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Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Greece/Part II.—Greek History.

PART II.—GREEK HISTORY.


Sections

Section I.—Greek History to the Death of Alexander the Great.
I. The Prehistoric Period, down to the close of the great Migrations
Primitive Indo-European civilization • Hellenes • Pelasgians • Earliest Hellenic migrations • First epoch • Second epoch • Phœnicians • Two periods of Phœnician influence • Influence of Asiatic upon European Hellas • Religions • The early states • Crete • Phrygia • Lydia • Troy • The Minyæ • Thebes • Pelidæ in Thessaly • Pelopidæ at Mycenæ • Traditional migration to Greece proper • Change of population in Thessaly • in Bœotia • in the Peloponnesus • “The Return of the Heraclidæ” • Traditional migration from Greece proper to Asia Minor • The Æolic migration • The Ionic • The Doric • The amphictyonies • The Delphic amphictyony • The name Hellene • The Homeric picture of early Hellas
II. The Early History of the leading States down to about 500 B.C.
The Peloponnesus • Result of the Dorian conquest • Argos • Sparta • The Spartan institutions • Lycurgus • Character of the government • The social life a school of war • Growth of Spartan power • The Olympic festival • Transition from monarchy to oligarchy • The tyrannies • Their results • Colonization • Sicily • Italy • Sporadic settlements • Nature of the Greek colony • Early history of Attica • The four appellatives • Character of the Attic population • Classes • Kingship—Archonship • Draco • Cylon • Legislation of Solon • Relief of debtors • New classes • Ecclesia • Council • Areopagus • Solon's account of his own work • Tyranny of Pisistratus • End of Pisistratid rule • Reforms of Clisthenes • The ten tribes • The Council • Generals • Jury-courts • Ostracism • Strife of factions • The first kleruchia • Athens a free commonwealth • Elements of Hellenic unity • Delphi • The national games • Art and poetry
III. The Ionic Revolt and the Persian Wars, 502-479 B.C.
The Ionian cities under Lydia • under Persia • The Ionic revolt • First Persian expedition against Greece • Second Persian expedition • Battle of Marathon • Miltiades • Policy of Themistocles • Xerxes • Third Persian expedition • Condition of Greece • Plan of defence • Athens • Battle of Salamis • Lessons of the Persian Wars
IV. The Period of Athenian Supremacy, 478-404 B.C.
Pausanias • Confederacy of Delos • Gradual change in its character • Culmination of Athenian power • Thirty Years’ Truce • Constitutional changes in Athens • Public works • Pericles
V. The Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C.The Period of Spartan and then Theban Ascendency, 404-362 B.C.
Causes of the Peloponnesian War • First period of the war, 431-421 B.C. • Second period, 421-413 B.C. • Third period, 413-404 B.C. • Altered character of Sparta • Greece and Persia • Battle of Cnidus • Corinthian War • Peace of Antalcidas • Revolution at Thebes • New Athenian Confederacy • Theban victory at Leuctra • Epaminondas • General character of the period 404-362 B.C. • Work of Epaminondas
VI. The reigns of Philip and Alexander, 359-323 B.C.
Decay of Greek civic life • Demosthenes • Philip • First period of Philip's relations to Greece, 359-346 B.C. • Second period, 346-338 B.C. • Philip president of Pan Hellenic League • Sicily. Timoleon. • 405-367 B.C. • Death of Philip • Alexander • Alexander invades Asia • Three stages of his career • Greek settlements in Asia • Results of Alexander's conquests
Section II.—Post-Classical Greek History.
Importance of the post-classical history • Misconceptions. Character of the later Greeks. • Power of the Byzantine empire
I. Period of Greek Subjection : from the Death of Alexander to the Accession of Constantine the Great as sole Emperor, 323 B.C. to 323 A.D.
Effect of Alexander's conquests • Events during 323-146 B.C. • Roman conquests in the West and East • Roman rule in Greece • Condition and character of Greeks • Gothic invasion • Christianity
II. Period of Greek Revival : from Constantine the Great to Leo III. (the Isaurian), 323-716 A.D.
Reforms of Constantine • Evils of his system • Its merits • Constantinople • The Greek Church • Reign of Justinian • Barbarian invasions • Persian wars • Condition of the population • Athens • Extinction of slavery • The system, not the people, at fault • Threatened extinction of the empire
III. Period of Byzantine Prosperity : from Leo III. to Isaac I. (Comnenus), 716-1057 A.D.
The Byzantine Empire • Reforms of Leo III. • Iconoclasm • Subsequent ecclesiastical affairs • Saracen wars • Bulgarian wars • The Russians • Constitutional changes • Condition of the people • Modern Greek nationality
IV. Period of Byzantine Decline : from Isaac I. to the taking of Constantinople by the Latins, 1057-1204 A.D.
The Comneni • Cause of decline • The Crusades • The Seljuks • Wars with Europe • Bulgaria. Wallachian kingdom • State of Greece • The modern language and literature
V. Period of Greek Survival : from the taking of Constantinople by the Latins to its Conquest by the Turks, 1204-1453 A.D.
Partition of the empire • Empire of Nicæa • The Palæologi • The Ottomans • End of the empire
Section III.—Recent History.