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PHILIP II. (11651223), surnamed “Augustus,” king of France, was the son of Louis VII., and was born in August 1165. When fifteen years old he was crowned joint king at Rheims on 1st November 1179. In the following year he was again crowned along with his newly-wedded wife, Margaret of Hainault, at St Denis (29th May 1180); the death of his father took place a few months afterwards. For an account of Philip II.'s character and of the leading events of his reign the reader is referred to France, vol. ix. pp. 540–542. He died at Mantes on 14th July 1223.