Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Inwood, William

INWOOD, WILLIAM (1771?–1843), architect and surveyor, was born about 1771 at Caen Wood, Highgate, where his father, Daniel Inwood, was bailiff to Lord Mansfield. He was brought up as an architect and surveyor, and became steward to Lord Colchester and practised as a surveyor. He designed numerous mansions, villas, barracks, warehouses, &c. In 1821 he planned the new galleries for St. John's Church, Westminster, and in 1832–3 designed, with the assistance of his second son, Charles Frederick Inwood (see below), the new Westminster Hospital. His best-known work is St. Pancras New Church, London, in the designing of which after Greek models, especially the Athenian Erechtheion, he was assisted by his eldest son, Henry William Inwood [q. v.] This church was built between 1 July 1819 and 7 May 1822, and cost 63,251l., exclusive of the organ and fittings (Britton and Pugin, Public Edifices, 1825, i. 145; Walford, Old and New London, v. 353). Its style is severely criticised by Fergusson (Hist. of Architecture, 2nd edit. iv. 334, 335), who says its erection ‘contributed more than any other circumstances to hasten the reaction towards the Gothic style, which was then becoming fashionable.’ Inwood also erected in London, with the assistance of his eldest son, St. Martin's Chapel, Camden Town, 1822–1824; Regent Square Chapel, 1824–6; Somers Town Chapel, Upper Seymour Street, 1824–7. From 1813 Inwood for several years exhibited architectural designs at the Royal Academy. He died at his house in Upper Seymour Street, London, on 16 March 1843 (in the ‘Gentleman's Magazine’ for 1843, new ser. xix. 547, he is described as ‘late of Euston Square’). He was buried in the family vault in St. Pancras New Church. He had many pupils, one of whom was W. Railton the architect. Inwood published (in 1811 or 1819?) ‘Tables for the Purchasing of Estates … and for the Renewal of Leases held under … Corporate Bodies.’ A second edition of this well-known work, which was founded on the tables of Baily and Smart, appeared in 1820, and the 21st edition, by F. Thoman, in 1880.

His eldest son, Henry William [q. v.], is separately noticed. His second, Charles Frederick Inwood (1798–1840), also an architect, acted as assistant to his father and brother, designed All Saints' Church, Great Marlow (opened 1835), and the St. Pancras National Schools, London.

[Architectural Publ. Soc. Dict.; Redgrave's Dict. of Artists.]

W. W.