Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Dunlop, James (d.1832)

DUNLOP, JAMES (d. 1832), of Dunlop, Ayrshire, lieutenant-general, was fifth son of John Dunlop, laird of that ilk, by his wife, Frances Anne [see Dunlop, Frances Anne Walker], last surviving daughter of Sir Thomas Wallace, bart., of Craigie, and was enfeoffed of the Dunlop estate in 1784 on the resignation of his father, his only remaining elder brother, Sir Thomas, having already succeeded to the Craigie estate under the name of Wallace. Before this, in January 1778, James Dunlop had been appointed ensign in the old 82nd (Hamilton) foot, raised in the lowlands at that time at the cost of the Duke of Hamilton. Dunlop accompanied the regiment to Nova Scotia and obtained his lieutenancy in 1779. In the spring of that year he went with the flank companies to New York and was wrecked on the coast of New Jersey, when four-fifths of the company to which he belonged were drowned and the rest made prisoners by the Americans. Having been exchanged, Dunlop accompanied part of the 80th foot from New York to Virginia, and was actively engaged there. When the mouth of the Chesapeake was seized by two French frigates, he was despatched with the news to Charlestown, where he arrived in April 1781; after which he joined a detachment under Major (afterwards Sir James) Craig [q. v.] at Wilmington, North Carolina, and commanded a troop of mounted infantry acting as dragoons. After Cornwallis's surrender at York Town, Virginia, on 19 Oct. 1781, the troops at Wilmington were withdrawn to Charlestown, and Dunlop, who meanwhile had purchased a company in his own corps, the 82nd, rejoined it at Halifax, where he served until the peace in 1783, when the regiment was ordered home. A leak caused the transport to run for Antigua, where the troops landed and did duty until 1784, when the regiment was disbanded at Edinburgh, and Dunlop put on half-pay. In 1787, having raised men for a company in the 77th foot, one of the four king's regiments raised at that time at the expense of the East India Company, he was brought on full pay in that regiment, accompanied it to Bombay, and served under Lord Cornwallis in the campaign against Tippoo Sahib in 1791. In 1794 he became deputy paymaster-general of king's troops, Bombay, and later, military secretary to the governor of Bombay. The same year he became brevet-major, which promotion did not appear in orders in India until two years afterwards. He became major in the 77th in September, and lieutenant-colonel in December 1795. When the latter promotion was announced in orders about twelve months after date, Dunlop resigned his staff appointments, joined his regiment, and commanded a field-force against a refractory rajah in Malabar, defeating three detachments, one of them two thousand strong, sent out against him. After this he commanded at Cochin. On the breaking out of the Mysore war, he was appointed to a European brigade in General Stewart's division, and commanded it in the action at Sedaseer 6 March, and at the capture of Seringapatam 4 May 1799, where he led the left column of assault (the right column being led by David Baird [q. v.]), and received a very severe tulwar wound, from which he never quite recovered. He was subsequently employed against the hill-forts in the Canara country, and soon after returned home. On the renewal of the war with France in 1803, Dunlop was ordered to take command of a royal garrison battalion in Guernsey, composed of recruiting detachments and recruits of king's regiments serving in India. In 1804 he exchanged from the 77th to 59th foot, then stationed on the Kentish coast; in 1805 he became brigadier-general and was appointed to a brigade in Cornwall; afterwards he was transferred to the eastern district, and for a time commanded a highland brigade at Colchester. He became a major-general 25 July 1810, and in October was appointed to the staff of Lord Wellington's army in the Peninsula, which he joined at Torres Vedras in November the same year. He was appointed to a brigade in the 5th division under General Leith, which took part in the pursuit of the French to Santarem. On Leith's departure after the return of the division to Torres Vedras, Dunlop assumed command. At the head of the division he joined Lord Wellington between Leiria and Pombal in March 1811, and commanded it throughout the ensuing campaign, including the battle of Fuentes d'Onoro, 5 May 1811, with the exception of a period of ten days, when the command devolved on Sir William Erskine. When the division went into winter quarters at Guarda, Dunlop obtained leave of absence and did not rejoin the Peninsular army. He was made lieutenant-general in 1814, and colonel 75th foot in 1827. He represented the stewartry of Kirkcudbright in three successive parliaments from 1812 to 1826. He died in 1832. Dunlop married, in 1802, Julia, daughter of Hugh Baillie of Monckton, and by her left issue. His son, John Dunlop, M.P., received a baronetcy in 1838.

[For the genealogy of the ancient Lowland family of Dunlop of Dunlop, see Jas. Paterson's Acct. of co. Ayr (Ayr, 1847), ii. 46–8; for Dunlop's services see Philippart's R. Mil. Cal. 1820, vol. iii.; Gent. Mag. cii. i. 640.]

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