Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Galdan

GALDAN 噶爾丹 1644 (1632?)–1697, May 3, Bushktu Khan of the Sungars (a tribe of the Eleuths), was a descendant in the twelfth generation of Essen 也先 (or 額森) who harassed the northern frontier in the fifteenth century. The Eleuths (or Oelots), known also as Kalmuks, were the Western Mongols—the Eastern Mongols occupying Outer Mongolia (Khalka) and Inner Mongolia. At the time of Galdan the Eleuths embraced several nomadic tribes: the Khoshotes 和碩特, ruled by descendants of a brother of Genghis Khan; the Turguts (see under Tulišen); and the Choros 綽羅斯 who in turn comprised three tribes: the Sungars or Dzungars 準噶爾, the Derbets 杜爾伯特, and the Khoits 輝特. The Khoshotes, the Turguts, the Sungars, and the Derbets formed the four main tribes of Western Mongols, and their alliance was called the Uriad 衛拉特 which by a change of sound was known in the Ming period as Wala 瓦剌. The Khoits were originally subject to the Derbets (see under Amursana).

Until late in the sixteenth century the Khoshotes pastured in the Urumchi region, the Turguts in the Tarbagatai region, and the Choros between them in the Irtish Valley. In the first half of the seventeenth century, probably owing to the rise in power of the Sungars, the Turguts migrated west to the banks of the Volga (see under Tulišen) and the Khoshotes moved south to the Kokonor region. The chief of the Khoshotes, Gushi (or Guši) Khan 顧實汗 (personal name, Turubaikhu Nomin, d. 1656), who adhered to the Yellow Sect of Lamaism, assisted the Fifth Dalai Lama (Nag dban, 1617–1682) with men and arms to unify Tibet by force. Thus in the early sixteen-forties Gushi Khan extended his rule over Tibet and Kham (present Sikang). He sent one of his ten sons, Dayan Ochir Khan 達顏鄂齊爾汗 (d. 1670), to Tibet as temporal ruler, subordinate to the Dalai Lama. Dayan Ochir Khan was succeeded by his son, Dalai Khan 達賴汗 (d. 1700), who in turn was succeeded by his son, Latzan Khan (see under Tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho). Others of Gushi Khan's sons ruled in Kokonor.

The rise of the military power of the Sungars was due to the energetic chief, Khotokhotsin 和多和親, the father of Galdan, whose title was Kharakula Bogatir Kontaisha but whose name is commonly recorded as Batur Kontaisha 巴圖爾琿台吉. He subjected the Derbets to his rule and occupied the Tarbagatai region, which had been evacuated by the Turguts, as well as the Urumchi region evacuated by the Khoshotes. He urged his people to adopt more settled habits and built for himself a permanent residence at Kubak Sari south of Tarbagatai on the Emil River. He exchanged frequent messages with Russia, obtaining from that country firearms, armorers and livestock. Like Gushi Khan. Batur also embraced Lamaism and took part in the "Holy War" in Tibet. He ranked with Gushi Khan and Nurhaci [q. v.] as an empire builder.

As a youth, probably in his teens, Galdan was sent to Lhasa to be educated as a lama under the Fifth Dalai Lama. After Batur died (1653 or 1665), he was succeeded by his sixth son, Senga 僧格 (d. 1671), who was the elder brother of Galdan by the same mother. Tsetsen, the eldest of the eleven or twelve sons of Batur, was jealous of Senga and finally murdered him (January 1671). When Galdan learned of this tragedy he renounced his status as a lama and returned (1673?) to the Irtish Valley to avenge the death of his brother. After defeating and killing Tsetsen Galdan assumed the title of a taisha. Talented by nature and with the prestige of a lama, he rapidly gained authority over the other chiefs of the Sungars. In 1677 (1676?) he defeated and killed his father-in-law, Ochirtu Khan 鄂齊爾圖汗, a powerful Khoshote leader and a nephew of Gushi Khan. By this feat Galdan annexed a considerable body of Khoshotes and assumed the title of Kontaisha. In 1678 he invaded Eastern Turkestan, taking Kashgar, Yarkand, and other cities, and subjugated the Mohammedans. He appointed a governor at Yarkand to levy taxes and carried captive to Ili the family of the previous ruler. In 1679 he took Hami and Turfan, and thus subdued all the Mohammedans of Eastern Turkestan.

The spectacular rise to power of Galdan was first brought to the attention of Emperor Shêng-tsu in 1677 by Chang Yung [q. v.], the general who was then guarding the borders of Kansu. As the Khoshotes, pressed by Galdan, moved eastward to Kansu, Chang Yung had difficulty in keeping them from crossing the border and in preventing them from stealing and pillaging. As the San-fan Rebellion (see under Wu San-kuei) was then raging in China, Chang Yung was instructed to strengthen the guards on the border, but not to interfere in Galdan's affairs. After Galdan completed his conquest of Eastern Turkestan he requested (1679) Emperor Shêng-tsu to confirm his title of Bushktu Khan which had been conferred upon him by the Dalai Lama. After the suppression of the San-fan Rebellion the Emperor sent embassies to the Mongol chiefs to announce his victory—and the mission to Galdan's court was first in importance. About this time, there was confusion among the Khalkas, caused chiefly by disputes between the Jasaktu Khan and the Tushetu Khan. Emperor Shêng-tsu, fearing that a weakened Mongolia would encourage intervention by Galdan, tried to bring the Khalkas together. He called a conference to compose their differences, and invited the Dalai Lama and Galdan to send representatives. The conference took place in October 1686, and an agreement was reached among the Khalkas. It happened that at the conference the Mongolian Lama, Cheptsun Damba Khutukhta 哲卜尊丹巴呼圖克圖, who was the brother of the Tushetu Khan, was seated on the same level with the Tibetan representative of the Dalai Lama. Galdan interpreted this as an affront to the Dalai Lama and put the blame on Cheptsun Damba Khutukhta and the Tushetu Khan. Probably Galdan was displeased with the truce which the Khalkas had arranged and used this question of precedence as a pretext to disregard the terms. At any rate, having persuaded the Jasaktu Khan to join him, Galdan sent in 1687 his own brother to harass a portion of the Khalka tribes, and himself gradually moved eastward with some 30,000 men. In 1688 the Tushetu Khan killed the Jasaktu Khan for joining the Eleuths, and killed Galdan's brother for pillaging. Galdan answered these provocations by a swift move of his troops and, after several battles, completely routed the Khalkas under the Tushetu Khan and his brother, both of whom sought refuge in Inner Mongolia and were granted protection by Emperor Shêng-tsu. As tens of thousands of panic-stricken Khalkas fled southward, leaving most of their cattle and property to the Eleuths, the emperor had to give them grain and money to relieve their distress. When Galdan pressed eastward to the Kerulun River more Khalkas came to the south.

At this time Emperor Shêng-tsu was eager to make peace with Russia and succeeded in doing so in the following year (see under Songgotu). His desire was perhaps prompted by the hope that the Russians would not aid the Eleuths, with whom the former had carried on trade and diplomatic relations for decades. Meanwhile the emperor tried to settle the differences between the Eleuths and the Khalkas by asking the Dalai Lama to join him in calling another peace conference. But he failed to get the Lama's support, owing to the fact that the Fifth Dalai Lama had died (1682), though his death was not made public by his De-pa or Tipa (temporal administrator) who is known in Chinese accounts as Sangge (see under Tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho). As this Sangge pretended that the Dalai Lama was in retirement and was issuing orders only through him, he had unlimited authority—a fact which Emperor Shêng-tsu suspected but did not make known until 1696. In the meantime, Sangge, who was on good terms with Galdan, urged the latter to carry out his aim of gaining more territory. Galdan demanded the surrender of the Tushetu Khan and his brother, the Mongolian Lama, as the terms on which he would make peace with the Khalkas. As the emperor had accepted (1688) the two fugitives as his subjects, he declined to give them up though he acknowledged their guilt in starting the war. When Sangge, in the name of the deceased Dalai Lama, made the same demands, the emperor realized that war was inevitable and made preparations for it.

It seems that early in 1689 Galdan returned to his headquarters at Khobdo. At this time his nephew, Tsewang Araptan [q. v.], a son of his brother Senga, rose in power and took a part of Galdan's territory. Galdan made war on his nephew, but was defeated. Early in 1690 Galdan led his men to an invasion of Outer Mongolia where he was sure of rich booty to support his troops. He met almost no resistance and, after passing the summer on the lower Kerulun River, turned south toward Inner Mongolia. He seems to have had Peking as his objective, but was defeated at the battle of Ulan-butung (see under Fu-ch'üan) by the army sent from China. However, by deputing a high lama to negotiate peace, he managed to retreat northward without being pursued.

The battle of Ulan-butung was far from decisive, yet its effect on the Mongols and on the Tibetans was such that most of them pleaded their loyalty to Emperor Shêng-tsu. The Emperor, however, did not think much of the victory. Apparently then unaware of the death of the Dalai Lama, he berated the Lama for his failure to stop Galdan from inflicting so many calamities on the Khalkas and the Eleuths. He assured Galdan of high rewards should he surrender, but as the proud Bushktu Khan ignored his offers Emperor Shêng-tsu continued to train his armies, especially the division with firearms. In 1691 the Emperor went to Dolonor where he received the homage of all the high Mongolian chiefs who esteemed him not only as their Emperor but as their rescuer. The Khalkas kept their word and never rebelled throughout the dynasty. The titles of Khan of the Khalkas were thereafter conferred in Peking.

When Galdan returned to Khobdo he found that much of his property had been seized by his nephew, Tsewang Araptan. However, he still declined the invitation of Emperor Shêng-tsu to come to Peking and be pardoned. On the contrary, he demanded that the Tushetu Khan and the Mongolian Lama be handed over to him. In 1694 his territory was afflicted by famine and in the following year he again invaded the Khalkas. As previously, he was encouraged by Sangge who, in the name of the deceased Dalai Lama, promised him victory and prosperity.

This time Emperor Shêng-tsu was determined to confront Galdan himself. About eighty thousand men marched northward on three routes while an army under Sabsu [q. v.] guarded the eastern borders of Mongolia. In 1696 the Emperor personally commanded the Central Route Army, arriving at the Kerulun River in advance of the others. Galdan, being unprepared to engage such a formidable foe, fled westward a few days before the Emperor arrived. On June 12, 1696 he reached Jao Modo at the very time that the Western Route Armies under Fiyanggû and Sun Ssŭ-k'o [qq. v.] came on the scene. In the ensuing battle the Chinese forces dealt a crushing blow to Galdan's power. His wife, Ana dara ( 阿奴), whom he had married as widow of his brother, Senga, and thousands of his men, were killed. Among those who escaped many died of hunger or surrendered later. Galdan and several of his generals fled westward. Some of his men joined Tsewang Araptan who had taken Khobdo. With only a thousand men and some three thousand women and children left of his empire, Galdan wandered miserably near the Altai Mountains. He thought for a time of taking tribute from the Mohammedans at Hami but desisted. Abdulla Beg of Hami had surrendered to Emperor Shêng-tsu in 1696 and had taken captive Galdan's son, Septen Bailsur 塞卜騰巴兒珠爾—a lad then about fourteen years old. The miseries of Galdan grew as more of his subordinates deserted him, apparently owing to his irritability. Still he declined to surrender and even demanded of Emperor Shêng-tsu the return of the troops that had deserted him. News came to him in the spring of 1697 that the Emperor was leading another expedition against him (see under Fiyanggû). His forces were too depleted to fight, yet had nowhere to escape. Galdan suddenly took ill on May 3 and died the same day—some accounts assert that he poisoned himself, which seems probable. Thus ended the career of the most valiant of the Eleuths. After his death Tsewang Araptan assumed the title of Kontaisha and became the ruler of Galdan's empire. Galdan's remains were cremated, and his ashes were being carried by his nephew, Dantsila 丹濟拉 (d. 1708), to Tibet when the latter was waylaid by Tsewang Araptan's men. Dantsila escaped with a few troops but later was forced by hunger and misery to surrender to Emperor Shêng-tsu. In 1705 Dantsila was made an administrator (Jasak 札薩克) of the captured Eleuths with the rank of Fu-kuo-kung 輔國公 (prince of the fifth degree). In 1761 Dantsila's great-grandson (then head of the family) and his subjects, were given pasturage in the Sain Noin Khanate (see under Tsereng).

Tsewang Araptan had at this time living with him a son and a daughter of Galdan, and a lama priest wanted by Emperor Shêng-tsu for desertion and for assisting Galdan. In 1698, after repeated demands, Tsewang Araptan was forced to deliver them to Peking along with Galdan's ashes which were scattered. The lama was executed; the daughter and son, and the other son, Septen Bailsur, who had been imprisoned until this time, were all pardoned and housed in Peking where they died.

After the fall of Galdan, Tsewang Araptan took his place as ruler of the Eleuths in the Altai region and of the Mohammedans in Eastern Turkestan (except those in Hami). Tibet was left in confusion for more than twenty years (see under Tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho and Yen-hsin). The Khoshotes of Kokonor remained quiet throughout the dynasty except for one prince who rebelled in 1723 (see under Yüeh Chung-ch'i). By his defeat of Galdan Emperor Shêng-tsu extended his empire to Outer Mongolia and to Hami.

[1/527–30; P'ing-ting Shuo-mo fang-lüeh (see under Chang Yü-shu); Howorth, H. H., History of the Mongols, Vol. I ; Baddeley, John P., Russia, Mongolia, China; 1/527–31; Naitō Torajirō 內藤虎次郎, 讀史叢錄 Tokushi soroku, pp. 203–74; Cahen, G., Histoire des Relations de la Russie avec la Chine (1912), p. 136; Ch'i Yün-shih [q. v.] Huang-ch'ao Fan-pu yao-lüeh, ch. 9–14.]

Fang Chao-ying