# Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Smith, James (1805-1872)

**SMITH**, JAMES (1805–1872), merchant, son of Joshua Smith, was born in Liverpool on 26 March 1805. He entered a merchant's office at an early age, and, after remaining there seventeen years, commenced business on his own account, retiring in 1855. He studied geometry and mathematics for practical purposes, and made some mechanical experiments with a view to facilitating mining operations. His attention being called to the problem of squaring the circle, in 1859 he published a work entitled ‘The Problem of squaring the Circle solved’ (London, 8vo), which was followed in 1861 by ‘The Quadrature of the Circle: Correspondence between an Eminent Mathematician and J. Smith, Esq.,’ London, 8vo. This was ridiculed in the ‘Athenæum’ (1861, i. 627, 664, 674), and Smith replied in a letter which was inserted as an advertisement (ib. i. 679). From this time the establishment of his theory became the central interest of his life, and he bombarded the Royal Society and most of the mathematicians of the day with interminable letters and pamphlets on the subject. De Morgan was selected as his peculiar victim on account of certain reflections he had cast on him in the ‘Athenæum.’ Smith was not content to claim that he was able graphically to construct a square equal in area to a given circle, but boldly laid down the proposition that the diameter of a circle was to the circumference in the exact proportion of 1 to 3.125. In ordinary business matters, however, he was shrewd and capable. He was nominated by the board of trade to a seat on the Liverpool local marine board, and was a member of the Mersey docks and harbour board. He died at his residence, Barkeley House, Seaforth, near Liverpool, in March 1872. Besides those mentioned, his principal works were:

- ‘A Nut to Crack for the Readers of Professor De Morgan's “Budget of Paradoxes,”’ Liverpool, 1863, 8vo.
- ‘The Quadrature of the Circle, or the True Ratio between the Diameter and Circumference geometrically and mathematically demonstrated,’ Liverpool, 1865, 8vo.
- ‘Euclid at Fault,’ Liverpool, 1868, 8vo.
- ‘The Geometry of the Circle a Mockery, Delusion, and a Snare,’ Liverpool, 1869, 8vo.
- ‘Curiosities of Mathematics,’ Liverpool, 1870, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1870.
- ‘The Ratio between Diameter and Circumference demonstrated by Angles,’ Liverpool, 1870, 8vo.

[Smith's Works; Men of the Time, 7th edit. p. 741; De Morgan's Budget of Paradoxes, passim; Allibone's Dict. of English Literature.]