Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/T'ung-Chow

T'UNG-CHOW, a sub-prefectural city in Chih-li, the metropolitan province of China, is situated on the banks of the Peiho in 39° 54′ N. lat. and 116° 41′ E. long., about 12 miles south-east of Peking. Like most Chinese cities, T'ung-Chow has appeared in history under various names. By the founder of the Han dynasty (206 B.C.) it was called Lu-Hien; with the rise of the T'ang dynasty (618 A.D.) its name was changed to Heuen-Chow; and at the beginning of the 12th century, with the advent of the Kin dynasty to power, Heuen-Chow became T'ung-Chow. The city marks the highest point at which the Peiho is navigable, and here merchandise for the capital is transferred to a canal, by which it reaches Peking. The city, which is faced on its eastern side by the river, and on its other three sides is surrounded by populous suburbs, is upwards of 3 miles in circumference. The walls are about 45 feet in height and about 24 feet wide at the top. They are being allowed to fall into decay. Two main thoroughfares run through the city, one connecting the north and south gates, and the other the east and west gates. The place derives its importance from the fact that it is the port of Peking. Its population was estimated at about 50,000 in 1887.

It was at T'ung-Chow that Sir Harry Parkes, Sir Henry Loch, and their escort were treacherously taken prisoners by the Chinese when they were sent forward by Lord Elgin to negotiate terms of peace after the troubles of 1860.