Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Cleveland
CLEVELAND, a city and lake-port, and the capital of Cuyahoga county, in the State of Ohio, situated at the mouth of Cuyahoga River, on the S. shore of Lake Erie, in 41° 30′ N. lat. and 81° 47′W. long. Next to Cincinnati, it is the largest and most important city in the State. It was founded in 1796, and named in honour of General Moses Cleveland of Connecticut, who then had charge of the surveying of this region. It was an important point in the war of 1812, and was incorporated as a village in 1814 and as a city in 1836. Its population was 1075 in 1830, 6071 in 1840, 17,034 in 1850, 43,417 in 1860, and 92,829 in 1870. The number of inhabitants in 1876 is estimated at 140,000. Of the total population in 1870, 38,815 were foreigners—including 15,856 born in Germany, 9964 in Ireland, 4008 in England, 2634 in British America, and 2155 in Austria. The city is built on both sides of the river, which is here crossed by several bridges, and chiefly on a plain from 50 to 100 feet above the lake, of which a magnificent view is thus obtained. The streets are regularly laid out, and are generally from 80 to 100 feet wide. Many of them are lined with trees, chiefly maple, whence Cleveland is known as the “Forest City.” Monumental Park, near the centre of the city, contains 10 acres divided into four squares by the extension of Ontario and Superior Streets. Besides a fountain and other attractive objects, the park contains a statue of Commodore Perry, erected in 1860, in commemoration of his victory on Lake Erie in 1813. It is of Italian marble, is 8 feet high, and stands upon a granite pedestal 12 feet high. The most noteworthy buildings are that of the United States (containing the post-office, the custom-house, and the federal courts), the city hall, the county court-house, the house of correction and workhouse, the city infirmary, the Cleveland medical college, Case Hall, and the two high-school buildings. The Union Railway depôt, an immense structure of stone near the lake shore, is one of the largest of the kind in the United States. Cleveland has important commercial advantages. Five railways pass through or terminate in the city,—including the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, a grand trunk line between the east and the west; a division of the Atlantic and Great Western, a leading channel of communication between the east and the south-west; and the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis, a direct line to Cincinnati and the south. Other lines afford communication with the extensive coal and petroleum regions of Pennsylvania. Cleveland is the northern terminus of the Ohio Canal, which extends southwards to Portsmouth on the Ohio River. For the accommodation of the lake commerce, a capacious harbour has been formed at the mouth of Cuyahoga River by extending two piers, 200 feet apart, 1200 feet into the lake. The city has an extensive trade in copper and iron ore shipped from the Lake Superior mining region, and in coal, petroleum, wool, and lumber, received by railroad, canal, and lake transportation. In 1873 the number of vessels entered in the coast-wise trade was 3238, having an aggregate tonnage of 1,053,232 tons; 3204 vessels of 1,048,196 tons cleared. The foreign commerce, which is exclusively with Canada, is considerable,—the imports amounting in 1874 to $449,118, and the domestic exports to $1,426,990; 316 vessels of 64,213 tons entered in this trade, and 325 of 55,152 tons cleared. The total number of vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed in this district was 466, of 86,519 tons. Twenty vessels of 11,242 tons were built during the year. About $20,000,000 of capital is invested in manufactures, the most important industries being those of iron and the production of refined petroleum. There are also several pork-packing establishments and breweries. The city contains six national banks with a capital of $4,550,000, and two savings banks. The government of the city is vested in a mayor and a common council of two members from each of the eighteen wards. These officers are elected by the people. The city has an efficient police, a paid fire department, a board of public improvements, and a board of health. Besides the usual county and municipal courts, the United States circuit and district courts for the northern district of Ohio are held here. The city is supplied with water obtained from the lake by means of a tunnel 1 mile long, and forced into a large reservoir on high ground in the western part of the city. The streets are well paved, are lighted with gas, and are supplied with sewers. The reformatory and charitable institutions are numerous and varied. The house of correction and workhouse is for the confinement of persons convicted of minor offences. The city infirmary, connected with which are a farm and a house of refuge for the care and instruction of children, besides maintaining its inmates, affords relief to outdoor poor. The city hospital is supported by money received from those patients who are able to pay and from private charity. The charity hospital is maintained partly by contributions and partly by revenue from paying patients; connected with it is a lying-in hospital. There are also a homœopathic hospital founded by the Cleveland homœopathic college, a foundling hospital, and a United States marine hospital, which is supported by appropriations made by Congress and by a tax on sailors. The Cleveland Protestant orphan asylum has an endowment fund of about $50,000, from the interest of which, and by private contributions, it is maintained. St Vincent's orphan asylum for males, and St Mary's orphan asylum for females, are Roman Catholic institutions, accommodating about 150 inmates each. An orphan asylum is also maintained by the Jews. Among other benevolent institutions are the home for the aged poor, the home for working women under the management of the women's charitable association, and the Bethel home for destitute sailors. The children's aid society, since its organization in 1857, has secured homes for nearly 1500 children, besides extending aid to more than 5000. There are three industrial schools, maintained partly by the city, and partly by benevolent citizens, for the benefit of destitute children. The total debt of the city in 1875 was $7,397,500; and the property taxed for city purposes was valued at $73,210,144. The public schools in 1874 comprised 18 primary, 17 grammar, and 3 high schools, in which were enrolled, including those in the evening schools, 19,021 pupils, with an average daily attendance of 12,085. The total number of teachers was 261. The expenditure for the public schools during the year amounted to $382,921. Besides the above, there were enrolled in private and parochial schools 8808 pupils. Cleveland has no college or university, but there are several excellent seminaries, academies, and private schools for the advanced education of both sexes. Professional instruction is afforded by the Cleveland medical college, the homœopathic hospital college, and the medical department of the university of Wooster (each having about fifteen professors), the Ohio State and union law school, and St Mary's theological seminary (Roman Catholic). The Cleveland library association has about 11,000 volumes, the public library, supported by taxation, about 20,000, and the law library about 2000. The Bethel free reading-rooms are open to the public, and the western reserve historical society has a valuable collection of books. There are published in the city 51 newspapers and periodicals; of these 6 appear daily, 4 thrice a week, 18 weekly, 2 fortnightly, 11 monthly, and 1 every two months. Of these 7 are published in the German language, and 1 in the Bohemian. Cleveland has about 100 churches, the following being the largest denominations:—the Methodist-Episcopal 18, Roman Catholic 15, Protestant Episcopal 11, Baptist 9, Presbyterian 8, and Congregational 4 churches.