Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Bourbon (1.)

BOURBON. The noble family of Bourbon, from which

so many European kings have sprung, took its name from the rich district in the centre of France, called the Bourbonnais, which in the 10th century was one of the three great baronies of the kingdom. The first of the long line of Bourbons known in history was Adhdmar or Aimar, who was invested with the barony towards the close of the 9th century. In 1272 Beatrix, daughter of Agnes of Bourbon and her husband John of Burgundy, married Robert, count of Clermont, sixth son of Louis IX. (St Louis) of France. The elder branches of the family had become extinct, and their son Louis became due do Bourbon in 1327. In 1488 the line of his descendants ended with Jean II., who died in that year. The whole estates passed to Jean s brother Pierre, lord of Beaujeu, who was married to Anne, sister of Louis XI. Pierre died in 1503, leaving only a daughter, Suzanne, who, in 1505, married Charles de Montpensier, heir of the Montpensier branch of the Bourbon family. Charles, who took the title of due de Bourbon on his marriage, was born in 1489, and at an early age was looked upon as one of the finest soldiers and gentlemen in France. His union with Suzanne made him the wealthiest and most powerful French noble ; and after his brilliant successes in Italy and France, he became an object of dread to Louis XII., who would not give him the command of the army of Italy. In 1515 Francis I., on his accession, made Bourbon constable of France, and in that capacity he gained new honours, and was for a time in the highest favour with the king. But serious differences soon arose between them, originating, according to common report, in the violent but slighted passion of Louise, duchesse d Angouleme, the king s mother, for the constable. The grossest insults were heaped upon Bourbon ; his official salary and the sums he had borrowed for his war expenses remained unpaid ; in the campaign against Charles V. the command of the vanguard was given to the due d Alencon ; and after the death of Suz anne de Bourbon, an action was raised by the queen dowager, who claimed to be nearest heir. In defiance of Bourbon s marriage-settlement, judgment was given against him, and he was reduced to absolute beggary. Smarting under these wrongs he entered into negotiations with Charles V., and on these coming to the knowledge of Francis at once fled from his native country and joined the emperor. He did good service in the war against his countrymen, and especially distinguished himself at tlie battle of Pavia, where his ungenerous sovereign Francis was taken prisoner. Bourbon, however, did not find Charles very ready to fulfil his various promises, and determined to seize a kingdom for himself. With the division under his command ho penetrated into Italy, and on the 5th May 1527 appeared before the walls of Rome. In the assault on the following morning he was the first to mount the walls, and fell mortally wounded by a pistol- shot, fired, it is said, by Benvenuto Cellini. His army succeeded in taking and sacking the town. With the con stable ended the direct line from Pierre, due de Bourbon. But the fourth in descent from Pierre s brother, Jacques, Louis, count of Vendome and Chartres, became the ancestor of the royal house of Bourbon and of the noble families Conde", Conti, and Montpensier. The fourth in direct descent from Louis of Vendome was Antoine de Bourbon, who in 1548 married Jeanne d Albret, heiress of Navarre, and who became king of Navarre in 1554. Their son became king of France, with the title Henri IV. Henri was succeeded by his son Louis XIII., who left two sons, Louis XIV., and Philippe, due d Orleans, head of the Orleans branch. Louis XIV. s son, the Dauphin, died before his father, and left three sons, one of whom died without issue. Of the others the elder, Louis of Burgundy, died in 1712, and his only surviving son became Louis XV. The younger, Philippe, duke of Anjou, became king of Spain, and founded the Spanish branch of the Bourbon family. Louis XV. was succeeded by his grandson, Louis XVI., who perished on the scaffold. At the restoration the tlirono of France was occupied by Louis XVIII., brother of Louis XVI., who in turn was succeeded by his brother Charles X. The second son of Charles X., the due do Berri, left a son, Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonnc" d Artois, due de Bordeaux, and count de Chambord, who is a claimant of the French throne, and is designated by his adherents, Henri V, From Louis XIV. s brother, Philippe, has descended another claimant of the throne. Philippe s son was the Regent Orleans, whose great grand son, Philippe Egalite", perished on the scaffold in 1793. Egalite"s son, Louis Philippe, was king of France from 1830 to 1848; his grandson, Louis Philippe (born 1838), is the present Comte de Paris.

Spanish Branch.—Philippe, due d Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV., became king of Spain as Philip V. in 1700. He was succeeded in 1746 by his son Ferdinand VI., who died in 1 759 without family, and was followed by his brother Charles III. Charles III. s eldest son became Charles IV. of Spain in 1788, while his second son, Fer dinand, was made king of the Two Sicilies in 1759. Charles IV. was deposed by Napoleon, but in 1814 his son, Ferdinand VII., again obtained his throne. Ferdinand was succeeded by his daughter Isabella, who in. 1870 abdicated in favour of her son Alphonso, at present (1876) in possession of the Spanish kingdom. Ferdinand s brother, Don Carlos (died 1855), claimed the throne in 1833 on the ground of the Salic law, and a fierce war raged for some years in the north of Spain. His son Don Carlos, count do Montemolin (born 1818, died 1861) revived the claim, but was defeated and compelled to sign a renunciation. The nephew of the latter, Don Carlos Maria Juan Isidor (born 1848), has been for some years carrying on war in Spain with the object of attaining the rights contended for by the Carlist party.

Neapolitan Branch.—The first Bourbon who wore the crown of Naples was Charles III. of Spain, who on his succession to the Spanish throne in 1759, resigned his kingdom of Naples to his son Ferdinand. Ferdinand was deposed by Napoleon, but afterwards regained his throne, and took the title of Ferdinand I., king of the Two Sicilies. In 1825 he was succeeded by his son Francis, who in turn was succeeded in 1830 by his son Ferdinand II. Ferdinand II. died in 1859, and in the following year his successor Francis II. was deprived of his kingdom, which was in corporated into the gradually-uniting Italy.

Duchies of Lucca and Parma.—In 1748 the duchy of Parma was conferred on Philip, youngest son of Philip V. of Spain. His grandson, Charles Louis Ferdinand, became king of Etruria in 1801, but was deprived of his possessions by the French. In 1847, however, he received the duchies of Parma and Piacenza on the death of his mother, but after two years abdicated in favour of his son, Charles III. Charles III. married the daughter of the due de Berri, and was assassinated in 1854. His son was proclaimed duke, but the territories of Parma and Piacenza were seized by Victor Enmnuel in 1859-60.

CoifFior de Morct, Ilistoire du Bourbonnnis ct dcs Bourbons, 2 vols. 1824; Beraml, Histoirc dcs sires ct dues dc Bourbon, 1835; Desor- ineaux, Ilistoire dc la maison dc Bourlon, 5 vols., 1782-88 ; Achaintre, Ilistoire gcncaloyique ct chronohgiquc dc la maison royalc de Bourlon, 2 vols., 1825-6.