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BADAJOS, a province of Spain, forming, by the division of 1833, the southern half of the old province of Estremadura, or what is generally called Lower Estremadura. It is bounded on the N. by Caceres, E. by Ciudad Real, S. and S.E. by Cordova, Seville, and Huelva, and W. by Portugal, embracing an area of 8<5S7 square miles. See Estremadura.

Badajos, the capital of the above province, is a fortified city, and the see of a bishop. It is situated about 5 miles from the Portuguese frontier, on a slight elevation near the left bank of the Guadiana, and is one of the principal stations on the railway between Madrid and Lisbon. The height is crowned by the ruins of a Moorish castle. A strong wall and bastions, with a broad moat and outworks, and forts on the surrounding heights, make the city a place of great strength. The river is crossed by a magnificent granite bridge, originally built in 1460, repaired in 1597, and rebuilt in 1833. The city is well built, and contains an arsenal, a cathedral, built like a fortress and bombproof, several churches, hospitals, and schools. Its monasteries are all secularised, one being occupied as infantry barracks ; and some of its nunneries are closed. Badajos was finally taken from the Moors in 1235 by Alphonso IX., and from its importance as a frontier garrison has since been the scene of numerous sieges. The last and most severe was in 1812, when it was stormed by the British troops under Wellington and carried with dreadful loss. The town was delivered up to a two days pillage. It had been surrendered the previous year to Soult by the treachery of Imaz, the commander of the garrison. The trade and manufactures of Badajos are considerable, and much contraband traffic is carried on with Portugal. Badajos is the birthplace of the painter Luis de Morales and of Manuel Godoy. Pop. 22,895.