Ulrichs, in A<maL d. Jntl. Arclaol. 1843, p.T4,fo:i. j Qta6vt,ATtl>aoL ZtitKArifl, 1S43, No. e.) 10, l%t Olgmpieimi. The lila of tbe Olympdnm ('0u>iiriiut), or Temple of Zeus Oljmpiiu, ia indicated by tiileen gigantic Coriatbian colnmna of white marble, lo the mtb-east of tlie Acropolis, and oesj the right bank of tbe Uiaana. This lemple not only eioeedad in nngmtnde all other lemtdte in Athena, bat was the greatest ever dediriled tn the supreme deity of the Citaka, and one (f tbe fbnr most reninmed eiamplea of arrhilertnre in marble, the other three being the lempln ti Efhans, Brancfaidae, and FJeusis. (Vi- troT. TiL Pnef.) It was conmenMd by Feiiiatntna, and Gniahed by Hadrian, after many snapentions and hrtemiptkas, tlie work occupying a [crial of DCtrly 700 years. Hence it ia called by Piuloatratus " a great struggle with time" {xp^"" ***)" *>■'- rwM, Vil. jicjiA. i. 35. § 3). The original founder of the temple ta laid to bkve been Dencalion. (Psus. i. IB. j 8.) The eiecticD of the temple wu tnuHd by Posistratns to fbnr archilecU, wl by VitmTiU) (t c), and oy whom it appnis to haie been planned in all its extent and magnitude. The work was continued bf the sons of PeiaistraCna 1 but after their eipulsinn from Athens it remnined untouched for nearly 400 years. It is not impossible, as Hure has remarked, that prejudice against the Pdsietratidae may have ope- rated against the pnaecutinn of their unfinished monuments, althongh no alluHon oecofs in any writer lo auch a moiive for the toifensioD of the The Peisistratidie most hare mide conudersble pmgioea in the work, since ancient writers speak of it in ita unfinished stale in terms of the highest sd- nuruticD. It al» appears fran these acconnls to have BuEered little from the Penian inraeion, pro- bably from its Duly cceiaisting at th^t time of solid masses of masonry, which tbe Persisna would hanlly ha>e Uken the trouble of demolishing. Dicae. archoa, who visited Athens prior to any renewal aC I the work, describes it, " though half finished, M aX' 290 ATHENAE. ddnf; ubmafaiHOt b; the deaign of the bajlding, mi Hhidi mnild hkve been moeC utmiimble if it bad been finiehed.' {"OAiifiiriw, ^fuiiAii ii>r. mtb- vf<^ ^ ^X^ ^ T^* i>^o£tf^Jiu ivoypaipijif' ■ytrd/aiior S* Av BiTKrror, (frff) awrriA^ff^i). p. UO, sd. Fohr.) Amlotle (PoUt. >. 11) mim- tioDB it u (Hie ni the fxtloaaal nndeitakingH of despodt govenunetitg, placing it in the unie otegorj u tfai l^nniidi of Egjpt i uid Lirii (ili. 20) epeott of it u " Jorie Olpajii tsmplum Athenie, imnni in terris inchoatnin pro iD*goitudi» dei," where " Dnum ' ie med becULM it ma * greater mrk tliui inj other templo of the god. (Comp. Strab.ii. p.3S6; Plot. Sol 33 ; Laciu, Icaro-Maip. S4.) About b. c. 174 Antiochiu Epiphsnee commeiiced the mm- pletiun of tJie temple. Ho emplojed ■ Remui uchi- tect of the Dune of Cesiutiss to proceed with it. CoHotiDi cboee the Corinthian order, which iru adhered to in the euheequenl proaecolJoa of 1 (Vitn,. .;Athen. .p. 194,*.; Veil, Pat. Upon the death of AntiochoB in b. c 1 64 was intermjjted ; and abont SO Jean aftervarda nme cf ill columns were tnctported to RmiHi by SnlU fv the oM of Uie Capitoline temple at fiome. (Plin. xjatl. S. i. 6.) Tbe work wu not resomed till the roign of Angiutas, when a tocietj of princea, alUei or dependent* of the Roman empire, undertook to complete tin building at Iheir jinnt expense. (Suet. Aug. 60.) Bnt the bononr of its final com- pletion was merred for tLidriaa, nho dedicat«d the temple, and set ap the slatne of tbe (tod nitbiu the cdla, (Pans. i. IS. % 6, seq.; Sportian. Badr. 13; Km Case. Iiix. IS.) Pausaniat safs that the whole exterior indeenre wu about fmir etadia in circnmference, and that it was full of alatnes of Hadrian, dedicated bj the Gre- rian alies. Of tbene staCnea manj of the pedestals have been fbnnd, with inicriptiaiia npm them. ATHENAE. (BifcUi, Inter. No. 321—346.) Fnm On remains of tiie temple, we can ascertain ita i general form. According a tbe Mr. Fennwe, it waa 354 ft«t (more exactlj' 3S4-2S5) in Inigth, and ITl feet (171-16) in breadth. "It ixmsiatod of a cella, annoonded bj a pensile, which had 10 colunms in liont, and SO on the aidn. The peristyle, bdng double m the sides, and haTing a triple range at dtbcr end, besides dues colnmna between anCae at octa end of the eelU, ctmraated altogether of 120 ctJumns." (Leaks.) Of these columns IG are now standing, with thdr aithi- tians, J3 at the Boatb-east«m angle, and the mamingniree, which are of the intai« row of southern side, not lar from tiie soatb-westem anj^ These are the largot colnmna of marble now atand- ing in Europe, being nx and a half feet in diamelar, ai^ above sixty feet high. A recent traveller remarks, that the doolation rf the spot on which thej stand adds much to the eStct of their tail majutic forms, and that scarcely any nun is more calculated Ui excite stronger emotions of combined sdmiiatiDn and awe. It is difficult to conceive wbere the enormoiis masses have disappesred of which this temple was built. Ite deetructiga probably commcfK«l at an early period, and sup- plied firan time to time building materiala to the inhabitants of Athena during the middle agea. Under the oourt of the temple there are some very large and deep vaults, which Forchhaimnsr considers to be a portion of a htrge dstero, alludod to by Pausaniaa as the chasm into which the vatem Howed after the flood of DeunUion. From this cis- tein Uiere is a conduit running in th» direction of the fountain of Callirrlio£, which he supposes to have Veen partly supplied with water by this meuiH. (Leake, p.S13; UuR, toL ii. p. 79 j Forchhammer, p. 367.) ATHENAE. tl. Thm BonlagmiKif Andmtieat Cgrritttet. Thi* bnilding, nilgmrlj («ll«d tlie " Temple of ths Wioda,* frnn the flgona of the winds upon iti fwat, u ■liutHl aorth of Um AcropcJii, anil in itill ex- tant. IM date is DnnrUin, but the strle rf the KulptOT* and vi^tA^Dre u thought to belong to tbe penod lAa Asunder the Gmt. MtUler snp- pivo it to hare been ended ahoat B-& 100; and its date moat be prioi to the Diiddle of the flm centorj B. c iinoi it in mentioiwd b; Varro (ff, R-m. i. % i;> It Berred both u tbe matbocock and publie dock of Alhoia. It >a u octagonal lower, Kith it* eight Dde> bcicii; mpeetiieljthe direction of iha eight wiodi ioto nhich the Atfaeman coapaa wit diTided. The diraetioai cf the scvenJ ndee WHD indicated bj the fignna and namia of the eight winds, which were tculftored on tbe frieie cf the mEablatore, On the nunmit of the building there atood originallj a bronze figure of a Triton, holding a «aAd in liia light hand, and taming on a pivot, ■0 M to wrre he a weathenwk. (Vitnir. L 6. § 4-)' Thii montunait ii called a honlagium b; Varrci (L c). It fbnned a nwanire of tinM in two waTa. On each of ita eight aidea, beneath the fignrea of the winda, lioea an (till vinlile, which, with the (DOtoooa that atood oat above them, fonoed a asieB of ntOdliila. In the centie of the interior of the bnilding there waa a depejdis, or water-dock, Um rsmaim of which are Mili liable. On the (OBlh tide d the boilding then waa a diton, idiich waa aupplied with water ham the apring caUsl Clepq'dn, nntr the earn of Pan. Lake Malea that a portjon of the aqoednct existed Dot Img ainc^ and formed part of a modem coDdait for tbe conTejBDce uf water to a neighboaring nueqne, fv tbe aerTice of tbe Tnrka in their ablutjraia. It maj not be nnneceeaair ti< remind the reader that ATHEMAE. Cleptrdia wie th and waa not ao failed baa the fbantain of Uie aanie name, which inpplied it with water; the aimilarit; of tbe namea ie aoddantaL The reaaoo of the fbnnlain near the cave cf Pan bdng called Clep- ijdni haa been given abore. [See p. iSi, b.] Tbe height lA the baildmg from ita feandation ia 44 iMt. On the NE. and NW. aidea an dii^ Corinthian portiooei, giving acceia to the interior; and to the tmth wall ii affixed a sort of tomt, (brtning Caree.qnarten of a dicle, to coilMii tbe ctatcra which anppUed water to the ckpeydTK. IS. Tkt Ckaragie ifimuiBtnt o/Lgiieraltt. Thie elegant mmmneitt, vnlgarlj called the " Lantam of DenMatbenea," wai dediated bj Ljncntee in B.C. 835 — t, ae we learn from an in- aOTptJcai oo the architrave, which lecoids that '^ LjBicntes, son of Ljsithcjdfa of Cicjnna, kd the chornfl, when the boji of the bribe of Acamantia anqnofd, when Thecal {Ja^ed the fiate, when llMjr had gained h Somecf tbeae tripoda were placed apm email tern- plee, whidi were erected dtbtr in the {ndncta of the theatre, or in s street which ran almg the eaaton aide of the AcropoUa, from the PiTtandnm to theLenaeuniiOr eaored (a>d«an of IXonjBBt near )l ! ' tat ATUENAE. tfas tbeatre, and which ma bence called the " Stnwt of Tripods." (Pan«. i. 20. § 1.) ( Of thaie templeB QnljtwQ n Qw renMin ; the monn- r ramt of ThiMjll os^BiKaUir 'JBoJeTIiB theatre, of I which ir« have already spdiea [tea p. 385] ; and the monameat qf Ljucrata, nhicb atood in the stnet it«tf. It appears that this atreet was funned en- 'tirely hy a seriea of such monamentfl; and from the inscriptions cngm-ed on the architnTes that the dramatic chnmiclea or didasraliae wan munlj coin- pUed. The monament of Ljsicnlas is of Uie Co- rinthian order. It ia a small ciroalar bailding on a aquare basemenC, of white marble, and nrered b; a mpola. BOpported by eii Corinthian cohunna. Its mole hn^ht waa 34 feet, of which the aqnare basis was 14 fe< the body of the building (o the aaniDiit of the colmnm IS feet, and the entablstore, toge- ther with the capoU and apei, 8 feet. There waa □0 acwss to the interior, whidi «u only 6 Icet in diameter. The frieie, of which there are casts in the British UuBenm, represents the destnicticn of the TyrriKnian {uratea by Diunyans and Ins aUoidaals. ^< -^w ■, - /'LrT-j^-^yt'-.'- VS'. 7Ae FomtiHn o/ CaUirrhoi, a The fountain at Callinhoe (KatJ^f^), or En- Deacmnns QEmiKf<yvm was stnatdd in th« SE. of the dlj. It was, as has been already re- marked, the only aoorce of nnd drinkaUe water in Attacoa. (Pans. i. U. g V) It was employed in all the more IrDportant services of relipon, and by women prior to their nnptiala, (Thuc. ii. 15.) We leam from Thui^ydides (J. c.) that it waa onginally named Callirrho^^, when the natunl aoorces wera open to view, bnt that it was a^rwarda named Euneacmnns, from hand); been fitted with nine pipes {irpmnmi) by the Pdsislraljdas. Hence it ap- peirs that the natumi ararces were coiered by some Idnd of building, and that the waier was eon- dncted through nine pipes. Enneacnmos api«iirs to hare been the name of (he fountain, in the archi- t«ctnral sense of the term; bnt the spring or source continued lo be calkd Caliirrhoe, and is the name which it atCl beva. (Comparx Stat. Tluib. lii. 629 : " Et qoos Csllirrhoe norifs emuitiha! undis Iin- plicat."} It has ben supposed from a fagment cf Cratlnua (ap. Schid. ad Arliloph. EquU. 630; Soidaa, a. v. Sflfftiirdjrpoi'roi) tliaL the fountain was ■bo called Dodecacranos ; bnt it is more probable, aa Leake has Temarked, that the poet HJDplihed for the sake of comic eflect The spring flows from Ihe (bat of a broid ridge of rocks, which crtwee the bed of the Iliaaiis, aod orer wUch Um rivei forms a le fpiin' i and of water, and was not supplied from the llissua. The waters of the fountain were made to pass through small pipes, [dejced in the face of the rock, through which they descended into the puol below. Of these orifices seven am still neible. The foun- tain also received a aopply of water from the cisteni in the Olymfieium, wliich has been ali'eadj men- tioned. [See above, p. 290, h.] The pool, which st^e. lefoui canal wiiicb o would b( the bed of the Ilissos to Vmd, a small village a mile from Uw city, nn the road to Peiraenii! where the water ia received into a w»- tem, supplies a fbnntain on the high nsd, and waters ^rdena. The canal exactly rcsemblei thoee which were in nse among the Greeks before Uie in- tmduclion of Roman aqueducts, bein^ a channel about three feet square, cut in the solid iwk. It ia probably I therefbnj, an ancient work." (Leake, p. ITOi fofchhammer, p. 317; Mure, vol ii. . [K 85.) iv;>-«/^r,,y. jD^, ir.'^ifi./i^a^yT^ U. Tht PoBOlheBmc SUtdmoi. ' The Panathenaic Sladinm (rA ar^xav t^ nara- »i)faui,J») was situated on the south aide of the llissiu, uid is described by Pausaniaa aa " a hill riung above the Dissus, of a semicircnlar form in its upper part, sod estendiog from thence in a doublerightUne to the bank of the river." (Pans, i. 19. § 6.) Leake obi^rves, that " it b at once re- cot;nized by its eiistiug remuns, consLsting of two panllel heights, partly natural, and partly ennpceed of lar^e masses of rough suhstmction, winch rise at > small distance fruni Ihs left bank of the Ilisans, in a directioa at right angles to the eonrse of that stream, and which are connected at the further end by a third height, more indebted to art for ita com- position, and whic tremity essential to " It is ,|]y stated Uiat tnis Madiuxn waa ccmstmcted by Lycurgus, about B.O, 350 ; but it appears fmn the passigc of Plutarch (rii. X Orot p. 841), on which this supposition rests, thsC this spcC must have been used previously for the gymnic conleste of tie Pana- thenaic games, mice it ia aud that Lycurgua com- pleted the Panathenaic sta^lium, by constructing a podium (*pi)irfi) 01 low wall, and levdlmg the bed (X<ipdlpa) of the arena- The spectators, however, continued to ait on the turf for nearly five centuries afterwards, till at length the slopes were covered by Herodes Attlcus with the aeats of Peoldic marbl^ which called forth the admiration of Paosaniai, (Philostr. ViL Soph. ii. 1. § 5.) These seats have disappear^, and it is now only a long hollsw, grown over with grass. Leake conjectures that it was capable of sccommodadng 40,000 perMns on the msrble seats, and aa many more on Ihe slopes of the hills above them on eatraordiriary occaHons, Philoslretns states that a temple of Tycha or Fortune stood on one side of the Stadium : and a-t there are considersUe remains of rough masonry on the sumtnit of the western hilt, this ia supposed to have been the site of the temple. The tomb of Hcrodea, who was bnried near Ute Stadium, may have occupied the sommit of the opposite hill. Op- preite the Stadium was > bridge across the nissos, of whkh the fooudatiana still exist. (Leake, p. 195.) Xf,. Arrk of Badrim. Thk Arcfa, which a still eitant, is oj^meite the nortb-mstcm luigic of the 0];rnipiemni, aod fi>nned mn atnnrc to the periboliu of lie tenipte. J |alti7 itnidure ; uid the stjie ia indeed ta annorUtj ut the real entargerueat uf laate which H^^*^ ^^^ ia •ckuowledgcd to have diipUjed in the fine art thM UoTB coDjertnrei with raach probibilitj that .. nwj h»ve been i work erected in hi* hraiaiir bj tJie AttKtiian munidpalitj^ or bj some other cIub t£ ■duinn or SEtteiera, rather iaa b; himaelC " Ttiii ■rch, now depriTed of the Corinthi*D colmnnB whi ' idonwd it, ■Jid cnrered U the base with thne fi «m«gted when oomplrte of ATHENAE. Tdlf oSxl n«Ajnr^™T(mu iXA" 'Io*1b. 198 n 1 'l^^^-^' 1 hUL

1 «rchw»7 20 fml wide, between pon aboTe 15 feet ■qoare, dccoTHted with a column uid t. pilaater on eifh idde of the urcli, and the whole presenting ui exactly similar appearance on eiUur face. Above ^ centiT of the arch stood an npper order aor- mmnted by a pediment, and eonaiating on dther thnt of a niche between nemi-colonuu; a thin par- le niches from each other at the coluituu between a jnlaeter tUnked this atructare at either end, and stood immediately above the lar^r Crainlhkn columns uf the lower order. The height of the lower order to the somoiit of the cornice was about 33 feet, that of the upper to the «ammit of Ihe pediment about 23." (Leake, p. 199.) Tbe inscriptims npun eilber side of Ihe frieie above the centre of the aich, describe it a> dividing "Athens, the ancient city of Theseus" fhim the " City of Hadrian.' On tbe north-weitem ude ; ATT (ur' -A«qH> e^r^ i, wpir srJAit. On the Boath-eastem ride : Air (u* 'A^uwE Kob]^ »itrim roMi. Theae lines are an imitation of an inscriftion uid to have been engraved b; Tbesena npun cor- Rspwding Hides of a honndaTy colmnn m the ■sthmns uT Corintb (Plut. Tktt. 35 ; Strah. iii. P-ID): TiS tori nteT6m)aet ohr 'Istla. (Comp. Biickh, Inter. No. 520.) We know that a quarter of Athens was called Hsdrianopolis in honour of Hadrian (Sfartian. Ha- drian. SO); and the above-inentianed inuriptiuu proves that this name was given to tbe qnarter on the aoothem side of the arch, in which stood Ihe mighty temple of Zeus Oljmjriiu, completed by this emperor. 16. Thi Aqueduct o/ Hadrian. The pceition and remains of this aqnednct hava been aheadj described. [See p. 2M, b,] IT. TAe Agora, Before the pnbUcatioD oT Forchhatniner's wttk, it was usually snpposcd there were two market- placea at Athens, one to the west and the other to the nortli of the Acropolis, the former bein|; called the OU Agora, and tbe tatter the Now or Eretrian Affora. Thi> error, which has led to such soriona mistakes in Athenian topography, appears to have been first started by Meuraius, and has been adopted by Bobseqnent writers on the subject, includmg even Leake and MHller. Forrhhanuner, however, has now ciearly ntabliahtd that there waa only one Agora at Athene, which was situated west of the Acropolis; and that there a no proof at all for the existence of the New Agora, which was placed by preceding wrilen directly north of tbe Aenqwlis m •he midst of the modem town of Athens. The general podtion of Ihe Agora, vnjgarty called the Old Agna. cannot admit of dispute; thoogh it is ahnoat [mpossble to delennine its exact boun- daries. TheAgorafbrniedapartoftheCerameiciu. It is importsnt to recollect tins, lines Pauaanias, in his description of tbe Cerameiciu (i cc. 3 — IJ), eiviB likewise a dacription of Ihe A^ira, but willi- out mentioning the latter by name. It cannot, however, be doubted that he is actnalTy giving an account of tbe Agora, inasmuch as the slalues of Lycargns, Demoethones, Harmodius and Arirtogcilon, hich he mentions as bemg in the Cerameicus, are ipressly stated hy other authorities to hsie been in the Agora. The statue of Lycurgus is placed m the Af^ia by a Peephisma, quoted by Plutarch (Vil. X. Oral. p. 852); though tbe same writer, in bis life of Ljcnigus {Ibid. p. 364), says that it ilood in the Cerameicua. go, alw, the stataes of HanDodius and Aristt^eiton are described by Arriun C^noi. iii. 16), as being m the Cerameicns, but are placed in tbe Agom by Aristotle (Alel. L 9), Lucian (ParatiL 48), and Aristophana (i-roptlaai T* if Tott twKeu J(flt 'Apiirro7<(T0.'i, Lytiitr. 633.) On the east the Agon extended as liu- as the ascent to the Pm^^hea. This is avident from the posilioD oT Ihe sUtuea of Hanuodins and Aris- tugeiton, which stood on an eIe%.ilFd silTiatim, nur the temple of Nike, which, as ki hun already teen, was immediately in front of tbe htl wing of the Propylaea. (_KttrTv ir Kepo^tri^ ol ein^d, f hiiiiir ii wrtAic [i. e. the Acropohs] Kitnrvut^ Toi Mbt/v'ok, Arrian, AkA. iii. 16.) The exUW of the Agora lownrds the east is ahio proved by the pieiiion of tbe temple of Aphrodite Pandemun, -rhich was at the foot of the Propylaea (Pans. i. 2S. 3 ; Mirpar wop' aini]r tla^KMai, Eurip. Hippnl. 0), bnt which is ako expressly said to have bn'O I the Agora. (ApuUod. itf. H;irpocrat. i. v. ait294 ATHEMAE. hifjLos *A^po8fn|.) On the west the Agom ftppeen to h«Te extended as fiur as the Pnjx. Thus, we find in Aiietophanes, that Dicaeopolis, who had eecnred his seat in the Pnjz at the firat dawn of daj, looks down npon the Agora beneath him, where the logistae are chasing the people with their ▼ermilion coloured rope (Aristoph. Aeham. 21, seq. with Schol.) For the same reason, when Philip had taken Elateia, the retail dealers were driven frcnn their stalls in the maricet, and their booths burnt, that the peojile might assemble more quickly in the Pnyz. (Dem. de Cor. p. 284, quoted bj Miiller.) It, therefore, appears that the Agora was situated in the vallej between the Acropolis, the Areiopagns, the Pnjz, and the Museium, being bounded hj the Acropolis on the east, bj the Pn jx on the west, bj the Areiopagus on the north, and bj the Museium on the south. This b the site assigned to it by Mtiller and Forchhammer; but Ross and Ulrichs place it north of the ravine between the Areiopagus and the AcropoUs, and between these hills and the hill on which tlie Theeeium stands. {Zeittchrift fur die AUerthunuwisseruchaftt p. 22, 1844.) S^e account of the buDdings in the Agora will be given in the descripdon of the route of Pau- sanias through the dty. The existence of a second Agora at Athens has been so generally admitted, that the aiguments in favour of this supposition require a little examination. Leake supposed ihe new Agora to have been formed in the last century b. a, and conjectures that the ostensible reason of the change was the defilement of the old Agora by the massacre which occurred in the Cenuneicus, when Athens was takoi by Sulla, B. c. 86. M&ller, however, assigns to the new Agora a much earlier date, and supposes that it was one of the markets of Athens in the time of Aristophanes and Demosthenes, since both these writers mention the statue of Hermes Agoraeus, which he places near the gate of the new Agora. The arguments for the existence of the new Agora to the north of the Acropolis may be thus stated : — 1. Apollodorus speaks of the ancient Agora (ii Itpx^ ^y^P^)i thereby implying that there was a second and more recent one. (ndvlhifioy 'AB^ivtfaiy icKiidiiycu r^v 6fA/ipt6pv$€iaQM vcpl r^y ikpxoioLy kyo' pdyj Hid rh iyrwuBa irdana rhy 9^fwy ffvydytcBtu rh roKcuhy iv rous iKKKriaUut, ts iKdkovy kyopds^ Apollod. ap. Harpocrat. ». v. Ilcb^fioy A^poSiri}.) 2. It is maintained from a passage in Strabo that this new Agora bore the name of the Eretrian Agora. The words of Strabo are: " Eretria, some say, was colonised from Macistus in Trij^ylia under Eretrieus, others, from the Athenian Eretria, which is now Agora." (^Zprrpiay 8' ot /A^y knh Meuclffrou r^t TpKpvKlus iaroiKurBfiycd <peuriy iir* 'Eperpicwy, ol d' i,wh tiis *A9iiy7i€rty *Eperplas^ 1^ yvy ivrty iiryopd^ Strab. X. p. 447.) 3. Pausanias, as we have already seen, gives a description of the buildings in the old Agora, but without once mentioning the latter by name. It is not till the 17 th chapter that he speaks of the Agora, just before he describes the gymnasium of Ptolemy and the temple of Theseus. Hence it is inferred that the old Agora had ceased to be used as a market-place in tlie time of Pausanias; and that the Agora mentioned by him is the so-called new Agora. 4. The chief argument, however, for the existence of the new Agora is the Doric portico, which is situated at a distMice of about 250 yards opposite the northern extremity of the rocks of the Acropolis. It is maintained that the style of arcbi-* ATHENAE. tectore of this building, and still more the inscrip- tions upon it, prove it to have been the Propylaeum or gateway of the Agora; and it is thought to be the same as the gate, which Pausanias describee as close to the statue of Hermes AgcNraeus, and in the neighbourhood of the Stoa Poecile (I 15. § 1). In reply to these arguments it may be observed: 1. ApoUodorus did not speak of an ancient market- place in contradistinction from a new market-place; he derives the name of iyopd firom the assembling ((TvniTetrdai) of the people, and calls the place where Uiey assembled the ancient Agora, in order to dis- tinguish it finom their later place c^ assembly on the Pnyx. 2. The passage of Strabo is too obscure to be of any authority in such a controver sy . It is doubtful whether the Agora mentioned in this pas- sage is the market, or a market, and whether it was in Athens or in Attica. Supposing that Strabo meuit the Agora at Athens, there is no reason why we shonld not understand him to allude to the so- called old Agora. 3. It is quite an accidental cir- cumstance that Pausanias uses the word Agora for the first time at the b^inning of the 17th chapter. He had previously described the Agora under the name of Cenuneicus, of whidi it was a part, and he would probably not have used the name Agora at all, had not the mentiim of the Hermes Agoraeus aoddentaUy given occasion to it. 4. It is most probable that the above-mentioned Doric portico was not the gate of any market, but the portal of a building dedicated to Athena Arch^etis, and erected by donations from Julius Caesar and Augustus. This portioo was quite diffsrent from the gate men- tioned by Pausanias as standing close to the statue of Hermes Agoraeus; for this gate and statue stood in the middle of the so-called old Agora. A few words must be said on each of these points. First, as to the Hermes Agoraeus, it is expressly stated by an ancient authority that this statue stood in the middle of the Agora, {iy fi4ap &yop^ IBpvrai

  • Zpfwv kyopahu SyaXfia, Schol. ad Arittoph. EquU.

297.) Near this statue, and consequently in the middle of the Agora, stood a gate (vi/Ai}), which appears from the account of Pausanias (L 15. § 1) to have been a kind of triumphal arch erected to commemorate the victory of the Athenians over the troops of Cassander. This archway probably stood upon the same spot as the IlvXis menticmed by De- mosthenes (rcpf rby 'Epfiijy rhy Tpbs rf wvXtBi, c Everg. et Mnetib. p. 1146), and may even have been the same building as the latter, to which the trophy was subsequently added. The Hermes Ago- raeus, which was made of bronze, was one of the most celebrated statues in Athens, partly from its position, and partly fi:om the beauty of its workman- ship. (Ludan, Jttp. Trag. 33.) This " Hermes near the gate " ('Ep/u^r irpbs r^ %vMh, or Topk rhy irvKiiya) was frequently used to designate the part of the Cenuneicus (Agora) in which it stood. (Dem. I. 0. ; Harpocrat, Suid., Phot. Lex. *Ep/ins upbs rp mtXiBu) It was erected by the nine ar- chons at the time when the fortifications of the Peiraeeus were commenced, as was shown by the in- scription upon it, preserved by Philochoms (ap. Harpocrat ». v. Ilphs rp tvMSi 'Ep/ii^f ). According to Philochoms (2L e.) it was called 6 UuKay 6 *At- TiK6s: for the latter word, which is evidently cor- rupt, Leake proposes to read ^AariKSs, and Forch- hammer *AyopMos. Sometimes t^e *' Gate " alone was employed to indicate this locality: thus Isaeus speaks of a lodging-house '* in the Cerameicns near ATHENAK the Oiti* (Tip if Kipnnniii mniwclai, t^i ^opi tV nXBo, de PkOocL herad. p. SS, Stqili.> Stamdlj, witb ngud to Un Doric portica in the »o-c»lled new Ago™, it is erident fiwo Ita rtyle of uiJiiMcInrB tlimt It wu nwttd sllei the time of GaanHidir, to nj nothfaig oF ta earlier period. It RBBiU at pneoit of foui Dorii; eoliunna 4 feet 4 india ia diuneter at tbe bus, and 26 feet high, iDdadinj tbe capital, the colunms luppistiiig a pedimcot ninnixuited hj a la:^ acmleriiiiti in the eeatre, and Vf a moch DnaDei cue it either end. IT ' tben were anj doobt rtspecting the Mmpanrtiyelj ble dale of tlun bnilding, it iroiild be remoTed bj two inacripttoni! npiHi it, of which tbe ene oa the arehitniTe ii i dodicatim to Athena Archegetie bj tha pei^ile, and recordg Chat the building had been •iKtid bj raeuut of dimatione from C. J^ns Cacaar aiidAngtiittu(Bock)i.riucF.4T7); while the second eo tbe c«riO»l acroterinm Bhoirs that a alalne of Lndne Cuaar, the gnuulnn and adopted son of Anxaatiu, had beoi plactil on the Emnmit of the pnUinnt. (Bockh, No. 313.^ It would teem to follow ban the SjiI (f them macriptioni that theae GolDnuK with their aichitraTe.bekoged to ■ amall temple of Athena Archegatia, and then wonld po- bablf haie oerer been aaj qnntian atwnt the matter, if it had Dot beta Ibr two other ineciiptianB, which ■eera tn mpport the idea erf its DcenpjiLg part i^ the nte of the jonailled new Agoea. One of these m- ■mptiane ie npon Ihe pedestal <Tf a atatne of Jnlia, which waa erected m the name of the AiraopignB, lbs Senate of Six Hnndred, and the people, at the cost erf IXaijBoa of Marathon, who was at the time AgsfanoniDa with Q. Naeriiu Rnfns of Hehte. (BSckh, No. 313.) Tbe aUtoe itaelf baa disap- peared, but the hasii waa fonnd near the portico. We da Dot, bowerer, bow that the statue origiDBllj itood where tlie pedeetal baa been found; nnd eren if it did, it is abaurd to ctHuJode horn this inacriplion that it itood in the Agora, idmply becanae IXonTsius, wbo defrajed the eipeusee of raising the monoment, indolged in tbe pardonable ranitj of indicating the time (rf its ervctioi b; the AgoniKinia erf himself and of Bnfbs. Tbe other inaeription >• an edict (rf ATHENAE. MS the emper^ Hadrian, reepecdng the sale of eels and tbe datiea to be paid npoo them (BSckh, No. 3BS)i but the Urge atone npon which the iiucriptjon haa been cnt, and which now appeua to form a part of the anaent portico, did not bclmig to it origiDally, and waa placed in ita pneent poeitjon in order to ftiCTn the comer of a hooae, whidi waa bnilt cloae b) TTiere is, therefiire, no reeeon whateoerer (or be- lieving this partial to have been a gatewaj, to aaj nolhing of a gate of the Agon; and, coneeqnentlj, ve Qiaj dlBmisa an quite mitenabie the enppoailion of two market-placee at Athens. Of the bnilding* in tbe AgOFs an account is given below b tbe routs of Paosanias Ibrough tbe d^. 18. Tie C Tben were two district! of Ibis name, called re- ■pectivelj' tbe Outer aod the Inner CenuneicDa, both belonging to Ihe demos al Kt|Hvu?t, the fbnner being ontaide, and the latter witiiin, the atj walls. («b( tu2i Kipo^fUEji' 6 fir Ift, Tiixavt, 6 f irrit, Said. Heaj'Ch. i. v. Kipeiuticis; Seiui. <id AruCoph. Eq. ees.) Of the Outer Cerameicua we shall spfsk in oar account of the anborbB of thecitj. Throngh the principal part of the Inner CeranwicaB there ran a iride etreei, bordered b7 cokamadee, which ledfron the Dipjlum, also called tbe Ceramic gate, through the Agora between Ihc Areiopagus and the Acropolis on one side, and the hill of Njmpha and the Fliyi on the other. (Himer. Sophiil. Or. iii. p. «6, Wetiu- dorf { Lir.iui. 34 ; Pint. 5kJJ. 14 : comp, si l{t|>^j ir TOim wifjvt, Aiistoph. Hon. 1135.) We haw aheadj eeen that Ihe Agora formed part of the Cenunekiu. After paadng through tbe former, tbe •treet was ccntinDed, though pTobabljr under another name, as hr as Che fouDtain of Callirboe. For a farther account ofChisatreeC, see if>.E97,a, 399, a. B, FirM Fart qflAe Routt of P lie Citj). From lie Peiraie GaU U> At Cit- ,»™™. (P««.L2.) There can be little donbt that ransiniaa entered lheciljb;tbe Paiaic gate, which, as we have already neu, stood between tbe hills of Pn ji and Hoseiom. [See p. 2S3.] The fint object which be mentioned in entffling the dty wai the Peinpeiim (nB/atiay), ■ building containing tbe Ihingt necessary for the proceasions, some of whltb the Athenians ee>bmte Bveiy year, and others at longer intervals. L«ke and Uiiller snppeae Chat Psnaanias alludn to the Panilhenaea; hut Forchhamnier omsidera it more probabh that he referred to the Eleusinian festival, for rcasoDS whicb are stated below. In this building were kept vases of gold and eilver, called Hofinio, used in the proceesione. (Philochor. ap. BcTpoerat. t. V. nofiitm; Dem. e. An^vt. p. 61S; Vat.Ale. 13; Andoc c. Aldb. p. 126.) The bnilding mnst have been one of considerable siie, since not only did it contain paintingB and staloes, among which waa a biueu statue of Socrates by Lyiippue (Dirw. Laert ii. 43), a lacture of IsocratCT (fiat- V't- A. OnU. p. 839), and eome portraits I7 Cratenis (Plin. xuv. 11. s. 40); but we read of 00m and ftiar being depomled here, and measured before Che froper offceni, to be Bold at a lower price to the people. (Dem. c Pkorm. p. 918.) Tbe Pompeinm was probably chc«en fur this purpose as being the moel suitable place near the road to the Pciraeena. . The street from the Peiraie gate to the Ceramd296 ATHENAE. ens puaed between the hlllft of Pnyx and Mosdnm. The whole of this hiUy district formed the quarter called Melite, which was a demos of Attica. Pan- sanias says, that dose to the Pompeiom was a tem- ple of Deroeter, containing statues of Demefcer, Core (Proserpine), and lacchus holding a torch; and as Hercnles is said to have been initiated in Melite into the Lesser Eleusinian mysteries (Schol. ad Arktoph, Ran. 504), we may infer that the above-mentioned temple is the one in which the initiation took place. It was probably lor this reason that a temple was built to Hercnles in Melite, in which at the time of the plague there was dedicated the celebrated statue of Hercules Alexicacus, the work of Agdadas. (Schol. ad Arittoph, L e. ; Tzetz. CkiL viiL 191.) This temple is not mentioned by Pausanias, pro- bably because it lay at a little distance to the right of the street. This street appears to have been one of consider- able length. After describing the Pompeium, the temple of Demeter, and a group representing Posei- don on horseback hurling his trident at the giant Polybotes, he proceeds to say: " From the gate to the Geramdcus extend colonnades ((rrooQ, befare which are brazen images of illustrious men and women. The one of the two colotmadet (ii ir4pa, rwf (FToAv) contains sanctuaries of the gods, a gym- nasium of Hermes, and the house of Polytion, wherein some of the noblest Athenians are said to have imi- tated the Eleusinian mysteries. In my time the house was consecrated to Dionysus. This Diony- sus they call Melpomenus, for a similar reason that Apollo is called Musagetes. Here are statues of Athena Paeonia, of Zeus, of Mnemosyne, of the Muses, and of Apollo, a dedication and work of Eubulides. Here also is the daemon Acratus, one of the companions of Dionysus, whose face only is seen projecting from the wall. After the sacred enclosure (rifuvos) of Dionysus there fs a building containing images of clay, which represent Am- phictyon, king of the Athenians, entertaining Diony- sus and other gods. Here also is P^asus of Eleu- therae, who introduced Dicmysus among the Athe- nians." It would appear that the (rroeJ, of which Pau- sanias speaks in this passage, were a continuous series of colonnades or cloierters, supported by pillan and open to the street, such as are common in many continental towns, and of which we had a specimen a few years ago in part of Regent Street in London. Under them were the entrances to the private houses and sanctuaries. That Pausanias was speaking of a continuous series of colonnades, on either side of the street, is evident from the words ^ kripa, ruv aroStw, Unfortunately Pausanias does not mention the name of this street In sneaking of the house of Polytion, Pausanias evidently alludes to Aldbiades and his companions; but it may be remarked that an accu- sation against Alcibiades speaks of the house of Al- dbiades as the place where the profiuiation took place, though it mentions Polytion as one of the ac- complices. (Plut. il^ 22.) C. Second Part of ike Route of PaMuasUae. •^From the Stoa BasUeku in tfie Agora to the Temple of Etieieia beyond the Ilitttia. (Pans. i. 3—14.) In entering the Ceramdcus from the street lead* ing between the hills of Pnyz and the Musdum, Pausanias turned to the right, and stood before the ATHENAE. Stoa BatUema, or Royal Colonnade, in wliidi the Archon Basileus hdd his ooarL It is evident from what has been said previously, that Pausanias had now entered the Agora, though he does not mention the name of the latter ; and the buildings which he now describes were all situated in the Agora, or its inmiediate neighbourhood. Upon the roof of the Stoa Basildus were statues of Theseus throwing Sdron into the sea, and of Hemera (Aurora) cany- ing away Gephalus : hence it has been inferred that there was a temple of Hemera under or by the side of this Stoa. It appears to have faced the east, so that the statues of Hemera and Gephalus would witness the first dawn of day. Near the portico there were statues of Ceium, Timotheus, Evagons, and Zeus Elentherins. Behind the latter, saya Pausanias, was a stoa, containing pauitings of the gods, of Theseus, Democracy, and the People, and of the battle of Mantineia. These puntings were by Euphranor, and were much cdebrated. (Pint, de Ghr. Ath, 2 ; Plin. zuv. 11. s. 40; VaL Max. viii. 12.) Pausanias does not mention the name of this stoa, but we know from other authoritiea, and from his descriptkanf the paintings, that it was the Stoa EUutheriut. In front of it stood the statue of Zeus Eleutherius, as Pausanias describes. This stoa probably stood alongside of the Stoa Basfldos. (Plat. Theag. init. ; Xen. Oeconom, 7. § 1 ; Har- pocrat. Hesych. ». v, ficurlkttos ^irod; Eustath. ad Odjfst. L 395.) Near the Stoa Basileius was the Temple of Apollo Patroutj the same as the Pythian Apollo, but worshipped at Athens as a guardian deity under the name of Patrons (rbv 'AirdAAw rhr n^iov, %s TJttTp^6s ion rj iriJAf t, Dem. de Cor. p. 274; Aristid. Or.Panalh. i. p. 112, Jebb; Hax- pocrat. «. V.) Pausanias next mentions *' a Temple of the Mother ^^»l ^ .- v^ of the Gods (the Metroon, Wrrrp^ov)^ whose statue T^ ^ < ^ was made by Phddias, and near it the Botdeuterktm jf ^^ c" (^fiovevHi(Mv)j or Council House of the Five Hun- ^'^ ^' y dred." Ho gives no indication of the podUon of these buildii^ relatively to those previously men- tioned; but as we know that the statues of Har- modius and Aristogeiton, which stood higher up, near the ascent to the Acropolis, were over against the Metroum (jcarayTucpv rod Mtjrptfovj Arrian, Anab. vL 16), we may, perhaps, conclnde that they stood on the side of tiie Agora at right angles to the side occupied by the Stoa Basildus and Stoa Eleu- therius. In the Mefanoum the public rerards were kepL It is also said by Aeschines to have been near the Bouleuterium (Aesch. c. Ctesiph. p. 576, Rdske; Dem. de Fait. Leg. p. 381, c. Aristog. i. p. 799; Lycuig. 0. Leocrai. p. 184 ; Harpocrat s. v. M19- rp^v, Snidas, e.v. Mrrrpayvfnris.) In the Bou- leuterium were sanctuaries of Zeus Boulaeus and Athena Boulaea, and an altar of Hestia Boulaea. Suppliants placed themselves under the protection of these ddties, and oaths were taken upon their altars. (Xen. ffeU. iL 3. § 52 ; Andoc. de Mgs. p. 22, de Redit. p. 82, Beiske; Antiph. de Fals. L^. p. 227; Diod.xiv.4.) The TholuSf which Pausanias places near the Bouleuterion (i. 5. § 1), probably stood immediately above the latter. It was a circular building, and was covered with a dome built of stone. (Timaeus, Lex. Plat., Hesych., Suid., Phot. s. v. O^Aos; Bek- ker, Anecd. Gr. i. p. 264.) It contained some small silver images of the gods, and was the place where the Prytanes took thdr common meals, and offerrd their eocrificos. (Pollux, viii. 155; Dem. de FaU. Leg. ATHENAS. p. 419.^ After the Tholms there folloired, idghar ap tipmrtpm), the SUUtuB of the Epontgnd, or heroes, mxn whom were deriTed the names of the Attic tribes; and after the latter (m«t^ ^ t^ ciirdiw rmv hnfw^iunf^ i. 8. $ 2) the statnes of Amphiaraos, and of Eirene (Peace), bearing Plntns as her son. In the same place (^rrovte) stood also statues of Ljcurgfos, son of Ljcrophxon, of Callias, who made peace with Artazenes, and of Demosthenes, the latter, according to Plutarch ( ViL X Orot p. 847), being near the altar of the 12 gods. Pansanias, hoverer, sajs, that near this statne was the Temple of Art$f in which were two statoes of Aphrodite, one of Ans bj Alcamenes, an Athena bj Looms of Paras, and an Enyo bj the sons of PraziteleB: around the temple there stood Hercules, Theseos, and ApoDo, and likewise statnes of Calades and Fiadar. Not hx from these {oh «tf^} stood the il^uBS of Harmodins and Aristogeiton, of which we Iwfe aheadj spoken. The AUur ojf ike Twdoe Gcdgf which Pansanias has omitted to mention, stood near this spot in the Agora. (Herod. tL 108; Thac. vi 54; Xen. ff^fpareh. 3; Lycnig. c. Leonr. y. 198, Beiske; Plat Ific. 13, ViL X. Orat I e.) Close to this altar was an enclosure, called IIcpi- mx^^^f'^ where the votes fat ostracism were taken. (Ph&t ViL X. OraL Lc) In the same neighbomr- hood was the TenypU of Aphrodite Pandemtu, placed by ApoUodoms in Uie Agora (ap. Harpocrat «. 9. UMiiiMs 'A^fwSJnf), bat which is not men- tioned by Pansanias (i. 22. § 1—3) till he returns from the Theatre to the Propylaea. It most, there- fore, have stood above the statues of Haimodius and Aristogeiton, more to the east Upon reaching the temple of Aphrodite Pandemos, which he would afterwards approach by another route, Pansanias retraced his steps, and went along the wide street, which, as a continuation of the Ceramncns, led to the Ilissua. In this street there appear to have been only private houses; and the first monument which he mentions after leaving the statnes of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, was " the theatre, called the Odeiom, before the entrance to which are statues of Egyptian kings " (L 8. § 6). Then ibUows a long historical digression, and it is not till he arrives at the 14th chapter, that he resumes his topographical description, by saying: " Upon entering the Athenian Odeiom there is, amoQg other things, a statue of Dionysus, worthy of inspection. Near it is a fountain caUed Enneacrunus (L e. of Nine Pipes), since it was so omstracted by PeisiBtratua.** The Odeiom must, tiierefore, have stood at no great distance from the Hissus, to the SK. of the Oiympieinm, since the site of the Enneacrunus, (nr foontain of Callirhoe, is well known. [See p. 292.] This Odeium must not be confounded with the Odeium of Pericles, of which Pansanias afterwards speaks, and which was situated at the foot of the Acropolis, and near the great Dionysiac theatre. As neither of these buildings bore any disdngnishing epithet, it is not always easy to determine which of the two b meant when the ancient writers speak of the Odeium. It will assist, however, in dbtin- guishing them, to recollect that the Odeium of Pericles must have been a building of comparatively small size, since it was covered all over with a pointed roof, in imitation of the tent of Xerxes (Plot PericL 13); while the Odeium en tlie Ilissus appeaiB to have been an open place surrounded with rows of aeatBy and of considerable size. Hence, the ATHENAE. 297 latter is called a rimoi, a term which could hardly have been applied to a building like the Odeium vA Pericles. (Hesych. a. v. tfi^tov; Schol. ad Arietoph. Veep. 114JB.) This Odeium is said by Hesychius (2. e.) to have been the place in which the rhap- sodists and dtharodists contended before the erection of the theatre; and, as we know that the theatre was commenced as early as b. o. 500, it must have been built earlier thui the Odeium of Pericles. Upon the erection of the latter, the earlier Odeiom ceased to be used for its original purpose; and was employed especially as a public granary, where, in times of scarcity, com was sold to the citizens at a fixed price. Here, also, the court sat for trying the cases, called ^Ikoa oirovj in (nder to recover the interest of a woman's dowry after divorce: this interest was called ertros (alunony or maintenance), because it was the income out of which the woman had to be maintained. It is probable, from the name of the suit, and from the place in which it was tried, that in earlier times the defendant was called upon to pay the damages in kind, that is, in com or some other sort of provisions; though it was soon found more convenient to otMnmute tlds for a money payment (Dem. e. Pkorm, p. 918, e, Neaer» p. 1362; Lys. c. Agor, p. 717, ed. Beiske; Suid. «. V. ^tSctbv ; Harpocrat e. v. o-Trof.) Xe^ nophon relalas, that the Thirty Tyrants summoned within the Odeium all the hoplites (3000) on the catalogue, and the cavalry; that half of the Lace- daemonian garrison took up their quarters within it; and that when the Thirty marched to Eleusis, the cavalry passed the night in the Odeium with their horses. (Xen. HeU ii. 4. §§ 9, 10, 24.) It is evi- dent that this could not have been the roofed build- ing under the Acropolis. If we suppoee the Odeium on the niasus to have been surrounded with a wall, like the Cokeseum, and other Roman amphitheatresy it would have been a convenient place of defence in case of an unexpected attack made by the inhabitants of the city. After speaking of the Odeium and the fountain Enneacrunus, Pansanias proceeds: ^^ Of the temples beyond the fountain, one is dedicated to Demeter anul Gore (Proserpine), in the other stands a statue of Triptolanus." He then mentions several legends respecting Triptolemus, in the midst of which he breaks off suddenly with these words : " From pro- ceeding farther in this narrative, and in the tilings relating to the Athenian temple, called Eleusinium, a vision in my deep deterred me. But I will re- turn to that of which it is lawftQ for all men to write, hi front of the temple, in which is the statue of Triptolemus [it should be noticed, that Pansanias avoids, apparentiy on purpose, mention- ing the name of the temple], stands a brazen ox, as led to sacrifice: here also is a sitting statue of -Epmenides of Cnossus. Still frirther cm is the Temple of Eudma^ a dedication from the spoils of the Medes, who occupied the district of Marathon." It will be seen from the preceding account that Pansanias makes no mention of the city walls, which he could hardly have passed over in silence if they had passed between the Odeium and the fountain <^ Enneacrunus, as Leake and others suppose. That he has omitted to speak of his crossing the Ilissus, which he must have done in order to reach the temple of Demeter, b not surprising, when we re- collect that the bed of the Ilissus is in this part of its course almost always diy, and only filled for a few hours after heavy rain. Moreover, as there can 298 ATUENAE. be little doubt that this district was oovered with hoases, it is probable that the diy bed of the river was walled in, and maj thus have escaped the notice of Pansanias. It is evident that the temple of Deroeter snd of Core, and the one with the statue of Triptolemus, stood near one another, and apparently a little above the fountain. Here there is still a small chapel, and in the neighboorhood fbnndations of widls. Whether the Eleosininm was either of these temples, or was situated in this district at all, cannot be in the least determined from the words of Pausamas. In the same noghbourhood was a small Ionic build- ing, which, in the time of Stuart, formed a church, Cidled that of Panaghia on the Bock (Ucawfia irr^w v^rpoy). It has now totally disappeared, and is only known from the drawings of Stuart. This beautiful little temple was *' an amphiprostyle, 42 fleet long, and 20 broad, cm the upper step of the stylobate. There were four columns at either end, 1 foot 9 inches in diameter above the spreading base. Those at the eastern end stood before a pro- naos of 10 feet in depth, leading by a door 7 feet wide into a ir^«ot of 15) feet; the breadth of both 12 feet" (Leake, p. 250.) Leake supposes that this is the temple of the statue of Triptdemus ; but F<m:hhammer imagines it to have beoi that of £u> cleia. If the latter conjecture is correct, we have in this temple a building erected immediately after the battle ol Marathon. lomC TEMFLB OK THE ILIS8U8. D. TMrd Pari of the Route qf Pau»amat.—From tke Stoa Banlenu in the Agora to the Pryta- fiewm. (Paus. i. 14. § 6^18. § 3.) After speaking of the temple of Eudda beyond the Ilissus, Pausanias returns to the point from which he had commenced his description of the C&- rameicus and the Agora. Having previously de- scribed the monuments in the Agora to his right, he now turns to the left, and gives an account of the buildings on the opposite side of the Agora. '* Above the Cerameicus and the Stoa, called Basi- leius," he continues, " is a temple of Hephaestus. . . Kear it is a sanctuary of Aphrodite Urania (c. 14). «... In approaching the Stoa, which is called Poe- ciltf (noueiAi}), from its pictures, is a braize Hermes, sunMimed Agoiaeus, and near it a gate, upon which is a trophy of the Athenians, the victors in an ATHENAE. eqiiestiian combat of Pleistarchas, who had been entrusted with the command of the cavaliy and foreign troops of his brother Gassander." (c. 15. § 1.) Then follows a description of the paintings in the Stoa Poedl^ after whldi he proceeds: ** Befwe the Stoa stand brazen statues, Soloo, who drew up laws for the Athenians, and a littie further Seleucos (c. 1&. § 1). ... In the Agon of tiie Athenians is an Altar of Pity CEXcev 3»/«^r), to whom the Athe. nians alone of Greeks give divine hoDonrs " (c 17 It weald appear that the three prindpal bnildmgs, mentioned in this passage, the Tom^ ofHtpkan- to«, the iSlimcteary of Aphrodite Vraniaf and the Stoa Poedie^ stood above one another, the last, at all events, having the hill of Pnyz behind it, as we shall see presently. Of the celebrated statne of Hermes Agoraeus, and of the ntte beside it, we have ahieady spdccn. [See p. 294?) Near the temple of Hephaestus was the JSwytaceiuni, or heronm of Eutysaoes, whidi Passanias has not mentioned. (Harpocrat t. v. KoKmiras.) Enrysaoes was the son of Ajaz. According to an Athenian tradition be and hu Inother Philaeus had given up Salamis to the Ath^iians, and had removed to Attica, Phi- laeus taking up his residence in Brauron, and En- rysaces in Melite. (Pint Sol 10.) It was in the latter district that the Euiysaoeium was situated (Harpocrat s. 9. Eiffwrdxttotf), which proves that Melite must have extended as far as the side of the . Agora next to the hill of Pnyx. In the Agora, and dose to the Euiysaodum and temple of Hephaestus, was the celebrated hill called ColonuSf more usually Colomit AforaeuSj or Mit- thi$u {KoKttyhs iyopatoSj or ftUrBioi), which, from its central position, was a place of hire for labourers. It received its surname from this drcumstanoe, to distinguish it from the demus Gokmus beyond the Academy. (Pollux, vii. 133; Harpocrat s. r. Ko- «Wros; Ai^um. iil ad Soph. Oed. Colon, ed. Her- mann.) This hill was a projecting spur of the hill of Pnyx. Here Meton appears to have lived, as may be inferred from a passage in Aristophanes (Av, 997), in which Meton says, " Meton am I, whom Hellas and Golonus know " (jUaru ff/i' iy^; Merwv, hy oI8cy 'EXA^ x^ KoKuySs). This is confirmed by the statement that the house of Meton was close to the Stoa Poecile. (Aelian, V, B, xiii. 12.) On the hill Colonus Meton placed some " as- tronomical dedication " (iiyaBrifjid ri kar(mKoyuc6y)^ the nature of which is not mentioned ; and near it upon the wall of that part of the Pnyx where the assemblies of the people were held, he set up a ilXwrpi/wtov, which indicated the length of the solar year. (JiXunp&wioy iy rf yw olhri^ /irjrAt}(r/f , wp^j r^ T«lx« T# iy rg Tlyvxl^ Schol. adAristoph, Veep. 997 ; Suid. s. v. Mcr«y.) The Scholiast also says, that the Colonus Agoraeus was behind the Macra Stoa (t) Meucpdi 2roi^; but as no other writer mentions a Stoa of this name in the Asty, it is pixi- bable that the Scholiast meant the Stoa Basildus. The Stoa Poecile was the Stoa from which the Stdc philosophers obtained their name. (I>iog. LaSrt. vii. 6; Ludan, Demon. 14.) It was origin- ally called "Xrod XluotoMdicTtos. (Pint dm. 4; Diog. LaSrt. L c. ; Suid. s. tr, ^rod.) It had three walls covered with paintings ; a middle wall with two large puntings, representing seenes from the mythi- cal age, and one at each end, containing a painting of which the subject was taken from Athenian his- tory. On the first wall was the battie of Oenoe in ATHEKAE. tbs Aigaa, betwwn the Atheniitns and Laoodaono- aiana. On the great centnd wall was a picture of the Athemana imder Theaens fighting against the Amaaoos, and another repreaenting an assemblj of the Greek chiefis alter the capture of Troy deliber- ating respecting the vioUtion of Cassandra bj Ajaz. On the third irall was a painting of the battle of Ma- rathon. These paintings were verj celebrated. The combat of the Athenians and Amazons was the work of Ifioon. (Aristoph. LjfsUtr, 681 { Arrian, Anab. ▼ii 13.) The battle of Marathon was painted by Polygnotna, Mioan, and Panlaenus. (Plat Ctm. 4; Diog. Laert. vlL 5; Plin. ixxV. 8. s. 34; Aelian, de NaL An. viL 38.) After describing Uie Stoa Poedle, and mentianing the statoes at Solon and Sdencns, and the Altar of Pity, Pansanias quits the Agora and goes np the street d the Ccrameicus towards Dipylnm. He passes between the Pnyz and the Azeiqpagns with«  oat mmtioning either, since tiie lower parts of both w«« covered with hooses. The first object which he mentions is the G^fmnasmm of Ptolemy ^ which he describes as not fisr from the Agora (r^r ieyopia itmdxufTt oh iroAv), and named after its founder Ptoleniy: it contained Herroae of stone, worthy of inspection, a binnue image of Ptolemy, and statues of Juba the Libyan, and of Chxysippos of Soli. He next describes the Tenqifle of Theteutf which he places near the Gymnasium (rphs r^ yvftyttff(^, c 17. § 2). The proximity of these two buildings is also notioed by Plutarch. (Sixths — KcTroi ip fidoi^ if wiKti raph rh ¥w tv/u^ioi', The», 36.) Cff the temple of Theseus we have already spoken. [See pu 287.] At this spot Pansanias quitted the Uersmeicas and turned to the right towards the east K be had gone further on in the direction of Dipyium, he would at kast have mentioned the Xeooof-NNn, or monument of the daughtera of Leos, which stood near the Dipyium in the inner Gera- meiau. (Thuc. i. 20, ii. 57 ; Aelian, F. H, zii. S8 { Cic d^ Nat Dear. ilL 19 ; Strab. ix. p. 396 ; Harpocnt Hesych. e. o. AfMcdptov.) It has been already mentioned that the Ceramei- cns wms a long wide street, extending from Dipyium to the Agora, and continued under another name as fiv aa the fiinintain of CalHrhoS, and the temple with the statoe of Triptolemus, whidi Forchhammer con- jectures to be the same as the Pherephattium. This stnet, like the Cono of the Italian towns, appears to have been the grand promenade in Athens. The ftOowing passage firom the speech of Demosthenes against Conon (pw 1258) gives a lively picture of the localxfrf : *' Not long afterwards,'* says Ariston,

    • as I was taking vn/ tuucd toaJk m the evening m

lAe Agora akmg with Phanoetratus the Gephisian, one of my companions, there comes up to us Gtesias, the son oif this defendant, drunk, at the Leocorwm^ near the hrase of Pythodoros. Upon seeing us he ahooted out, and having said something to himself like a drunken man, so that we could not understand what he said, he went past us «ip to MeUte iirpht M4irrfp tarn). In that place there were drinking (as we aftenmrds learnt) at the house of Pamphilus the fuller, this defendant Gonon, a certain Theo- timos, Archebiades, Spintharus the son of Eubnlus, Theogenes the son cf Andromenes, a number of penMos whom Gtesias brought down into the Agora. It happened that we met these men as we were re«  tumng from ihePherephaUimn, and had in our walk sgain rsacbed the licooorinm." It is evident from this aoamni that the house of Pamphilus was seme* ATHENAE. 299 where on the hiQ of the Nymphs; and that the Pherei^iattium was in any case to the south of the Leocorium, and apparently at the end of the prome- nade: hence it is identified by Forchhammer with the temple vrith the statue of Triptolemus. After leaving the Theseium, Pausanias arrives at the Teaqfle of the Diotcuriy frequently named the Anacekunf bMause the Dioacnri (Gastor and Pollux) were called ol Anuccs, or 'Aycucol, by the Athenians. (Plttt Tkee. 83; Aelian, V, H. iv. 5; Suid. Etym. M. s. V. ^AroKoi ; Harpocrat s. v. 'Amuccroy, IIo- Kiyiwros.) He does not^ however, mention either the distance of the Anaceium firom the Theseium, or the direction which he took in proceeding thither. It is evident, however, that he tumed to the east, as has been already remarked, since he adds in the next paragraph, that above the temple of the Dio- scnri is tiie saored enclosure of Aglaurus. The latter, as we know, was situated on the northern side of the Acropolis, immediately under the Erech- theium [see p. 286] ; and that the Anaceium was near the Aglaurium, appears from the tale of the stratagem oif Peisistratus (Polyaen. i. 21), which has been already related. The proximity of the Anaceium and Aglaurium is also attested by Lacian. {Fitcator. 42.) And since Pausanias mentions the Anaceium before the Aglaurium, we may place it north-west of the latter. Near to the Aglauriom, says Pausanias, is the /Vy/ofMnfin, where the laws of Solon were preserved. Hence the Piytaneium must have stood at the north- eastern comer of the Acropolis; a position which la ocHifirmed by the narnttiYe of Pausanias, that in proceeding from thence to the temple of Sarapis, he descended into the lower parts of the city (^s t^ Kdrco riis r^M»s), and also by the fiujt that the street of the Tripods, which led to the sacred en- closure of Dionysus near the theatre commenced at the Prytaneium. (Pans. i. 20. § 1.) North of the Acropolis there were some other monuments. Of these two of the most celebrated are the portico of AUiena Archegetis, erroneously called the Propylaenm of the new Agora [see p. 295]> and the Horologium of Andronicus Gyrriiestes. Ap- parently north of these should be placed certain buildings erected by Hadrian, which Pansanias does not mention till he had spoken of the Olympieium, the greatest of the works of this emperor. After describing the Olympieium, Pausanias remarks (i. 18. § 9): ^ Hadrian constructed other buildings &r the Athenians, a temple of Hera and of Zeus Fan- heUenius, and a sanotuaiy common to all the gods (a Pantheon). The most oonspicuons objects are 120 columns of Phrygian marble. The walls of the porticoes are made <^ the same matoial. In the same place are apartments (^ottdifun-a) adorned with gilded roofe and alabaster stone, and with statues and paintings: books are deposited in them (or in this sanctuary). There is also a gymnasium named after Hadrian, in which there are 100 columns from the quarries of Libya." The ancient remains north of the portico of Athena Archegetis are supposed to belong to a portion of these buildings. ** The Go- rinthum colonnade, of which the southern extremity is about 70 yards to the north of the above-men- tioned portico, was the decorated fii^ade (with a gateway in the centre) of a quadrangular indosure, which is traceable to the eastward of it. A tetra- style propylaeum, formed of columns 3 feet in dia. meter and 29 feet high, similar to those before the wall, except that the latter are not fluted, pnyected 300 ATHENAE. 22 feet before the gate of the inclosure, which was 376 feet long, and 252 broad; round Uie inside of it, at a distance of 23 feet from the wall, are vestiges of a colomiade. In the northern wall, which still exists, are the remains of one large qoadiangnlar recess or apartment in the centre 34 feet in length, and of two semicircular recesses nearlj equal to it in diameter. The church of Megili Panaghla, which stands towards the eastern side of the in- closure, is formed of the remains of an ancient building, consistixig on one side of a ruined arch, and on the other of an architraTe supported bj a pilaster, and three columns of the Doric order, 1 foot 9 inches in diameter, and of a somewhat declining period of art .... The general plan was evidently that of a quadrangle surrounded with porticoes, having one or more buildings in the centre: thus agreeing perfectly with that work of Hadrian which contain^ stoae, a colonnade of Phrygian marble, and a library. .... The building near the centre of the quadrangle, wliich was converted into a church <tf the Panaghla, may have been the Pantheon. . . . Possibly also the temple of Hera and of Zeus Pan- hellenius stood in Uie centre of the indosure." (Leake, p. 258, seq.) E. FowthParto/theRouteofPautaniat.—From the Prytaaeium to the Stadium. (Pans. i. 18. § 4-19.) Pausanias went straight from the Prytaneium to the Olympieium, between which buildings he notices these Ejects, the Temple of Sarapit, the place of meetnig of Theseus and Peirithous, and the Temple of EiUUhpa, After describing the Olympieium, Pausanias mentions the temples of Apollo I^thius, and of Apollo Delphinius. The Pythium (n^Bioy) was one of the most ancient sanctuaries in Athens. We know from Thucydides (ii. 15) that it was in the same quarter as the Olympieium, and from Strabo (ix. p. 404), that the sacred indosuzes of the two temples were only separated by a wall, upon which was the altar of Zeus Astrapaeus. The IMphwium (AcA^j^ioy) was apparently near the Pytkum. It was also a temple of great antiquity, bdng said to have been founds by Aegeus. In its neighbourhood sat one of the courts for the trial of cases of homicide, called rh M AtK^ul^. (Plut. Thes, 12, 18; PoUux, viiL 119; Paus. i. 28. § 10.) Pausanias next proceeds to The Gardens (ol ic^iroi), which must have been situated east of the aoove-mentioned temples, along the right bank of the Ilissus. In this locality was a temple of Aphro- dite : the statue of this goddess, called " Aphro- dite in the Gardens," by Alcamenes, was one of the most celebrated pieces of statuary in all Athens. (Plin. xxxvi. 5. s.4; Lucian, Imag. 4, 6.) Pliny (I. &), misled by the name " Gardens," pUoes this statue outside the vralls; but we have ^e express testimony of Pausanias in another passage (L 27. § 3) that it was in the city. Pausanias then visits the Cynoaargea and I^- eeUim, both of which were situated outside the walls, and are described below in the account of the suburbs of the city. Fnnn the Lyceium he returns to the city, and mentions the Altar ofBoreae^ who carried off Oreithyia from the banks of the Ilissus, and the AUar of the Iliuian J/Wes, both altars being upon the banks of the Ilissus. (Comp. Plat Pkatdr. c. 6; Herod, vii. 189.) The altar of Boreas is described by Plato (/. c.) as opposite the temple of Artemis Agrotera, which probably stands ATHENAE. upon the site of the church of Stavromdnos PetnK. To the east of the altar of Boreas stood the altar of the Hissian Muses. In 1676 Spon and Wheler observed, about fifty yards above the bridge of the Stadium, the foundations of a circular tem]^, which had, however, disappeared in the time of Stuart* This was probably the Temple of the Hissian Moses, for though Pausanias only mentions an altar of these goddesses, there may have been also a temple. On the other side of the Ilissus Pausanias altered the district Agrae or Agra, in which was the Tetf^^le of Artemit AgroterOy spoken of above. A part of tills district was sacred to Demeter, rince we know that the lesser Eleuauian mysteries were celebrated in Agrae, and were hence called rd iv "Aypotf . (Steph. B. «. V. "Kypa; Phit Demetr. 26.) Ste- phanus (L c.) says that Agra was a spot before tiie city Xirph r^s rdXc«»s), but this appears to be only a coiicluauin drawn fiiom the name, which would seem to indicate that it was in the country, and may be classed together with the above-men- tioned error of Pliny about the gardens. The Pa- nathenaic Stadium was also in Agrae, after de- scribing which [see p. 292], Pausanias retraces his steps to the Prytaneium. He has omitted to mention the hill Ardetiui ('Ap9irrr^s), situated above the Stadium, where the Dicasts were sworn. (HarpocraL^ Hesych., Suid. «. a; PoUux, viii. 122.) The high ground of Agrae appears to have been called Hehcon in ancient times. (Cleidemus, ap. Bekker, Anecd. Graec. i. p. 326.) F. Fifth Part of the Route qfPaueamat. — From the Prytaneium to the Prepylaea of the Aero- polie, (Paus. i. 20—22. § 3.) In this part of his route Pausanias went nnnd the eastern and southern sides of the Acropolis. Starting again from the Prytaneium, he went down the Street of the Tripodt^ which led to the Lenaeum or sacred enclosure of Dionysus. The position of thb street is marked by the existing Ghoragic Mo- nument of Lyacrates [see p. 291], and by a number of small chmrches, which probably occupy the place of the tripod temples. The Lenaeum, which con- tained two temples <^ Dionysus, and which was close to the theatre, was situated in the district called Limnae. It was here that the Dionysiac festival, called Lenaea, was celebrated. (Thuc ii. 15; Diet, of AnL p. 411, b. 2nd ed.) The Lenaeum must be placed immediately below the theatre to the south. Immediately to the east of the theatre, and consequently at the north-eastern angle of the Acropolis, was the Odeium of Pericles. Its site is accurately determined by Vltruvius, who says (v. 9), that it lay on the left hand to pers<Hi8 coming out of the theatre. This Odeium, which must be distinguished from the earlier building with this name near the Ilissus, was built by Peridea^ and its roof is said to have been an imitation of the tent of Xerxes. (Plut Per. 13.) It was burnt during the siege of Athens by Sulla, B. c 85, but was rebuilt by Ariobarzanes II., king of Oappadocia, who succeeded to the throne about b.c. 63. (Appian, B. Mithr. 38; Vitruv. I c; Bockh, No. 357; Diet, of Ant pp. 822, 823, 2nd ed.) All traces of thia building have disappeared. On the western side of the theatre are some remains of a succession of arches, which Leake com jectures may have belonged to a portico, built bf^ Herodes Atticus, for the purpose of a covered oem^ ATHENAE. maxucatkiD between the theatre and the Odeiom of Uerodes. Perhaps they are the remains of the PorUeuB EmmaUOf which appears from Yitravius (t e.) (0 have been close to the theatre. For an aooount of the theatre itself, see p. 284. In pnceeding fimn the theatre Pansanias first mentiaBs the Tomb of Talot or CaloSj below the steep rocks of the Acropolis, ficom which Daedalos is tin. to have hurled him down. Pausanias next eomes to the Asdepieium or Temple of Aidepim^ which atood immediatelj above the Oddum of He- rodes Atticns. Its site is determined by the state- ment that it oontained a fountain of water, celebrated as the fimntain at which Ares slew Halirrhothins, the son of Poseidtm. Pansanias makes no mention of the Odeium of Herodes, since this building was not erected when he wrote his account of A&ens. [See pu 286.] Next to the Asclepieium Pausa- nias, in his ascent to tiie Acropolis, passed by the Temple of Themis j with the Tomb of Hippolytue in front of it, the Temple of AphfwKie Pandanue tmdPeiiho, and the Temple of Ge Cvrotrophue and Demettr CUoe. At the temple of Aphrodite Pan- demus, Pansanias was again close to the statues of Hannodius and Aristogetton. £See p. 297, a.] The proximity of this temple to the tomb of Hippolytus is alluded to by Euripides {EippoL 29, seq.). The temple of Ge and IOmeter was probably situated benaath the temjJe of Nike Apteros. At the foot of the wall, supporting the platform of the latter temple, there ave two doocs, coeval with the wall, and conducting into a small grotto, which was pro- bably the shrine of Ge and Dometer. It was situated OB tiie right hand of the traveller, just before he esomienced the direct ascent to the Propylaea; and from being placed within a wall, whidi formed one of the defences of the Acropolis, it is sometimes described as a part of the latter. (Soph, ad Oed, Col. 1600; JSoid. «. v. Kovporpo^s T^.) The position of this temple is illustrate^ by a passage in the Lyaistoata <^ Aristophanes (829), where, 3ie Athe- nian womm bdng in possession of the Acropolis, Lyautrata suddenly perceives a man at the temple of Demeter Chlog approaching the dtadet: AT. lalb, lobj ymnwctf .... Mp* &r8p' 6p& vpofftSm .... IT. notf 8* ^ffrly, terrls 4ori AT. vapa rh Tilt 'XXAns, The Flemtimim, which Pansanias had mentioned (L 14. § 3) in the description of his second route [see p. 297, b], Leake conjectures to have been the great cavern in the middle of the rocks at the eastern end of the Acropolis. The Elensinium is said by Clemens of Alexandria (^Proirept. p. 13, Sylbni^), and Amobius (adv. Gent. vi. p. 193, Ifaire) to have been below the Acropolis. The Eleusininm is also mentioned by Thucydides (iL 15) and Xenophon (Hipparch. 3), but without any positive indication of its site. 6. SixA Pari of the Route <f Pautamas.—Tke Acropolie, Areiopagua and Academy. (Pans. L 22. § 4—30.) The Acropolis has been already described. In descending firom it PAusanias notices the cave of Pan and the Areiopagus [see pp. 286, 281], and the place near the Areiopagus, where the ship was kept, which was dragged through the city in the great Panatheoajc festival, surmounted by the Peplus of ATHENAE. 301 Athena as a sail (i. 29. § 1). He then proceeds through Dipylum to the outer Ceramdcus and the Academy. The two latter are spokoi of under the suburbs of the city. H. Dutnets of the Atty. It is remarked by Isocrates that the dty was di- vided into (Ctf/uoi and the ootmtry into T^iioi (SicAtJ^c- ¥01 'n)r ^i' viKkv fford m^ftof , t^v Zk xApay jrarcl H/wvs, Areop. p. 149, ed. Steph.). In consequence of this remark, and of the f^quent opposition be- tween the irois and the S^/ftoi, it was formerly main- tained by many writers that none of the Atlic demi were within the ci^. But since it has been proved beyond doubt that the contnuy was the case, it has been supposed that the city demi were outside the walls when the demi were established by Cleisthenes, but were subsequently included within the walls upon the enlargement of the city by Themistocles. But even this hypothesis will not apply to all the demi, since Melite and Cydathenaeum, for example, as well as others, must have been included within the dty at the time of Cleisthenes. A little con- uderation, however, will show the necessity of ad- mitting the division of the city into the demi from the first institution of the latter by Cleisthenes. It is certain that every Athenian citizen was enrolled in some damns, and that the whole territoiy of Attica was distributed into a certain number of demL Hence the dty must have been formed by Cleisthoies into one or more demi; for otherwise the inhabitants of the dty would have bdonged to no demus, which we know to have been impossible. At the same time there is nothing surprising in the statement of Isocrates, since the demi within the walls of Athens were few, and had nothing to do with the oi*ganization of the dty. For administrative purposes the dty was divided into kw/uu or wards, the inhabitants bdng called KoffifJTai. (Comp. Aristoph. Nub. 966, I^tiatr. 5 ; He^ch. ». v. KMfuu.') The following is a list of tJie dty demi: — 1. Cerameicue (Ktpafuutdf : Eth. Kcpa/tci;p), divided into the Imwr and the Outer Ceramdcus. The Inner Ceramdcus has been already described, and the Outer Ceramdcus is spdcen of bdow. [See p. 303.] The two districts formed only one demus, which belonged to the tribe Acamantis. Wordsw(»th mamtains (p. 171) that the term Inner Ceramdcus was used only by htter writers, and that during the Pdoponnesian war, and for many years afterwards, there was only one Ceramdcus, namely, that outside the walls. But this opmion is refuted by the tes- timony of Antiphoo, who spoke of the two Ceramdd (ap. Harpocrat. s. v.), and of Phanodemus, who stated that the Leocorium was in the middle of the Ceramdcus (ap. Harpocrat s. v. AwKSptov). 2. Melite (McAin;: Eth. McXircis), was a demus of the tribe Cecropis, #e8t of the Inner Cerameicos. The exact limits of this demus cannot be ascertained ; but it appears to have given its name to the whole hilly district in the west of the Asty, comprising the hills of the Nymphs, of the Pnyx and of the Musdum, and indnding within it the separate demi of Scambonidao and CoUytus. Melite is said to have been named from a wife of Hercules. It was one of the nust populous ports of the dty, and contained several tem]Jes as well as houses of distinguished men. In Mdite were the Hepfaiesteium, the Eury- sacdum, the Colonus Agoraeus [respecting these three, see p. 298] ; the temple of Hercules Alexi- cacus [see p. 296, a] ; the Mdanippdum, in which aos ATHENAE. MeUnippos, the ion of Theseiu, wis buried (Har- pocraL 9. V. McAovfinrcioi'); the temple of Athena Arifltobnk, boilt by Themistoclee near his oim house (Pint Them. 22); the house of GalUas (Plat Par- men, p. 126, a.; SchoL ad Arittoph, Ban, 504); the house of Phocion, which still existed in Plu- tarch's time (Pint. Phoc. 18); and a building, called the ^ House of the MeUtaans,** in which tra- gedies were rehearsed. (Hesych. Phot. Lex. a. «. MtXirimf o7icos.) ThiB Is, peihapa, the same theatre as the one in which Aesohinea played the part of Oenomaus, and which is said to have been aitnated in CoUytus (Harpocrat s. v, "l^oyfipoy ; Anonym. Vit. Aeeeh,') ; since the distnct of Melite, as we have already observed, subsequently included the demus of CoUytus. It is probable that this theatre is the one of which the remains of a great part of the semicircle are still visible, hewn oat of the rock, on the western side of the hill of Pnyx. The Bfeli- tian Gate at the SW. corner of the dty were so caUed, as leading to the district Melite. [See p. 263, b.] Pliny (iv. 7. s. 11) speaks of an '* oppidum MeUte,** whidi is coE^jectored to have been the fortress of the Macedonians, erected on the hill Mnsdum. [See p. 284, a.^ 3. Scambomdae (SicafiCwvlSai), a demus belong- ing to the tribe Leontis. In oonsequeooe of a passage of Pansanias (L 38. § 2) Mfiller placed this demus near Eleusis; but it is now admitted that it was one of the dty demi. It was probably in- cluded within the district of Melite, and oocujned the Hills of the Nymphs and of Pnyx. Its con- nexion with Melite is intimated by the l^end, that Melite derived its name fimn M^te, a daughter of Myimex, and Uie wife of Hercnles ; and that this Myrmex gave his name to a street in Scam- bomdae. (Harpocrat i. v. MtKitui ; Hesych., «. v. MvpfiriKos i.rpoat6s ; oomp. AristoiJi. Thum. 100 ; and Phot Lex,) This street, however, the " Street of Ants," did not derive its name finom a hero, but from its bdng crooked and narrow, as we may sup- pose the streets to have been in thia hilly district Scambonidae, also^ probably derived its name from the same circumstsnoe (from ir§caf»i6sf " crooked.'*) 4. CoUifiua (KoWvt6s, not KoAvrr<fs : Eth, KoXXvrus a demus belonging to the tribe Aegeis, and probably, as we have abpMdy said, sometimes included under the general name of Melite. It ap- pears from a passage of Stiabo (i. p. 65) that Col- lytus and Melite were adjacent, but that their boundaries were not accurately marked, a passage which both Leake and Wordsworth havB erroneously supposed to mean that these places had predse boundaries. (It is evident, however, that -CoUytus and Melite are quoted as an example of fiii 5rr«y iucpiSAy 5fH»v.) Wonlsworth, moreover, remarks that it was the least respectable quarter in the whole of Athens: but we know, on the contraiy, that it was a favourite place of residence. Hence Plutarch says (de ExeU, 6, p. 601), "neither do all Athenians inhabit CoUytus, nor Corinthians Craneium, nor Spartans Pitane," Craneium and Pitane being two favourite locaUties in Corinth and Sparta respectively. It is described by Himerins (ap. Phot Cod. 243, p. 375, Bekker), as a ore Mnro's (which does not mean a narrow street, but simply a street, comp. Diod. xii. 10; Hesych. «. v.), situated in the oentrt of the dtj, and much valued for its use of the market {hyopas xp^^ rifjuAfuifos)^ by which words we are probably to understand that it was OQDveniently situated for the use of the market ATHENAE. , Forchhammer places CoUytus between the hiUs of I Pnyx and Museium, in which case the expression of its being in the centre of the ci^, must not be interpreted strictly. The same writer also supposes <rr€iww6s not to signify a street, but the whole district between the Pnyx and the Museium, in- cluding the slopes of those hills. Leake thinks that CoUytna bonkawd upon Diomeia, and aooordingly plaoes it b etw een Mdite and IKanma; but the au- tlMMity to which he refers would point to an opposila conclusion, namely, that CoUytus and Diomeia were situated on opposite sides of the city. We are told that CoUytus was the fitther of Diomus, the fitvourite of Hercules; and that some of the Malitenses, under the guidance of Diomus, migrated finsn MeUte, and settled in the spot called Dioneia, fhxn their leader, where they celebrated the Metageitoia, in memoiy of their origin. (Plat de ExeU, Lc Steph. B. s. v, AiSfieia ; Hesych. «. v, AiofUius.) This legend oonfiims the preceding account of CoUytna being situated in Mehte. We havB already seen that there was a theatre in CoUytus, in which Aeschines played the part of Oenomaus; and we are also told that he Uved in this district 45 years. (AesdL Ep, 5.) CoUytus was also the residence of Timon, the mis- anthrope (Lucian, Timonj 7, 44), and was cele- brated as the demus of Plato. 5. Cydathmaeum (KuSo^^raiov : Eth, KuMHi- vattTs), a demus belonging to the tribe I^dionis. (Harp. Suid. Steph. Phot) The name is apparently compounded of Kvdos " gloiy," and 'Atfipaios, and is hence explained by Hesychios (s, v.) as Mo^os 'A9ifnuor. It is, therefore, very probable, aa Lekke has suggested, that this demos occupied the The- seian dty, that is to say, the Acropolis, and the parte a4iaoent to it on the south and south-east (Leake, p. 443; MiiUer, Dor, vol. ii. p. 72, trnnsL) 6. Diomeia (Ai^ueia : Eth. Aioftciy ), a demus belonging to the tribe Aegeis, consisting, like Cerameicus, of an Outer and an Inner Diomeia. The Inner Diomeia comprised the eastern part of dty, and gave ite name to one of the city-gstes in this quarter. In the Outer Diomeia was situated the Cynoearges. (Steph., Suid. «. v. Ai6fA*un He- sych. s. V, Auifuis ; Steph., Hesych. s. v, Kw6- a-apytt ; Schol. ad Arutoph. Ran, 664 ; Pint de ExeU. L c.) The Outer Diomeia could not have extended far beyond the walls, since the demns Alopece was dose to Cynoearges. and only eleven or twelve stadia from the walls of the dty. (Herod. V. 63; Aesch. c, Tim. p. 119, Beiske.) 7. Code (Ko(Ai}), a demus belonging to the tribe Hippothoontis. It lay partly within and partly with- out the dty, in the vaUey between tLe Mrsdum and the bills on the southern side of Ilissus. Jn this district, just onteide the MeUtian gate, were the sepnidues of Thncydides and Cimon. [For autho- rities, see p. 263.] 8. Ceiriadae (KttpdZai), a demns bdonging to tlie tribe Hlppothoontis. (Harpocrat, Suid., Steph. B., Hesych. #. v.) The pontion of this demus is uncertain; but Sauppe brings forward many arguments to prove that it was within the dty walls. In this district, and perhaps near the Me- troum, was the BdpaBpoVy into which criminals were cast (For anthorities, see Sauppe, pp. 17, 18.) 9. Affrae Q'Aypai)^ was situated south of the Dissus, and in the S£. of the dty. Respecting ite site, see p. 300, b. It does not appear to have been a separate demns, and was perhape induded in the demus of Agryle, which was situated south of it ATHEKAE. 10. Lmmne {Aiftamt), ma a diftrict to the sooth of the AcropoUB, in which the temple of Diunysns WM ntnated. (Thnc ii. 15.) It waa not a demua, as atated by tlie Scholiast on Callimachna (iT. in DeL 178), who has miataken the Linmae of Meeaenia far the Umnae of Athena.^ Coiommg^ which we have spoken of as a hill in the dtj, is maintuned hj Sauppe to have heen a separate donros; hnt see id)ove, p. 898, b. The Eoboean dties of Eretria and Histiaea were said bj some to have teen named from Attic demi (Strab. z. p^ 445); and from another paaaage of Strabo (z. p. 447) it haa been inferred that the ao- called New Agora occupied the site of Eretria. [See p. 898, b.] It is- doabtiiil whether Eretria waa altoated in the city ; and at all eventa it is not men- tioned elsewhere, ^ther bj writers or inscriptions, as a demos. Respecting the city demi the best account ia g^ven by Saoppe, De Demu Urbanit Atkenarum, Wei- mar, 1846. X. SCBURBS OF THE ClTY. 1. The Outer Cenunetcur and the Academy, — The road to the Academy ('Aira^fi/a), which waa distant six or eight atadia from the gate named iMpylom, ran throngh the Outer Cerameicns. (Liv. xxxL 24; Thnc. vi. 57; Plat. Porm. 2; PluL Sua, 14; Cic (fe /*Mi. V. 1 ; Locian, Scyth, 2.) It is called by Thacydidea the most beautiful suburb of the city (JM. rov KoXXitrrw Tpoatrrtlw rqr tS- Xtms, Thac iL 34). On each side of the road were the monoments of illustrious Athenians, especially of those who had fiUlen in battle; for the Outer Cerameicas waa the plaoe of burial fur all persons who wen honoored with a public funeraL Henoe we read in Aristophanea (Affet^ 395): — 6 Ktpofieuehs 8«(era< ni. Over eadi tomb was placed a pillar, inscribed with the names of the dead and of their demi. (Pane. i. 89. § 4; comp. Cic de Leg, iL 86.) In this lo- cality was found an interesting inscription, now in the British Museum, containing the names of those who had fallen at Potidaea, b. c 438. The Academy is said to have belonged originally to the hero Aoulemus, and was afterwanls converted into a gymnasium. It waa surrounded with a wall by Hipparchoa, and was adorned by Cimon with inUks, groves, and foontains. (Diog. Laert. iii. 7; Said. a. «. 'Ivriipxov rcixtor; Plut Ttm. 13.) The btanty of the plane trees and oHve plantations was partiailarly oeksbrated. (Plin. xii. 1. s. 5.) Be- fore the entrance were a statue and an altar of Love, and within the incloenre were a temple of Athena, and ahan of the Hoses, Prometheus, Hercules, &c (Pans. L 30. § I.) It was from the altar of Pm- methens that the race of the Lampadephoria com- nenoed. The Academy waa the place where Plato tanght, who possessed a small estate in the neigh- hoorhood, which waa his usual place of reaidence. (Diog. La&t. L e, ; Aelian, V. H. ix. 10.) Hia aoceesaors continued to teach in the aame spot., and were hence called the Academic philosophers. It continned to be one of the sanctuariea of philosophy, and waa spared by the enemy down to the time of SoDa, who, during the siege of Athens, caused its cdebmted groves to be cut down, in order to obtain timber for the constmction of his military machines. ATHEMAE. 303 (PIutM/.l8;Appian,Jrt^.30.) The Academy, however, was replanted, and continued to enjoy ita ancient celebrity in the time of the emperor Julian. Near the tem^e of Athena in the Academy were the Moriae, or aacred olivea, which were derived from the aacred olive in the Erechtheium. The latter, B8 we have already seen, waa the fint olive tree planted in Attica, and one of the Moriae waa shown to Panaaniaa aa the second. They were under the guardianahip of Zeoa Morius. (Comp. Suid. a. v. Hoplai; SchoL ad Soph, Oed, CoL 730.) A little way beyond the Academy waa the hill oif Cdonus, immortalised by the tragedy of Sophocles; and be- tween the two placea were the tomb of Plato and the tower of Timon. (Pans. L 30. §§ 3, 4.) The name of Akadhimia ia atiU attached to tMs spot. ^ It is on the lowest level, where some water-ooorses from the ridges of Lycabettus are consumed in gar- dena and olive plantationa. These waters still cause the spot to be one of the most advantageous situ- ations near Athena for the growth of fruit and pot- herbs, and maintain a certain degree of verdure when ail the aurrounding ]dain ia parched with the heat of summer." (Leake, p. 195.) 2. Cynoearyee {Kvydaofyts), was a sanctuary of Hercules and a gymnasium, situated to the east of the city, not &r from the gate Diomeia. It is said to have derived its name from a white dog, which carried off part of the victim, when sacrifices were first offered by Diomus to Hercule*. (Pans. i. 19. § 3; Herod, v. 63, vL 116; Pint Them, 1; Har- pocrat. a. v, 'Hpcb^cia; Hesych. Suid. Steph. B. a. V. Kw6a^apy9s,') Antisthenes, the founder of the Cynic school, tanght in the Cynoearges. (Diog. LaSrt vi. 13.) It was surrounded by a grove, which was destroyed by Philip, together with the trees of the neighbouring Lyoeium, when he encamped at thia spot in his invasion of Attica in B.a 200. (Liv. xxxi. 24.) Since Cynosaiges waa near a riaing ground (laocr. Vit. X, OraL p. 838), Leake places it at the foot of the south-eastern extremity of Mount Lycabettus, near the point where the arch of the aqueduct of Hadrian and Antoninus formerly stood. The name of this gymnasium, Uke that of the Academy, waa alao given to the surrounding buildings, which thus formed a suburb of the city. (Forchhammer, p. 368.) 3. Lyoekun (Atetiov), a gymnaainm dedicated to Apollo Lycrius, and surrounded with lofty plane trsea, waa alao situated to the east of the dty, and a little to the south of the Cynoearges. It was the chief of the Athenian gymnasia, and was adorned by Peiriatratua, Pericles, and Lycurgus. (Pans. i. 19. § 3 ; Xen. Sipp, 3. § 6 ; Hesych. Harpocrat. Suid. a. V. A^ircioi'.) The Lyceum was the plaoe in which Aristotle and hia disciples taught, who were called Peripatetica, from their practice of walk • ing in this gymnasium while delivering their lec- tures. (Diog. Laert t. 5; Cic. Acad, C^mest i. 4.) In the neighbourhood of the Lyceium was a fountain of the hero Panops, near which waa a small gate of the dty, which must have stood between the gates Diocbaris and Diomeia. (Plat. Lye. 1; Hesych. a. V IldmM^.)' 4. Lyeabettue (Atfjcotfirrr^s), waa the name of the lofty insulated mountain overhanging the city on its north-eastern side, and now called the HiU of St, Oeorge^ from the church of St George on its summit [See p. 255, a.] This hill was identified by the ancient geographers with Anchesmus (*A7- X*^/(^0) ^bich is described by Pansanias (i. 32 304 ATHENAE. § 2) as a tfinall moantain with a statne of Zeus AnchesTnixis. Pansanias is the only writer who mentions Anchesmos; but since all Uie other hills around Athens have names assigned to them, it was supposed that the hill of St Gewge must have been Andiesmns. But the same argument applies with still greater force to Ljcabettus, whidi is freqnentlj mentioned bj the classical writers; and it is im- possible to believe that so remarkable an object as the Hill of St. George could have remained without a name in the clasRicai writers. Wordsworth was, we believe, the first writer who pointed out the identity of Lycabettus and the Hill of St George; and his o{Hnion has been adopted by Leake in the second edition of his Topography, by Forchhammer, ^ and by all subsequoit writers. The celebrity of Lycabettus, which is mentioned as one of the chief mountains of Attica, is in accordance with the posi- tion and appearance of the Hill of St Geoige. Strabo (x. p. 454) classes Athens and its Lyca- bettus with Ithaca and its Neriton, Rhodes and its Atabyris, and Lacedaemon and its Taygetus. Aris- tophanes (Aon. 1057), in like manner, speaks of Lycabettus and Parnassus as synonymous with any celebrated mountains: ^ ohf <rh A^ypr AvimlSrfTTobs Rol TloffycurMf iffuy fuy4$fjj rovi' iarl rh Its proximity to the city is indicated by several pas- sages. In the edition of the Clouds of Aristophanes, which is now lost, the Clouds were represented as vanishing near Lycabettus, when they were threaten- ing to return in anger to Pames, fhnn which ^ey had come. (Phot Lex, s, v. Udpvitis.) Plato (Cri- iiatf p. 112, a) speaks of the Pnyz and Lycabettus as the boundaries of Athens. According to an Attic legend, Athena, who had gone to Pallene, a demus to the north-eastward of Athens, in order to procure a mountain to serve as a bulwark in front of the Acro- polis, W88 informed <hi her return by a crow of the birth of Erichthonius, whereupon she dropt Mount Lycabettus on the spot where it still stands. (An- tig. Car. 12 ; for other passages from the ancient writers, see Wordsworth, p. 57, seq.; Leake, p. 204, seq.) Both Wordsworth and Leake suppose Andies- mus to be a later name of Lycabettus, since Pau- sanias does not mention the latter; but Kiepert gives ib» name of Anchesmus to one of the hills north of Lycabettus. [See Map, p. 256.] XI. TUE PORT-TOWNB. Between four and five miles SW. of the Asty is the peninsula of Peiraeeus, consisting of two rocky heights divided from each other by a narrow isthmus, the eastern, or the one nearer the city, being the higher of the two. This peninsula contains three natural basins or harbours, a large one on the western side, now called Drdko (or Porto Leone), and two smaller ones on the eastern side, called respectively StrtOiotiki (or PaschaUmdm), and Fandri f the latter, which was nearer the city, being the smaller of the two. Hence Thucydides describe (i. 93) Pei- raeeus as x^pW Kififvas (x^^ rptis a^ro^vcif. We know that down to the time of the Persian wars the Athenians had only one harbour, named Phalerum ; and that it was upon the advice of Themistodes that they fortified the Poraeeus, and made use of the more spacious and convenient har- bours in this peninsula. Pausanias says (i. 1. § 2):

  • ' The Peiraeeus was a demus from early times, but

ATHENAE. W08 not nsed as a harbour befora Themistodes ad- ministered the affidrs of the Athenians Before that time their harbour was at Phalerum, at the spot where the sea is nearest to the dty But Themistodes, when he hdd the government, per- cdving that Peiraeeus was more conveniently situ- ated for navigation, and that it possessed three porta instead of the one at Phalerum {Kifiiyas rpus MT Ms fx^ty rov ^aXi7poi), made it into a receptacle of ships.** From this passage, compared with the words of Thucydides quoted Ibove, it would seem a natural inference that the three andent ports of Pdraeeus were thoee now called Drd&o, StnUiotiki, and Fanari ; and that Phalerum had nothing to do with the peninsuhi of Peiraeeus, hut was situated more to the east, where the sea-shore is nearest to Athens. But till within the last few years a very di£ferent situation has been assigned to the ancient harbours of Athens. Misled by a fidse interpretation of a passage of the Scholiast upon Aristophanes {Pac, 145), modem writers supposed that the huge harbour of Peiraeeus {Draho) was divided into three ports called respectively Cantharus (JSAaSapos)^ the port for ships of war, Zea (Z^a) for corn-ships, and Aphrodisium ('A^poSiff-ioy) for other merchant- slups; and that it was to those three ports that the words of Pftusanias and Thucydides refer. It was further maintained that Stratiotiki was the andent harbour of Munychia, and that Fandrij the more easterly of the two smaller harbours, was the ancient Phalerum. The true position of the Athenian ports was first pointed out by Ulrichs in a pam|^et published in modem Greek (o/ ktfiwts km t& /<a- Kpii rtixv rw 'A^vwy, Athens, 1843), of the arguments of which an abstract is given by the author in the ZeiUckri/tfir die AUerthumtwis$e»- achafi (for 1844, p. 17, seq.). Ulrichs rejects the divisicHi of the larger harbour into three parts, and maintains that it consisted only of two parts ; the northern and by fiur the larger half bdng ttlled Emporium (*E/4r($p(oi'), and appropriated to mer- chant vessels, while the southern bay upon the right hand, after entering the harbour, was named Can- tharus, and was used by ships of war. Of the two smaller harboora he suppaees StraHoiiki to be Zea, and Phandri Munychia. Phalerum he removes altogether from the Peiraic peninsula, and places it at the eastern comer of the great Phaleric bay, where the chapd of St George now stands, and in the ndghbouriiood of the Tptis Uvpyoi^ or the Tkree Towers, Ulrichs was led to these condusicms chiefly by the valuable inscriptions relating to the maritime afiairs of Athens, which were discovered in 1834, near the entrance to the larger harbour, and which were published by Bockh, with a valuable oommen- taiy under the title of Urkunden uber da* Seeweaa^ des aUiachen StaaUs, Berlin, 1834. Of the correct- ness of Ulrichs's views there can now- be littie doubt; the arguments in support of them are stated in the sequel A. Phalerum. The rocky peninsula of Peiraeeus is said by the andent writers to have been originally an island, which was gradually connected with uie mainland by the accumulation of sand. (Stmb. i. p. 59 ; Plin. iii. 85 ; Suid. s. v. fftJSapos.) The space thus filled up was known by the name of Halipedum ('AAfTc- 8oy), and continued to be a marshy swamp, which rendered the Pdraeeus almost inaccessible in the winter time till the constraction of the broad carriage ^^ nad ((WjiT^t), which ma carried urtm it (Har- pxnt^ Said. (. v. oMnBoi'; Xen. ficJ/. ii. 4. § 30.) Under these cdrennBtaDMa the onlj ipot which the ■Dwcl Alheniins ctmld u» h s harbour was the anth-eaitem coriKi of the Phaleric bay, now called. aa almdj remarked, Tfitrt nipym, which tu a round hill projecting into lie sea. Thia vaa accordingly the Die of Fhalerom (♦(ttjj»r, also ♦aATjfKii : ATA. ♦"Alpeii), a demoa belonging to IhB tribe Acantis. This BtnatioD tocured to Ihe original inhabitanlB of Athena two adrantaga, which wen nut poSKssed (j the barbonn of the Peiraic peniDiula : first, it ■aa much neanrlothcinoataiicieatpartof the city, which was built for the moat part iminedittelr soDth ef the Acropidii (Thoc. ii. IS); and, leoondly, it wai acctsoble at eroy seasmi it the jear I7 a per- hctlj iry TTud. liie tme poulim of Pbaleniin ii indicated bj many drenmBtancea. It ia nerer incloded by andent ■rilera within llie walls of Praiseeiuand Hunjchia. Strain, after deacribing Pdraeeoi and Unnychia. •peaki of Phalemm aa the next place in order along tbe ahore (jirri t4» Ildfiaia ♦**!!/>»« JS*«' i' ^f J«^i inipiii<F, ii. p. 398). There is no spot at which Phalrmm could have been sitoated beibre reaching Tpeii nipTin, since the intertening shore rf the Phaleric gulf ia manhy (tI *aXi,p,K6t, Pint. VU. X Orat. p. 84*, Than. 12; Slrab. ii. p. 4001 EchoL ad ArMipk- iv. 1693). The accoant which Herodotoa givea (r. 63) of the defeat of Uie Spar- tana, who had landed at Phalenun, by (he Theasa- lian caTaliy of the Peiaistratidae, is in accordance with Ihe open coimti7 nhich eitenda inland near the chapel of St. George, hut would not be applicable tfl the Bay of Pkandri. which is complelelj pro- tected agonal the attacka of cavalry by the rogged mounlain rising immediately behind it; Moreover, Ulrichi discovered on the rt»d from Athens to St. George considerable snbetroctions of an ancient wall, apparently the Phaleric Wall, which, aa we have already seen, was five stadia shorter than the two LonE Walls. [See p. !S9. b.] That then was a town near St. Geor^ is evident from the remains of walls, colunms, cislems, and we leam from another aothoritj that thete may sTill be seen under water the remains of an ancient mole, upon which a Turkish ship was wrecked during the war of independence in Greece. (Westermann, in ZaUchrift fur dit Alterthiatamuauchaft, 1843, p. 1009.) Cape Colias (KoMai), where Ihe Penuan ships were cost ashore after the battle of Salamie (Herod, viii. 96), and which Pau&anias states to have been 20 stadia from Phalenim (i. I. § 5), used to be identi6td with Tptit niifrygi, but must DOW be placed SK. at the present Cape of SI. JEamui : near tho latter an some aodent remains, which are pnAaUy 306 ATHENAE. those of the temple of Aphrodite Colias mentioned bj Pansanias. The port of Phalerum was little nsed after the foundation of Peiraeens; but the place continued to exist down to the time of Pausanias. This writer mentions among its moanments temples of Demeter Zeus, and Athena Sciras, called by Plutarch {Thes, I 17) a temple of Sdrus; and altars of the Unknown

  • Gods, of the Sons of Theseus, and of Phalerus. The

sepulchre of Aristeides (Pint. Arist. 1) was at Phsr lemm. The Phaleric haj was celebrated for its fish. (For authorities, see Leake, p. 397.) B. Peiraeeua ttnd Mimychia. 1. Divitum qf Pefraeeiut and Mwmyehia, — Pei* raeeus (Ilcipaicvs: Eth, Uupcuui) was a demus belonging to the tribe Hippothontis. It contained both the rockj heights of tiie peninsula, and was separated from the plain of Athens b/ the low ground called Hali])edon, mentioned abore. Munjchia (Movio/xta) was included in Peineeus, and did not form a separate demus. Of the site of Munychia there can no longer be any doubt since the inves- tigations of Curtius (2>e Portvibua Athenarum, Halis, 1842) ; Ulnchs also had independently assigned to it the same position as Curtius. Munychia was the Acropolis of Peiraeeus. It occupied the hill immediately above the most easterly of the two smaller harbours, that is, the one nearest to Athens. This hill is now called KocrrcAAa. It is the highest point in the whole peninsula, rising 300 feet ahove the sea; and at its foot is the smallest of the three harbours. Of its military importance we shall speak presently. Leake had erroneously given the name of Munychia to a smaller height in the westerly half of the peninsula, that is, ti^e part furthest from Athens, and had supposed the greater height above described to be the Acropolis of Phalerum. 2. Fortificaiiotu and Harbours, — The whole peninsula of Pdraeeus, Including of course Muny- chia, was surrounded by Themistocles with a strong line of fortifications. The wall, which was 60 stadia in drcumforence (Thue, ii. 13), was intended to be impregnable, and was fur stronger than that of the Asty. It was carried up only half the height which Themistocles had originally contemplated (Thuc i. 93); and if Appian (Mithr. 30) is correct in stating that its actual height was 40 cubits, or about 60 fiset, a height which was always found suflScient, we per- ceive how vast was the project of Themistocles. " In respect to thickness, however, his ideas were exactly followed: two carts meeting one another brought stones, which were laid together right and left on the outer side of each, and thus formed two primary parallel walls, between which the interior space (of course at least as broad as Hie jdnt breadth of the two carts) was filled up, not with rubble, in the usual manner of the Greeks, but oonstnicted, through the whole thickness, of squared stones, cramped together with metaL The result was a solid wall probably not leas than 14 or 15 feet thick, since it was intended to carry so very unusual 2^ J * a height." (Grote, vol. v. p. 335 ; oomp. Thuc. i. 93.) The exiBting remains of tHe^ii'all described by Leake confirm this account The wall surrounded not only the whole peninsula, but also the small rocky promontory of Etioneia, from which it ran between the great harbour and the salt marsh called Halae. These fortifications were connected with tliose of the Asty by means of the Long Walls, which ATHENAfi. have been already described. [See p. 259, seq.] It is usually stated that the architect employed by The- mistocles in his erection of these fortifications, and in the building of the town of Peiraeeus, was Hippo- damus of Miletus; but C. F. Hermann has brought forward good reasons for believing that, though the fortifications of Peiraeeus were erected by Themis- tocles, it was foirned into a regularly planned town by Pericles, who employed Hippodamus for this purpose. Hippodamus laid oot the town with broad straight streets, crossing each other at right aogl««| which thus formed a striking contrast with Hie nar* row and crooked streets dF Athens. (Hermann, Ditpuiatio de ffippodamo MUeriOj Marburg, 1 84 1 .) The entrances to the three haibonrs of Peiraeeus were rendered very narrow by means of moles, which left only a passage in the middle for two or three triremes to pass abreast These moles were a continuation of the walls of Peiraeeus, which ran down to either side of the mouths of the harbours; and the three entrances to the har- bours (ra KTBpa iStv Xifiivw) thus formed, m it were, three lai^e sea-gates in the walk. Either end of each mole was protected by a tower; and across the entrance chains were extended in time of war. Harbours of this kind were called by the ancients dosed ports (icAcurrol Aifi^vf s ), and the walls were called x^^^'^t or <Ja»Sj fiom their stretch- ing out into the sea like the claws of a crab. It is stated by ancient authorities that the three harbours of the Peiraeeus were dosed ports (Hesych. s, v, Zca; SchoL ad Aristoph. Pae. 145; comp. Thuc. ii. 94; Plut Demetr. 7; Xen. Hell ii. 2. § 4); and in each of them we find remains of the dtelae, or moles. Hence these three harboun cannot mean, as Leake supposed, three divisions of the lar^ger harbour since there are traces of only one set of chelae in the latter, and it is impossible to understand how it could have been divided into three dosed ports. (i.) Phandrif the smallest of the three harbours, was anciently called Muktchia, from the fortress rising above it It was only used by ships of war ; and we learn, from the inscriptions already refen*ed to, that it contained 82 vednroucoi^ or ship-houses. This harbour was formerly supposed to be Phalerum ; but it was quite unsuitable for trading purposes, being shut in by steep heights, and haviiig no di- rect communication with the Asty. Moreover, we can hardly conceive the Athenians to have been so blind as to have used this harbour for centuries, and to have neglected the more commodious haibours of StratiotUd and Drdko^ in its immediate vicinity. The modem name of Phandri is probably owing to a lighthouse having stood at its entrsnoe in the Byzantine period. (ii.) Straiiotiki (called Paschalimdni by Ulrichs), the middle of the three harbours, is the ancient Zea (24a)y erroneously called by the earlier topographers Munychia. (Timeaus, Lex.j Plat. ; Phot. Lex. s. v. Z^a.) It was the Lirgest of the three harbours for ships of war, since it contained 196 ship-houses, whereas Munychia had only 82, and Cantharos only 94. Some of the ship-houses at Zea appear to hava been still in existence in the time of Pausanias; for though he does not mention Zea, the veuaoucoi which he speaks of (i. 1. § 3) were apparently at this port. This harbour probably derived its name from Artonis, who was worshipped among the Athenians under the surname of Zea, and not, as Meursius supposed, from the corn-vessels, which were confined to the Empo- rium in the great harbour. ATHENAE. (iu.) Drtto or Fbrto Leontj the largest of the three harbours, was oommoolj called by the andents aiinpfy Pbzrakeus (ncipoie^s), or The Harboub (6 X/fufjr). It derives its modem name from a colossal Hon of white maible, which Spon and Wheler ob s eryed upon the beach, when thej yisited Athens; and which was carried to Venice, after the capture of Athens by the Venetians in 1687. Drdko is the name used by the modem Greeks, «incf S^Mhrwr, which originally meant only a serpent, now signifies a monster of any kind, and was hence applied to the marble lion, jlr It has been already statea that Leake and other writers, misled by a passage of the Scholiast on Aristophanes {Pac. 145), divided the harbour of Peineeos into three separate ports, named Can- thams, Aphrodisium, and Zea, but the words of the Scholiast warrant no such conclusion:" 6 Ileipcuci^f hitUma lxc< TfMiTi wiirras kk^urroiis' tXs fxkif b K»9dpmt Kifiriy — i» f rd yccipuu cTra rh A^po- Hatrnf tha jr^icAy rm XifUawt <rroa2 weWc. It is evident that the Scholiast does not intend to give the names of the three harbours of Peiraeeus ; but, after mentioning Cantharus, he proceeds to speak of the bnifclings in its immediate vicinity, of which the AphrodLnnm, a temple of Aphrodite, was one ; and then followed the five Stoae or Colonnades. Leake suf^nsed Zea to be the name of the bay atuated on the light hand after entering the harbour, Aphro- disium to be the name of the middle or great harbour, and Cantharus to be the name of the inner harbour, DOW filled up by alluvial deposits of the Cepblssus. It is, however, certain that the last-mentioned spot sever formed part of the harbour of Peiraeeus, since be t wee n this marsh and the harbour traces of the acncient wall have been discovered; and it is very probable that this marsh is the one called Halae (*AAaQ bj Xenophon. {HelL ii. 4. § 34.) The harbour of Peiraeeus appears to have been divided into only two parts. Of these, the smaller one, occapjing the bay to the right hand of the entrance to the harbour, was named Cantharus. It was the third of the Athenian harbours for ships of war, and contained 94 ship-houses. Probably upon the shores of the harbour of Cantharus the armoury (^ArKoBiiKTi) of Philo stood, containing arms for 1000 ships. (Strab. ix. p. 395 ; Plin. vii. 37. s. 38; Cic de OraL L 14; Vitmv. vii. Praef; Appion, MUhr, 41.) The renoainder of the harbour, being about two- tbixds of the whole, was called Emporium, and was appropriated to merchant vessels. (Timaens, Lex, PiaL ; Harpocrat. s. v. Aciy/ua.) The sur- nmndiiig diore, which was also called Emporium, eootuned the five Stoae or Colonnades mentioned above, all of which were probably appropriated to mercantile purposes. One of these was called the Uacra Stoa (jumpk 9to&), or the Long Colon- nade (Pans. L 1. § 3) ; a second was the Ddgma (Acryiaa), or place where merchants exhibited samples of their goods for sale (Harpocrat. s. v. Atryyia; SchoL ad Aristoph. EquiL 974; Dem. e. LaeriL p. 932) ; a third was the Alphltopolis ^'A^TowfivAAf), or Com-£xchange, said to have been boflt by Pericles (Schol. ad Aristoph. EquU. 547) : of the other two Stoae the names have not been preserved. Between the Stoae of the Em- porium and Cantharus stood the Aphrodislifln, or tcni|de of Aphrodite, built by Conon after his victory at Cmdns. (Pans. U e. ; Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac. I. e.y The limits of the Emporium towards Can- ATHENAE. 307 tharos were marked by a boundaiy stone disoovered m Mtef in 1843, and bearing the inscription: — EMHOPIO KAIHOAO H0P02, i. e., 'E/ivopfov Kol 6$ov 8pof. The forms of the letters, and the use of the H for the spiritus asper, prove that the inscription belongs to the period before the Pelopcnmesian war. The stone may have been erected upon the first foundation of Peiraeeus by Themistocles, or whoi the town was laid out regularly by Hippodamus m the time of Pericles. It probably stood in a street leading from the Em- porium to the docks of the harbour of Cantharus. 3. Topography q/* Munyehia and Peiraeeus. — The site (^ Munyehia, which was the Acropolis of Peiraeeus, has bc«n already ezpU&ined. Remains of its fortifications may still be seen on the top of the hill, now called C<uteUay above the harbour of Pha- ndri. From its position it commanded the whole of the Peiraic peninsula, and its three harbours {vno' irtvTowri 8* a^r^ AifieVcf rpcFs, Strab. iz. p. 395); and whoever obtained possession of this hill became master of the whole of Peiraeeus. Epimenides is said to have foreseen the importance of this position. (Plut Sol 12; Diog. Laert. i 114.) Soon after the close of the Peloponnesian war, the seizme of Munyehia by Thrasybulus and his party enabled them to cany on operations with success against the Thirty at Athens. (Xen. ffeU. ii. 4.) The successors of Alexander the Great kept a Macedonian garrison in Munyehia for a long period, and by this means secured the obedience of Athens. The first Macedonian garrison was placed in this fortress by Antipater after the defeat of the Greeks at Crannon, B. c. 322. (Paus. i. 25. § 4 ; Plut Dem. 28.) When Athens surrendered to Cassander, in B.c. 318, Munyehia was also garrisoned by the htter ; and it was by the support of these troops that Demetrius Phale- reus govoiied Athens for the next ten years. In b.c. 307 the Macedonians were expelled fixnn Munyehia by Demetrius Poliorcetes; but the latter, on his return from Asia in b. a 299, again placed a gar- rison in Munyehia, and in the Museium also. These garrisons were expelled from both fortresses by the Athenians, under Olympiodorus, when Demetrius was deprived of the Macedonian kingdom in b.c. 287. (Paus. L 25. § 4, seq., 26. § 1, seq. ; Diod. xviiL 48, 74, XX. 45 ; Plut. Demetr. 8, seq., 46, Phoc, 31, seq.) During the greater part of the reign of Antigonns and of his son Demetrios II., the Mace- donians had possession of Munyehia ; but soon after the death of Demetrius, Aratus purchased the de- parture of the Macedonian garrison by the pay- ment of a large sum of money. (Plut. Arai, 34 ; Paus. ii. 8. § 5.) Strabo (JL c.) speaks of the hill of Munyehia as ftdl of hollows and excavations, and well adapted for dwelling-houses. In the time of Strabo the whole of the Peiraeeus was in ruins, and the hollows to which he alludes were probably the remains of cisterns. The sides of the hill sloping down to the great harbour appear to have been covered with houses rising one i^ve another in the form of an amphitheatre, as in the city of Ehodes, which was laid out by the same architect| and was also celebrated for its beauty. Within the fortress of Munyehia was a temple of Artemis Munyehia, who was the guardian deity of this citadel. The temple was a celebrated place of asylum for state criminals. (Xen. HeU. ii. 4. § 11 : x2 Paus. i. 1. § 4 ; Dem. de Coron. p. 222, Reinke; Lys. c. Agorat. pp. 460, 463, Reinke.) Near the preceding, and probably also within the fortress, was the Bendideium (Βενδίδειυν), or temple of the Thracian Artemis Bendis, whose festival, the Bendideia, was celebrated on the day before the lesser Panathenses. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 11; Plat. de Rep. i. pp. 327, 354.) On the western slope of the hill was the Dionysiac theatre, facing the great harbour: it must have been of considerable size, as the assemblies of the Athenian people were sometimes held in it. (Thuc. viii. 93; Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 32: Lys. c. Agorat. pp. 464, 479; comp. Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 379.) It was in this theatre that Socrates saw a performance of one of the plays of Euripides, (Aelian, V. H. ii. 13.) Some modern writers distinguish between the theatre at Munychia and another in Peiraeeus; but the ancient writers mention only one theatre in the peninsula, called indifferently the Peiraic or the Munychian theatre, the latter name being given to it from its situation upon the hill of Munychia. The ruins near the harbour of Zea, which were formerly regarded as those of the Peiraic theatre, belonged probably to another building.

The proper agora of Peiraeeus was called the Hippodameian Agora (Ίπποδάμειος άγορά), to distinguish it from the Macra Stoe, which was also used as an agora. The Hippodameian Agora was situated near the spot where the two Long Walls joined the wall of Peiraeeus; and a broad street led from it up to the citadel of Munychia. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 11; Andoc. de Myst. p. 23, Reinke; Dem. c. Timoth. p. 1190.)

At the entrance to the great harbour there was on the right hand the promontory Alcimus (Άλκιμος). On the left hand the promontory Eetionia (Ήετιωνία, or Ήετιώεια). On Alcimus stood the tomb of Themistocles, whose bones are said to have been brought from Magnesia in Asia Minor, and buried at this place. (Plut. Them. 33; Paus. i. 1. § 2}. EetioniS was a tongue of land commanding the entrance to the harbour; and it was here that the Four Hundred in B.C. 411 erected a fort, in order to prevent more effectually the entrance of the Athenian fleet, which was opposed to them. (Thuc. viii. 90; Dem. c. Theocr. p. 1343; Harpocrat., Suid., Steph. B. s. v. Ήετιώεια.) The small bay on the outer side of the promontory was probably the κωθός λίμην mentioned by Xenophon. (Hell. ii. 4. § 31.)

The buildings around the shore of the great harbour have been already mentioned. Probably behind the Macra Sloa was the temenus of Zeus and Athena, which Pausanias (i. 1. § 3) mentions as one of the most remarkable objects in Peiraeeus, and which is described by other writers as the temple of Zeus Soter. (Strab. ii. p.396; Liv. xxxi. 30; Plin. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 14.) Phreattys, which was one of the courts of justice for the trial of homicides, was situated in Peiraeeus; and as this court is described indifferently έν Ζέα or έν Φρεαττοί, it must be placed either in or near the harbour of Zea. The accused pleaded their cause on board ship, while the judges sat upon the shore. (Paus. i. 28. § 11; Dem. c, Aristocr. p. 645; Pollux, viii. 120; Becker, Anecd. Graec. i. p. 311.)

Peiraeeus never recovered from the blow inflicted upon it by its capture by Sulla, who destroyed its fortifications and arsenals. So rapid was its decline that in the time of Strabo it bad become "a small village, situated around the ports and the temple of Zeus Soter." (Strab. ii. p. 395.)

The most important work on the Topography of Athens is Col. Leake's Topography of Athens, London, 1841, 2nd edition. In common with all other writers on the subject, the writer of the present article is under the greatest obligations to Col. Leake, although be has had occasion to differ from him on some points. The other modern works from which most assistance have been derived are Forchhammer, Topographie von Athen, in Kieler Philologische Studien, Kiel, 1841; Kruse, Hellas, vol. ii, pt. i., Leipzig, 1856; K. O. Muller, art. Attica in Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopadie, vol. vi, translated by Lockhart, London, 1842; Wordsworth, Athens and Attica, London, 1836; Stuart and Revett, Antiquities of Athens, London, 1763—1816, 4 vols., fo. (2nd ed. 1825—1827); Dodwell, Tour through Greece, vol. i., London, 1819; Prokesch, Denkwurdigkeiten, &c., vol. ii., Stuttgart, 1836; Mure, Journal of a Tour in Greece, vol. ii. Edinburgh, 1842.

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Coins of Athens