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ATLANTA, the capital of Georgia, one of the United States of North America, is situated about 7 miles to the S.E. of the Chattahoochee River, at an elevation of 1100 feet above the sea. Laid out in 1845, and incorporated as a city in 1847, it has since rapidly increased. It is the centre of a large trade in grain and cotton, and has extensive railway communication in all directions. Engineering work of various kinds is carried on, as well as the manufacture of cast-iron, flour, and tobacco. There are two national and two savings banks. Educational institutions are numerous, and comprise the North Georgia Female College, Oglethorpe College, a medical college, a university for men of colour, and a variety of schools. The state library contains upwards of 16,000 volumes. There are about thirty churches of different denominations, the Methodists being most largely represented, and one of their churches ranking among the finest buildings in the city. During the war Atlanta was the centre of important military operations, and suffered greatly in consequence (1864). It was strongly fortified by the Confederates, and defended, first by General Joseph E. Johnston, and then by General Hood, against the attack of General Sherman. Hood was compelled to evacuate the city, and Sherman afterwards retired to Chattanooga,—movements which occasioned the destruction by fire of the greater part of the buildings, both public and private. Population—(1860), 9554; (1870), 21,789.