Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Chêng Ching

3634098Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period, Volume 1 — Chêng ChingEarl Swisher

CHÊNG Ching 鄭經 (childhood name 錦舍), d. March 17, 1681, also known as Chêng Shih-fan 鄭世藩, was the eldest son of Chêng Ch'êng-kung [q. v.]. Because of his relations with his younger brother's nurse who bore him his eldest son, Chêng K'o-tsang 鄭克𡒉 (childhood name 欽舍, d. 1681), Chêng Ching was condemned by his father to execution. But Chêng Ch'êng-kung's generals, influenced by the latter's elder brother, Chêng T'ai 鄭泰 (d. 1663), refused to carry out the order. When Chêng Ch'êng-kung died in 1662 his generals at Taiwan (Formosa) recognized his younger brother, Chêng Shih-hsi 鄭世襲 as their leader. Chêng Ching, thereupon, collected an army, invaded Taiwan, and forced Chêng Shih-hsi to flee to Ch'üan-chou, Fukien, where he surrendered to the Manchus. Early in 1663 Chêng Ching returned from this expedition to Amoy and finding his uncle, Chêng T'ai, in correspondence with Chêng Shih-hsi's subordinates, ordered his execution, whereupon another uncle, Chêng Ming-chün 鄭鳴駿 and Chêng T'ai's son, Chêng Tsuan-hsi 鄭纘緒 also gave themselves up to the Manchu government. At this time several of Chêng Ch'êng-kung's generals with their armies went over to the Manchu cause, thus considerably weakening Chêng Ching's position. After a series of clashes along the seacoast of Fukien in which the Manchu forces were assisted by Dutch ships and soldiers Chêng Ching retired to Taiwan (1664) and reorganized the government of the island. He was temporarily successful in setting up a military and civil organization and in opening trade with foreign countries. During this period the coast of Fukien was peaceful and the inhabitants who in 1662 had been moved inland (see under Chêng Ch'êng-kung) gradually returned to their former places of residence.

When Kêng Ching-chung joined Wu San-kuei [qq. v.] in revolting against the Ch'ing government, Kêng in 1674 sought Chêng Ching's aid, promising him certain cities as a reward. Chêng Ching, in order to be free to aid Kêng, placed Ch'ên Yung-hua 陳永華 (T. 復甫, d. 1680) in command of the army at Taiwan where Ch'ên remained in charge until at his request the administration was turned over (1679) to Chêng K'o-tsang. Arriving at Amoy in the summer of 1674, and discovering that Kêng Ching-chung had no intention of keeping his promise to turn certain cities over to him, Chêng Ching seized a number of coastal towns of Fukien belonging to Kêng—among them T'ung-an, Hai-ch'êng, Ch'üan-chou and Chang-chou. Through the mediation of Wu San-kuei, Chêng Ching and Kêng Ching-chung agreed temporarily to terms of peace. Thereupon Chêng Ching led his army to Kwangtung and took Hui-chou while Kêng Ching-chung directed his attack against the Ch'ing troops in Chekiang. On November 9, 1676 Kêng was forced to surrender to a large Ch'ing army under Giyešu [q. v.], but Chêng Ching and his generals resisted Ch'ing attacks both on land and sea for four years more until they were finally driven from their last stand near Amoy on April 10, 1680. Chêng Ching was forced to return to Taiwan where he died in the following year. His eldest son, Chêng K'o-tsang, owing, it is said, to his illegitimate birth, was compelled by his generals and members of his family to commit suicide; and Chêng Ching's second son, Chêng Ko-shuang 鄭克塽 (childhood name 秦舍 1670?–1707), was placed in command. Actual control of Taiwan, however, was in the hands of one of Chêng Ching's former generals, Fêng Hsi-fan 馮錫範(范), the father-in-law of Chêng K'o-shuang. Another of Chêng Ching's commanders, Liu Kuo-hsüan 劉國軒, retained for himself the greater part of the fleet in the P'êng-hu Islands (the Pescadores) until Shih Lang [q. v.] leading a large Manchu fleet in a spectacular naval battle, forced the surrender of the Pescadores on July 16–17, 1683, and Formosa on September 5 of the same year. Chêng K'o-shuang, Fêng Hsi-fan, and Liu Kuo-hsüan surrendered soon after to the Ch'ing army and were treated hospitably in Peking, Chêng K'o-shuang being given the title of duke and the other two that of earl.

[1/230/7a; 海上見聞錄 Hai-shang chien-wên lu in 痛史; 清代官書記明臺灣鄭氏亡事 Ch'ing-tai kuan-shu chi Ming T'ai-wan Ch'êng-shih wang shih; Inō Yoshinori (see under Chêng Ch'êng-kung), Taiwan bunka shi (1929) pp. 105–140; Also see bibliography for Chêng Ch'êng-kung.]

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