Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Baden (4.)
BADEN, the chief town of a circle in Lower Austria, about 12 miles S. of Vienna on the railway to Gratz. It is beautifully situated at the mouth of the romantic Helenenthal, near the banks of the Schwachat, a rapid stream with several waterfalls, and has become a favourite summer resort with the inhabitants of the neighbouring capital. The warm baths, which give name to the town, are thirteen in number, and vary in temperature from 72° to 97° Fahr. They rise, for the most part, at the foot of the Calvarienberg, which is composed of dolomitic limestone. The number of patients is about 8000 annually. The celebrity of Baden dates back to the days of the Romans, who knew it by the name of Aquæ Cetiæ; and remains of their occupation still exist. In 1812 the town suffered severely from a fire, but it has since been elegantly rebuilt. The principal buildings are the church of St Stephen, the theatre, the casino, and the military hospital. A short distance to the west of the town stands the castle of Weilberg, which belongs to members of the imperial family. The only manufacture of much importance that is carried on in Baden is the production of steel-wares; these, especially the razors, are of excellent quality. Permanent population, about 6500.